π1r

The
History of the Jews
from the
Destruction of Jerusalem
to the
1801 < x < 1900Nineteenth Century
in two volumes.

by Hannah Adams.

Vol. I.

“And the Lord shall scatter thee among all people from the one
end of the earth even unto the other;—and among these nations
shalt thou find no ease, neither shall the sole of thy foot have rest.”
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Deut. xxviii 61, 62

Boston:
Printed By John Eliot, Jun.
18121812.

π1v

District of Massachusetts, to wit:
District Clerk’s Office.

Be it remembered, that on the 1812-02-08eighth of February, A.D.
1812
, and in the thirty sixth year of the Independence of the United
States of America
, Hannah Adams, of the said district has deposited
in this office the title of a Book the right whereof she claims
as author, in the words following, to wit:

The History of the Jews from the destruction of Jerusalem to
the 1801 < x < 1900nineteenth century. In two volumes
. By Hannah Adams. Vol.
1. “And the Lord shall scatter thee among all people from the
one end of the earth even unto the other; and among these nations
shalt thou find no ease, neither shall the sole of thy foot have rest.”

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, intitled,
An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing
the copies of maps, charts and books, to the authors and proprietors
of such copies, during the times therein mentioned;
and also
to an Act intitled, An act supplementary to an Act, intitled, An
Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of
maps, charts and books, to the authors and proprietors of such
copies during the times therein mentioned; and extending the benefits
thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical,
and other prints.

William S. Shaw, Clerk of the District
of Massachusetts.

π2r

Preface.

The history of the Jews since their dispersion
has been but little investigated even by
the literary part of the world, and is almost
entirely unknown to the general mass of mankind.
The design of this work, including the
introduction, is to give a brief sketch of their
situation, after their return from the Babylonian
captivity, to the 1801 < x < 1900nineteenth century. The compiler
is sensible, that the subject is not calculated
to engage the attention of those readers
whose object is merely amusement. Instead
of a narration of new and entertaining events,
they will find a tedious succession of oppressions
and persecutions, and probably turn with
disgust from the gloomy picture of human
guilt and wretchedness.

To the speculative and inquisitive part of
mankind the subject must, however, appear
more interesting. The history of the Jews is
remarkable, above that of all other nations,
for the number and cruelty of the persecutions
they have endured. They are venerable for
the antiquity of their origin. They are discriminated
from the rest of mankind by their π2v iv
wonderful destination, peculiar habits, and religious
rites. Since the destruction of Jerusalem,
and their universal dispersion, we contemplate
the singular phenomenon of a nation
subsisting for ages without its civil and religious
polity, and thus surviving its political
existence.

But the Jews appear in a far more interesting
and important light when considered as a
standing monument of the truth of the christian
religion; as the ancient church of God
to whom were committed the sacred oracles;
as a people selected from all nations to make
known and preserve the knowledge of the true
God. To them the gospel was first preached,
and from them the first christian church in
Jerusalem was collected. To them we are indebted
for the scriptures of the New, as well
as of the Old Testament. To them were given
the spirit of prophecy, and power of working
miracles. From them were derived an illustrious
train of prophets and apostles. To use
the language of an inspired writer, “To them
pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, the service
of God, and the promises, and of them,
as concerning the flesh, Christ came.”

The history of the Jews by Mr. Basnage, a
learned French refugee, who was pastor of the
Walloon church at the Hague, and died in π3r v
17231723, is the principal authority made use of in
the first part of this history; the references are
made to the translation of Mr. Taylor, published
in 17081708, which received the approbation of
the author. The compiler is greatly indebted
to the writings of M. Gregoire, formerly bishop
of Blois, senator, member of the National Institute,
&c. &c. His excellent Essay on the
Reformation of the Jews
has afforded much
important information respecting this extraordinary
people. His late valuable work, entitled
Histoire des Sectes Religieuses, published
at Paris, 18101810, besides interesting and
entertaining accounts of the various denominations
of Christians, contains several curious
articles respecting the Jews. The works of
David Levi have furnished materials for what
is said of the religious tenets and ceremonies
of his brethren. Occasional assistance has
been given by modern travellers, whom curiosity
has induced to investigate the present condition
of this singular people. The learned
Dr. Buchanan, in his valuable works, particularly
his Researches in Asia, has furnished
authentic documents respecting the state of the
eastern Jews. Some recent intelligence concerning
those in Europe has been collected
from a late work of Mr. Adam, entitled
The Religious World Displayed, published π3v vi
18091809. The respectable author observes in
his preface, that “he was indebted for particulars
respecting them to Joshua Van Oven, a
learned, distinguished, and worthy member of
the society of German Jews.”
Various other
authors will be found referred to in the history;
but the above mentioned have furnished the
principal materials for the work.

To the intelligent and well informed the
difficulty of collecting the history of a people
so little known, particularly in this country,
during the last and present century, wholly
from desultory and unconnected materials, will
appear obvious. The compiler can only say,
that however deficient and ill arranged her history
may be, she has spared no exertions in
her power to collect authentic documents, and
has used them to the best of her ability. But
while she relies on the candour and indulgence
of the publick, she cannot forbear to express
the warmest gratitude to those respectable
gentlemen whose generous patronage has enabled
her to devote her time to literary pursuits.

A1r

Introduction.

Section I.

Of the state of the Jews under the Persian
monarchy; and the changes which took
place after the Babylonish captivity.

0535B.C.
536
.
The Jews So denominated from the name Judah, as this tribe obtained
the preeminence, and was more numerous than that of Benjamin.
All the descendants of Jacob were anciently called Israel, or children
of Israel, till the time that ten of the tribes revolted from
the house of David: (See INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.1st of Kings.) These ten tribes were
afterwards called the house of Israel, and the other two tribes, of
Judah and Benjamin, the house of Judah. From time to time many
of the house of Israel joined that of Judah for the enjoyment of religious
privileges; (INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.1 Chron. ix. 3.) became incorporated with them,
and were with them carried captive to Babylon. Many of these
embraced the opportunity of returning to Judea after the captivity:
for the decrees of the Persian kings extended to all the house of
Israel
. The people of Judah and Israel, after their return, were
blended together under the name of Jews. Prideaux’s Connection,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 190–270.
having remained in captivity
seventy years, according to the prediction of
the prophet Jeremiah, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.xxv. II. “And these nations shall serve the king of Babylon
seventy years.”
were restored to their
native country by Cyrus the great, king of
Persia. For this purpose he issued a decree,
in the first year of his reign, by which
they were permitted to return to Palestine,
and rebuild their city and temple. This A A1v 2
opportunity was joyfully embraced by the
most zealous of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin,
and Levi. A large part of the Jewish
captives, who chose to remain in Babylon,
made liberal contributions towards assisting
their brethren. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Ezra i. 6.

0533B.C.
534
.
Soon after the return of the Jews, they began
with alacrity and zeal to rebuild their altar,
and laid the foundation of their temple.
While they were engaged in this important
undertaking the Samaritans The Samaritans were originally heathen colonies from different
countries. After the king of Assyria had taken Samaria, the
capital of the ten tribes, he removed the greatest part of the Israelites
into Babylon and Assyria. And in order to repeople the desolate
country, he brought colonies from Babylon, Cutha, Ava,
Hamath and Sepharvaim, and established them in the cities of Samaria
instead of those whom he had carried into captivity. These
people being immediately after their settlement much infested
with lions, attributed this calamity to their neglect of the tutelary
deity of this country, and petitioned the king to send one of the captive
Jewish priests to instruct them how to worship the God of
Israel. A priest was accordingly sent back, who took up his residence
at Bethel, and established the worship of the true God. Yet
while Jehovah was feared because of his supposed influence in that
land, the gods of the Babylonians and other countries had divine
honours paid to them. This mixture of idolatry with the Mosaic
worship continued till the building of the Samaritan temple on
Mount Gerizim. Fleury’s Ancient Israelites, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 332.
expressed an earnest
desire to assist in the completion of the
building. But as they blended the worship
of their false deities with that of the God of
Israel, the Jews rejected their request, alleging A2r 3
that, as the decree of the Persian monarch extended
only to the house of Israel, they could
not admit them to participate in the work.
This refusal gave rise to that implacable enmity
which subsisted between the Samaritans
and Jews; INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.John iv. 9 and induced the former to exert
themselves to obstruct the building of the
temple. In consequence of their malicious
attempts, the erection of the sacred edifice
was suspended, till Darius issued an edict which
not only ratified the grants of Cyrus, but denounced
a severe penalty against all who obstructed
the work. When this important decree
was communicated to the Jews, they rapidly
proceeded in the building, which was finished
in the 6th year of Darius, and the dedication
performed in the month Adar with all
imaginable splendour and solemnity. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Ezra vi. 16–17

0341B.C.
342
.
The history of the Old Testament closes
with an account of the restoration of the Jews
to Palestine, and the building of their city
and temple under Ezra the priest, and Nehemiah
the governour. The assiduous labours
of these pious and eminent men to reform the
abuses of the Jewish state and church, to enforce
the observance of the Mosaic law, and
restore divine worship to its original purity,
are recorded in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah.

A2v 4

It appears from the sacred records, that the
Jews, after their return from captivity, were in
a feeble state under the first Persian monarchs.
They were exposed to the envy and malice of
those strangers who resided in the vicinity, in
particular to the insults and calumnies of the
Samaritans. It is also evident from the cruel
edict which Haman obtained against them,
from which they were saved by the powerful
intercession of queen Esther, that they were
in danger of being destroyed upon the least intimation
of the king’s pleasure. By degrees,
however, their affairs were established, and
though they were subjected to an easy tribute,
they lived under their own laws, in the form of
a commonwealth, governed by the high priest,
and the council of seventy two elders; and exercised
among themselves the power of life and
death. The grand council of the nation called the Sanhedrim, which
assembled in an apartment of the temple at Jerusalem, possessed
the power of life and death. The Jews styled it a hedge to the
laws, because the members of the council had authority to interpret
it at certain times and on certain occasions, as they thought proper.
Its authority extended over all the synagogues in Judea and remote
countries, and no appeal could be made from its sentence. Whether
this consistory of seventy elders was a perpetual, or only a temporary
institution, is a subject of dispute. The Jews, and after them
Grotius, Selden, Lightfoot, and several other learned christians,
maintain that it was first instituted by Moses; that the seventy-
two elders appointed to assist him were its first members; and that
the Sanhedrim, so famous in the latter ages of Jewish polity, subsisted
after his time until the destruction of the temple. But Basnage
and others have attempted to prove that the court of the Sanhedrim
was first established in the time of the Maccabees. Basnage,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 400; Jennings’ Jewish Antiquities, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 39.
Jerusalem being at length rebuilt, A3r 5
fortified and repeopled, began to resume some
appearance of its former splendour, and the
temple was honoured by the offerings of strangers.
Fleury’s Ancient Israelites.

After the death of Nehemiah, the government
of Judea appears to have been joined to
the prefecture of Syria, from which the high
priests received their authority. The candidates purchased this office from the Syrian governour,
and retained it by means of money; hence they oppressed
the people with taxes to enable them to fulfil their pecuniary engagements.
This circumstance
induced many persons to aspire to that
high office merely through ambition and avarice
who were destitute of zeal for religion, or
love for their country. For whole centuries
the office of high priest being the chief object
of men’s ambition, the violent contests for the
sacerdotal dignity, and the arbitrary conduct of
those who obtained it, involved the Jewish nation
in various calamities.

0372B.C.
373
.
A remarkable instance of the truth of this
assertion occured in the 34th. year of Artaxerxes
Mnemon
; at which period Joiada was
succeeded in the high priesthood by his son
Johanan. Some time after his investiture he A2 A3v 6
received a visit from his brother Joshua, who
asserted that Bagoses, the governour of Syria,
had promised to transfer the sacred dignity to
him. A dispute immediately ensued, and
Joshua was slain in the interior court of the
temple. Bagoses receiving intelligence of this
event, severely upbraided the Jews with defiling
the habitation of their God, and imposed
a heavy fine upon the pontiff, which was not
taken off till the death of Artaxerxes changed
the face of affairs. The Jews were, however,
by no means free from trouble in the reign of
his successor; for Ochus having subdued the
greatest part of Phoenicia, carried his victorious
arms into Judea; reduced Jericho, and
sent a great number of the inhabitants into
captivity. Ten years after this event Johanan
died, and was succeeded by his son Jaddua. Prideaux’s Connection, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 658.

After the Babylonish captivity the Jews retained
a constant aversion to idolatry, which
they justly supposed was the principal cause
of their expulsion from their native land.

It has been assigned as a reason for this
change, that previous to the captivity they had
no synagogues Dr. Prideaux and other learned writers have maintained that
there were not any synagogues before the captivity, as there is no
mention of them in the Old Testament, but after that period their
number was very great. They were places of prayer and religious
assemblies for the worship of God. The times of the synagogue
service were three days every week besides fasts and festivals. The
Jews also attended prayers three times every day, in the morning,
afternoon, and at night. At the east end in every synagogue is an
ark or chest, in commemoration of the ark of the covenant which
was in the temple; and in this ark they lock up the Pentateuch,
written upon vellum with a particular ink.—See Prideaux’s Connection,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 534, 535, and Picart’s religious ceremonies of
the Jews
.
for public instruction, nor A4r 7
places for religious worship, except the temple
and the cities of the Levites. In consequence
of which the divine laws were neglected and
forgotten, and they were easily allured into the
superstitious practices of their idolatrous neighbours.
But after their return, they had synagogues
erected among them in every city,
which were opened not for ceremonial worship,
as sacrificing, for this was confined to the
temple; but for praying, preaching, reading
the law, The mode of worship adopted in the Jewish synagogues subsequent
to the captivity differed but little from the present worship
of christian assemblies; for it consisted of three parts, reading the
scriptures, prayer, and preaching.Grave’s Lectures on the Pentateuch.
Published 18071807.
divine worship and social duties.
The people repaired to the synagogue morning
and evening for prayer, and on sabbaths
and festivals the law was read and expounded
to them. The custom of reading the scriptures
and preaching in the synagogues is supposed
to have been introduced by Ezra. We have a short but beautiful description of Ezra’s first preaching
in INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Nehemiah viii. The Jews had liturgies for their prayers, in
which are all the prescribed forms of their synagogue worship.
Prideaux’s Connection, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 537.

A4v 8

The reformation, begun by Ezra and others,
at length degenerated into formality and superstition;
and when the Jews first deviated from
the purity of their morals, and the simplicity of
their religious worship, their zeal for the rites
and ceremonies of their law increased. It is
supposed the change took place soon after
miracles and prophecies ceased, From the time of Malachi, the Jews had not been favoured
with any prophet, or authorized instructer.
which had
in a great measure prevented them from taking
the shadow for the substance of religion. Picart’s ceremonies and religious customs of the Jews.

It is evident that soon after the termination
of the prophetic age, Enfield’s Philosophy, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 171. the Jews began to corrupt
the law of Moses, by introducing certain
precepts and institutions which they professed
to have received by oral tradition from the
most ancient time. This traditionary law,
which chiefly respected religious ceremonies,
fastings and other practices distinct from the
moral duties of life, at length obtained with the
greater part of the Jewish nation a degree of
authority equal to that of the Mosaic law;
whilst the minor part, rejecting these innovations,
adhered strictly to the institutions of
their sacred oracles. These two general
classes, which do not appear to have been distinguished A5r 9
by any peculiar appellation, gradually
adopted other tenets and customs, and at
length formed several distinct sects, of which
the principal were the Sadducees, the Caraites,
the Pharisees, and the Essenes. See an account of these sects in Section 5. These denominations
were formed at different periods
after the spirit of prophecy ceased from Israel,
and were in a flourishing state at the time of
our Saviour’s appearance upon earth.

Section II.

Sketch of the history of the Jews under Alexander
and his successors to the revolt of
Mattathias.

0332B.C.
333
.
The period foretold in the prophetic pages INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Daniel ii. 39.
at length arrived, when the mighty empire of
Persia was subdued by Alexander the great,
208 years after its conquest by Cyrus. The
Jews gave a striking proof of their fidelity to
Darius Codomanus, the last Persian monarch,
by refusing to assist Alexander in the siege of
Tyre. The Macedonian hero, exasperated at
this refusal, after the conquest of that city led
his victorious army against Jerusalem. Josephus’ Jewish Antiquities.

At this alarming crisis, Jaddua, the high
priest, offered sacrifices and supplications to
the God of Israel, and being, as it is said, directed A5v 10
by a vision in the night, went forth the
following day to meet the conqueror, dressed
in his pontifical robes, attended by the priests
in sacerdotal vestments, and the people in
white garments. Alexander, struck with profound
awe at the sight of this solemn procession,
bowed himself down before the high
priest, and adored the name of Jehovah, inscribed
on his mitre. In reply to those who
expressed their astonishment, that the victorious
monarch of so many nations should pay
homage to a Jewish priest, he declared, that
during his abode in Macedonia, he had seen
this pontiff in a vision, encouraging him to
pursue the war against the Persians, and promising
him complete victory. He was therefore
convinced that he had engaged in this expedition
under the conduct of God, whom he
worshipped in the person of his high priest.
The king then entered Jerusalem in the midst
of the procession, and offered sacrifices in the
temple, where Jaddua shewed him the prophecy
of Daniel, that a Grecian king should overturn
the Persian empire. This prediction
heightened his confidence of success. Such is the account given by Josephus and some other historians.Josephus’
History of the Jews, and Rollin’s Ancient History.

Alexander after this event highly favoured
the Jewish nation by exempting them from A6r 11
paying the usual tribute on the seventh, or
sabbatical year; permitting them to live under
their own laws, and enjoy the free exercise
of their religion. He transplanted many
of them into a new city which he built in
Egypt, and called Alexandria, after his own
name, granting them privileges and immunities
equal to those enjoyed by his Macedonian
subjects. Prideaux’s Connection, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 696–697. Fleury’s Ancient Israelites,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 235.

0332B.C.
333
.
Upon the extinction of the Persian monarchy,
in consequence of Alexander’s conquests,
After the conquests of Alexander a distinction is made of the
Hellenist Jews. This name was given them because they mingled
with the Greeks, spoke their language, and read the scriptures in
it after the septuagint version.Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 527.
the Samaritans endeavoured to accomplish
a civil and ecclesiastical union with the
Jews. For this purpose Sanballat, governour
of Samaria, gave his daughter in marriage to
Menasses, the brother of Jaddua the high
priest, fully expecting that the succession in
the priesthood would devolve upon Menasses,
and that by this means a coalition might be effected.
Sanballet upon finding that the Jews,
particularly the members of the Sanhedrim,
highly resented this profane alliance, took his
son in law under his protection, and having obtained
permission from Alexander to build a A6v 12
temple on mount Gerizim, appointed Menasses
its high priest. A powerful body of
priests and Israelites who had been involved
in similar connections joined the Samaritans. It is supposed, that when Manasses fled to the Samaritans, he
first brought the law of Moses among them; and after they received
it they renouncedrenounced idolatry, and worshipped the true God.
Prideaux’s Connection, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 598.

The erection of the temple highly exasperated
the Jews; the violent animosity between the
parties increased, and gave rise to frequent
hostilities. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 234. Enfield’s Philosophy.

0323B.C.
324
.
After the death of Alexander, the Macedonian
empire was divided among four of his
generals; and Judea being situated between
Egypt and Syria became subject to all the
revolutions and wars in which his successors
were engaged against each other. It was at
first governed by Laomedon, the Mitylenian,
one of Alexander’s captains, and after he was
defeated by Ptolemy Soter, king of Egypt, the
Jews refused to violate their engagements to
him. Enraged at their resistance, Ptoloemy
marched to Jerusalem, and being apprized of
the religious veneration of the Jews for the
sabbath, fraudulently surprised and took the
city on that day, and carried a hundred thousand
of the inhabitants captive into Egypt.
However, in consideration of the loyalty they B1r 13
had on various occasions evinced to former
conquerors, he advanced the most distinguished
persons among them to places of trust in
the military department; and eventually confirmed
all the privileges which Alexander had
formerly bestowed upon their nation. Ptolemy
settled some of the captives in Lybia and Cyrene;
from those who were established in the
latter of these countries descended the Cyrenean
Jews
, mentioned by the writers of the
New Testament. Prideaux’s Connection, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 150. Encyclopedia, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. IX.

Soon after the recovery of Judea by Ptolemy,
Simon, the Jewish high priest, died in the ninth
year of his pontificate. The character given
of him in Ecclesiasticus INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Ecclesiasticus, chap. 1. evinces his distinguished
merit; and the piety and integrity
which uniformly marked his conduct induced
his contemporaries to honour him with the surname
of Just. He exhibited an ardent love of
his country by repairing and fortifying the city
and temple; and is said to have rendered the
most essential service to religion by completing
the canon of the Old Testament. This
celebrated pontiff was the last member of the
grand synagogue. The grand synagogue consisted of 120 elders who, in a regular
succession after the expiration of the Babylonish captivity, laboured
assiduously in restoring the Jewish church and state; and exerted
themselves to diffuse an accurate knowledge of the holy scriptures
among their brethren.Sacred Mirror.

B B1v 14

On the decease of Ptolemy Soter, his successor
Philadelphus confirmed and enlarged
the privileges of the Jews. He established
many of that nation in his dominions, ransomed
those who had been carried captive into
Egypt, and caused a copy of their sacred books
to be translated into the Greek language, This translation is frequently quoted by the sacred writers of
the New Testament. The only instance in which the Jews before
the birth of Christ appear to have used a profane language was in
the Septuagint version of the Bible. Butler’s Horæ Biblicæ.
and
deposited in his famous library at Alexandria.
By means of the translation, which was styled
the Septuagint version, A late author observes that, with respect to the history of the
Septuagint, there scarcely is a subject of literature upon which
more has been written, or of which less with any degree of certainty
is known. The popular account of its being made in the reign
of Ptolemy Philadelphus, at the suggestion of Aristeas, and under
the direction of Demetrius Phalerus, by seventy or seventy two
Jews shut up in cells, appears to be generally exploded. The prevailing
opinion is, that it was made at Alexandria at different times,
and by different interpreters, but that all of them were Jews. Butler’s
Horæ Biblicæ, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 18, and also Prideaux’s Connection,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol.
III. p. 29–52
.
the Jewish religion
was made known among the Gentiles, so that
the temple was enriched with magnificent presents
from the neighbouring monarchs.

The Jews also obtained distinguished favours
from Seleucus Nicator, king of Macedon
and Syria, who admitted them into all the cities
which he had built in lesser Asia, and allowed B2r 15
them the same privileges with his Grecian and
Macedonian subjects. Fleury’s Ancient Israelites, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 235.

The Jewish affairs continued to wear a favourable
aspect till in the reign of Ptolemy
Philopator
they were greatly oppressed by the
incursion of the Samaritans. At the same time
Antiochus the great, king of Syria, made a
vigorous effort to conquer Judea. He was
however defeated by the Egyptian monarch,
who soon after visited Jerusalem, and offered
sacrifices to the God of Israel for his recent
victory. Stimulated by an extreme curiosity
to view the interior part of the temple, in spite
of the remonstrances of the priests and the lamentations
of the people, he forced his way
through the two outer courts; but it is related in
the Maccabees, that on his attempting to penetrate
into the most holy place he was struck
with inexpressible terror, and was obliged to
be carried out by his attendants. Instead however
of being humbled by this judgment, he
was exasperated against the Jews; and on his return
to Egypt raised a persecution against those
in that kingdom; deprived them of their
privileges; ordered them to be enrolled among
the lowest order of Egyptians, and sentenced
many to slavery and death. The interposition B2v 16
of heaven, It is said, that the king had resolved to destroy the whole nation,
beginning with those who resided in Egypt, whom he ordered to be
brought in chains to Alexandria to be killed by his elephants. As
this was to be done publickly, a vast concourse of people were collected
together to behold the horrid exhibition, when to their great
surprise the elephants having been made drunk with wine and
frankincense, turned all their rage upon the spectators, and destroyed
great numbers of them, while the Jews remained in perfect
safety. The king relented, and restored this persecuted people to
their former privileges.Prideaux’s Connection, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. III. p. 118.
This learned author has taken the account from the INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.3d. book of
Maccabees
.
however, in a great measure frustrated
the completion of his inhuman purposes,
and obliged him to revoke his sanguinary decrees.

0211B.C.
212
.
After the death of Ptolemy Philopator, Antiochus
the great
invaded Cælosyria and Palestine,
and soon made an entire conquest of these
provinces. The Jews renounced their allegiance
to Egypt, placed themselves under his
protection, and offered him their assistance.
The Syrian monarch highly gratified by the
fidelity and zeal they exhibited in his service,
restored to Jerusalem its ancient privileges;
gave a large sum out of his own treasury for
repairing the temple, and maintaining publick
worship; granted an exemption from all taxes
for three years to all the dispersed Jews who
should return to their capital, and liberated all
who had been sold for slaves in any part of his
dominions. Prideaux’s Connection, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 128.

B3r 17

0175B.C.
176
.
Upon the decease of Antiochus, his son and
successor Seleucus continued to the Jews the
enjoyment of their civil and religious privileges,
and the expenses of their sacrifices were
defrayed out of the royal treasury. Their
prosperity was, however, disturbed by an unhappy
altercation between Onias the high
priest, and Simon the governour of the temple.
The latter, actuated by a principle of revenge,
gave such an exaggerated account of the treasures
in the temple, that Seleucus determined to
appropriate part of them to his own use, and
commanded Heliodorus, his treasurer, to convey
them to Antioch. Upon his arrival at Jerusalem,
Onias endeavoured to dissuade him
from his purpose, assuring him that these
treasures were appropriated to the use of the
widows and orphans in the Jewish community.
Heliodorus, however, still persisted to execute
his commission. But while the priests and
people united in ardent supplication to the
God of Israel to preserve the sanctuary, he
was suddenly struck, according to the book of
Maccabees, with inexpressible terrour by an
awful vision, and soon after quitted the city,
which he acknowledged was under the protection
of a divine and irresistible power. Simon,
enraged at the defeat of his malicious designs,
accused Onias of having invited the B2 B3v 18
king’s treasurer to Jerusalem. But the high
priest justified his conduct to his royal master,
and at length procured the banishment of the
treacherous governour. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 303. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.2 Maccabees, iii. Prideaux’s Connection.

0172B.C.
173
.
Soon after Antiochus Epiphanes assumed
the Syrian diadem, Jason, brother to Onias,
went to Antioch and purchased the high priesthood
for three hundred and sixty talents. About ninety thousand pounds sterling. He
also obtained an order that the present pontiff,
who was a man of exemplary piety and justice,
should be sent to that metropolis, and there
confined for life. This impious priest subverted
the religion of his ancestors by procuring
a grant for erecting a Gymnasium or place
of exercise at Jerusalem, similar to those which
were built in the Grecian cities; and encouraged
the people by rewards, precepts and example,
to adopt the superstition of their idolatrous
conquerors. From this time, therefore,
a general apostacy took place, and the
service of the temple was neglected. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 304.

After Jason had enjoyed his ill acquired
dignity for a few years, he was supplanted by
his brother Menelaus, whose impiety if possible
exceeded that of his predecessor.§ INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.2 Maccabees. After
he had obtained the high priesthood by offering B4r 19
the additional price of three hundred talents,
he ordered the sacred vessels to be sold to pay
the stipulated sum, and bribe the courtiers in
his favour. He also caused Onias, who had reproved
him for his impious sacrilege, to be put
to death. He was indefatigable in his exertions
to destroy the Jewish religion; engaged
that himself and his party should wholly conform
to the Greeks; drove Jason from Jerusalem,
and by his tyranny and extortion caused
an insurrection in that city. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 303. Prideaux’s Connection, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 175, 176.

0165B.C.
166
.
In the mean time Antiochus was prosecuting
the war in Egypt, and on a false report of
his death, Jason marched to Jerusalem at the
head of a thousand men, and severely chastised
the adherents of Menelaus. But the approach
of the Syrian monarch compelled him to elude
his vengeance by flight; and at length he died
in exile universally hated and despised. Antiochus,
exasperated at the supposed revolt,
and the rejoicings upon the report of his death,
abandoned Jerusalem for three days to the fury
of the Syrian army. Forty thousand persons
were slain, and nearly an equal number sold for
slaves. The impious monarch, conducted by
the traitor Menelaus, forced his way into the
temple, and even penetrated into the most holy
place; tore off the golden ornaments, carried B4v 20
away the sacred treasures and utensils; and in
order to offer the greatest insult to the Jewish
religion sacrificed a large hog on the altar of
burnt offering. Josephus.

After the capital was drained of treasure, and
filled with blood, the tyrant appointed a
barbarous Phrygian, named Philip, governour
of Jerusalem, established the apostate Menelaus
The temporal authority which was united with the pontifical,
made the office of high priest appear of such value to Menelaus
and Jason.Prideaux, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 168.
in the high priesthood, and returned in
triumph to Antioch.

0167B.C.
168
.
About two years after this terrible event,
Antiochus despatched Appollonius, governour
of Syria, at the head of twenty two thousand
men, commanding him to destroy Jerusalem,
massacre the men, and sell the women and
children for slaves. The king’s officer concealed
his intentions till the first sabbath after
his arrival; and while the people were assembled
for the solemn worship of God, he executed
his horrid commands with unrelenting
barbarity. Every part of the city was then
plundered, set on fire, and the walls demolished.
The temple was indeed permitted to stand,
but its service was totally abandoned; for the
Syrian troops built a fortress opposite to the B5r 21
sacred edifice in order to overlook and assault
all who came to worship the God of Israel. Rollin’s Ancient History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VIII. p. 590.

The impious monarch, not yet satiated with
the blood of the Jews, resolved totally to abolish
their religion, or extirpate their whole people.
He therefore issued a decree, that all the nations
within his dominions should forsake their old
religion and gods, and worship those of the
king, under the severest penalties. To enforce
obedience to his orders, he placed overseers in
every province, and being apprized that the
Jews were the only persons who would presume
to disobey his commands, strict injunctions
were given to have them treated with the
utmost severity. Atheneas, an old and cruel
minister, well versed in all the rites of Grecian
idolatry, being sent into Judea, dedicated
the temple of Jehovah to Jupiter Olympus, At this time the Samaritans presented a petition to the king, in
which they declared themselves not to be Jews, and requested that
their temple, on Mount Gerizim might be dedicated to the Grecian
Jupiter, and called after his name. Rollin’s Ancient History.

and set up his statue on the altar of burnt
offering. All who refused to offer their adorations
before the idol, were either massacred, or
compelled to endure the most exquisite tortures.
At the same time, altars, groves, and
statues were established not only in Judea, but
in all the parts of the Syrian empire; and all B5v 22
who professed the religion of Moses, obliged
to worship them under the same penalties.
The king also promulgated an edict, making it
instant death to offer sacrifices to the God of
Israel, to observe the sabbath, practice circumcision,
or any of the Mosaic institutions.
In short, an energetick attempt was made to destroy
every copy of the law, which the king
commanded to be delivered up under penalty
of death, while he strenuously endeavoured to
exterminate every faithful worshipper of God. Prideaux, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 184, 187.

At this distressing period, multitudes quitted
their habitations, and retreated to caves
among the rocks, where they subsisted on
herbs and roots. A large number apostatized;
yet the ministers of cruelty were frequently
baffled by the intrepid firmness of their victims.
The king, exasperated at their boldness in defying
his edicts and punishments, resolved to
visit Jerusalem in order to enforce the execution
of his sanguinary decrees. When the tyrant
arrived, he had recourse to the stake and
the rack; and commanded and superintended
the most horrid executions. The venerable Eleazar and the seven brethren, with their pious
mother, were at this time put to a most cruel death.INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.2 Maccabees
vi. vii
.
The unshaken
constancy of the sufferers filled him with rage
and astonishment; while their triumphant B6r 23
deaths strengthened the faith and courage of
their brethren.

Though the persecution under Antiochus
was the greatest the Jews had ever suffered,
they had hitherto endured the horrid cruelties
of the tyrant without resistance. But at length
men eminently distinguished for valour and
piety were raised up by divine providence to
arm themselves in defence of their religion and
laws; and while they fought under the banner
of the God of Israel, they were enabled to effect
the destruction of their idolatrous enemies,
the deliverance of their nation, and the
restoration of the true worship.

Section III.

Sketch of the history of the Jews under the
Asmonean family.

Mattathias, an eminent priest of the Asmonean
family, He was the great grandson of Asmoneus, from whom the family
derived their name. Prideaux’s Connection, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 187..
lamented with deep anguish
and regret the wretched situation of his country,
and had for some time retired to Modin,
his native place, in order to avoid the persecution
which raged in Jerusalem. Appelles, one
of the officers of Antiochus, was sent to that
city to establish the heathen worship. After B6v 24
assembling the people, he endeavoured to persuade
that venerable priest to set an example
of compliance with the king’s edict, by insinuating
compliments, magnificent promises, and
by stating the number who had apostatized.
Mattathias boldly replied in the hearing of the
multitude, “that though all the Jews, and all
the nations on earth, should conform to the
king’s decree, he and his sons would continue
faithful to the law of their God; and that no
consideration should ever induce them to
abandon the religion of their ancestors.”
Immediately
after, he killed one of his countrymen
who offered sacrifices on the altar of Modin.
Upon being joined by his sons, and
some others, he executed the same summary
vengeance on the king’s officer and his attendants;
Mattathias’s conduct was conformable to the law of Moses in
such cases. See INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Deuteronomy xiii.
and hastily passing about the city,
exhorted all who were zealous for the law of
God to follow him.

Animated by the example of Mattathias and
his pious family, large numbers of Jews being
determined to make vigorous exertions for the
recovery of their civil and religious privileges,
followed their venerable leader into the desarts
of Judea. Whiston’s Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. III. p. 46.. They were soon pursued by the C1r 25
royal army; and being attacked on the sabbath,
many perished without offering to make
the least resistance. Their leaders were hence
induced to pass a decree for defending themselves
for the future on that holy day, which
being ratified by the priests and elders was
privately communicated to Palestine and the
adjacent villages. Whiston’s Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. III. p. 46..

0166B.C.
167
.
The party of Mattathias being strongly reinforced,
furiously attacked the Syrians and
apostate Jews, destroying many, and compelling
others to seek refuge in foreign countries.
After having struck their enemies with terrour,
the conquerors marched from city to city,
overturning the heathen altars, demolishing
the graven images, opening the Jewish synagogues,
and enforcing the practice of circumcision.
They also assiduously employed themselves
in searching for and transcribing the
sacred books, and causing the reading of the
scriptures to be resumed. Their heroick exertions
were crowned with such remarkable success,
that, in the short space of one year, a
happy reformation had begun to extend over a
large part of Judea, when death arrested Mattathias
in his glorious progress. In his last
moments he exhorted his sons in the most fervent
and affectionate manner to emulate their Vol. I. C C1v 26
pious ancestors, and hazard their lives in defence
of the religion and laws of their country. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.1 Maccabees ii. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 309.

Judas, surnamed Maccabeus, The motto on the standard of Judas was taken from INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Exodus
xv
. “Who is like unto thee among the Gods, O Jehovah!” which
being written by an abbreviation formed the initial letters of the
words put together, which made the artificial word Maccabees.
Such at least is the national tradition concerning the origin of a
name applied in its strict sense to persons enlisted under Judas and
his brethren; but also more extensively to those who, before Judas
raised his standard, had magnanimously braved death in the same
religious cause. Particularly to those Jews recently tortured at
Jerusalem by the merciless Antiochus Epiphanes, as well as those
martyred 50 years before at Alexandria by the cruel Ptolemy Philopater.Prideaux’s
Connection, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 193. Gillie’s History,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. III. p. 123.
his eldest son
and successor, is said to have been the greatest
uninspired hero of whom the Jews can
boast. Encyclopedia. With his small army, which at first
only consisted of six thousand men, he soon
made himself master of some of the strongest
fortresses in Judea; became terrible to the
Syrians and Samaritans; compelled the apostate
Jews to retire in confusion, while the pious
emigrants returned and enlisted under his banners.
The Syrian monarch, and the governours
of the provinces, exerted themselves to the utmost
to crush this dangerous revolt in its infancy.
For this purpose they repeatedly sent
formidable armies against Judas, commanded
by officers of consummate valour. The Maccabean C2r 27
hero, animated by religious confidence
in God, was not alarmed by the vast superiority
of numbers on the side of his enemies;
but continued successfully to defend the laws
and religion of his countrymen; and in one
year defeated the Syrians in five battles. In the
last of these engagements, the army which was
raised by Lysias the Syrian governour, amounted
to sixty five thousand men. Judas gained a
complete victory, obliged the troops who had
escaped the sword to elude his vengeance by
an ignominious flight, and their commander to
abandon the enterprize, and return to Syria. For a particular account of the battles between the Syrians
and Jews see INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.1 Maccabees iii. iv.

0164B.C.
165
.
Encouraged by this brilliant success, the
victorious Maccabees marched to Jerusalem,
destroyed the Syrian idols, repaired and purified
the temple, replaced the sacred vessels, and
divine worship, which had been interrupted
for three years and an half, was resumed with
the greatest splendour and solemnity. The
temple, which was decked with a profusion of
ornaments, was consecrated anew to the service
of God, and an annual feast appointed to perpetuate
the remembrance of this joyful event.
But notwithstanding the triumphant success of
Judas and his army, they were not able to expel
the Syrians from their fortress on mount C2v 28
Acra
, which was opposite to the temple; in
order therefore to prevent the interruption of
divine worship, they protected the sacred edifice
by building high walls and lofty towers,
which were supported by a powerful and vigilent
garrison. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.1 Maccabees iv.

The surrounding nations, exasperated at the
reestablishment of the Jews, united against
them, and attacked them on all sides, being resolved
to destroy every worshipper of Jehovah.
But Judas and his valiant brothers repeatedly
attacked and vanquished their forces with prodigious
slaughter; reduced several of their
principal places; and obtained the most complete
success. Rollin’s Ancient History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. viii.

In the mean time Antiochus, being on his
return from an unsuccessful expedition against
Persia, received the alarming news, that all the
Jews had revolted, defeated his generals, expelled
their armies from Judea, and restored
the primitive worship. This intelligence filled
him with such frantick rage, that he declared he
would utterly extirpate every individual of the
Jewish nation. These words were scarcely uttered,
says the author of the book of Maccabees,
when he was struck with a torturing and
incurable disease, and was compelled to acknowledge,
that his sufferings were justly inflicted C3r 29
by the God of Israel, whose people he
had persecuted with unrelenting cruelty.

After having languished for some time in a
miserable condition he expired, and his death
freed the Jews from the most inveterate enemy
they had ever known. Antiochus Eupator,
his son and successor, continued to prosecute
the war against the Jewish nation. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.2 Maccabees ix. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. iii. p. 69.

Some time after the death of the tyrant, Judas
laid close siege to the tower of Acra,
which Appollonius had built to overlook the
temple. The young king advanced to the relief
of the garrison at the head of an hundred
thousand foot, twenty thousand horse, thirty
two elephants, and three hundred chariots of
war. Upon the approach of this formidable
army, the Maccabean chief having exhorted
his troops to fight valiantly for their liberties,
and given for the watchword, “victory is of
God,”
attacked the enemy in the night, slew
four thousand six hundred men, threw the
whole army into confusion, and made a regular
retreat to Jerusalem. Ibid.

Antiochus Eupator, having reduced the fortress
of Bethsura, conducted his army to the
Jewish metropolis. The garrison defended
the city with undaunted courage, till they were
reduced to the utmost extremities from want C2 C3v 30
of provisions; but providence interposed in
their behalf, and the report of a rebellion in
Syria induced the besiegers to grant them an
advantageous peace. The king engaged to
leave the fortifications of the temple entire; but
upon the cessation of hostilities he caused
them to be demolished, in open violation of the
treaty which he had just confirmed with the
most solemn oath. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.1 Maccabees vi. 62.

Menelaus, the apostate high priest, who had
attended the Syrian army in this expedition,
was accused by Lysias, the commander, of being
the instigator of the war, and condemned
to suffer a cruel death. The Syrian government
then conferred the pontifical dignity upon
Alcimus, a man equally unprincipled and
vicious as his predecessor. But the Jews
refused to admit him to officiate at their altar
on account of his known impiety and attachment
to the superstition of the Grecians. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.2 Maccab. xiii.

0161B.C.
162
.
Onias, the son of Onias III. who was murdered
in Antioch, being disappointed in not
obtaining the high priesthood after the death of
his uncle Menelaus, withdrew into Egypt.
Indignant at the promotion of the unworthy
Alcimus, he petitioned Ptolemy Philometer
and Cleopatra his queen to permit him to
build a temple for the Jews in that country, C4r 31
alleging that the prophet Isaiah had foretold,
that “there should be an altar to the Lord in
Egypt
.” INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Isaiah xix. 18, 19.
The king and queen granted his
request, assigned a portion of land, and an
adequate revenue for the purpose. The place
chosen for erecting the temple was Hiliopolis,
or the city of the sun. It was built after the
model of the temple at Jerusalem; but not on
so large and magnificent a scale. Onias was
made high priest; inferior priests and levites
were also appointed; and divine worship conducted
as in the capital of Judea. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. iii. p. 59.

Demetrius, son of Seleucus Philopater, and
lawful heir to the crown, having put Antiochus
Eupator
to death, Alcimus, the apostate high
priest, who upon being rejected by the Jews
had become their implacable enemy, petitioned
the new king to support his title. Demetrius,
at his instigation, sent large armies under the
command of Bacchides the governour of Mesopotamia,
and Nicanor, governour of Judea.
But the designs of both were frustrated by the
valour and prudence of the Maccabees.; and
Nicanor, having blasphemed the God of Israel,
and threatened to destroy the temple, was slain
in the engagement, and his army defeated with
prodigious slaughter. Ibid.

Soon after this victory, Judas sent an embassy C4v 32
to Rome, and obtained an alliance with
that powerful state. But previously to the
return of the ambassador, Demetrius despatched
Bacchides into Judea with the flower of his
troops, consisting of twenty two thousand men,
to revenge the death of Nicanor, and establish
Alcimus in the priesthood. At the approach
of this formidable army, the soldiers of Judas,
which amounted to only three thousand men,
were intimidated to such a degree, that all left
him except eight hundred. With this small
force, which he exhorted in the most pathetick
manner to die valiantly rather than desert, he
broke the strongest wing of the idolatrous army,
and chased the fleeing troops to Mount
Azotus
. But at length being surrounded on
all sides, and overpowered by numbers, this
heroick defender of his country fell, covered
with honourable wounds, on heaps of his expiring
enemies. His death was deeply lamented,
and his heroick exploits deservedly
celebrated. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.1 Maccabees ix.

0159B.C.
160
.
The death of Judas filled his countrymen
with the utmost consternation, while their enemies,
inspired with fresh courage, reduced
Jerusalem, put many of the adherents of the
Maccabees to death, and reinstated Alcimus
in the priesthood, which sacred office he perverted C5r 33
to the vilest purposes. Josephus observes,
“that the calamities the Jews suffered
at this time were equal to any they had experienced
since their return from Babylon.”

But at length providence interposed in their
behalf. The impious high priest having presumed
to break down one of the walls of the
sanctuary, By the order of prophets Haggai and Zechariah, a low wall
or inclosure was built round the sanctuary to separate the holy
from the unholy; and the rule was, that within this no uncircumcised
person was to enter. Alcimus, in order to give the Gentiles
equal liberty with the Jews, to pass into the inner courts of the
temple, ordered this wall of partition to be pulled down.Prideaux’s
Connection, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. ii. p. 264.
was suddenly cut off in the full
career of his wickedness, and expired in agonies.
The party of Judas made the most
strenuous exertions against their enemies, and
unanimously chose Jonathan to succeed his
brother as their prince and general. Under
his direction the war was conducted with such
energy and success, that the Syrians, disturbed
by their own intestine divisions, solemnly
engaged to refrain from further hostilities, and
a treaty of peace was concluded. Ibid.

Immediately after the Syrian forces left
Judea, Jonathan commenced a regular government,
similar to that of the ancient Israelitish
judges; he repaired the walls of Jerusalem,
fortified the city, and made several important C5v 34
reformations in the civil and ecclesiastical
affairs of his country. The increase of
his reputation and success, induced the competitors
for the Syrian monarchy to court his
friendship; and as Demetrius had formerly
persecuted the Jews, he joined the party of his
rival Alexander Bela. With the unanimous
consent of the people, he accepted the high
0143B.C.
144
.
priesthood from him; that place having been
vacant seven years from the death of Alcimus.
Jonathan also formed an alliance with the Romans
and Lacedemonians, and rendered himself
formidable by his military atchievments.
But after he had governed the Jewish nation
with equal prudence and skill for about seventeen
years, he and his children were treacherously
put to death by Tryphon, a Syrian usurper,
in the city of Ptolemais. One thousand
persons who attended him as guards were likewise
0143B.C.
143
assassinated. Whiston’s Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 13. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.1 Maccab. x. xi. xii. xiii. xiv.

After the death of Jonathan, the leaders of
the Jewish nation assembled at Jerusalem, and
chose Simon, the only surviving son of Mattathias,
for their general and high priest; and
settled both the civil and sacerdotal power on
his posterity. He imitated the valour and
prudence which marked the conduct of his
brother; repaired the fortresses of Judea; reduced C6r 35
and demolished the tower of Acra; renewed
the treaty with the Romans; and sent
an embassy to Demetrius, lawful heir of Syria,
offering to acknowledge his sovereignty,
and assist him in depriving the usurper Tryphon
of the regal dignity. These proposals
were cheerfully accepted by Demetrius; and a
letter was returned, which constituted Simon
sovereign prince and high priest of the Jewish
nation; ordered all publick acts to be made
in his name, and released his territories from
all foreign dominion. After the independent
reign of Simon had commenced, he bravely
defended his country; took Gaza and Joppa;
restored peace to Jerusalem; beautified the
sanctuary, and enforced obedience to the divine
0134B.C.
135
.
law. At length, however, a period was
put to his life and usefulness at the castle of
his son-in-law, by whom he and two of his
sons were treacherously murdered after he had
governed the Jews eight years. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.1 Maccabees xvi.

Immediately after Simon’s death Antiochus
Sidetes
, the then reigning king of Syria, marched
to Palestine with a powerful army, and compelled
the Jews to deliver their arms, demolish
the fortifications of Jerusalem, and pay him an
annual tribute. Not long after, this monarch
was slain in an expedition against the Parthians;
and the intestine commotions which C6v 36
distracted the kingdom after his death afforded
Hyrcanus, the son and successor of Simon,
an opportunity to enlarge his dominions, and
deliver his country from the yoke of foreign
power. His exertions were crowned with
such complete success, that neither he nor his
descendants were ever after subjected to the
kings of Syria. Whiston’s Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 14. .Prid. Conn. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 325.

He was also successful in his wars with the
Idumeans, whom he compelled to renounce
their idolatrous rites, or abandon their country.
In consequence of which, they lost their
political existence, and became incorporated
with the Jewish nation. The conqueror next
turned his arms against the Samaritans; demolished
their capital city, and the temple
which was erected on Mount Gerizim. Rollin’s Ancient History.

Hyrcanus renewed the alliance which his
predecessors made with the Romans, who
were now rapidly advancing to the meridian of
their power. And having subdued his enemies,
and amassed prodigious treasure by his
conquests, enjoyed his authority without disturbance,
made Judea flourish under his wise
administration, and raised his nation to a greater
degree of splendour than it had ever enjoyed
since the Babylonish captivity. His last
days were however embittered by a contest D1r 37
with the Pharisees, Learned men differ respecting the origin of the Pharisees.
Some suppose that they arose about an hundred and fifty years
before the appearance of our Saviour. Josephus, who was himself
of this sect, speaks of it as flourishing in the time of Jonathan
the high priest. The dissentions between the schools of Hillel and
Shammai, a little before the christian era, increased the number
and power of the Pharisees. Hillel, having acquired a profound
knowledge of the most difficult points of the Jewish law, became
master of the chief school in Jerusalem, and laid the foundation of
the Talmud. Shammai, one of his disciples, deserted his school,
and formed a college, in which he taught doctrines contrary to his
master. He rejected the oral law, and followed the moral only in
its literal sense. These different schools long disturbed the Jewish
church by violent commotions. However, the party of Hillel
was at last victorious.Enfield’s Philosophy. See also Section
V.
for a further account of this denomination
.
who, at this time had acquired
great power and popularity; and had
incensed the king by calling in question his
title to the high priesthood. Hyrcanus, however,
after having enjoyed the royal authority
twenty nine years, died in peace, greatly
beloved and lamented by the generality of the
Jewish nation. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 19.

Aristobulus, his eldest son, succeeded him
both in the regal and sacerdotal dignities. He
was the first after the Babylonian captivity who
assumed a diadem, and the title of king. The
commencement of his reign was marked with
several acts of despotick cruelty. He even
put his own mother to death, because she aspired
to the government; and imprisoned his Vol. I. D D1v 38
brothers, one of whom he also caused to be
slain upon an unjust suspicion. During his
government the Itureans, who inhabited the
north easterly parts of Galilee, were attacked
and vanquished. After a short reign the tyrant
expired, filled with the utmost horrour and
remorse of conscience. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 19.

0102B.C.
103
.
Alexander Janneus, brother of Aristobulus,
being liberated from prison, ascended the
throne. This martial prince defeated the
Philistines, and compelled them to receive circumcision.
The practice of obliging the nations, who were conquered by
the Jews to quit their country, or embrace the Mosaic religion, was
invariably followed by the Asmonean princes.Rollin’s Ancient
History
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. IX. p. 221.
He also atchieved other brilliant
conquests in Arabia, Gilead, and Moabitis.
During his reign, however, the Jews were in
a very miserable condition, being not only involved
in foreign wars, but distracted by intestine
commotions. The powerful party of the
Pharisees, who detested him for enforcing his
father’s decrees against their constitutions, exerted
themselves to the utmost to vilify his
government, and exasperate the people against
him. Their malicious attempts gave rise to a
civil war which lasted six years, involved both
parties in innumerable calamities, and occasioned
the death of more than fifty thousand D2r 39
persons. At length Alexander having in vain
endeavoured to effect a reconciliation, gained
the victory in a decisive battle, and punished
his enemies with the utmost severity. The
king died in the 27th. year of his reign, after
he had bequeathed the government to his wife
Alexandria, whom he appointed guardian to
the young princes.

When the queen ascended the throne, in
compliance with the advice, which she received
from her husband just before his death, she
sent for the principal leaders among the Pharisees,
to whom she entirely committed the management
of her affairs. By this measure she
acquired popularity, and established herself on
the throne. But this turbulent sect having
compelled the queen to grant their exorbitant
demands, commenced a violent persecution
against the Sadducees, The Sadducees derived their origin and name from one Sadoc,
who flourished about two hundred and sixty years before Christ.
Sadoc was a pupil of Antigonus Sochacus, president of the sanhedrim,
who having inculcated in his lectures, that men ought to
serve God out of pure love to him, and not in a servile manner,
either for fear of punishment or hope of reward, Sadoc, not understanding
this spiritual doctrine, concluded that there was no future
state of rewards and punishments. His adherents were denominated
Sadducees.Jenning’s Lectures, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p.456. See part V.
for a farther account of this sect.
and exercised their
authority in the most arbitrary and oppressive
manner. Alexandria died in the ninth year of
her reign, having appointed her eldest son Hyrcanus, D2v 40
who had been made high priest, to succeed
her in the regal dignity. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 26.

Immediately after Hyrcanus II. ascended
the throne, his brother Aristobulus raised a
powerful army against him, which soon compelled
him to sue for peace, on condition of resigning
all title to the regal and pontifical dignity.
But the ambition of Antipater, governour
of Idumea and father of Herod, involved
the Jews in a new war. He used all his address
to replace the late king on the throne, in
order that he might govern under him. By
his assistance, and that of Aretas king of Arabia,
Hyrcanus assembled a body of troops,
which defeated Aristobulus, and kept him
closely besieged in Jerusalem. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 28.

0064B.C.
65
.
In this situation of affairs, Aristobulus implored
the protection of the Romans, and his
petition, being accompanied with large presents,
effectually answered his purpose, and induced
the republick to write to Aretas, commanding
him to raise the siege, and leave the
country. The Arabian prince obeyed the injunction,
and Aristobulus escaped from his
confinement, and gratified his vindictive rage
by the destruction of his enemies. Ibid.

Some time after this event, the two brothers
sent embassadors to Pompey, at that time D3r 41
commander in chief of all the Roman forces in
the east, and chose him the arbitrator of their
mutual differences.

The Roman general heard each party with
apparent impartiality, and dismissed them with
a promise, that he would embrace an early opportunity
of deciding the controversy. Aristobulus,
offended at the delay, and suspecting
Pompey favoured his brother, made formidable
preparations for war. Exasperated at this,
and other parts of his conduct, the Roman
commander caused him to be imprisoned, and
marched with his whole army against Jerusalem. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 30.

Though the gates of the city were readily
opened by Hyrcanus’s party, yet the faction of
Aristobulus took shelter in the temple, and resolved
to defend themselves to the last extremity.
Pompey therefore closely besieged them;
and the superstitious rigour, with which the
Jews observed the sabbath, facilitated the conquest
of their metropolis. For though, since the
commencement of the Maccabean war, they
had agreed to defend themselves on that holy
day, when actually attacked, they still thought
it unlawful to prevent the works of the enemy.
The Romans therefore were unmolested, while
they employed themselves in preparations for D2 D3v 42
an attack on the sabbath, and made themselves
masters of the city after a siege of three months.
A terrible slaughter ensued, in which more than
twelve thousand persons were killed, and many
perished by suicide. During these horrid transactions,
the priests, who were offering sacrifices,
continued their devotions with great composure,
and suffered themselves to be murdered
before the altar without any resistance. Their
constancy excited the astonishment and admiration
of the conqueror. Rollin’s Ancient History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. IV. p. 293.

Jerusalem was reduced on that very day,
which the Jews observe as a solemn fast for
the taking of the city and temple by Nebuchadnezzar.
After Pompey had completed the
conquest of Jerusalem, his curiosity induced
him to examine every part of the temple. Accompanied
with some of his superiour officers,
he even penetrated into the holy of holies.
But he left the treasures of the sacred edifice
untouched, and ordered the priests to make a
solemn purification, and offer sacrifices according
to the Mosaic institutions. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 31–33.

D4r 43

Section IV.

Sketch of the history of the Jews from the
conquest of Pompey to the birth of Jesus
Christ
.

0062B.C.
63
.
Josephus and Tacitus date the loss of
the liberty of the Jews, and the translation of
the sovereign authority to the Romans, from
the reduction of Jerusalem by Pompey. For
though Hyrcanus was restored to the pontifical
dignity with the title of prince, he was deprived
of the ensigns of royalty, and condemned to
pay a disgraceful tribute. His dominions
were also reduced to narrower limits; for Pompey
restored to Cœlo Syria all the towns taken
by the Jews, gave liberty to Samaria and other
maritime towns, and strictly prohibited him
from attempting any new conquests. To prevent
future revolts, the Roman general commanded
the walls of Jerusalem to be demolished;
and, after regulating the government of Judea
according to his pleasure, returned to
Rome, Aristobulus and his sons Alexander
and Antigonus being sent prisoners to that city
to adorn his future triumph. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 34.

0056B.C.
57
.
From this period for many years civil dissentions
and desolating wars raged in Judea.
Alexander, the son of Aristobulus, found means D4v 44
to escape from Rome, and appeared in that
country at the head of a formidable army. Hyrcanus
had left the management of affairs to
Antipater, who, having used every artifice to
ingratiate himself with the Romans, was enabled,
by their assistance, to suppress the rebellion.
Some time after, Aristobulus obtained
his liberty, and joined the discontented party
in Palestine. But his attempts were frustrated;
and he was again committed to prison. A
few years after, Julius Cæsar set him at liberty,
in order to gain his assistance against Pompey;
and both he and his son Alexander were put
to death by the partizans of that famous general.
Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 37–40.

0051B.C.
52
.
About this time Crassus, the Roman governour
of Syria, invaded the Parthians; and on
his march against that nation stopped at Jerusalem,
and stimulated by his insatiable avarice,
seized the sacred treasures in the temple. The
wealth he acquired by this sacrilegious pillage
is said to have been upwards of two millions
sterling. But the vengeance of heaven overtook
him; for he was soon after defeated and
slain by the Parthians. Ibid.

0047B.C.
48
.
Meantime the power and influence of Antipater
rapidly increased. Julius Cæsar, who
after the death of Pompey usurped the supreme D5r 45
authority at Rome, rewarded the services he
had rendered him in the Egyptian war, by
making him lieutenant of Judea, and honouring
him with the title of a Roman citizen.
He also confirmed Hyrcanus in the priesthood,
gave liberty to fortify the city and repair the
walls of Jerusalem, which Pompey had demolished,
and bestowed such signal favours upon
the Jews, that during his life, they could
scarcely be said to feel the Roman yoke.

At this time Antipater procured the government
of Jerusalem for his eldest son Phasael,
and that of Galilee for his second son
Herod. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 43.

During the domestick calamities, which engaged
the attention of the Romans upon the
assassination of Julius Cæsar, Hyrcanus was
deprived of his authority by his nephew Antigonus,
who, after making vigorous efforts, in
which he was assisted by the Parthians, recovered
the kingdom. Hyrcanus and Phasael were
thrown into a dungeon; but Herod escaped
destruction by a precipitate flight. He first
took refuge in Egypt, from whence he repaired
to Rome for assistance, and by the powerful
patronage of Mark Anthony, who was then
in the zenith of his power, was inaugurated
king of Judea. Soon after he entered Palestine
with a numerous army, and subdued Galilee. D5v 46
He was however repulsed at Jerusalem
with great slaughter; but being reinforced by
Sosias, governour of Syria, he made himself
master of the city after an obstinate siege of
six months. The immediate consequence was
a cruel pillage and massacre, which was followed
by the death of Antigonus the son of
Aristobulus. Thus ended the reign of the
Asmonean family, after a duration of an hundred
and twenty nine years from the beginning
of the government of Judas Maccabeus. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 43.

Upon the entire reduction of the holy city
Herod, a stranger and Idumean, ascended the
throne of Judea. This extraordinary, and till
then unexampled event, indicated that the
sceptre was departing from Judah; See the celebrated prophecy of Jacob, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Genesis xlix. The generality
of interpreters, Jewish as well as Christians, have by Shiloh
always understood the Messiah.
and announced
the appearance of him to whom the
gathering of the people should be
;
and whose manifestation was the perpetual object
of the views and hopes of the Jewish nation.
Rollin’s Ancient History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. IX. p. 302.

Herod, who proved one of the greatest tyrants
ever recorded in history, commenced his
reign with a cruel persecution of the adherents
of Antigonus; the most affluent among them D6r 47
he caused to be put to death, and confiscated
their estates in order to replenish his empty
coffers. The tyrant decoyed Hyrcanus from
Parthia, where he had fled for shelter; and,
contrary to the most solemn engagements
caused him to be assassinated. Aristobulus,
the grandson of Hyrcanus, who was appointed
high priest, was drowned in a bath by his
contrivance. Mariamne, his queen, who descended
from the illustrious Asmonean family,
and was distinguished for her beauty, virtue
and accomplishments, fell the next victim to
his resentment and jealousy. Three of his
sons, in the course of his tyrannical reign,
were condemned to suffer death. He sacrificed
his friends as well as foes to his ungovernable
fury, oppressed the people in the most
cruel and arbitrary manner, and exhausted the
treasures of the nation by his boundless extravagance.
Josephus.

After Herod had destroyed the greatest part
of his supposed enemies, he began to exhibit
a marked contempt for the Jewish religion and
laws. From the beginning of his reign to the
final destruction of the temple, the high
priests had no hereditary right; but were set
up and removed at his pleasure, and that of his
successors. He also destroyed the authority D6v 48
of the grand sanhedrim, Herod had been obliged to appear before the grand sanhedrim,
in order to answer for his conduct, previously to his obtaining
the regal dignity; and from a principle of revenge he attacked
the assembly, which by degrees lost its power.
and burnt the Jewish
records, that he might be thought originally
an Israelite. He built temples in the Grecian
taste, erected statues for idolatrous worship,
consecrated a superb theatre and amphitheatre,
to celebrate games in honour of Augustus,
adopted in his ordinary habits Roman manners
and usages, and in his publick capacity was
absolutely devoted and subservient to the Romans.

Under the administration, and through the
influence of this tyrant, the Roman luxury was
introduced into Palestine, accompanied with
all the vices of that licentious people. In a
word, Judea, governed by Herod, groaned
under all the corruption, which might be expected
from the authority and example of a
prince, who, though a Jew in outward profession,
was, in point of morals and practice, a
contemner of all laws human and divine. Mosheim’s Eccles. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 31. Horæ Biblicæ.

0022B.C.
23
.
After Herod had amassed a prodigious
treasure by his cruel extortions and confiscations,
he proposed to regain the favour of the
Jewish nation by rebuilding the temple; and
for eight or nine years employed upon it E1r 49
eighteen thousand workmen, who at last completed
the stupendous design. The magnificent
structure, which he erected, is said, in
some respects, to have even exceeded the first
temple, which was built by Solomon. It was built of hard white stones of prodigious magnitude.
Hence, when our Saviour was sitting upon the mount of Olives,
and the temple in full prospect before him, the disciples expressed
their admiration of its grandeur, and of the large and magnificent
stones, of which it was erected, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Mark xiii. 1.—See Harwood’s
Introduction to the New Testament, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 168.
Rising
in all its grandeur from the summit of a mountain,
it commanded an extensive prospect; its
appearance, says Josephus, exhibited every
thing, that could strike the mind and astonish
the sight. It was on every side covered with
solid plates of gold, and, when the sun arose
upon it, reflected such a dazzling effulgence,
that the eye was unable to sustain its radiance.
The temple was encompassed with august
porticoes, on which immense riches were profusely
expended; and every ornament bestowed,
that human art and genius could devise.
This superb structure was continually receiving
additions to the time of the ministry of our
Saviour. Hence the Jews might with literal propriety assert, as they
ostentatiously did, “Forty and six years was the temple in building,”
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.John xi. 20. As the whole was executed under the idea of
repairs, it continued to be called the second temple.
Herod set up a golden eagle of
exquisite workmanship, the arms of the Roman
empire
, over the gates of the temple.

Vol. I. E E1v 50

About this period there was a general expectation
through the eastern world of the advent
of some illustrious prophet and deliverer,
who should change the aspect of human affairs. Josephus, Suetonius and Tacitus mention this general expectation;
and hence Virgil, the Roman poet, in his fourth eclogue
describes the blessings of the government of some great personage
who was, or should be born about this time.

The Jews in particular eagerly anticipated the
coming of the promised Messiah, as the time
predicted by Daniel for his manifestation was
arrived. Devout persons waited day and night
for the consolation of Israel; and the whole nation,
groaning under the Roman yoke, and stimuluated
by the desire of liberty or of vengeance,
expected their deliverer with the most anxious
impatience.

At length, that most interesting and important
epoch arrived, when Jesus Christ made
his appearance on earth. When the sun of
righteousness arose on a benighted world,
Polytheism was in every country, except Judea,
the predominant, and almost universal religion.
The Roman empire under Augustus had attained
the zenith of its power; while the Pagan
nations, who composed this vast monarchy,
exhibited the most glaring picture of human
depravity; and the Jewish state and true
religion were almost at the lowest ebb. Just
before our Saviour was born, the temple of
Janus was shut, to intimate that all the nations E2r 51
of the earth were at peace. This remarkable
peace, after so many ages of tumult and war,
was a fit prelude to the introduction of the glorious
prince of peace into the world. Mosheim’s Eccles. History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 16.

The malicious attempt of Herod to involve
the Saviour of the world in the slaughter of the
babes of Bethlehem is recorded by the sacred
history. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Matthew xi. The tyrant died the following year
in exquisite tortures. During his illness he
sent for the heads of the most eminent families
in Judea, confined them, and left orders, that,
as soon as he had breathed his last, they should
all be put to the sword, to oblige the nation to
go in mourning at his death. He expired
soon after, in the thirty-seventh year of his
reign; the sentence was not executed; and the
nation rejoiced at their deliverance. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 154.

After the death of Herod, the Roman emperour
divided the kingdom of Judea between
his sons. The brothers, for some years, governed
Palestine without any open rebellion or
disturbance. But Archelaus, who obtained
half the kingdom, under the title of exarch,
proved so corrupt and wicked a prince, that
both Jews and Samaritans sent ambassadours
to accuse him to Augustus. The emperour
deposed and banished him for his tyrannical
conduct; and reduced Judea to the form of a E2v 52
Roman province, to be ruled by procurators,
who were to be appointed and recalled at the
pleasure of the reigning monarch. The power
of life and death was taken from the Jews;
their taxes were regularly gathered by the publicans;
and justice was from that time administered
in the name, and by the laws of Rome. The precise year, when this event took place, it may be difficult
to ascertain; but the judicial forms which were observed on
the trial and condemnation of our Saviour, and the acclamation of
the Jews, “we have no king but Cæsar,” irrefragably shew that it
had arrived.Horæ Biblicæ INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 42.

Section V.

Of the different denominations among the Jews
at the time of Christ’s appearance upon earth.

Though the Jewish nation at the time of
our Saviour’s appearance retained the worship
of the true God, they had grossly perverted
their religion, by exalting the traditions of their
ancestors above the clear and positive injunctions
of their law; and while they presumed
to infringe the strongest moral obligations, they
were scrupulously exact in performing the most
minute and trifling ceremonies, which were
enjoined by their rabbies. The ultimate object
of many, was to obtain popular applause;
hence they publickly displayed all the parade of
ostentatious charity, and were privately guilty
of the greatest extortion and cruelty. Yet, E3r 53
elated with spiritual pride, they considered
themselves as the only favourites of heaven,
and excluded all other nations from the hopes
of eternal life. Harwood’s Introduction, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 108–109. Mosheim.

During Christ’s ministry on earth the temple
was used as a place of merchandize, and
the most sacred offices, even the high priesthood,
were sold. The chief priests, who purchased
their places by bribes, maintained their
ill acquired authority by the most abominable
crimes. The inferiour priests, and those who
possessed any degree of authority, had become
dissolute and abandoned in the highest degree;
while the multitude, excited by their
corrupt example, run headlong into every kind
of iniquity, and, by their endless seditions, robberies,
and extortions, armed against themselves
both the justice of God and vengeance
of man.

The Jewish nation, at the time of our Saviour’s
appearance, were divided into a great
variety of sects. The principal points in dispute
among them respected the law of Moses,
the immortality of the soul, the resurrection of
the body, future rewards and punishments, and
the nature of virtue. All admitted the divine
authority of the Mosaical law. All agreed in
thinking, that their religious tenets and observancesE2 E3v 54
were the only objects worthy of their
attention. Prideaux’s Connection, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 353. Horæ Biblicæ.

The rabbies, or the teachers of each sect,
defended their tenets with the greatest zeal
and pertinacity. The Jews and Samaritans
were, in particular, violently opposed to each
other. The latter, at first, were heathens, who
worshipped the God of Israel, in conjunction
with other deities, till Menasses, who was made
their high priest, with other fugitive Jews,
coming to them from Jerusalem, brought with
them the book of the law, and taught them to
worship the true God only, according to the
Mosaic institution. From this period they are
considered a sect of the Jewish religion. They
looked upon the temple of Gerizim as the only
place, where God is pleased to be worshipped,
and the centre of true religion. They received
no other scriptures but the book of Moses,
except Joshua and Judges, which, however,
they did not allow to be of divine authority
like the Pentateuch. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 115.

The Pharisees were the most distinguished,
flourishing, and popular sect among the Jews.
They assumed this name on account of their
separating themselves for superiour strictness
in ritual observances. Their separation consisted E4r 55
chiefly in certain distinctions respecting
religious ceremonies, and does not appear
to have interrupted the uniformity of religious
worship, in which the Jews of every sect always
seemed to have been united. Jennings’ Jewish Antiquities, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I.INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 457.

It appears from the frequent mention, which
is made by the evangelists, of the Scribes and
Pharisees in conjunction, that the greatest number
of Jewish teachers, or doctors of the law,
were at that time of the pharisaical sect. The
ecclesiastical scribes were the learned of the
Jewish nation, who expounded the law, and
taught it to the people. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 592.

The Pharisees were principally distinguished
by their zeal for the traditions of the elders,
which they not only maintained to be of equal
authority with the written law, but in many
cases explained the former by the latter, entirely
contrary to its true intent and meaning;
and thus made the commandments of God of no
effect by their traditions
. They pretended
that those traditions, which they called the oral
law, were delivered by God to Moses, on
Mount Sinai, and preserved through successive
generations. They were charged with
maintaining, that by observing both the written
and oral law, man may not only obtain justification
before God, but perform meritorious E4v 56
works of supererogation; that fasting, alms,
ablutions, and confessions are sufficient atonement
for sin; that thoughts and desires are
not sinful, unless they produce evil actions.
They acknowledged the immortality of the soul,
future rewards and punishments, and the resurrection
of the body. Dr. Prideaux supposes that the Pharisees maintained only a
Pythagorean resurrection, that is, the transmigration of the soul
into another body. David Levi, on the other hand, asserts, that
the Pharisees knew and taught the true resurrection of the body
and soul together. For proof of this, he quotes INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Ezekiel xxxvii,
and other passages in the Old Testament. Whence he asserts,
that “the doctrine of the resurrection, and consequently,
that of a future state of rewards and punishments, was well known
and established in the Jewish nation, (and that in the most clear,
explicit, and unequivocal manner) for almost a thousand years before
Christ.”
David Levi’s Ceremonies of the Jews, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 255 to
p. 261
.
According to Josephus,
they maintained the doctrine of predestination;
but supposed, that the divine decrees
did not interfere with the freedom of the human
will. They maintained, that, “before a man is born, it is predestinated,
whether he shall be wise or foolish, weak or strong, rich or
poor. But whether he is to be wicked or righteous, vicious or virtuous,
is entirely in his own free will.”
David Levi’s Ceremonies
of the Jews
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 267.

This denomination, by their apparent sanctity
of manners, had rendered themselves extremely
popular. It appears both from the
scripture, and the testimony of Josephus, that
the common people were entirely at their disposal,
and gave their suffrage to every religious E5r 57
prescription and judicial sentence, that had obtained
their sanction. The great, who feared
their artifice, were frequently obliged to court
their favour. Hence they obtained the highest
offices both in the state and priesthood;
and assumed the chief direction both of publick
and private affairs. Josephus.

The peculiar manners of this sect are strongly
marked in the writings of the evangelists;
particularly their exactness in performing the
rites and ceremonies of the law, both written
and traditionary; the rigour of their discipline
in washings, fastings, and ablutions; their
scrupulous care to avoid every kind of ritual
impurity; their long and frequent prayers,
made not only in the synagogues and temples,
but in the publick streets; their philacteries
on the borders of their garments, on which
were written sentences of the law; their assiduity
in making proselytes; their ostentatious
charities; and, under all this specious mark of
zeal and purity, their abominable and atrocious
vices. According to our Saviour’s representation
of them, they were a race of the most
demure hypocrites, that ever disgraced human
nature, resembling whited sepulchres, which
outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly are
full of putrefaction and horrour. Harwood’s Introduction.

E5v 58

The above account is confirmed by the testimony
of the Jewish writers themselves. The
Talmudic books mention several distinct classes
of Pharisees, under characters, which show
them to have been deeply immersed in superstition.
Among these were the truncated
Pharisee, who, that he might appear in profound
meditation, as if destitute of feet, scarcely
lifted them from the ground. The mortar
Pharisee, who, that his contemplations might
not be disturbed, wore a deep cap in shape
of a mortar, which would only permit him to
look upon the ground at his feet; and the
striking Pharisee, who, shutting his eyes, as he
walked, to avoid the sight of women, often
struck his head against the wall. They practised
many painful austerities and mortifications,
frequently observed severe fasts, covered
their features with gloom and solemnity,
and used every artifice to captivate the admiration
of the populace. Godwin’s Jewish Antiq. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 45. Enfield’s Philos. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 181.

The sect of the Sadducees was inconsiderable
in number; but some of those, who professed
its tenets, were of illustrious families,
and others distinguished for their opulence.
We find that Caiaphus an high priest was of
this denomination, and Josephus mentions
several other Sadducees, who were exalted to E6r 59
the supreme power in church and state. The
chief heads of the doctrine of this sect are as
follow.

All laws and traditions not comprehended
in the written law, are to be rejected as merely
human inventions. Neither angels nor spirits
have a distinct existence, separate from this
corporeal vestment. The soul of man therefore
does not remain after this life, but expires
with the body. There will be no resurrection
of the dead, nor any rewards and punishments
after this life. Man is not subject to irresistible
fate, but has the framing of his condition
chiefly in his own power. Polygamy ought
not to be practised. Josephus. Enfield’s Philosophy.

The sect of the Caraites, though its history
be exceedingly obscure, is not to be confounded
with that of the Sadducees. The name denotes
a scripturist, and seems intended to distinguish
those, who adhere to the scriptures as the
whole and only rule of their faith and practice.
This denomination was given them about thirty
years before Christ, when, upon the dissension
betwixt Hillel the president of the Sanhedrim,
and Shammai the vice president, by
which their respective pupils were divided into
two parties, betwixt whom there were perpetual
contests, those, that were of the opinion E6v 60
of the Caraites, sided with the school of Shammai,
and those, who were zealous for traditions,
with that of Hillel. According to Dr. Prideaux
they did not absolutely reject all traditions,
but only refused them the same authority
with the written oracles of God. They were
distinguished from the Sadducees, by maintaining
the doctrines of the immortality of the
soul, and future rewards and punishments. Prid. Conn. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p.328. Jenning’s Lectures, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 438 .

The Essenes differed from all the above
mentioned sects, as they secluded themselves
not only from politicks and publick affairs, but,
as much as the nature of man and constitution
of society will admit, from the common concerns
and intercourse of private life. Some
suppose they took their rise from the dispersion
of their nation, after the Babylonish captivity;
others, that they began when the persecution
of Antiochus compelled the Jews to
retire to the woods and mountains. They
maintained, that rewards and punishments extended
to the soul alone, and regarded the
body as a mass of malignant matter, and the
prison of the immortal spirit. The greatest
part of this sect considered the laws of Moses
as an allegorical system of spiritual and mysterious
truth, and renounced all regard to the
outward letter in its explanation. The leading F1r 61
traits in the character of this sect were,
that they were sober, abstemious, peaceable,
lovers of retirement, and had a perfect community
of goods. They paid the highest regard
to the moral precepts of the law; but neglected
the ceremonial, excepting what regarded
personal cleanliness, the observation of the
sabbath, and making an annual present to the
temple at Jerusalem. They commonly lived
in a state of celibacy, and adopted the children
of others, to educate them in their own principles
and customs. Though they were, in
general, averse to swearing, or to requiring an
oath, they bound all, whom they initiated, by
the most sacred vows, to observe the duties
of piety, justice, fidelity, and modesty; to
conceal the secrets of the fraternity; to preserve
the books of their institutions; and with
great care to commemorate the names of the
angels. Enfield, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 186. Jennings’ Lectures, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 170.

Philo mentions two classes of Essenes; one
of which followed a practical institution, the
other professed a theoretical system. The
latter, who were called Theraputæ, placed their
whole felicity in the contemplation of the divine
nature. Detaching themselves entirely
from secular affairs, they transferred their
property to their relations and friends, and retiredVol. I. F F1v 62
to solitary places, where they devoted
themselves to an holy life. The principal society
of this kind was formed near Alexandria,
where they lived, not far from each other, in
separate cottages, each of which had its own
sacred apartments, to which the inhabitants retired
for the purposes of devotion. Enfield, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 186..

Besides these eminent Jewish sects, there
were several of inferior note, at the time of
Christ’s appearance; the Herodians, mentioned
by the sacred writers, and the Gaulonites,
by Josephus.

The Herodians derived their name from
Herod the great, and were distinguished by
their coinciding with the plan of that monarch
to subject himself and his dominions to the
Romans; and also by complying with many
of the heathen usages. Their distinguished
tenet appeared to be, that it is lawful, when
constrained by superiours, to comply with
idolatry, and with false religion. Herod seems
to have formed this sect, in order to justify
himself in his practice in studying every artifice
to ingratiate himself with the emperour,
and to secure the favour of the principal personages
in the court of Rome. We find the
Sadducees readily embraced the tenets of this
party; for the same persons, who, in one of F2r 63
the gospels, are called Herodians, are in another
styled Sadducees. The Herodians were
not so much a religious, as a political sect, attached
to Herod during his life, and to his sons
after his decease. Josephus. Prideaux’s Connection.

The Gaulonites were Galileans, who derived
this name from one Judas Theudas, a native
of Gaulon, in upper Galilee, who, in the
tenth year of Jesus Christ, excited his countrymen,
the Galileans, and many other Jews, to
take arms, and venture, upon all extremities,
rather than pay tribute to the Romans. The
principles he instilled into his party were, not
only that they were a free nation, and ought
not to be in subjection to any other; but, that
they were the elect of God, that he alone was
their governour, and that therefore they ought
not to submit to any ordinance of man. Though
Theudas was unsuccessful, and his party, in
their very first attempt, entirely routed and
dispersed; yet so deeply had he infused his
own enthusiasm into their hearts, that they never
rested, till they involved the city and temple
in their own destruction. Josephus.

Many of the Jews were attached to the oriental
philosophy concerning the origin of the
world. From this source the doctrine of the
Cabala is supposed to be derived. That considerable F2v 64
numbers of the Jews had imbibed
this system, appears evident, both from the
books of the New Testament, and from the
ancient history of the christian church. It is
also certain, that many of the Gnostic sects
were founded by Jews. Mosheim’s Eccles. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 38.

At the time when Jesus Christ appeared upon
earth, the great body of the Jewish nation
were waiting with great anxiety for their promised
Messiah. Yet they formed erroneous
ideas of his character. Corrupted by their
increasing intercourse with the world, and
dazzled with the splendour of the Roman
viceroys, they expected not an eternal and
spiritual, but a temporal and earth born sovereign.
They supposed he would manifest
himself as a mighty conqueror, free them from
subjection to the Romans, aggrandize their nation,
render Jerusalem the metropolis of the
world; and, after subduing all their enemies,
commence a glorious reign of prosperity and
peace. Hence they were disgusted with the
humble appearance of the divine Redeemer;
while the Pharisees and great men were exasperated
at the boldness and severity of his rebukes.
For though he united in himself the
accomplishment of every ancient prophecy, he
was ignominiously rejected and put to death F3r 65
by the Jewish nation. The tremendous calamities
which befell them after perpetrating
this horrid crime; the fulfilment of our Saviour’s
predictions, respecting the destruction of
their city and temple, and their consequent dispersion
and sufferings will be related in
the following pages.

F2 F3v 66 F4r 67

History of the Jews.

Chapter I.

Tyranny of the Roman government in Judea. Herod Agrippa
made king. The emperour Caligula attempts to have his
statue placed in the temple of Jerusalem. Resistance of the
Jews. Death of Herod Agrippa. Arbitrary conduct of the Roman
governours. Many Jews depart for foreign countries.
Number of Jews in Jerusalem at the Passover. The prodigies
which preceded the war. Of the contest respecting the city of
Cesaria. Jews and Syrians take up arms. Vast numbers destroyed
on both sides. The Jews take several important fortresses.
Cestius Gallus marches against them and besieges Jerusalem.
The Christians retire to Pella. Jews make great preparations
for war. Vespasian is sent against them with a powerful
army. He reduces the cities of Galilee. Of the parties
among the Jews. Of the civil war in Jerusalem; and the cruelty
of the zealots. Vespasian is proclaimed emperour, and
sends his son Titus to terminate the war by the reduction of
Jerusalem.

The ministry of our blessed Saviour while
he remained on earth, was principally confined
to the Jews; and notwithstanding the obstinate
incredulity of the majority of the nation,
who, impatient under the tyrannical government
of the Romans, eagerly expected a
temporal deliverer, a large number acknowledged
him as the true Messiah. The apostles,
also, in obedience to the command of their
divine master, began to preach the gospel to F4v 68
this distinguished people. Under their ministry
many were converted, and the first christian
church was founded at Jerusalem. But
the unbelieving Jews, who had rejected and
crucified the Prince of Life, exhibited the
same enmity against his apostles and followers,
and, in the infancy of the christian church,
they were its most cruel persecutors. The early ecclesiastical historians, as well as the New Testament
writers, attest the enmity of the Jews against the Christians,
and, that they were more particularly exasperated against those believers,
who were of their own nation.
The
most signal marks of divine vengeance, however,
soon pursued this infatuated people; and
the predictions of the Divine Redeemer, respecting
the tremendous destruction of Jerusalem,
began to be accomplished.

The governours of Judea, appointed by the
Romans, constantly insulted the feelings of the
Jews, by exhibiting a marked contempt for
their religion and law. Pontius Pilate, during
his administration, took every occasion of introducing
his standards, with images, pictures,
consecrated shields, &c. into their city; and
at length attempted to drain the treasury of
the temple, under pretence of bringing an
aqueduct to Jerusalem. Seven years after the
crucifixion of Jesus Christ, complaint being
made of the tyranny and rapine of Pilate, he F5r 69
was superceded, and, in extreme poverty and
misery, perished by suicide. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V.

Soon after, Herod Agrippa, grandson to
Herod the great, was promoted to the regal
dignity; and during his reign, the Jews were
involved in new difficulties. The Roman emperour,
Caligula, intoxicated with mad ambition,
claimed divine honours; and, being determined
to have his statue placed in the sanctuary
of the temple, ordered Petronius, the
governour, to raise an army to enforce obedience
to his impious injunction. At this alarming
period, the Jews went in a large body to
the governour, beseeching him in the most pathetick
terms not to defile their temple with
images; and, falling prostrate on the ground,
offered to die rather than disobey their law. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 172–173.
Their moving entreaties excited the compassion
of Petronius, and he engaged to interest
himself in their behalf. At length Agrippa,
who was in high favour at court, undertook
their cause; and, upon the emperour’s solemnly
engaging to grant whatever he should ask,
he, generously preferring the welfare of his
people to his own emolument, requested the
monarch to relinquish the design of having his
statue erected in the temple. Caligula reluctantly
granted his suit; and the death of the F5v 70
tyrant, which took place soon after, prevented
his renewing the impious attempt. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 172–173.

According to the sacred historian, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Acts v. Agrippa,
upon his entrance into Judea, who, from an
ambitious desire of popularity among his countrymen,
raised a persecution against the christians,
and blasphemously suffered himself to
be styled a God by some deputies from Tyre
and Sydon, was miraculously struck with a
terrible disease, which soon put an end to his
life. After his death Judea was again reduced
to a Roman province, and the new governours
appointed over it were continually irritating
the minds of the people by the most glaring
infringements upon their privileges. Josephus’ Wars of the Jews, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 184.

Felix, who had advanced from obscurity and
servitude to rank and power, with the true
spirit of a slave, exercised the tyranny of an
eastern prince. Tacitus. His oppression, rapine, and
cruelty, excited a spirit of revolt; while the
false prophets (who were so numerous under
his government, that some of them were apprehended
and killed every day) were continually
blowing the flames of sedition. The
people were massacred by the troops of Felix
for following these deceivers, who, according
to our Saviour’s prediciton, drew multitudes F6r 71
into the desart to shew them signs and
wonders. In particular, a certain Egyptian
Jew, entered Judea with a numerous banditti,
and, having collected about thirty thousand
men, led them to Mount Olivet, and promised
to deliver them from the Romans. Felix, with
his legions, met him at the foot of the mountain,
slew many of his followers, and took
others prisoners. The impostor, with a remnant
of his adherents, made their escape. This is supposed to have happened in the year of Christ 005555.

Judea, during the government of Felix, was
infested with robbers, and clandestine assassins,
named Sicarii, who, with poignards, concealed
under their garments, used to mingle
in the crowd, and stab their supposed enemies. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 184–185.
By the just judgment of heaven, the Jews,
who had crucified their Messiah, and desired
a robber and murderer to be granted to them,
had their country overrun with robbers and
murderers; and the frequency of the horrid
assassinations among them, excited universal
consternation.

Porcius Festus, who succeeded Felix, upon
his removal from the government, supported
a better character than his predecessor. At
the commencement of his administration, the
assassins were spreading terrour throughout
Jerusalem. He punished these wretches with F6v 72
exemplary severity, and exerted himself to
the utmost to suppress the civil discords,
which, in consequence of the extravagant
claims, and frequent depositions of the Jewish
pontiffs, raged among the priests, and filled
the country, the city, and, sometimes, the temple,
with blood. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 186. Mayor’s Univ. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 547.

Festus died in his government, and the Roman
emperour Nero sent Albinus in his room.
Insatiable avarice being his ruling passion, he
burdened the nation with extraordinary tributes;
and became the encourager of all kinds
of villany, by yielding to bribery and corruption.
Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 186.

Gessius Florius, who succeeded Albinus,
far surpassed him in wickedness; and gloried
in his greater violence. He even robbed the
sacred treasury, pillaged whole provinces, oppressed
the Jews by all kinds of rapine and
extortion, encouraged the robbery and plunder
of the banditti, for a share of their booty;
fomented the publick divisions; and even
used his utmost exertions to excite an open
rebellion, in hopes, that the publick confusion
might prevent complaint against his iniquitous
conduct. In a word, he was one of the vilest
wretches, that ever disgraced human nature;
and a distinguished instrument of divine vengeance G1r 73
upon the subjects of his capricious tyranny.
Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 187.

In consequence of the distracted state of
Judea, many of its inhabitants sought an asylum
in foreign countries; while those who remained,
applied to Cestius Gallus, governour
of Syria, who was at Jerusalem, at the passover,
earnestly beseeching him to deliver
them from the tyranny of their cruel governour.
Cestius, instead of making a strict inquiry
into the conduct of Florus, dismissed
the Jews, with a general promise, that he
should behave better for the future. In the
meantime directions were given to compute
the number of Jews then at Jerusalem, by that
of the lambs offered at the festival, which were
found to amount to 2,556,000. Ibid.

0065A.D.
65
.
While the arbitrary conduct of the governour,
and the irritated state of the Jewish people,
threatened them with the horrours of war;
famines, earthquakes, and terrifick sights in
the heavens, appeared to fulfil the awful predictions
of our Saviour. Josephus, among
many other fearful prodigies, relates, that before
the rebellion, when a great multitude were
assembled in Jerusalem, at the passover, at
the ninth hour of the night, so great a light
shone round the altar, and the temple, that it Vol. I. G G1v 74
seemed to be bright day; that a few days after
the festival, before sun set, chariots and
troops of soldiers in armour were seen passing
through the clouds, and surrounding cities;
and, that the priests, going into the inner temple,
felt the place move and tremble, and
heard a voice, more than human, crying, “Let
us depart hence.”
Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V.. See Archbishop Newcome’s Observations
on the character of our Lord
for an admirable detail of these
events.

This account is confirmed by Tacitus, the
Roman historian, who says, “Portents and
prodigies announced the ruin of Jerusalem;
swords were seen glittering in the air; embattled
armies appeared; and the temple was illuminated
by a stream of light, that issued from
the heavens, the portal flew open, and a voice
more than human, announced the immediate
departure of the gods; there was heard, at
the same time, a terrifick sound, as if superiour
beings were actually rushing forth.” Murphy’s Tacitus. Dr. Jortin remarks, that, “if Christ had
not expressly foretold, that there should be fearful sights, and great
signs from heaven
, many, who give little heed to portents, and
know that historians have been too credulous in this point, would
have suspected that Josephus had exaggerated, and that Tacitus
was misinformed; but, as the testimonies of Josephus and Tacitus
confirm the predictions of Christ, so the predictions of Christ confirm
the wonders related by these historians.
Jortin’s Remarks
on Ecclesiastical History
.

A contest had long subsisted between the
Jews and Syrians concerning Cesaria, which G2r 75
was situated in the confines of Syria and Judea.
The Jews maintained, that the city belonged
to them, because it was built by Herod
their king; while the Syrians pretended, that
it had always been considered as a Grecian
city, since even that monarch had erected in
it temples and statues. During the administration
of Felix, the contest rose to such
a height, that both parties armed against each
other. That governour allayed the ferment
for a time, by sending some of the chiefs of
both nations to Rome to plead their cause before
the emperour. The affair hung in suspense
till this period, when Nero decided it
against the Jews. This event was the immediate
cause of the fatal war with the Romans,
which proved the most desperate of any recorded
in history; and terminated in the destruction
of Jerusalem. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 188.

0066A.D.
66
.
The decree of the emperour was no sooner
published, than the Jews, in all parts of the
country, took up arms; Agrippa, He was the son of Agrippa, great grand son to Herod, and
king of Chalcis. He resided chiefly at Jerusalem, and obtained
the administration of the temple, and a right to appoint or depose
the high priests. When the high priest Ananus had condemned
St. James to death, some Jews, who disapproved of this cruelty,
complained to Agrippa, and this prince deprived him of the high
priesthood. He, with his sister Bernice, heard St. Paul’s defence
before Festus, the Roman governour, and he owned himself
almost convinced by it. See INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Acts xxv. 26. Basnage’s History of
the Jews
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 23.
who happened G2v 76
to be at Jerusalem at the commencement
of the war, attempted to appease the fury
of the multitude by an elaborate speech, in
which he painted, in glowing colours, the vast
extent and grandeur of the Roman empire;
the mighty nations, who had been subdued by
its all-conquering arms; the folly and infatuation
of the Jews in opposing the masters of the
world; and concluded by a pathetick exhortation
to his countrymen, to lay down the weapons
of their rebellion. But his entreaties and
remonstrances were alike disregarded; and he
was compelled to provide for his personal safety
by quitting the city. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 215.

The flames of intestine war now raged with
irresistible fury in every part of the unhappy
province, and its progress was marked by acts
of cruelty and desperation. Twenty thousand
Jews were massacred at Cesaria, fifty two
thousand at Alexandria, two thousand at Ptolemais,
and three thousand five hundred were
cut off at Jerusalem by the troops of Florus,
in one day. The Jews, to the utmost of their
power, exercised similar cruelties on the Syrians
and Romans, and slaughtered immense
numbers of people. Ibid.

The rebellious Jews being joined in Jerusalem
by numerous assassins, with their assistance
beat the Romans out of the fortress of G3r 77
Antonia and Massada, possessed themselves of
the towers of Phasael and Mariamne, and reduced
the palaces of Agrippa, Bernice, and the
high priest to ashes. They even carried their
fury to such a height, as to massacre those Romans,
who had capitulated on condition of having
their lives preserved. Their treachery
was, however, soon revenged on the faithful
Jews in Sythopolis, who had offered to assist in
reducing their factious brethren. But their
sincerity was suspected, and above thirteen
thousand of their number were inhumanly
massacred. The rebels, in the mean time,
crossed the Jordan, and took the fortress of
Machærus and Cyprus; the latter of which,
after putting all the Romans to the sword, was
razed to the ground. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 215.

Upon the general revolt of the Jews, Cestius
Gallus
, president of Syria, marched at the head
of a powerful army into Judea and Galilee, burning
all the towns and villages in his way, and
slaughtering the inhabitants. He was met at
Gibeon, a city about six miles from Jerusalem,
by large numbers of Jews, who attacked him
with such fury, that his whole army was in
danger. Agrippa, who joined him with a
body of troops, endeavoured once more to appease
his rebellious countrymen by sending G2 G3v 78
two of his officers to them with proposals of
peace. But after they had killed one of his
officers and wounded the other, Cestius advanced
with his whole army, repulsed the rebels,
and made himself master of the lower parts
of Jerusalem. About 0067A.D. 67. Josephus says, “if Cestius had
continued the seige a little longer he would have
taken the city; but God, being angry with the
wicked, would not suffer the war to be terminated
at that time.”
But Cestius suddenly and
unexpectedly raised the seige at the instigation
of some of his officers, who, it is said, were
bribed by Florus. Emboldened by this impolitick
step, the insurgents pursued Cestius to
his camp at Gibeon, from whence he escaped
by night, with the loss of upwards of five
thousand of his army. Josephus.

It is recorded by an ancient historian, Eusebius’s Ecclesiastical
History
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book III. Chap. 5.
that
the christians abandoned Jerusalem at this awful
period. Having called to mind the warning
of their divine Master, that, when they
should see Jerusalem encompassed about with
armies, and the abomination of desolation
(the Roman army with their idolatrous images)
“The Roman armies are styled, the abomination of desolation,
because they not only spread desolation before them, but were held
in the utmost abhorrence by the Jews, on account of the images of
their gods and emperours, which they carried in their standards, by
which they swore, and to which they sacrificed. The usual ornaments
of these standards gave such offence to the Jews, that, in
peaceable times, the Romans entered Jerusalem without them;
and Vitellius at the request of some eminent Jews, humanely avoided
marching his forces through Judea on account of these ensigna.
When therefore they were planted within sight of the city and
temple, when they stood within the holy precincts of Jerusalem,
rivalling, as it were, the God of Israel, this was a hostile contempt
of the Jews, and is justly placed among the presages of their utter
destruction.”
Newcome’s Observations on our Lord, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 240.
standing in the holy place, they should G4r 79
flee unto the mountains. In obedience to this
sacred injunction, they removed to Pella, a city
beyond the river Jordan, about an hundred
miles from Jerusalem, belonging to Agrippa,
and inhabited by Gentiles. Here they obtained
a safe asylum; and we do not find, that even a
single individual of them perished in the impending
ruin of the Jewish metropolis. Newton on the Prophecies, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Part II. p. 19.

The defeat of Cestius heightened the obstinacy
of the Jews, who, elated with their success,
made formidable preparations for the prosecution
of the war. Ananus, the high priest,
and Joseph, the son of Gorion, were appointed
to govern Jerusalem, and repair the walls;
while persons of approved valour and resolution
were sent to command the troops in the
provinces. Josephus, Josephus was born at Jerusalem, 003737, and descended from the
illustrious Asmonean family. He soon discovered great acuteness
and penetration; and made so rapid a progress in the learning of
the Jews, that he was occasionally consulted by the chief priests
and rulers of the city at the age of sixteen. He adopted the opinions
of the Pharisees, and engaged in civil affairs. In the early
part of the Jewish war, he was a famous general; and after he was
taken prisoner admitted to share the confidence of Vespasian, and
his son Titus, the latter of whom he accompanied to the siege of
Jerusalem. After the city was taken, he attended Titus to Rome,
where Vespasian gave him the freedom of the city, and settled a
pension upon him. At Rome he applied himself to study the Greek
language, and composed his history of the wars of the Jews. He
lived till the thirteenth year of Domitian; and died in 009393, aged fifty
six years.General Biographical Dictionary, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. IX. p. 28.
a priest of considerable G4v 80
rank, and the celebrated writer of the antiquities
and wars of the Jews, was appointed governour
of the two Galilees.

Nero, the Roman emperour, who had received
intelligence of the defeat of Cestius,
and was alarmed at the energetick measures,
which were taken by the Jews, commanded
Vespasian, an officer of distinguished prudence
and bravery, to march with all possible expedition
into Judea. Accordingly, that commander
employed himself in raising forces;
and his son Titus was despatched to fetch two
of the Roman legions from Alexandria. But
the Jews, previous to the arrival of the army
in their country, had twice attempted to take
the city of Ascalon, and were each time repulsed,
with the loss of ten thousand of their
number in the first, and eight thousand in the
second engagement.

Early in the following spring, the imperial
army, which amounted to sixty thousand men, G5r 81
completely armed, and fully disciplined, entered
Galilee. Soon after their arrival, Gadara
was taken on the first assault; all the adults
were put to the sword, and fire set to the adjacent
towns and villages. The conquerors
next closely besieged Jotaphata. Josephus,
being apprized of their design, supplied the
city with ample stores, and defended it with
heroick valour for forty seven days. The Romans,
however, finally surprized and took the
place, and all the inhabitants were either slain,
or made prisoners. The captives amounted
to one thousand two hundred; and forty thousand
lost their lives on this occasion. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 285.

Josephus was among the prisoners. He had
escaped the general massacre, by flying from
the midst of his enemies, and with forty of his
bravest men, concealed himself in a deep cavern.
His retreat was discovered to Vespasian,
and that famous general sent to offer him life,
upon honourable conditions. Upon his preparing
to accept the terms, his companions upbraided
him in the severest manner, and even
offered to murder him. At this critical moment,
he appeased their fury, by advising
them, if they were determined upon death, to
draw lots, who should kill his companion, in
order to avoid the crime of suicide. This G5v 82
dreadful proposal was accepted; and providence
so ordered it, that the two last survivors were
Josephus, and a person whom he easily persuaded
to live. The Jewish commander, upon
his arrival in the Roman camp, assured
Vespasian, that he should soon be chosen emperour;
and, in consequence of this prediction,
the conqueror treated him with great
respect and generosity. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 293.

While the Roman forces were besieging
Jotaphata, the inhabitants of Japha, a neighbouring
city, rebelled. The general sent a
powerful army against them, and they were
reduced, after an obstinate siege. All the men,
amounting to 15,000, were massacred; and the
women and children made prisoners. About
a week after, the Samaritans, who had assembled
in a riotous manner on Mount Gerizim,
were almost all put to the sword, or perished.
Joppa, which had been formerly laid waste by
Cestius, being now repeopled and fortified by
some seditious Jews, who infested the country,
fell the next victim to the Roman vengeance.
When the imperial army invaded
that city, large numbers of the wretched inhabitants
betook themselves to their ships.
But they were driven back by a violent tempest,
which dashed the vessels against the G6r 83
rocks. In this extreme distress many perished
by suicide; others were swallowed up by the
waves, or crushed by the broken ships; and
such as were enabled to reach the shore were
killed by the merciless Romans. The sea was
for a long space discoloured with blood; four
thousand two hundred dead bodies strewed
the coast, and not a messenger remained to
report this great calamity at Jerusalem. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 294. Newcome’s Obser. on our Lord, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 228.

After Vespasian had refreshed his troops,
he marched to Tiberias; the city yielded; and
the inhabitants were spared at the moving intercession
of king Agrippa. Tarichæ, on the
sea of Galilee, was next attacked; and, after
an obstinate resistance, reduced by the victorious
Romans. Multitudes of Jews were destroyed,
and upwards of thirty thousand sold
for slaves. Vespasian proceeded to invest
Gamala, a city placed on a rocky isthmus.
The assailants were driven back with prodigious
slaughter. Their last attack, however,
was successful, the flight of their darts being
favoured by a violent storm, which obstructed
those of the enemy. After the city was taken,
the exasperated victors slew four thousand of
the inhabitants; and a large number fell victims
to their own impatience and ungovernable
fury. The Romans also obtained a decisive G6v 84
victory over the Jews, who had retired to
a strong hold on Mount Itabys. Josephus.

Titus, who was sent to besiege Gischala, earnestly
exhorted the inhabitants to save themselves
from destruction, by a timely surrender.
The citizens were inclined to accede to his advice;
but a seditious Jew, named John, the son
of Levi, head of his faction, vehemently opposed
it; and, having the mob at his command, overawed
the whole city. On the sabbath he entreated
Titus to forbear hostilities till the following
day, engaging, on that condition, to accede to
his proposal. But, after his request was granted,
the perfidious wretch, with a number of
his followers, withdrew to Jerusalem. The
citizens then surrendered, and, having apprized
Titus of John’s flight, earnestly besought
him not to punish the innocent with the guilty.
The conqueror, after yielding to their entreaties,
pursued and killed six thousand of the followers
of John, and brought back three thousand
women and children prisoners. The traitor
himself eluded their pursuit, and exasperated
the inhabitants of Jerusalem against the Romans.
Hence Josephus says, “God saved John for the destruction
of Jerusalem,”
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 294.

After the conquest of Galilee was completed,
by the reduction of Gischala, Titus joined H1r 85
his father, at Cesaria, where his troops were
permitted to enjoy an interval of repose; during
the remainder of this, and in the following
year, the revolutions in the Roman empire
prevented Vespasian from pursuing the war
with vigour. He the more readily deferred
commencing the siege of Jerusalem, from being
apprized, that the Jews were wasting their
strength by internal divisions, and facilitating
the conquest of their devoted city. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 355.

The Jewish nation at this time were divided
into two very opposite parties. The more
rational part, who clearly saw that the war,
if continued, would end in the total ruin of
their country, strongly urged the necessity
of immediate submission to the Romans. Another
party, called Zealots, from their boasted
zeal for the law of God, and the religious customs
of their ancestors, vehemently opposed
all pacifick measures. This faction, which was
far the most numerous and powerful, consisted
of men of the vilest and most abandoned
characters ever recorded in history.
They were the remains of the sect of the Gaulonites,
which was headed by Judas Theudas,
and like him affirmed, that it would be offering
the greatest dishonour to God to submit
to any earthly potentate, much less to Romans Vol. I. H H1v 86
and heathens. Under the mask of religion,
these wretches committed the most horrid and
unnatural crimes. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V.INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 334.

John, who had fled from Gischala, put himself
at the head of these incendiaries; and, being
joined in that city by a band of robbers
and assassins, seized upon the temple for a
fortress, and that holy place was made a theatre
of civil war. The opposite party, under
the conduct of Ananus, a wise and venerable
man, among the chief priests, armed in their
own defence; and, after an obstinate contest,
forced the Zealots into the inner cincture of
the temple, where they were closely invested.
John, who had pretended to agree with those,
who desired peace, was sent to the Zealots with
terms of accommodation; but he betrayed his
trust, and earnestly exhorted them to persevere
with unshaken firmness. He intimated to
them the necessity of foreign assistance; and
persuaded them to enter into a treaty with the
Idumeans. But Ananus shut the gates of
Jerusalem, and precluded the new allies from
entering the city. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 378.

On the night the Idumeans were excluded,
there was a tremendous storm, accompanied
with thunder, lightning, and a violent earthquake.
The Zealots took advantage of the H2r 87
prevailing terrour and confusion, sawed the
bolts and hinges of the temple gates without
being heard, forced the guards, sallied into the
city, and introduced twenty thousand of their
allies. After being thus strengthened and assisted,
they perpetrated the most horrid cruelties.
Twelve thousand persons of noble
birth, and in the prime of life, upon their refusal
to join them, were inhumanly murdered.
Ananus and Jesus, the chief priests, were next
put to death, and their dead bodies left without
burial. After massacreing many persons
of distinction, they turned their sanguinary
cruelty upon the citizens and lower classes,
and the ill fated capital was filled with blood
and carnage. At this dreadful period, none
dared publickly to lament the loss of his nearest
friends or relations; or even afford them
the last melancholy rites of interment. This
cruel despotism compelled many to forsake
Jerusalem, and take refuge with the Romans,
though the attempt was extremely hazardous,
as the avenues of the city were strictly guarded;
and all, who were detected in attempting
to escape, were immediately put to death.
The Idumeans, who were of John’s party, at
length complained of the vast numbers, who
were massacred; repented of having joined the
tyrant, and returned to their native country. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 347.

H2v 88

The Zealots, after they had massacred or
driven away all, who were capable of opposing
them, turned their murderous weapons against
each other. A new faction was formed against
John by Simon, a man of an abandoned character,
and daring spirit, who had his head quarters
in the fortress of Masada. To increase
his party, he published a proclamation, in
which he promised liberty to the slaves, and
suitable encouragement to all freemen, who
would enlist under his banners. After he had,
by this stratagem, collected many followers, he
invaded Idumea, perpetrated all kinds of cruelty,
corrupted the general of that country, and
having gained possession of their military
forces, advanced towards Jerusalem, and encamped
before the city. This army destroyed
the Jews without the walls, and were more
dreaded than the Romans; while the Zealots
within excited still greater terrour than either. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 347.

The inhabitants of Jerusalem, in order to
oppose the tyranny of John, whom they apprehended
would burn the city, formed the fatal
resolution of admitting Simon and his troops.
Accordingly, they entered the metropolis, and
increased the calamities of the miserable people,
who were exposed alternately to the rage
of both factions. Another party also arose in
the city, under Eleazar, formerly a commander H3r 89
of the Zealots, seized upon the court of the
priests, and kept John confined within that of
the Israelites. He being enclosed by Simon,
who had possession of the city, and by Eleazar,
who occupied the inner temple, defended
himself with great resolution against both his
powerful enemies; killed and wounded many
of each party; and the temple and altar were
frequently polluted with blood. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 369.

0069A.D.
69
.
During the internal contest in the city, Vespasian
had marched from Cesarea, and conquered
the yet unsubdued part of the country;
he stormed Hebron near Jerusalem, slew all
the adults, and burned the city. He had also
gained possession of Gadara, the metropolis
of Perea, and reduced all the Idumean towns
to ashes, except such as were deemed serviceable
to the troops, whom he appointed to
overawe the country. As every place was
now reduced, but Herodium, Masada, and
Machærus, which the robbers had occupied,
Jerusalem became the grand object of the Romans.
Vespasian, therefore, being elected
emperour, according to the prediction of Josephus,
previously to his taking possession of
his dominions, sent his son Titus to reduce this
metropolis. An account of the tremendous
calamities of the Jews, during the destruction H2 H3v 90
of their city and temple, will be related in the
following chapter.

In the meantime, while, with the most
painful sensations, we read an account of calamities,
which no other description of men
ever experienced in any age or country, let us
recollect, that the Jews had called down the
divine wrath, by crucifying the Lord of glory,
and blasphemously exclaiming, “His blood
be upon us and our children.”
This dreadful
imprecation was fulfilled; and the vengeance
of heaven, of which they had been
mercifully forewarned by the prophets, and
by Christ himself, was discharged upon them
by that very nation, whom they had instigated
to condemn the Messiah.

Chap. II.

Strength of Jerusalem. The Jews are assembled from all parts
to keep the passover. The city is invested by Titus . They
make great preparations for an attack. They gain the first and
second wall. A famine raged in Jerusalem. Inhuman practices
of the Zealots. Jerusalem is surrounded by a wall. Terrible
situation of the city. The temple is plundered, and daily sacrifice
ceaseth. The temple set on fire. Horrid massacre of the
Jews. All Jerusalem conquered by the Romans. The temple
and city demolished. The remaining castles in Judea are taken.

Jerusalem was built on two mountains, and
surrounded by three walls on every side, except
where it was enclosed with deep vallies,
which were deemed inaccessible. Each wall H4r 91
was fortified by high towers. The celebrated
temple and strong castle of Antonia, were
on the east side of the city, and directly opposite
to the mount of Olives. But notwithstanding
the prodigious strength of this famed
metropolis, the infatuated Jews brought on
their own destruction by their intestine contests.
At a time, when a formidable army
was rapidly advancing, and the Jews were assembling
from all parts, to keep the passover, “The day on which Titus encompassed Jerusalem was,” says
a late author, “the feast of the passover, and it is deserving of
particular attention, that this was the anniversary of that memorable
period, in which the Jews crucified their Messiah.”
See a
pamphlet entitled, the destruction of Jerusalem an absolute and
irresistible proof of the divine authority of christianity.
London,
published 18051805.

the contending factions were continually inventing
new methods of mutual destruction,
and in their ungoverned fury they wasted and
destroyed such vast quentities of provisions as
might have preserved the city many years. Josephus.

0070A.D.
70
.
Such was the miserable situation of Jerusalem,
when Titus began his march towards it
with a formidable army; and, having laid
waste the country in his progress, and slaughtered
the inhabitants, arrived before its walls.
The sight of the Romans produced a temporary
reconciliation, among the contending factions,
and they unanimously resolved to oppose H4v 92
the common enemy. Their first sally
was accordingly made with such fury and resolution,
that, though Titus displayed uncommon
valour on this occasion, the besiegers
were obliged to abandon their camps, and flee
to the mountains. No sooner had the Jews a
short interval of quiet Bishop Newcome remarks, that at this period the Christians
had an opportunity of escaping from Jerusalem, according to our
Lord’s solemn exhortation, for some time before this flight was
precluded; as it bore the appearance of a revolt to the Romans.
Newcome’s Observations, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 242.
from their foreign enemies,
than their civil disorders were renewed.
John, by an impious stratagem, found means
to cut off or force Eleazar’s men to submit to
him; and the factions were again reduced to
two, who opposed each other with implacable
animosity. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI. p. 127.

The Romans, in the mean time, exerted all
their energy in making preparations for a powerful
attack upon Jerusalem. Trees were cut
down, houses levelled, rocks cleft asunder,
and vallies filled up; towers were raised, and
battering rams erected, with other engines of
destruction, against the devoted city. After
the offers of peace, which Titus had repeatedly
sent by Josephus, were rejected with indignation,
the Romans began to play their engines
with all their might. The strenuous attacks H5r 93
of the enemy again united the contending parties
within the walls, who had also engines,
which they plied with uncommon fury. They
had taken them lately from Cestius, but were
so ignorant of their use they did little execution,
while the Roman legions made terrible
havock. The rebels were soon compelled to
retire from the ponderous stones, which they
threw incessantly from the towers they had
erected, and the battering rams were at full
liberty to play against the walls. A breach
was soon made in it, at which the Romans entered,
and encamped in the city, while the Jews
retreated behind the second enclosure. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI.INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 38.

The victors immediately advanced to the
second wall, and plied their engines and battering
rams so furiously, that one of the towers
they had erected began to shake, and the Jews,
who occupied it, perceiving their impending
ruin, set it on fire, and precipitated themselves
into the flames. The fall of this structure
gave the Romans an entrance into the second
enclosure. They were, however, repulsed by
the besieged; but at length regained the
place entirely, and prepared for attacking the
third and inner wall. Ibid INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 49–50. Mayor’s Universal History.

The vast number of people, which were enclosed
in Jerusalem, occasioned a famine, H5v 94
which raged in a terrible manner; and, as their
calamities increased, the fury of the Zealots, if
possible, rose to a greater height. They forced
open the houses of their fellow citizens in
search of provisions; if they found any, they
inflicted the most exquisite tortures upon
them, under pretence, that they had food concealed.
The nearest relations in the extremity
of hunger, snatched the food from each
other.

Josephus, who was an eye witness of the
unparalleled sufferings, the Jews experienced
during the siege of their metropolis, remarks,
that “all the calamities, that ever befel any nation
since the beginning of the world, were inferiour
to the miseries of his countrymen at
this awful period.” Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI. p. 63.
Thus we see the exact
fulfillment of the emphatick words of our Saviour
respecting the great tribulation in Jerusalem.
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Matthew xxiv. 21.

Titus, who was apprized of their wretched
condition, relaxed the siege four days; and,
being still desirous of saving the city, caused
provisions to be distributed to his army in
sight of the Jews, who flocked upon the walls
to behold it. Josephus was next sent to his
countrymen to attempt to persuade them not
to plunge themselves in inevitable ruin by persisting H6r 95
in defence of a place, which could hold
out but little longer, and which the Romans
looked upon as already their own. He exhorted
them in the most pathetick terms, to save
themselves, their temple, and their country;
and painted in strong colours the fatal effects,
which would result from their obstinacy. But
the people, after many bitter invectives, began
to dart their arrows at him; yet he continued
to address them with greater vehemence, and
many were induced by his eloquence, to run
the utmost risk in order to escape to the
Romans; while others became more desperate,
and resolved to hold out to the last extremity.
Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI. p. 50.

The Jews, who were forcibly seized by the
Romans without the walls, and who made the
utmost resistance for fear of punishment, were
scourged and crucified near the city. Famine
made them so daring in these excursions, that
five hundred, and sometimes more, suffered
this dreadful death every day; and, on account
of the number, Josephus observes, that
“space was wanted for the crosses, and crosses
for the captives.”
And yet, contrary to Titus’s
intention, the seditious Jews were not disposed
to a surrender by these horrid spectacles.
In order to check desertion, they represented H6v 96
the sufferers as suppliants, and not as men
taken by resistance. Yet even some, who
deemed capital punishment inevitable, escaped
to the Romans, considering death, by the hands
of their enemies, a desirable refuge, when compared
with the complicated distress, which
they endured. And though Titus mutilated
many, and sent them to assure the people, that
voluntary deserters were well treated by him,
and earnestly to recommend a surrender of the
city, the Jews reviled Titus from the walls,
defied his menances, and continued to defend
the city by every method, which stratagem,
courage, and despair could suggest. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI. p. 51–65. Newcome’s Observations, &c.
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 245.

In order to accelerate the destined ruin of
Jerusalem, Titus, discouraged and exasperated
by the repeated destruction of his engines and
towers, undertook the arduous task of enclosing
the city with a strong wall, in order to prevent
the inhabitants from receiving any succour
from the adjacent country, or eluding
his vengeance by flight. Such was the persevering
spirit of the soldiers, that in three days
they enclosed the city by a wall nearly five
miles in circuit. Thus was the prophecy of
our Saviour accomplished: “The days shall
come upon thee, when thine enemies shall cast I1r 97
a trench about thee, and compass thee round,
and keep thee in on every side.” INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Luke xix. 43 .
Upon this,
the famine raged with augmented violence,
and destroyed whole families; while Jerusalem
exhibited a horrid spectacle of emaciated
invalids and putrescent bodies. The vast number of people shut up by the war, occasioned
pestilential diseases, and afterwards famine of course advanced
more rapidly. Dr. Lardner observes, that “it might have been
expected, that the bad food, which the Jews were forced to make
use of, the strictness of the siege, and the noisome smell of so many
dead bodies lying in heaps in the city itself, and in the vallies and
ditches without the walls, should have produced a plague. But
nothing of this kind appears in the history; which must have been
owing to the special interposition of divine providence. Josephus,
in some of the places, where he speaks of the putrefaction of the
dead bodies, may use expressions equivalent to pestilential; but he
never shews, that there was an infection; if there had been, it would
have equally affected the Romans and the Jews, and the siege of the
city must have been broken up, and the Romans would have gone
off as fast as they could.”
Watson’s Tracts, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 170.
The dead
were too numerous to be interred; and many
expired in the performance of this office. The
publick calamity was too great for lamentation,
and the silence of unutterable wo overspread
the city. The Zealots, at this awful period,
endeavoured to encourage the obstinacy of
the people, by hiring a set of wretches, pretenders
to prophecy, to go about the city, and
declare the near approach of a speedy and
miraculous deliverance. This impious stratagem
for a while afforded delusive hopes to the
miserable remains of the Jewish nation. But Vol. I. I I1v 98
at length an affair took place in Jerusalem,
which filled the inhabitants with consternation
and despair; and the Romans with horrour and
indignation. A Jewess, eminent for birth and
opulence, rendered frantick with her sufferings,
was reduced to the dreadful extremity of
killing and feeding upon her infant. Titus,
being apprized of this inhuman deed, swore
the total extirpation of the accursed city and
people; and called Heaven to witness, that he
was not the author of their calamity. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI. p. 73–82, 108.

The Romans, having pursued the attack with
the utmost rigour, advanced their last engines
against the walls; after having converted
into a desert, for wood to construct them,
a country well planted, and interspersed with
gardens, for more than eleven miles round
the city. They scaled the inner wall, and after
a sanguinary encounter, made themselves masters
of the fortress of Antonia. Still, however,
not only the Zealots, but many of the people,
were yet so blinded, that, though nothing was
now left but the temple; and the Romans
were making formidable preparation to batter
it down, they could not persuade themselves,
that God would suffer that holy place to be
taken by heathens; but still expected a miraculous
deliverance. And though the war was I2r 99
advancing towards the temple, they themselves
burnt the portico, which joined it to Antonia;
which occasioned Titus to remark, that they
began to destroy with their own hands, that
magnificient edifice, which he had preserved.
When Josephus was sent for the last time to
John, who commanded in the temple, to upbraid
him for obstinately exposing that sacred
building, and the miserable remains of God’s
people to inevitable destruction, he answered
with the bitterest invectives, adding, that “he
was defending the Lord’s vineyard, which he
was sure could not be taken by any human
force;”
yet this monster had not scrupled to
plunder the temple of a large quantity of its
golden utensils, and the magnificent gifts of
kings, which he converted to his own use. He
also seized the sacred oil, which was to maintain
the lamps; and even used to intoxicate himself
and his party with the wine, which was intended
for sacrifice. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI. p. 79. Mayor’s Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol.
II. p. 313
.

On the --07-1717th of July, the daily sacrifice ceased
for the first time since its restoration by the
brave Judas Maccabeus, there being no proper
person left to make the offering. Titus upbraided
the Zealots for neglecting their worship;
and challenged them to leave the temple, I2v 100
and fight on more proper ground, in order to
preserve that sacred edifice from the fury of
his troops. But, as they persisted in their inflexible
obstinacy, Titus, after several bloody
engagements, took possession of the outward
court of the Gentiles, and forced the besieged
into that of the priests. The Roman commander
had determined in council not to burn
the temple, considering the existence of so
proud a structure an honour to himself. He,
therefore, attempted to batter down one of the
galleries of the precinct; but as the strength of
the wall eluded the force of all his engines, his
troops next endeavoured to scale it, but were
repulsed with considerable loss. When Titus
found, that his desire of saving the sacred building
was like to cost many lives, he set fire to
the gates of the outer temple, which, being
plaited with silver, burnt all night, and the
flame rapidly communicated to the adjacent
galleries and porticoes. Titus, who was still
desirous of preserving the temple, caused the
flames to be extinguished; and appeased the
clamours of his troops, who vehemently insisted
on the necessity of razing it to the ground.
The following day was, therefore, fixed upon
for a general assault upon that magnificent
structure. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI. p. 93–94.

I3r 101

The utmost exertions of Titus to save the
temple were, however, ineffectual. Our Saviour
had foretold its total destruction; and his
awful prediction was about to be accomplished.
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Matt. xxiv. 2. And now, says Josephus, “the fatal day
approached in the revolution of ages, the --08-1010th
of August
, emphatically called, the day of vengeance,
in which the first temple had been destroyed
by the king of Babylon.”
While Titus
was reposing himself in his pavilion, a
Roman soldier, without receiving any command,
urged as it were by a divine impulse,
seized some of the blazing materials, and, with
the assistance of another soldier, who raised
him from the ground, threw them through a
window into one of the apartments, that surrounded
the sanctuary. The whole north side,
up to the third story, was immediately enveloped
in flames. The Jews, who now began
to suppose Heaven had forsaken them, rushed in
with violent lamentations, and spared no effort,
not even life itself, to preserve the sacred edifice
on which they had rested their security.

Titus, being awakened by the outcry, hastened
to the spot, and commanded his soldiers
to exert themselves to the utmost to extinguish
the fire. He called, prayed, and threatened his
men. But so great was the clamour and tumult,I2 I3v 102
that his entreaties and menaces, were alike
disregarded. The exasperated Romans, who
resorted thither from the camp, were engaged
either in increasing the conflagration, or killing
the Jews; the dead were heaped about the
altar, and a stream of blood flowed at its steps. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI.INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 117.

Still, as the flames had not reached the inner
part of the temple, Titus, with some of his
chief officers, entered the sanctuary and most
holy place, which excited his astonishment
and admiration. After having in vain repeated
his attempts to prevent its destruction, he
saved the golden candlestick, the table of shew
bread, the altar of perfumes, which were all of
pure gold; and the volume of the law, wrapped
up in a rich golden tissue. Upon his leaving
the sacred place, some other soldiers set fire to
it, after tearing off the golden plaiting from
the gates and timber work. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 115.

A horrid massacre soon followed, in which
prodigious multitudes perished; while others
rushed in a kind of phrenzy into the midst of
the flames, and precipitated themselves from
the battlements of their falling temple. Six
thousand persons, who, deluded by a false prophet,
with hopes of a miraculous deliverance,
had fled to a gallery yet standing without the
temple, perished at once by the relentless barbarity I4r 103
of the soldiers, who set it on fire, and
suffered none to escape. The conquerors
carried their fury to such an height, as to massacre
all they met, without distinction of age,
sex, or quality. They also burnt all the treasure
houses, containing vast quantities of money,
plate, and the richest furniture. In a word,
they continued to mark their progress with
fire and sword, till they had destroyed all, except
two of the temple gates, and that part of
the court, which was destined for the women. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI. p. 116–117.

In the meantime, many of the Zealots by
making the most vigorous exertions, effected
their escape from the temple, and retired into
the city. But the avenues were so strictly
guarded, that it was impossible for them to escape.
They therefore fortified themselves, as
well as they were able, on the south side of it;
from whence John and Simon sent to desire a
conference with Titus. They were answered,
that, though they had caused all this ruin and
effusion of blood, yet their lives should be
spared, if they would surrender themselves.
They replied, that “they had engaged by the
most solemn oaths, not to deliver up their persons
to him on any condition; and requested
permission to retire to the mountains with their
wives and children.”
The Roman general, enraged I4v 104
at this insolence, ordered proclamation
to be made, that not one of them should be
spared, since they persisted in rejecting his
last offers of pardon. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI. p. 127.

The daughter of Zion, or the lower city,
was next abandoned to the fury of the Roman
soldiers, who plundered, burnt, and massacred
with insatiable rage. The Zealots next betook
themselves to the royal palace in the upper
and stronger part of Jerusalem, styled also
the city of David, on Mount Zion. As many
of the Jews had deposited their possessions in
the palace for security, they attacked it, killed
eight thousand four hundred of their countrymen,
and plundered their property. Ibid.

The Roman army spent nearly twenty days
in making great preparations for attacking the
upper city, especially the royal palace; during
which time, many came and made their submission
to Titus. The warlike engines then
played so furiously upon the Zealots, that they
were seized with a sudden panic, quitted the
towers, which were deemed impregnable, and
ran like mad men towards Shiloah, intending
to have attacked the wall of circumvallation,
and escaped out of the city. But being vigorously
repulsed, they endeavoured to conceal I5r 105
themselves in subterraneous passages; and, as
many as were discovered, were put to death.

The conquest of Jerusalem being now completed,
the Romans placed their ensigns upon
the walls with triumphant joy. They next
walked the streets, with swords in their hands,
and killed all they met. Amidst the darkness
of that awful night, fire was set to the remaining
divisions of the city, and Jerusalem, wrapt
in flames, and bleeding on every side, sunk in
utter ruin and destruction. During the siege,
which lasted nearly five months, upwards of
eleven hundred thousand Jews perished. John
and Simon, the two grand rebels, with seven
hundred of the most beautiful and vigorous of
the Jewish youth, were reserved, to attend the
victor’s triumphal chariot. After which, Simon
was put to death; and John, who had
stooped to beg his life, condemned to perpetual
imprisonment. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI. p. 139.

The number, who were taken captive during
the fatal contest with the Romans, amounted
to ninety seven thousand; many of whom
were sent into Syria, and other provinces, to
be exposed on the publick theatres, to fight
like gladiators, or to be devoured by wild
beasts. The number of those destroyed, during
the war, which lasted seven years, is computed I5v 106
to have been one million four hundred
and sixty two thousand. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI.INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 139.

When the sword had returned to its scabbard
for want of objects whereon to exercise
its fury, and the troops were satisfied with plunder,
Titus commanded the whole city and
temple to be demolished. Upon viewing the
strength of the works, he exclaimed, “We
have fought with the assistance of God; it
was God who drove the Jews out of these fortifications;
for what can the hands of men, or
the force of machines effect against these towers.”
In order to give posterity an idea of
the strength of the city, and the astonishing
valour of its conquerors, he preserved the
highest towers, Phasælus, Hippicus, and Mariamne,
and a part of the wall, which surrounded
Jerusalem to the west. All the other circuit
of the city was so levelled, as not to leave those,
who approached it, any proof that it ever had
been inhabited. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 142–143. It is recorded in the Talmud,
and by Mamonides, that Terentius Rufus
ploughed up the foundations of the temple;
thus were our Saviour’s prophecies fulfilled:
“Thine enemies shall lay thee even
with the ground; and there shall not be left
one stone upon another.” INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Luke xix. 44. Newcome’s Observations, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 258.

I6r 107

On the reduction of Jerusalem, Titus returned
in triumph to Rome, where the senate
decreed him a triumph with Vespasian, his
father; and all things, that were esteemed the
most valuable and beautiful were exhibited to
grace this great occasion. Among the rich
spoils, those, which were saved from the temple
of Jerusalem, were the most remarkable;
and the volume of the law was the most venerable
of all the trophies of the conqueror.

Three strong castles still remained untaken
in the almost desolated land of Judea. Lucillius
Bassus
was sent by Vespasian, as lieutenant
general; and soon reduced Herodium and
Machærus. But the castle of Masada, being
very strong both by nature and art; and defended
by Eleazar, a man of undaunted courage,
baffled the attacks of the Romans. At
length, however, they caused it to be surrounded
by an high wall, set fire to the gates,
and prepared to storm it the following day.
When the Jews found no way of saving themselves,
or their fortress, from the hands of the
enemy, Eleazar instigated the garrison to
burn the valuable stores of the castle, destroy
first their women and children, and then themselves.
Ten men, who were chosen by lot,
executed this horrid purpose. The last survivor
among these executioners, set fire to the I6v 108
0073A.D.
73
.
place, and destroyed himself. When the Romans
on the morrow were preparing to scale
the walls, two women, who had escaped by
concealing themselves, while the rest were intent
on slaughter, related to them the whole
transaction. Josephus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI. p. 188–189.

After this terrible event, the opposition on
the part of the Jews ceased. It was, however,
the submission of impiety and despair. Everywhere
ruin and desolation presented itself to
the solitary passenger, and a melancholy and
deathlike silence pervaded the whole region.

“The ruin of the Jews,” says a late historian,
“is, in itself, a very interesting event; but infinitely
more so, when considered as connected
with religion. A bloody war, in which party rage
conspires with foreign arms to destroy the nation;
an ancient and famous people, who
from their country, as from a centre, had
spread themselves into every part of the
known world, smitten with the most dreadful
calamities ever recorded in history; a great
and lofty city devoured by flames, and eleven
hundred thousand inhabitants buried under its
ruins; a temple, the wonder of the world, and
the object of the veneration of those, who followed
a different worship, so entirely demolished,
that not one stone was left upon another, K1r 109
are surely such events, as, if they were merely
human, could not but highly interest every
one. How much more regard ought we to
pay to them, when we reflect, that they were
foretold by Jesus Christ forty years, before they
happened, at a time, when nothing seemed to
portend such an event; It ought to be remembered, that the prediction of our Saviour
was given at a time, when Judea was at peace, under the
sway of a nation, which never, till the destruction of Jerusalem,
treated their enemies with utter excision, and unsparing desolation.Watson’s
Tracts.
that the dispersion
of the Jewish people, and the ruin of their
temple, form a part of the gospel system, by
means of which, a knowledge of the true God
was no longer to be confined to one nation
only, or his worship attached to one particular
place. In short, that these disasters, the
greatest, that can be conceived, are the vengeance,
which God took for the greatest crime,
which ever was perpetrated upon the face of
the earth, the cruel and ignominious death of
his son.” Crevior’s Roman History.

It has pleased providence, that this important
part of history should be transmitted to
us by Josephus, one of the Jewish nation, who
was an eyewitness, and had himself a great
share in the principal events. He has, unintentionally,
given us a striking demonstration Vol. I. K K1v 110
of the truth of the christian religion, by exhibiting,
in the most lively manner, how the prophecies
of our blessed Lord, concerning the
destruction of Jerusalem, were literally fulfilled
in their fullest extent.

Chap. III.

Wretched state of the Jews after the destruction of Jerusalem.
Titus commands their lands to be sold, and confiscates the tribute
which was paid annually to the temple. His successor, Domitian,
treats them with still greater severity .. Sedition at Alexandria.
The temple built by Onias is shut up. The Jews seek
an asylum in various countries. Institution of the patriarchs in
the west. State of literature among the Jews. Of the cabbalistick
philosophy. Account of the celebrated cabbalistick book.
Of the rabbi. Akibha.

The condition of the Jews was extremely
miserable after the destruction of their capital.
The multitude of the dead, the prisoners, who
were sold, and the fugitives, who had fled into
various parts of the world, had left the country
almost depopulated. Yet there were still a sufficient number of Jews remaining tto
establish themselves in a short time; since sixty years after the
ruin of the temple, they again raised forces, and excited a formidable
rebellion. See Chap. IV.
The once flourishing
plains of Palestine were covered with
dead bodies; and of the celebrated cities, which
existed formerly on their coasts, such as Capernaum,
Bethsaida, and Chorazin, nothing
was left but shapeless ruins. Some women
and old men were permitted to remain in Jerusalem; K2r 111
but all, who were able to bear arms,
were removed. A strong attachment to their
native residence probably induced a number to
return, and dwell among the ruins of their devoted
city. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 508.

After the war was terminated, the emperour
ordered all the lands in Judea to be sold,
strictly prohibited building any cities therein,
and commanded the Jews, on condition of preserving
their religion, to pay to Jupiter Capitolinus
the capitation tax, which devotion
had destined annually for the service of the
temple. Although the sum assessed on the
head of each individual was inconsiderable,
the use for which it was assigned, and the severity,
with which it was exacted, was considered
as an intolerable grievance. Though, after the conquest of Pompey, Judea was made tributary
to the Romans, they were permitted to collect the taxes by
their own receivers, and were exempted from tribute during the
sabbatical year. The annual tributetribute to the temple, they supposed
to be an offering to God, as his subjects. But after the destruction
of Jerusalem, the emperour usurped the place of God,
and appropriated the tribute to himself. This was the more afflicting
and disgraceful, because it obliged them to purchase the
liberty of exercising their religion.Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 509.

Domitian, brother to Titus, who succeeded
in the Roman empire, increased the calamities
of this wretched people. He extorted the
payment of the taxes with the utmost rigour;
endeavoured to extirpate all the lineage of David; K2v 112
and involved them in the persecution,
which the Christians endured during his tyrannical
reign; and many of the Jews were
condemned to suffer death. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 509.

0072A.D.
72
.
Notwithstanding their late calamities, some
of the seditious Jews, who had retired to Alexandria
in Egypt, began to excite fresh insurrections.
But their countrymen, who resided
in the city, apprehending the consequences, that
might ensue, prudently interfered, and delivered
them up to the Romans, who put six hundred
of them to death. They maintained their
inflexible obstinacy to the last; and even their
children would suffer the most exquisite tortures,
rather than acknowledge Cæsar for their
lord. The emperour, being apprized of their
rebellious disposition, ordered the temple,
which Onias had built in Egypt, to be shut up,
lest it should afford them a pretence for assembling
themselves, and thus give them an opportunity
of exciting some new sedition. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 492.

Multitudes of Jews, who had survived the
sad catastrophe of the destruction of their city
and temple, sought an asylum in various parts
of the world. Many retired to Egypt, where
a Jewish colony had resided from the time of
Alexander; others fled to Cyrene; a large number
removed to Babylon, and joined their K3r 113
brethren, who had remained in that country
ever since the captivity; some took refuge in
Persia, and other eastern countries. By degrees,
they formed themselves into a regular
system of government, or rather subordination,
connected with the various bodies of their
brethren dispersed throughout the world.
They were divided into the eastern and western
Jews; the western included Egypt, Some refugees passed from Egypt to Ethiopia. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 494. Judea,
Italy, and other parts of the Roman empire.
The eastern were settled in Babylon,
Chaldea, Assyria, and Persia. In process of
time both these parties chose a distinguished
personage to preside over each of their respective
divisions. The heads of the eastern Jews
were styled princes of the captivity; and those
of the western Jews were known by the title
of patriarch. Mr. Basnage and other learned
men have supposed, that the patriarchal According to the Jewish writers, this office originated at a
much earlier era. The first patriarch was Hillel, surnamed the
Babylonian. He came to Jerusalem about thirty years, before the
birth of Christ, and lived to an advanced age. The Jews regarded
him as a second Moses, who was little inferiour to their lawgiver;
and asserted, that the patriarchal dignity continued in his family
till the 0401 < x < 0500fifth century.Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 141.
dignity
was first instituted in the reign of Nerva,
who succeeded Domitian. This emperour
favoured the Jews; recalled those, who had
been banished on account of their religion; relievedK2 K3v 114
them from the heavy taxes, which had
been imposed upon them by his predecessor;
and forbade their being molested in future, on
account of their religion. They are supposed
to be of the Levitical race, since the least attempt
in the tribe of Judah to recover any of
their former power, would have excited the
jealousy of the Romans. The house of David was now almost extinct; and the few, who
remained, reduced to poverty, and obliged to labour for their daily
subsistence. If there was any shadow of authority among this
people, after the destruction of their city and temple, it fell into
the hands of the priests of the race of Levi and Aaron . Their
understanding and science raised them above the vulgar; and as
the people became more numerous, their authority increased.
But the priests and
levites were permitted to assume the power of
teaching the people, to set up schools, to appoint
preceptors over them, and at length install
one above the rest, with the title of patriarch;
because neither their tribe, which was
excluded the regal dignity, nor their office,
which was confined to religious concerns,
could give umbrage to the Romans. The
celebrated city of Tiberias, situated on the
banks of a lake, which bears its name, and was
rebuilt by Herod, tetrarch of Galilee, was chosen
for the patriarchal seat. The dignity of
their chiefs was hereditary. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 146.

The authority, which the patriarchs acquired
over the people committed to their charge, K4r 115
owed its rise and gradual increase to their
great reputation for learning and piety. They
decided cases of conscience, and religious controversies;
presided over synagogues; were
empowered to appoint subordinate ministers
and apostles to execute their orders; and to
receive an annual contribution from their dispersed
brethren, in order to support their dignity.
They obtained, by degrees, a great authority
over the western Jews, who were
pleased to depend upon them in order to maintain
some shadow of union. The power, which
these chiefs obtained, has, however, been much
exaggerated by the Jews, to enable them to
repel a powerful argument urged by the Christians,
viz. that the sceptre, or regal authority,
was departed from them. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 146.

The learned Dr. Lightfoot has imagined,
that the Jewish sanhedrim was not immediately
destroyed, but only removed to Jafna,
and thence to Tiberias, where it subsisted till
the death of Judah, the saint. Other learned
men, particularly Mr. Basnage, suppose this
tribunal did not exist after the destruction of
Jerusalem, for the following reasons. After the sanhedrim was abolished, the Jews substituted in
its room some particular tribunals for the decision of religious disputes.
These tribunals, which were afterwards called houses of
judgment, were a very imperfect image of the sanhedrim. Picart’s
Religious Ceremonies, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 195.
If K4v 116
Titus had made any such concession, Josephus
would have mentioned it for the honour
of his nation. Domitian, who hated and oppressed
the Jews, would never have allowed
them such a signal privilege; besides, it has
been the prevailing idea of the Jews, as well
as of the Christians, that this tribunal had
not power to sit in any other place but in Jerusalem.
Our Saviour, it appears, alluded to
this, when he said, (INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Luke xviii. 33) that “it could
not be, that a prophet should perish or be condemned
to death out of Jerusalem”
, since the
sanhedrim alone had the power of passing that
sentence on him. Basnage. Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 136.

The Jews, though a considerable part of
their religion was involved in the destruction
of their country, still adhered with inflexible
obstinacy to those customs and religious
rites, which remained in their power to
practice. After their national polity was dissolved,
they appear to have been confirmed in
their attachment to the oral traditions and unauthorized
decisions of the rabbies. As they
agreed in thinking, that their religious rites
and observances were the only objects worthy
their attention, it followed, that their literary
controversies, instead of embracing, like those
of the philosophical sects of the Pagans, the
wide field of general literature, were directed K5r 117
and confined to their religious and ritual institutions,
and were exhausted in questions or
discussions immediately referrible to these
subjects. Butler’s Horæ Biblicæ, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 40.

After the devastation and ruin of their country,
a small number of learned men only were
left among them to transmit their ancient doctrines
and institutions to posterity. Of these,
part escaped into Egypt, and part withdrew
into Babylon; in both which countries the refugees
were humanely received. Those, who
remained in Palestine, collected the scattered
fragments of Jewish learning from the general
wreck into the academy of Jafna (frequently
called by the Greek writers, Jamnia)
where they also revived their forms of worship.
The rabbi Jochanan, The Jewish writers assert, that the academy which Jochanan
erected at Jafna, consisted of three hundred schools, or classes of
pupils. They extol the extraordinary merit of this rabbi in the
most extravagant terms. According to them, “if the whole
heavens were paper, all the trees in the world pens, and all the
men writers, they would not be able to record all his merits.”

Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 141.
was the founder
of this school, and the design, which he begun
was completed, as far as the state of the times
would permit by the rabbi Gamaliel, who is,
from this circumstance, called Gamaliel Jafniensis.
The success, which attended this
school, induced many of the dispersed Jews K5v 118
to return to Palestine; and another academy
was formed at Tiberias, which soon became
the chief seat of Jewish learning in its native
country. This school obtained immunities
and privileges from the emperour Antoninus
Pius
; and it produced that curious record of
Jewish wisdom, the Jerusalem Talmud. Other
schools, after the examples of Jafna and Tiberias,
were erected at Bitterah near Jerusalem,
at Lydda or Diospolis, at Cesarea, and (which
became more celebrated than the rest) at Zippora,
or Sephora, in Galilee. Enfield’s Philosophy, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 198.

From this time, there was not wanting a
succession of Jewish doctors to transmit their
religion and philosophy to posterity. These
doctors flourished, not only in Palestine, but
in the Babylonish schools, which, in process of
time, were established at Sora, Pundebita,
and other places on the Euphrates. According to Basnage, these schools were not founded till the
beginning of the 0201 < x < 0300third century.

Two methods of instruction were in use
among the Jews; the one publick, the other
secret. The publick doctrine was that, which
was openly taught the people from the law
of Moses, and the traditions of the fathers.
It comprehended the popular articles of faith,
and rules of manners. Enfield.

K6r 119

The secret doctrine of the Jews was that,
which treated of the mysteries of the divine
nature and other sublime subjects, and was
called cabbala, from a Hebrew word, which
signifies to receive, because it was received
by tradition. After the manner of the Pythagorean
and Egyptian mysteries, it was taught
only to certain persons, who were bound, under
the most solemn anathema, not to divulge it.

The cabbala is divided into three sorts. By
the first, the Jews extract from the words of
scripture recondite meanings, which are sometimes
ingenious, but always fanciful. The
second is a kind of magick in employing the
words and letters of the scriptures in certain
combinations, which they suppose have power
to make the good and evil spirits of the invisible
world familiar with them. The third,
which is properly the cabbala, is an art, by
which they profess to raise mysterious expositions
of scripture upon the letters of the sentences,
to which they apply them. Butler’s Horæ Biblicæ. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 202.

The Jews assert, that the mysteries of the
cabbala contain the profoundest truths of religion,
which, to be fully comprehended by
finite beings, are revealed through the medium
of allegory and similitude, in the same manner
as angels can only render themselves visible K6v 120
upon earth by assuming a subtle body of refined
matter. Maurice’s Indian Antiquities, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. IV. p. 588. According to their account,
while Adam was in paradise, the angel Rasael
brought him a book from heaven, which contained
the doctrines of heavenly wisdom.
And when Adam received this book, angels
came down to him to learn its contents; but
he refused to admit them to the knowledge of
sacred things, entrusted to him alone. They
assert, that, after the fall, this book was taken
back into heaven; after many prayers and
tears, God restored it to Adam, and it passed
from Adam to Seth. The Jewish fables proceed
to relate, that the book being lost, and
the mysteries it contained almost forgotten in
the degenerate age before the flood, they were
restored by special revelation to Abraham,
who committed them to writing in the book
Jezirah; that the revelation was renewed to
Moses, According to the Jewish accounts, all the patriarchs of the
ancient world had their separate angels to instruct them in these
mysterious arenas; and Moses himself was initiated in them by the
illustrious spirit Metatron.Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 185.
who received a traditional and mystical,
as well as a written and preceptive law,
from God; that, being again lost amidst the
calamities of the Babylonish captivity, it was
once more revealed to Esdras; that it was
preserved in Egypt, and has been transmitted L1r 121
to posterity, through the hands of Simeon-
ben-Setach
, Elkanah, Akibha, Simeon-ben-
Jochai
, and others.

Dr. Enfield, The chief heads of the cabbalistic doctrine, are thus delineated
by the above mentioned author. “From nothing, nothing can be produced; since the distance
between existence and non-entity is infinite. Matter is too imperfect
in its nature, and approaches too near to non-entity to be self
existent. The Being from whom all things proceed is a spirit, uncreated,
eternal, intelligent, percipient, having within itself the
principles of life and motion, existing by the necessity of its nature,
and filling the immensity of space. This spirit is Enseph, the infinite
Deity. This Eternal Fountain of existence sends forth from
himself natures of various orders, which, nevertheless, are still united
to their source. The world is a permanent emanation from
the Deity, in which his attributes and properties are unfolded, and
variously modified. The nearer any emanation is to the First Fountain,
the more perfect and divine is its nature; and the reverse.
Before the creation of the world, all space was filled with the
Or Haen Soph, or infinite intellectual light. But, when the volition
for the production of nature was formed in the divine mind, the
eternal light, hitherto equally diffused through the infinite expanse,
withdrew itself to an equal distance in every direction, from
a certain point, and thus left about this centre, a spherical portion
of empty space, as a field for the operation of emanation, by which
all things were to be produced. In the space from which the divine
light was thus withdrawn, there were still, however, some
portions or traces left of the divine essence, which were to become
the receptacle of rays, sent forth from the Eternal Fountain, or the
basis of future worlds. From a certain part of the concavity of infinite
light, which surrounded the opaque sphere, the energy of emanation
was first exerted, and rays were sent forth in right lines, into
the dark abyss. The beam of light, thus produced, formed a channel,
through which streams were to flow for the production o f
worlds. This beam was united to the concave of light, and was directed
towards the centre of the opaque sphere. From this luminous
channel, streams of light flowed, at different distances from
the centre, in a circular path, and formed distinct circles of light,
separated from the concave of light, or from each other, by portions
of dark or empty space. Of these circles of light, ten were
produced, which may be called Sephiræ, or Splendours.
The rectilineal beam of light, which is the first emanation from
the eternal fountain, and is itself the source of all other emanations,
may be distinguished by the name of Adam Kadman, the first
man, the first production of divine energy, or, the Son of God.
The Sephiræ are fountains of emanation, subordinate to Adam
Kadman
, which send forth rays of divine light or communicate essence
and life to inferiour beings. The ten Sephiræ are known, according
to the order of emanation, by the names, Intelligence, or
the Crown, Knowledge, Wisdom, Strength, Beauty, Greatness,
Glory, Stability, Victory, Dominion.
These are not the instruments of the divine operations, but
media, through which the Deity diffuses himself through the sphere
of the universe, and produces whatever exists. They are not beings
detached from the Deity, but substantial virtues or powers,
distinctly, but dependently, sent forth from the eternal source of
existence through the mediation of Adam Kadman, the first emanating
power, and becoming the immediate source of existence to
subordinate emanations. They are dependent upon the First Fountain,
as rays upon a luminary, which is conceived to have sent
them forth with a power of drawing them back, at pleasure, into
itself.
The first infinite source of being, is the Enzophic world, or
world of infinity, within which, after the manner above described,
four worlds are produced by the law of emanation, according to
which the superiour is the immediate source of the inferiour; these
are Aziluth, or the world of emanation, including the Sephiræ;
Brish, or the world of creation, containing certain spiritual natures,
which derive their essence from the Sephiræ; Jezirah, or
the world of forms, composed of substantial natures, derived from
the superiour spiritual substances, and placed within ethereal vehicles,
which they inform; and Asiah, or the material and visible
world, comprehending all those substances which are capable of
motion, composition, division, and dissolution.
These derived worlds are different evolutions, or expansions
of the divine essence, or distinct classes of beings, in which the infinite
light of the divine nature is exhibited with continually decreasing
splendour, as they recede from the First Fountain. The
last and most distant production of the divine energy of emanation
is matter; which is produced when the divine light, by its recession
from the Fountain, becomes so attenuated as to be lost in
darkness, leaving nothing but an opaque substance, which is only
one degree above non-entity. Matter has no separate and independent
existence, but is merely a modification and permanent effect
of the emanative energy of the divine nature.
The Sephiræ, or first order of emanative being, existing in Aziluth
are superiour to spirits, and are called Parzuphim, Persons,
to denote that they have a substantial existence. The inhabitants
of the second world are called Thrones, on account of the dominion,
which they possess over the various orders of Angels, which
inhabit the third world. The fourth, or material world, is the region
of evil spirits, called Klippoth, the dregs of emanation. These
are the authors of the evil, which is found in the material world,
but they are continually aspiring towards the Sephiræ, and will, in
the great revolution of nature, return into the inexhaustible fountain
of deity. Spirits of all orders have a material vehicle, less
pure and subtile in proportion to their distance from Ensoph; and
this vehicle is of the nature of the world next below that to which they
belong. Metatron is the prince of Jezirah, or the angelick world,
in which they are ten distinct orders; Sandalphon of Aziah, or
the material world; these together with the hosts over which they
preside, animate aerial vehicles, capable of impression from corporeal
objects, and in different ways requiring renovation.
The human soul, proceeding by emanation from the Deity, is an
incorporeal substance of the same nature with the divine intellect.
Being united to the body, one complex nature is produced, endued
with reason, and capable of action. The human soul consists of
four parts, Nephesh, or the principle of vitality; Ruach, or the
principle of motion; Neschamah, or the power of intelligence; and
Jechidah, a divine principle, by means of which it contemplates
superiour natures, and even ascends to the Ensophic world. All
souls were produced at once, and pre-existed in Adam. Every human
soul has two guardian angels, produced by emanation at the
time of the production of souls.
The mind of man is united to the divine mind, as the radius of
a circle to its centre. The souls of good men ascend above the
mansion of the angels, and are delighted with the vision of the first
light, which illuminates all the worlds.
The universe continues to exist by the divine energy of emanation.
Whilst this energy is exerted, different forms and orders
of beings remain; when it is withheld, all the streams of existence
return into their fountain. The Ensoph, or Deity, contains all
things within himself; and there is always the same quantity of existence,
either in a created or uncreated state. When it is in an
uncreated state, God is all; when worlds are created, the Deity is
unfolded, or evolved, by various degrees of emanation, which constitute
the several forms and orders of created nature.”
Enfield’s
Philosophy, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol, II. p. 217, 218, 219, 220, 221.
from whom the above account
is chiefly selected, supposes, that the mystical Vol. I. L L1v 122
or cabbalistic philosophy of the Jews, arose in
the time of the first Ptolemies, and originated
in Egypt, where they learnt, by the help of allegory,
to mix oriental, Pythagorean, and Platonic L2r 123
dogmas with Hebrew wisdom. The
cabbala having, according to this author, obtained
early credit among the Jews, as part of
their sacred tradition, was transmitted under L2v 124
this notion by the Jews in Egypt to their
brethren in Palestine.

Simeon-ben-Jochai, a celebrated rabbi, was
the first, who committed these mysteries to
paper; and, as the Jews affirm, by divine assistance,
he composed the Zohar, or brightness.
David Levi calls the Zohar a cabbalistical commentary on the
Pentateuch.
He is said to have lived some years
before the destruction of Jerusalem. Titus
condemned him to death; but he and his son
escaped the persecution, by secreting themselves
in a cave, where he had leisure to compose
the abovementioned book. He perfected
the work with the assistance of the prophet
Elias, whom God sent from heaven, from L3r 125
time to time, to explain to Simeon such mysteries
as were above his comprehension. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 185.

The Sephir Jetzirah, or book of the creation,
is the next in cabbalistic fame to the Zohar;
and is quoted by the Jews, as of divine
authority. Some ascribe this work to the patriarch
Abraham; others suppose it was written
by the rabbi Akibha, who lived in the
0101 < x < 0200second century.

He was president of the academies of Lydda
and Jafna; and a disciple and successor of the
rabbi Gamaliel. Until he was forty years of
age, he was a shepherd in the service of a rich
citizen of Jerusalem; but his master’s daughter
having promised to marry him, if he became
a learned man, he assiduously applied
himself to study. So successful was his application,
that he became one of the most famous
teachers in the schools of Jewish learning.
He was considered by his nation, as the
oracle of the times; and one of the greatest
preservers of the traditional law. De Rossi’s Hebrew Biography. The Jews
in Palestine did not scruple to say, that God
revealed to him, what he concealed from Moses;
and, if their accounts are to be credited,
he had twenty four thousand disciples. This
rabbi is mentioned with veneration through
the whole Talmud; not only on account of L2 L3v 126
his great attainments in the cabbalistical learning,
but for his extraordinary abilities and wisdom
in solving important questions in the
law. David Levi’s Ceremonies of the Jews. Towards the close of his life, he followed
the standard of the impostor Barchocheba,
who appeared under the character of
the Messiah, to deliver his countrymen from
the power of the emperour Adrian. An account
of this revolt, and the new and dreadful
calamities, which the Jews suffered in consequence
of the insurrection, will be related in
the following chapter.

Chap. IV.

The Jews rebel in the reign of the emperour Trajan. They are
subdued and banished from the isle of Cyprus. The emperour
Adrian begins to rebuild Jerusalem, and plants a Roman colony
in the new city. Rebellion of the Jews. Barchocheba declares
himself the Messiah, and is made leader of the insurgents. He
chooses the famous rabbi Akibha for his precursor. The rebels
raise a formidable army. Adrian sends forces against them, and
besieges them in Bither. This city surrenders to the Romans.
The false Messiah is slain. Horrid carnage of the Jews. Multitudes
of them are sold, and transported to Egypt. Adrian
completes the building of Jerusalem, and prohibits the Jews
from entering the city.

Notwithstanding the complicated afflictions,
which the Jews suffered in Palestine during
the destruction of their city and temple,
the measure of their calamities was not completed.
They had scarcely begun to breathe L4r 127
after the ruin of their country, when their impatience
under a foreign yoke broke out in an
open revolt during the reign of the emperour
Trajan, who had interdicted them from reading
their law, and treated them with great
severity. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 511.

0115A.D.
115
.
The rebellion was commenced by the Jews
in Cyrene, where they had been settled for
many years, and become powerful. At first,
they gained considerable advantages over the
enemy, who fled to Alexandria, and massacred
all the Jews in the city. Those of Cyrene,
exasperated at this dreadful reprisal, having
chosen one Andrew for their commander,
murdered two hundred and twenty thousand
of the Lybians, and depopulated the country.
The emperour Trajan sent Martius Turbo
with a powerful army against them, and the
rebels were reduced, after several desperate
battles, which were attended with great
slaughter. Ibid.

0116116. The following year, the Jews in Mesopotamia,
alarmed at the fate of their brethren in
Egypt, appeared in arms, and with such force,
that the inhabitants of the whole country were
filled with consternation. This induced Trajan
to send Lucius Quietus, the greatest general
in the empire, against them, who slew L4v 128
great numbers of the insurgents, and subjected
the rest to the Roman power. To prevent
their again assembling and rebelling, the emperour
appointed him governour in Palestine,
to watch their motions and keep them in
awe. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 511.

Soon after, the Jews, who were numerous in
the island of Cyprus, made a more dreadful
insurrection, and massacred two hundred and
forty thousand of the inhabitants. Trajan
sent Adrian, a famous general, against them,
with a powerful army. After an obstinate
conflict, the rebels were reduced, and the emperour
published an edict, banishing them from
the island, and forbidding them to return, under
the severest penalties. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 512.

0130A.D.
130
.
Notwithstanding the miseries, which the
Jews suffered by their revolt, their rebellious
spirit was still unsubdued. Adrian, the
successor of Trajan, had prohibited them from
circumcising their children; and sent a colony
to rebuild Jerusalem, near the place where
the ancient city stood. He designed to adorn
it after the Roman style, and call it Elia Capitolina,
from the name of his family. This exasperated
the minds of the Jews, and stimulated
them to commence an open rebellion. Ibid.

L5r 129

0132A.D.
132
.
Coziba, one of the banditti, who infested
Judea, and committed all kinds of violence
against the Romans, was the leader of the insurgents.
To facilitate the success of his
bold enterprize, he assumed the name of Barchocheba,
which signifies the son of a star;
and pretended he was the person prophesied
of by Balaam in the words, “There shall come
a star out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise out
of Israel.”
This barbarian, so well calculated
by his courage and enterprising spirit to be
the Messiah, according to the perverted conceptions
of the Jews, was acknowledged in
that character by his infatuated countrymen. Several impostors had appeared before him; some under the
title of the Messiah; others under that of his precursors; most of
whom were the disciples of Judas the Gaulonite. But Barchocheba
was the first, who obtained great celebrity.

He engaged to deliver his nation from the
power of the emperour Adrian, and restore its
ancient liberty and glory. The famous rabbi
Akibha, being chosen by him for his precursor,
espoused his cause, afforded him the protection
of his name, and not only publickly
anointed him as the Messiah, and king of the
Jews, but placed a diadem on his head, caused
money to be coined in his name, and followed
him to the field, at the head of twenty
thousand of his disciples, and acted in the capacity
of master of his horse. By calling on L5v 130
all the descendants of Abraham to assist the
hope of Israel, an army of two hundred thousand
men was soon raised, who repaired to Bither,
a city near Jerusalem, chosen by the famous
impostor for the capital of his new kingdom.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 515.

Adrian at first neglected to take measures
against the revolt, supposing the Jews had been
too effectually humbled by his predecessor to
be able so soon to raise a formidable insurrection.
But being apprized, that numbers had
flocked to the standard of Barchocheba, he
sent Tinnius Rufus, governour of the province,
with a powerful military force against
them. The rebels, however, gained great advantages
over the imperial army, and destroyed
vast numbers of Romans and converted Jews.
Their rapid success and sanguinary devastations,
filled Rome with astonishment and consternation.
At length, Julius Severus, one of
the greatest generals of his age, was despatched
to crush this dangerous revolt. This able
commander, not thinking it prudent to oppose
at once so formidable an army, attacked and
defeated the insurgents in parties; and, at
length, cut off the supplies of the enemy, and
besieged them in Bither. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 518.

L6r 131

The rebels defended themselves with obstinate
resolution; and, even put Tryphon, a
famous rabbi, to death, because he proposed
their surrendering to the Romans. However,
they were not able long to withstand the repeated
and vigorous attacks, which were made
upon the city. In one of these assaults, the
pretended Messiah was killed, and Bither obliged
to surrender. The Jewish history,
bloody as it is in almost every page, records
no fact, excepting the destruction of Jerusalem,
more horrid, than the undistinguished
and promiscuous slaughter which ensued.
Akibha With him, say the Jews, perished the glory of their law. After
his death, his tomb, which they suppose to have been at Tiberias,
was visited with great solemnity.Enfield’s Philosophy, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol.
II. p. 201
.
and his son were put to a most cruel
death. Five hundred and eighty thousand
fell by the sword in battle, besides a vast number,
who perished by famine, sickness, fire,
and other calamities. The Jewish historians
affirm, that a greater number were destroyed
in this war, than the whole amount of their
nation, when they emigrated from Egypt; and,
that their sufferings, under Nebuchadnezzar
and Titus, were not so great as those they endured
under Adrian. Of these unhappy people,
who survived the second ruin of their nation,
vast numbers were exposed for sale at L6v 132
the fair of Terebinth, The fair of Terebinth was annually kept on the plain of
Mamre, sacred for having been the place where Abraham pitched
his tent, and where he received the heavenly guests. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Gen. xvii. 17.
at the price of horses,
and dispersed over the face of the earth. Those
who could not find purchasers at this place,
were removed to another fair, which was kept
at Gaza; others were transported to Egypt. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 519.

0136A.D.
136
.
After the war was terminated Adrian completed
his design of rebuilding Jerusalem. In
order to prevent new revolts among the Jews,
he caused the ancient monuments of their religion
to be destroyed, and studiously profaned
all the places which they revered. He
erected a theatre with the stones, which had
been used for the temple, and dedicated a
temple to Jupiter Capitolinus, where that of
Jehovah formerly stood. He placed a hog of
marble upon the gates of the city, on the side
of Bethlehem; and, as he hated the Christians
as well as the Jews, he erected a statue
of Venus in the place where Christ was crucified;
and in that where he arose from the
dead, one of Jupiter. In the grotto of Bethlehem,
where our Saviour was born, he established
the worship of Adonis. Ibid.

The emperour, by a severe edict, prohibited
the Jews, upon pain of death, from entering M1r 133
Jerusalem, Though Adrian interdicted the Jews from entering Jerusalem,
they were not banished from Judea; the patriarchs still resided
in that country, and the famous school of Tiberias still existed.
The condition of those, who remained in Palestine, was, however,
extremely wretched. According to Juvenal, some of the Jews in
Rome and Egypt, after the revolt, were obliged to turn fortune-
tellers for their subsistence.Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 519.
and fixed a vigilant garrison
of the Roman cohorts to enforce the execution
of his orders. He even forbade them to
view their once beloved city at a distance.
“Before this period,” says a late author, “they
were seen covered with rags, traversing, midst
sighs and lamentations, the Mount of Olives,
and the remains of their temple. They were
reduced to the necessity of being economists
in their misery to purchase this favour from
the avarice of the soldiery. At this price they
obtained, as a singular indulgence, permission
to go thither and weep on the anniversary of
the sacking of their city; and the Jews were
obliged to pay for the right of shedding tears
in those places where they purchased and shed
the blood of Jesus Christ!” Gregoire, in his Essay on the Reformation of the Jews, quotes
as an authority for this fact, St. Jerome in Sophonian, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Chap. X.

In the calamities of the Jews, we contemplate
the fulfillment of the prophecies, which
foretold them long before they took place.
Moses had predicted, that they should be carried
into Egypt, and sold at a very low price. Vol. I. M M1v 134
“And the Lord,” said he, “shall bring thee
into Egypt again with ships, and ye shall be
sold unto your enemies, and no man shall buy
you.”
When Jerusalem was taken by Titus,
the captives with their wives and children,
were sold at the lowest price; and we learn
from St. Jerome, “that after their last overthrow
by Adrian, many thousands of them
were sold; and those, who could not find purchasers,
were transported into Egypt, and perished
by shipwreck or famine, or were massacred
by the inhabitants.” See Newton on the Prophecies, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 70.

Chap. V.

State of the Jews in the East. Of the princes of the captivity .
Judah the saint compiles the Misna. History of that work .
Jews rebel under Marcus Antonius. Marcus Aurelius renew s
Adrian’s edict against them. They were treated with kindness
by Septimius Severus. Of their state under Heliogabalus. They
are favoured by Alexander Severus, and the subsequent Roman
emperours.

While the western Jews were exposed to the
terrible calamities, which have been related in
the preceding chapter, a milder destiny attended
their brethren in the east. Trajan, indeed,
had carried his arms against them as far as
Mesopotamia; but Adrian, after his accession
to the throne, consented, that the Euphrates
should be the boundary of the Roman empire. M2r 135
Those, therefore, who resided beyond
that river, were not concerned in that prince’s
war against their nation. Many, however,
who panted after liberty in the most remote
provinces of the empire, passed into Judea to
assist their brethren. Yet they answered no
other purpose, but to augment the number of
the slain, The number of the slain, according to Basnage, amounted to
above six hundred thousand, which number could not have been
found in Judea, after the sufferings of that country under Trajan.
and increase the triumph of the
conquerors. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 162.

0122A.D.
122
.
The history of the eastern is more obscure,
than that of the western Jews, the former
having but an imperfect knowledge of the
events which took place among their brethren
in those remote countries. Previous to the
destruction of the temple, those of that nation,
who resided in the eastern countries, sent presents
to Jerusalem; repaired thither from time
to time, to pay their devotions; and acknowledged
the supreme authority of the high
priests. But after the ruin of their country,
having no longer the band of unity, which was
formed by the temple and high priests, they
imitated their brethren in Palestine, and elevated
chiefs to preside over their synagogues,
whom they styled princes of the captivity. Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 156.

M2v 136

The origin of these chiefs is not known; it
is only evident, that they did not exist till the
0101 < x < 0200second century. They were installed with
great pomp and solemnity. Babylon or Bagdat
was chosen for the place of their residence,
where they presided over ten courts of justice.
There were twenty eight synagogues, among
which was that of the prince, supported with
pillars of marble of various colours. His office
was to confer ordination on all the heads
of the synagogues in the east, from whom he
received contributions to enable him to support
his dignity, and pay the tribute which
was exacted by the kings of Persia. It is believed
that Huna, who was cotemporary with
Judah the saint, was the first prince of the
captivity at Babylon. These princes exercised
the same authority in the eastern, that the
patriarchs of Tiberias maintained in the western
countries. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 162. Lewis’s Hebrew Antiquities.

The Jews, however, pretend, that these
chiefs were superiour in power and dignity to
the patriarchs of Judea, and affirm, that all, who
remained of the race of David, abandoned that
province, and retired to Babylon, where they
conclude the sceptre mentioned by Jacob is to
be found. But men of learning among the
Christians have proved, that they have greatly M3r 137
exaggerated the grandeur and authority of
these princes, who were subjected to the Persian
monarchs. And, if we consider the low
condition of the Jews, and the oppressions,
which they endured from the Parthians, Romans,
and other nations, it will appear evident,
that the princes of the captivity could possess
only a small share of authority. Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 180.

In order to raise the glory of their nation,
the Jews bestow the highest encomiums on
the learned men, who flourished among them
during the 0101 < x < 0200second century. In particular, they
extol the famous rabbi Judah, Judah was born on the same day that Akibha died, and the
Jews imagine this event was predicted by Solomon, when he says,
“The sun riseth, and the sun goeth down.” Akibha dying was the
sun that set, and Judah the saint the rising sun. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 156.
the third Jewish
patriarch, who obtained the appellation of
saint. He was born in the city of Sephora,
and having acquired great celebrity for his piety
and profound learning, presided over the
academy of Tiberias with uncontrolled authority,
and decided the most abstruse controversies.
His memory was so highly revered
among the Jews, that they compare him
with the Messiah; they relate many extraordinary
accounts of this rabbi; among the rest,
they assert, that he made the emperour, Marcus M2 M3v 138
Antoninus
, a proselyte to Judaism, and, that it
was by his order, that Judah compiled the
Misna. Enfield’s Philosophy, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 198.

This celebrated book is a code of the Jewish
canon and civil law. It was held in such
profound veneration by the Jews, that they
called it the second law, (which the name
Misna signifies in Hebrew) importing, that it
has the same authority with their Pentateuch
or first law. Judah was induced to undertake
this work from a just apprehension, that his nation,
in their various dispersions and migrations
through so many provinces, and during
the interruption of their publick schools, would
neglect to practise the rites of their religion;
and the traditions of their fathers would be obliterated
from their memory. Basnage. Maurice’s Indian Antiquities.

“The history of the Misna,” says Enfield, Enfield’s Philosophy, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 198.
“is briefly this: The sect of the Pharisees, after
the destruction of Jerusalem, prevailing over
the rest, the study of traditions became the
chief object of attention in all the Jewish
schools. The number of these traditions, had
in a long course of time, so greatly increased,
that the doctors, whose principal employment
it was to illustrate them by new explanations,
and to confirm their authority, found it necessary M4r 139
to assist their recollections by committing
them under distinct heads to writing. At the
same time, their disciples took minutes of the
explanations of their preceptors, many of which
were preserved, and grew up into voluminous
commentaries. The confusion, which arose
from these causes, was now become so troublesome,
that, notwithstanding what Hillel The name of Hillel is held in the highest esteem among the
Jews, for his exertions to perpetuateperpetuate the knowledge of the traditionary
law . He arranged its precepts under six general classes,
and thus laid the foundation for that digest of Jewish law, called
the Talmud.Enfield’s Philosophy.
had
before done in arranging the traditions, Judah
found it necessary to attempt a new digest of
the oral law, and of the commentaries of the
most famous doctors. This arduous undertaking
is said to have employed him forty
years. It was completed, according to the
unanimous testimony of the Jews, about the
close of the 0101 < x < 0200second century. This Misna, or
first Talmud, comprehends all the laws, institutions,
and modes of life, which, beside the
Hebrew scriptures, the Jews supposed themselves
bound to observe.” Enfield.

This work was soon respected by the Jews
as a sacred book. It consists of a variety of
traditions, and explanations of several passages
of scripture, and serves as a supplement to M4v 140
their written law. According to their account,
these traditions were delivered to Moses, during
his abode on Mount Sinai, and he afterwards
communicated them to Aaron, Eleazar,
and his servant Joshua. They transmitted
them to the elders, who delivered them to the
prophets; and they passed from Jeremiah to
Baruch, and from him to Ezra, who delivered
them to the grand synagogue, the last of whom
was Simon the Just. Thus these traditions
were handed down from generation to generation,
in regular succession, till they were transmitted
to Judah the saint, who committed
them to writing, and thus formed the voluminous
compilation styled Misna; See a particular account of all the receivers of oral tradition
in David Levi’s ceremonies of the Jews, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.from p. 276 to p. 286.
this work
was taught in all the schools, both in Palestine
and Babylon. Such is the account of David
Levi, David Levi’s Ceremonies of the Jews.
and the creed of every rabbi.

Dr. Prideaux, rejecting the Jewish fiction,
observes, that, “after the death of Simon the
just
, about two hundred ninety nine years before
Christ, the Mischnical doctors arose; who,
by their comments and conclusions, added to
the number of those traditions, which had been
received and allowed by Ezra, and the men of
the great synagogue; so, that towards the middle M5r 141
of the 0101 < x < 0200second century, under the empire of
Antoninus Pius, it was found necessary to commit
these traditions to writing, more especially,
as the country had greatly suffered under Adrian,
many of the schools had been dissolved,
and their learned men cut off; and, therefore,
the usual method of preserving these traditions
had failed.
Prideaux’s Connection.

The Misna of Judah did not, however, resolve
all the doubtful cases and questions,
which were agitated by the Jews; and it was
thought to need some larger explanation to
render it more intelligible. This induced Jochanan,
a celebrated doctor of the Jewish law,
with the assistance of two disciples of Judah,
to write a commentary on the Misna. This
work was called the Talmud of Jerusalem,
because it was composed in Judea, for
the use of the Jews, who remained in that
country.

In the 0101 < x < 0200second century, several new sects
were formed among the Jews, while those remained,
which had figured in the time of our
Saviour. The Gaulonites still retained their
seditious spirit against all foreign government.
But the Pharisees had, since the destruction of
Jerusalem, formed the bulk of the nation. The
Hemero-Baptists were a branch of this denomination, M5v 142
only distinguished by their more frequent
washings. The Masbotheans, were a
branch of the Sadducees, for they denied the
immortality of the soul, and attributed all events
to chance. The Hellenists were the Jews,
who spoke Greek, and read the Septuagint in
the synagogues. Though there was at first
some jealousy between them and their brethren,
who performed publick worship in the Hebrew
language, they were allowed to use the
Greek translation in their religious assemblies.
But, after they found, that the Christians, in disputing
against Judaism, derived advantage
from the Septuagint version, their prejudice
against it was heightened, and those who vindicated
it were regarded by the other party, as
sectarians and schismaticks. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 528.

The edict of Adrian, which prohibited the
Jews from circumcising their children, being
still in force, their impatience under this restriction
stimulated them, notwithstanding
their late calamities, again to have recourse to
arms. The emperour Antoninus, however,
soon suppressed the revolt; and afterwards
restored to them the privilege, for which they
contended, and treated them with great moderation
and kindness. He, however, forbade M6r 143
their attempting to make proselytes to their
religion.

In the commencement of the reign of Marcus
Aurelius
, the eastern Jews, who were subjects
of the king of Parthia, joined that monarch
in a war against the Romans. The emperour,
incensed at this conduct, after he had
reduced the rebels, renewed Adrian’s severe
edict against them. But those laws were not
executed in the remote provinces. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 523.

0197A.D.
197
.
The emperour Septimius Severus in the
commencement of his reign, declared war
against the Samaritans and Jews. They had
settlements in Galilee; but the prohibition,
which excluded them from entering the precincts
of Jerusalem, was still in force. This
unhappy people, though so often humbled and
subdued, attempted once more to repel their
enemies, and invaded Samaria and Judea. After
the emperour had reduced them to obedience,
he relaxed his severity against them. In
order to reward their fidelity to him, when Pescennius
Niger
was competitor for the throne,
he allowed them the privileges of Roman citizens,
and rendered them eligible to offices of
trust and honour. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.531.

The chiefs and doctors of the eastern Jews
obtained celebrity in the commencement of the M6v 144
0201 < x < 0300third century, and established academies in various
parts. After the Persian monarchy was
0200A.D.
200
.
restored, and the Parthian overthrown, the
rabbies were for some time treated with great
respect. At this prosperous period, Samuel
Jarchi
, who was famed for his literary acquirements,
particularly for his skill in astronomy,
came from Judea, was constituted chief of an
academy at Nahardea; and among other dignities
obtained that of prince of the captivity. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 531.

The tranquillity, which the Jews enjoyed in
the east proved, however, only a prelude to a
violent persecution, which Sapor, king of Persia,
commenced against them. According to
the Jewish historians, he was instigated by his
subjects, who, being jealous of the influence of
their nation, endeavoured to effect their destruction.

The scene was reversed, and their affairs assumed
a favourable aspect under Zenobia,
queen of Palmyra. During the reign of this
celebrated princess, they flourished in every
part of her dominions; erected superb synagogues,
and were exalted to the highest dignities.
But, after this heroine was subdued by
Aurelian, they retired from her dominions to
Persia. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.533.

N1r 145

0218A.D.
218
.
Heliogabalus, who at this time ascended the
throne, had been circumcised, and abstained
from swine’s flesh. He, however, erected a
superb temple in honour of the sun, the idol
he worshipped. He ordered the palladium,
the vestal fire, the mother of the gods, and
whatever the Romans held in the highest
veneration, to be conveyed to this temple.
Being well acquainted with the tenets of the
Samaritans and Jews, he intended to blend
their religious rites with the adoration of his
deity. The unexpected death of this emperour,
who was assassinated by his soldiers,
delivered the Jews, who never would have
consented to adopt his religion, from the fiery
trial which awaited them. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 533.

Alexander Severus, who succeeded Heliogabalus,
highly favoured the Jews, corresponded
with them, and was instructed in their religion.
This emperour had a domestic chapel,
where he placed the statues of Abraham, of
Orpheus, and of Christ. He was desirous of
erecting a temple to Christ, and receiving him
into the number of gods. His object was by
the aid of the Eclectic philosophy to blend the
Pagan, Jewish, and Christian religons. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 532. Gibbon’s Roman Empire, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 305.

Vol. I. N N1v 146

The subsequent Pagan Roman emperours
continued the tranquillity which the Jews enjoyed.
In particular Philip, who was born in
Arabia, where they carried on commercial pursuits,
treated them with the greatest indulgence.
And it does not appear, that they were
involved in any of the violent persecutions
which the Christians suffered during the
reigns of Decius, Valerian, and Dioclesian. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 535.

It seems from the preceding account, that
the Jews enjoyed intervals of tranquillity, and
were treated with kindness and indulgence by
several of the Pagan emperours of Rome. The
numerous remains of this people, though they
were still excluded from the precincts of Jerusalem,
were permitted to form and maintain
considerable establishments, both in Italy, and
in the provinces; to acquire the freedom of
Rome, to enjoy municipal honours, and to obtain
at the same time, an exemption from the
hard and burdensome offices of society. The
moderation of the Romans gave a legal sanction
to the forms of ecclesiastical police which
were instituted by the vanquished sect. New
synagogues were erected in the principal cities
in the empire, and the institutions and rites of
the Mosaic law were celebrated in the most
publick and solemn manner. Gibbon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 337.

N2r 147

Alexander Severus and his successors in
particular treated the Jews with great clemency.
But, as it will appear in the following parts of
this history, when the christian princes were at
the head of the Roman empire, they did not
shew so much indulgence to a nation, whom
they considered as the inveterate enemies of
Jesus Christ.

Chap. VI.

State of the Jews under Constantine and his successors. The
emperour Julian highly favoured this people, and proposed to
assist them in rebuilding the temple of Jerusalem. Of the vast
preparations which were made for this purpose, and the supposed
miracle which caused, as is said, his design to be abandoned.

In the 0301 < x < 0400fourth century, one of the most important
revolutions took place, that ever was
known in the annals of mankind. The splendid
edifice of Pagan superstition was subverted,
and christianity established under Constantine
the great
and his successors. During the
reign of this monarch the city of Jerusalem,
which Adrian called Elia, resumed its ancient
name. The emperour enlarged and beautified
it with many superb buildings and churches;
and his pious munificence extended to
every spot which had been consecrated by the
footsteps of the apostles and prophets, and of
the Son of God. Gibbon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. IV.

N2v 148

This important change in the religion of the
Roman empire did not prove advantageous to
the Jews. Constantine, in the commencement
of his reign, enacted some severe laws, which
abridged their privileges. Their increasing
numbers and prosperity having rendered them
insolent, they insulted and abused those who
deserted the synagogue and embraced christianity.
The emperour charged them with
stoning and burning those who renounced
their religion; and condemned them and all
their accomplices to suffer the same punishment.
He also forbade them to make proselytes
under the severest penalties; and gave
liberty to all the slaves, who accused their
masters of having circumcised them, or who
professed the christian religion. He further
ordered, that they should be obliged to serve
at all publick offices, like the other subjects of
the empire, from which, however, he exempted
the patriarchs, priests, and others, who officiated
at the synagogues, schools, &c. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 354.

The council of Elvira in Spain, which is
commonly placed in the reign of Constantine,
prohibited the Christians, who had been in
habits of social intercourse with the Jews, from
eating with them in future. Though the penalty
fell only on the Christians, who were made N3r 149
liable to excommunication, it subjected the unhappy
Israelites to insults and contempt. By
another decree this council prohibited the possessors
of land to permit them to bless the
fruits of the earth, The Jews in this country appear to have been tenants to the
Christians. They had publick prayers in their synagogues for divine
blessings on their grounds.Jortin’s Remarks on Ecclesiastical
History
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 294.
because their benedictions
would render those of the Christians useless.
The council threatened to expel from the
church those, who refused to obey these orders.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 544.

During the reign of Constantine, the Jews
were numerous in Persia, and having experienced
great kindness and liberality from many
of the sovereigns in that kingdom, had acquired
great influence at court. Emboldened by
their prosperity, and stimulated by a desire of
revenging the insults and indignities they suffered
in the Roman empire, they in conjunction
with the Magi raised a bloody persecution
against the eastern Christians. Many were
slaughtered at their instigation, their churches
demolished, their sacred books burnt, and, as
the persecution was long as well as bloody, evetrace
of christianity was nearly obliterated. Ibid.

0341A.D.
341
.
The cruelty of the Jews did not long remain
unpunished. Constantius, who succeededN2 N3v 150
his father, and hated this people on account
of their religion, treated them with the utmost
rigour. During his reign they raised an insurrection
in Diocæsarea in Palestine in order
to cooperate with the Persians, who at
the same time invaded the Roman empire, and
laid siege to Nisibis. The emperour sent an
army, who took Judea in their way to Persia,
defeated the rebels, and destroyed the city. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 544.

Soon after, Constantius, incensed against the
Jewish nation, not only revived the laws which
had been enacted against them in the former
reigns, but added new ones still more
severe. Every Jew that married a Christian,
circumcised a slave, or retained any who were
Christians, was punished with death. The
Jewish patriarch, who was still permitted to
exercise a precarious jurisdiction, held his residence
at Palestine; and the neighbouring
cities were filled with a people who fondly adhered
to the promised land. But the edict of
Adrian, which exiled them from Jerusalem,
was renewed and enforced; and they viewed
from afar the walls of the holy city, which was
profaned in their eyes by the triumph of the
cross, and the devotion of the Christians. Basnage. Gibbon’s Roman History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. IV. p. 99.

The death of Constantius delivered the
Jews from the evils they endured. Their affairs N4r 151
assumed a more favourable aspect, when
Julian, styled the apostate, was elevated to
the imperial dignity. As it was his determined
purpose to subvert the Christian, and restore
the Pagan worship, his aversion to the
Christians induced him to treat the Jews with
distinguished kindness and liberality. He allowed
them the free exercise of their religion;
and exempted them from the heavy taxes
which were imposed upon them by his predecessors.
Emboldened by such powerful
protection, they assembled in several cities in
Syria and Judea; demolished the churches,
and committed other outrages. Their example
was followed by their brethren in Egypt,
who destroyed the finest churches in Alexandria.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 546.

Julian established the Pagan religion by
law; disqualified the Christians from bearing
offices in the state; fined and banished their
clergy; forbade them to teach the sciences in
the publick schools; imposed a tax on all
who refused to sacrifice to idols; and in short
used every method that human ingenuity could
invent, to destroy the christian religion. But
finding his attempts baffled by the inflexible
firmness of the Christians, he formed the famous
design of rebuilding the temple of Jerusalem. N4v 152
Its final destruction had been foretold
by Christ and the prophets; and it was as
he imagined, reserved for him to falsify their
predictions; and he meant to have converted
the success of his undertaking into a specious
argument against the faith of prophecy and
truth of revelation. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 546.

In pursuance of his general design of opposing
revelation to itself by setting one sect
against another, the emperour addressed a
publick epistle to the nation or community of
the Jews, dispersed throughout the provinces.
In this letter he honours the patriarch with the
title of brother. He compassionates their misfortunes,
praises their constancy, declares himself
their gracious protector, and concludes
with a promise, that, if he should return victorious
from the Persian war, he would rebuild
Jerusalem, and pay his grateful vows to
the deity in that holy place. Warburton’s Julian.

The prospect of an immediate and important
advantage would not suffer the impatient
monarch to await the remote and uncertain
event of a Persian war. He resolved to erect
a stately temple on the commanding summit
of Moriah; to establish an order of priests,
whose interested zeal would detect the arts,
and resist the ambition of their christian rivals; N5r 153
and to invite a numerous colony of Jews,
whose stern fanaticism would be always prepared
to second, and even anticipate the hostile
measures of the Pagan government. Gibbon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. IV. p. 105. Warburton’s Julian.

For this purpose, the emperour assigned
immense sums out of the publick revenue;
and committed the superintendency of the
plan to Alypus, his intimate friend, whose
aversion to christianity was congenial to his
own. This minister, having obtained the
strenuous support of the governour of Palestine,
provided immense quantities of materials,
and large numbers of workmen. To use the
words of a celebrated author, “At the call
of their great deliverer, the Jews from all the
provinces of the empire assembled on the
holy mountain of their fathers; and their insolent
triumph alarmed and exasperated the
christian inhabitants of Jerusalem. The desire
of rebuilding the temple has in every age
been the ruling passion of the children of
Israel. In this propitious moment, the men
forgot their avarice, and the women their delicacy;
spades and pick-axes of silver were
provided by the vanity of the rich, and the
rubbish transported in mantles of silk and
purple. Every purse was opened in liberal
contributions, every hand claimed a share in N5v 154
the pious labour, and the commands of a great
monarch were executed by the enthusiasm of
a whole people.” Gibbon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. IV. p. 106.

0563A.D.
563
.
On this occasion, however, the power of
Julian, who had all the resources of the empire
at his command, and the enthusiasm of
the Jews were unsuccessful; it is attested
by several respectable writers, that while the
workmen were digging up the foundations of
the temple, terrible earthquakes and balls of
fire broke forth, which obliged them to desist,
and caused a total suppression of the work. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 546.

The most unexceptionable testimony to this
extraordinary fact is that of Ammianus Marcellinus,
a celebrated Pagan historian, who was
a friend and admirer of Julian. This writer,
in his history of his own times, has thus recorded
the obstacles which interposed to interrupt
the restoration of the temple of Jerusalem:
“Whilst Alypus, assisted by the governour
of the province, urged with vigour and
diligence the execution of the work, horrible
balls of fire, breaking out near the foundations
with frequent and reiterated attacks, rendered
the place from time to time inaccessible to
the scorched and blasted workmen; and the
victorious element continuing in this manner
obstinately and resolutely bent, as it were to N6r 155
drive them to a distance, the undertaking was
relinquished.” Ammianus Marcellinus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Lib. 23. Chap. I. p. 380.

This wonderful event is also attested with
some variations All, however, agree in the principal points. by Ambrose, Chrysostom,
and Gregory Nazianzen, cotemporary christian
writers, the last of whom published his
account of the miracle before the expiration
of the same year, and has boldly declared,
that this preternatural event was not disputed
by the infidels. The subsequent writers, who
relate this extraordinary fact, are the historians
Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret. See Warburton’s Julian, and Jortin’s Remarks.

In latter times the truth of this miracle has
been maintained by some writers of high reputation
in the republick of letters; particularly
the learned bishop Warburton, who has
published an ingenious treatise in order to
prove the miraculous interposition of providence
in defeating the attempt to rebuild the
temple of Jerusalem.

In defence of the truth of this miraculous
interposition, it has been alleged, that it differs
from the pretended miracles of those days,
that it was not wrought to serve a party. No
sect could claim any honour or credit from N6v 156
it; but it was performed by providence for
the credit of christianity, and to serve the
common cause against Judaism and Paganism.
Jortin’s Remarks, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 327.

Others, particularly Mr. Basnage and Dr.
Lardner
, have expressed their doubts respecting
the truth of this miracle. The reader is referred to Basnage’s History of the Jews, and
to Vol. VIII. of Lardner’s Jewish and Heathen Testimonies
,
for the reasons on which they ground their disbelief of this miracle.
The latter of
these writers judiciously observes, “Julian’s
intention (or desire at least) to rebuild the
city of Jerusalem and the Jewish temple, was
never accomplished, but was frustrated and
defeated. Whether it was owing to miraculous
interposition, or to his expensive preparations
for the Persian war, and other circumstances
of his affairs, and to his defeat and
death in that war, the overruling providence of
God ought to be acknowledged in the event;
and the argument for the truth of the christian
religion, taken from the fulfillment of our
Saviour’s prediction in the destruction of Jerusalem,
and the overthrow of the Jewish
people by Vespasian and Titus, and their
continued dispersion, remains in all its force.” Lardner’s Jewish and Heathen Testimonies, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VIII. p. 393.

O1r 157

Chap. VII.

State of the Jews under Valentinian and Valens. During the reign
of Theodosius they insult the Christians at the feast of Purim.
Edicts of Theodosius II. A false Messiah appears in Candia.
Tumult in Alexandria. Violent behaviour of Cyril, bishop of
that city. Jews in the west favoured by Honorious . Reputed
conversion of those in Minorea. Suppression of the Jewish patriarchs.
State of the Jews after the eruption of the barbarous
nations into the Roman empire.

0387A.D.
387
.
The reign of Jovian, who succeeded Julian,
was too short to affect any material alteration in
the condition of the Jews. Valentinian, who,
under the reign of an apostate, had signalized
his zeal for the honour of christianity, granted a
general toleration to his subjects. The Pagans,
the Jews, and all the various sects which
acknowledged the divine authority of Christ,
were protected by the laws from arbitrary power
and popular insult. He prohibited the Jewish
synagogues from being profaned, plundered,
and demolished. Under his reign and that
of Valens, the Jewish patriarchs were restored
to the enjoyment of all their privileges. However,
Valens deprived this people of one great
advantage, by revoking the decree which had
exempted them from publick offices. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 547.

The Jews enjoyed a peaceable interval
during the reigns of Gratian, Theodosius, and
Arcadius. Theodosius I. granted them particularO O1v 158
jurisdiction; and besides their civil and
publick judge, they had the power of electing
officers and magistrates of their own persuasion.
They possessed also authority to execute
the decrees, which were passed respecting
the religion and discipline of their brethren.
The tranquillity which they enjoyed under Theodosius
was, however, disturbed by some bigotted
Christians, who caused one of their synagogues
to be burnt; but upon complaint being
made to the emperour, he ordered it to be
rebuilt. St. Ambrose, it is said, justified the
outrage, and was highly offended with the emperour
for protecting an unbelieving nation. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 547. Jortin’s Remarks on Ecclesiastical History.

During the reign of Theodosius II. the liberal
treatment which the Jews had long experienced
emboldened them to offer an insult to
the established religion. Being assembled to
celebrate the feast of Purim, instead of hanging
a figure of Haman on a high gibbet, as
had been their common custom, they presumed
to fix it on a cross, and with their usual execrations
burnt the cross and the figure. The
emperour being apprized of their insolent behaviour,
prohibited their erecting and burning
such gibbets, under the penalty of being deprived
of all their privileges. The Jews generally
obeyed; but those of Macedon and O2r 159
Dacia continued their insults of this kind;
which the christian magistrates retaliated by
burning their houses and synagogues, and putting
their leaders to death. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 550.

0408A.D.
408
.
In order to suppress these disorders, the emperour
issued an edict, forbidding the Christians
to burn the synagogues, and the Jews to
offer insults to the established religion. About
three years after, those of Inmestar, a city in
Chalcis, being inflamed with wine at the feast
of Purim, The Jews celebrate the feast of Purim by drinking much wine,
because they say by means of a wine banquet Esther made the
king so good humoured, that he was induced to grant her request.
Prideaux’s Connection.
fastened a young Christian to a gibbet,
who died in consequence of their cruel
treatment. The Christians, exasperated at this
conduct, took arms, and the Jews being numerous
in that country, a bloody engagement
ensued, in which many of both parties were
killed. At length the governour of the province
was ordered by the emperour to punish
the instigators of these disorders, and an end
was put to the tumult. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 151.

The Christians, however, still continued to
plunder and burn their synagogues, and appropriate
their goods to the use of the church,
particularly at Antioch, where the Jews were O2v 160
numerous and affluent. Upon complaint being
made to Theodosius, he ordered the people
to restore what they had taken, and erect
new synagogues. But he was induced to repeal
this equitable act at the instigation of the
famed saint in the air, Simon Stylites, Simon was a Syrian, who derived his appellation from his
living on the top of a pillar, where he is said to have continued
thirty seven years. This fanatick had thus acquired a most shining
reputation, and attracted the veneration of all about him. It has
been said, that the emperour wrote a polite letter to him in which
he styles him the “holy martyr in the air”. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 551.
who
was in high esteem with the clergy, and exerted
all the influence he had acquired by the
fame of his sanctity, to prevent restitution being
made. After Theodosius had revoked his
orders, the Christians of Antioch and the
neighbouring provinces were emboldened to
commit new acts of violence against the Jews.
The emperour was obliged in 0425425 to publish
an explanation of his former edicts, in order to
suppress the cruelty and injustice, which the
revocation of his late decree caused the bigotted
people to inflict upon this unhappy nation.

0432A.D.
432
.
The Jews were numerous in the island of
Candia, and had acquired wealth. About
this time an impostor appeared, who pretended
to be a second Moses, sent to deliver his people.
He promised to divide the sea, and afford
them a safe passage through it to their own O3r 161
land. During one year he passed through
every town and village in the island, and persuaded
his countrymen to meet him on the
day, and at the place appointed. They collected
as much of their effects as they were
able to carry, and having assembled with their
wives and children, he led them to the top of a
rock, and commanded them to cast themselves
into the sea. The men, with unshaken faith,
instantly obeyed, and the women and children
followed with equal ardour. Many were
drowned; others were saved by christian fishermen.
They became sensible of their infatuation,
and endeavoured to seize the impostor;
but he had the address to elude the search,
which led them to suspect that he was the devil.
Ashamed of their blind credulity, many
were induced to embrace the profession of
christianity. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 551.

0415A.D.
415
.
The city of Alexandria was computed to
contain about one hundred thousand Jews,
who had early distinguished themselves by
their dexterity in trade, and like the other
Egyptians were mutinous and seditious. At
this time they appear to have been greatly relaxed
in the strictness of their religious habits;
and a number of them, instead of attending the O2 O3v 162
synagogues on the sabbath, chose to be present
at the publick diversions, which were exhibited
on that day. On these occasions frequent
dissensions took place between them and
the Christians, which seldom terminated without
bloodshed. Cyril, the bishop of the city,
was ardent in the prosecution of heresy, and
entertained, in particular, an extreme aversion
against the Jews, whom he threatened with ecclesiastical
execution. But confiding in the
protection of Orestes, the governour of Alexandria,
who was their friend and patron, they
despised the menaces of the bishop.

An altercation having taken place with the
Christians, the Jews resolved to attack them in
the middle of the night. For this purpose they
despatched several persons through the streets
of the city, who exclaimed, that the principal
church was in flames. Alarmed at this outcry,
the Christians came hastily out unarmed;
and the Jews, who distinguished them by some
peculiar marks, immediately attacked them,
and many were slain in this tumult. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 551. Exasperated
at this outrage, Cyril, without waiting
for a legal sentence, led a seditious multitude
to the attack of the synagogues, which they levelled
with the ground. They then entered the O4r 16S3
houses, and, without making any distinction
between the guilty and the innocent, plundered
them of all their goods, which were appropriated
to the use of the church. They next
compelled the remnant of the unbelieving nation
to abandon the city almost naked, and
Alexandria was impoverished by the loss of an
industrious and wealthy colony. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 532.

Orestes was enraged at this infringement upon
his authority. The people also declared against
the proceedings of the bishop, and endeavoured
to persuade him to submit to the governour.
But he resolutely refused, and, taking the gospel
in his hand, endeavoured to intimidate him
to a reconciliation. Upon finding Orestes inflexible,
he commanded a regiment of monks, Cyril kept a standing army of dragoons, namely, the Egyptian
monks and Alexandrian ecclesiasticks, who were always ready to
fight his battles.Jortin’s Remarks on Ecclesiastical History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol.
III. p. 106
.

amounting to fifteen hundred, to descend from
the mountains, and attack him in his chariot.
Accordingly, having first reviled, they assaulted
and dangerously wounded him. His life,
however, was preserved by the people, who
repaired to his assistance, rescued him out of
the hands of the monks, and compelled them
to provide for their safety by flight. After the
tumult was appeased, Orestes caused Ammonius, O4v 164
the principal offender, to be put to death,
and sent an account of the whole transaction to
his court. Cyril, also wrote to the emperour
to justify his conduct; and in his next sermon
declared Ammonius a martyr in the cause of
christianity. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 556. Jortin’s Remarks on Ecclesiastical History,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. III. p. 106.

The indiscreet zeal of Cyril produced a new
commotion in which many persons lost their
lives; and an atrocious murder gave additional
horrours to this sedition. Hypatia, daughter
of Theon, a celebrated astronomer, publickly
taught philosophy in the Platonic school at
Alexandria, where her father had presided.
This lady, who was eminently distinguished
for her virtue, talents, and learning, had obtained
great celebrity, and attracted a crowded
audience. Orestes was in the habit of consulting
her in all difficult cases, and paid great
deference to her judgment. She was, however,
a Pagan, and being suspected of hindering
a reconciliation between the governour and
Cyril, was assaulted by the fanatical populace,
and barbarously assassinated before one of the
christian churches. It is even said, that Cyril,
who detested her religion, who was jealous of
her reputation, and suspected her of taking an O5r 165
active part against him, instigated his followers
to put her to death. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 553. Dupin and some other ecclesiastical writers endeavour to vindicate
Cyril, and clear him from being concerned in the murder.
But a learned writer observes, “if there be not sufficient evidence
to condemn him as author of the murder, neither is there
room to acquit him. If he was innocent he should at least have
excommunicated those who were concerned in this vile assassination;
but it does not appear that this was done; and neither Socrates
nor Valerius have said one word in his vindication.”
Jortin’s
Remarks, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. III. p. 155.

0412A.D.
412
.
While the bishop of Alexandria exhibited
this intolerant spirit, a Roman monarch displayed
the liberality of a more enlightened
period. The Jews in the west, under the protection
of Honorius, enjoyed the full exercise
of their religion. This emperour enacted a
law, which exhibited his generous and extensive
views, importing that the real glory of
a prince consisted in allowing all his subjects
of different religious sentiments, the full and
peaceable enjoyment of all their rights and
privileges. Agreeably to this decree, he expressly
prohibited the destruction of synagogues,
and the appropriation of them to any
other purposes. He also gave orders, that they
should not be compelled to violate the sabbath
on account of their publick services, alleging
that the rest of the week was sufficient for secular
purposes. He disapproved of the unjust O5v 166
calumnies which were raised against this people;
and commanded the governours of provinces
to do them justice by resisting all the
encroachments which had been, and should in
future be made upon their privileges. He also
allowed them to retain Christians in their service,
provided they left them at entire liberty
to fulfil the duties of their religion. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 557. On the
other hand, to prevent the Jews from abusing
their liberty, the emperour prohibited their
building new synagogues, and making proselytes;
and deprived them of some offices The Jews were admitted into the Roman troops for four
centuries; they continued on the same footing till the emperour
Honorius thought proper to declare them incapable of military service.Gregoire’s
Essay on the Reformation of the Jews.

which they formerly enjoyed in the empire.

0428A.D.
428
.
The celebrated but disputed conversion of
the Jews in Minorca, is said to have taken
place in the 0401 < x < 0500fifth century. There were two
considerable towns in this island; and the Hebrews
were interdicted from that, in which the
christian bishop resided. It is even related,
that those who presumed to enter it were generally
punished with sudden and miraculous
death. The other was chiefly inhabited by
the Jews who, under Honorius, enjoyed very
considerable and lucrative offices. Theodosius,
president of the synagogue, and doctor O6r 167
of the law, was the principal person in the
island. Severus, the bishop, was persuaded
by Orosius, who had lately returned from Jerusalem,
loaded with miraculous relics, to attempt
their conversion. They began with
private, and proceeded to publick conference
in the synagogue. The Christians, being apprized
that the Jewish women intended to assault
them, provided for their defence. A tumult
ensued, in which the synagogue was destroyed.
It is said, however, that the bishop
exhibited such a number of miracles, that their
principal men were induced to relent, and in
the course of eight days the greatest part of
the Jews were converted to the christian faith,
and their synagogue to a church. But some,
who continued obstinate and intractable, concealed
themselves in caverns, till hunger compelled
them to quit their retreats; others, leaving
their property behind them, sought an asylum
in foreign countries. These facts clearly
demonstrate that compulsory means had been
used to effect a conversion. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 558. Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII.

0429A.D.
429
.
The Jews sustained a severe affliction in the
0401 < x < 0500fifth century, by the office of the patriarch, which
had kept up a centre of unity among them, being
abolished by the imperial law. Those
chiefs were supported by taxes levied upon O6v 168
the Jewish people, which, at length, became
so exorbitant, that they applied to the civil
power for relief. Instead, however, of obtaining
redress, they had the mortification of seeing
the tribute converted to the emperour’s
use; and as there was no income to support
the dignity, it became extinct. After this period
the western Jews were solely under the
direction of the chiefs of the synagogues,
whom they called Primates. Theodosius and Valentinian deprived the patriarchs of their
office, and applied the taxes which were levied for their support to
the imperial treasury. Honorius also published, at the end of the
0301 < x < 0400fourth century a law upon the same subject.Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 556.

The 0401 < x < 0500fifth century was remarkable for the
eruption of the barbarous nations upon the
western empire. Yet the Jews only participated
in the calamities which usually attend
great revolutions. Under the Vandals they
were allowed the free exercise of their religion,
and on the payment of tribute were permitted
the freedom of commerce. One of the effects
of the invasion was the destruction of trade,
which those barbarians, who delighted in war,
held in little estimation. Commerce was therefore
transferred to a people, who were generally
treated with ignominy and contempt, and precluded
form enjoying titular dignities, and civil
and military offices. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 560. Anderson on Commerce.

P1r 169

After the Goths obtained possession of Italy,
the Jews continued to be protected by those
barbarous kings. Theodoret, in particular,
deserves high commendation for the liberality
of his conduct. During his reign, the Jews
had formed establishments at Naples, Rome,
Milan, and Genoa, for the benefit of trade, and
under the sanction of the laws. Yet their persons
were insulted; their effects pillaged by
the populace of Ravenna and Rome, upon
the most frivolous, or extravagant pretensions.
Theodoret endeavoured to rectify these abuses;
he defended them against the christian
Zealots, and forbade any compulsory measures
to be employed for their conversion. He reproved
the senate for suffering one of their
synagogues to be burnt at Rome; and the
clergy of Milan for attempting to seize upon
another. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 561. Gibbon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 29. When the citizens of Genoa deprived
them of the privileges which they had
for a long time enjoyed among them, they
sought redress from Theodoret, who permitted
them to rebuild their synagogues, and restored
to them the free exercise of their civil and religious
rights. Thus the Jews concluded the
0401 < x < 0500fifth century in the Roman empire; though
they had frequently suffered from the violent Vol. I. P P1v 170
tumults and animosities of the people; yet the
authority of their sovereigns enabled them to
preserve some of their most important privileges.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 561. Gibbon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 29.

Chap. VIII.

Of the Jewish academies in the east. Rabbi Asce begins to compile
the Talmud of Babylon. An account of the Masora. Persecution
of the Jews in Persia during the 0401 < x < 0500fifth and 0501 < x < 0600sixth century.
Of the Sebureans and Gaons. State of the Jews under
the Persian monarchs. Their attempt upon Tyre. Of their
state in the west. Justinian’s edicts against them. Appearance
of a false Messiah. Revolt in Cesarea. The Jews assist the
Goths against Justinian. They raise an insurrection in Antioch.
Conversion of those in the island of Cyprus.

The Jewish academies in the east were towards
the close of the 0401 < x < 0500fifth century in a flourishing
condition, under the direction of rabbi
Asce
, who was eminently distinguished for
his talents and learning. He was born at Sora
in Babylon
, and at the early age of fourteen
was chosen president of the celebrated academy
in that city, which office he enjoyed sixty
years. He died in 0427427.

After having taught with the highest reputation
forty years, he began a collection of the
sayings, debates, and decisions of the rabbis
from the time of Judah the saint to the period
in which he lived. He arranged thirty five
books; but his death prevented his completing P2r 171
the work. However, it was at length finished
by his disciples, and styled the Talmud of
Babylon. It is so called from its being the production of the Babylonian
schools, as the Talmud of Jerusalem derives its name from its being
compiled for the Jews in Palestine. This consists of the Misna of
Judah the saint, and the Gemara of Jochanan. The Talmud of
Babylon
consists of the same Misna, with the Gemara of rabbi Asce.
On the subject of these Gemaras, a distinguished Jew has remarked,
that “being nothing more than a collection of sentiments, parables,
and legal determinations of the several great men of their schools
at different times, the two Gemaras may be considered as one,
and the Babylonish only a continuation of the Jerusalem. It is
true, however, says he, the former is that intended to be designated
by the generic expression of Talmud; but only because, as being
later and more complete than that of Jerusalem, it comprises the
last.”
Adams’ Religious World displayed, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 33.
This collection, like the Talmud
of Jerusalem
, comprises the Misna, which is
the text, and is common to both; and the
Gemara or commentary, which is called the
completion. The Jews entertain the highest
veneration for this work; It has even been said, that though they affirm the Scripture,
the Misna and Gemara to be equally of divine authority, they
compare the Scripture to water, the Misna to wine, and the Gemara
to the choicest wine.Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 168.
a learned writer of
their nation styles it, “a complete system of all
their learning, and a comprehensive rule of all
the practical parts of their laws and religion.” David Levi’s Ceremonies of the Jews, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 310.

Rabbi Asce left a son called Huna, and two
celebrated disciples, who were to have finished
the Babylonian Talmud. But the work was retarded
by a violent persecution which raged in P2v 172
Persia against the Jewish nation, and which is
said to have continued seventy three years.
The synagogues were shut, the observation of
the sabbath prohibited, and the schools and
chapels given to the Magi. Huna, who was
then the Jewish chief, and his two disciples
were imprisoned, and suffered death with astonishing
constancy. But the youthful part
of the community, being more attached to the
pleasures of life, were easily induced to apostatize
from their religion; and their example
was followed by a general defection in Israel. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 562.

The compilation of the Talmud was, however,
resumed by the learned men of the nation,
and it is generally supposed, that it was
completed in the 0501 < x < 0600sixth century. This work
was received with high applause by the Jews,
who agreed that no addition or diminution
should be made to it for the future. But a
new order of doctors arose, called Sebureans
or Sceptics, who professed to doubt of every
thing, and opposed the infallibility, which their
brethren attributed to the Talmud. Ibid.

After the Jews had lost their existence as a
nation, they were solicitous to preserve the
purity and integrity of their sacred books.
For this purpose a number of learned rabbis
compiled a work, styled the Masora, in which P3r 173
they first fixed the true reading of the Hebrew
text by vowels and accents; and, secondly,
numbered not only the chapters and sections,
but even the verses, words, and letters of the
Old Testament. A late learned writer has
styled this work “the most stupendous monument
in the whole history of literature, of
minute and persevering labour.” Butler’s Horæ Biblicæ, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 57.
The Jews
call the Masora “the hedge, or fence of the
law,”
because the enumeration of the verses,
&c. is a mean of preserving it from being altered
or corrupted.

They assert, that when God gave the law to
Moses on Mount Sinai, he taught him the
true reading, which was handed down by oral
tradition from age to age, till it was committed
to writing. Elias Levita, a celebrated rabbi,
who bestowed twenty years labour on explaining
the Masora, makes the first compilers of
it the Jewish doctors of the famous school of
Tiberias, about five hundred years after
Christ. Jennings’ Lect. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 401.

The age in which the Masorites arose has,
however, been much disputed. Some writers
placed their origin in the 0501 < x < 0600sixth century; and
others maintained, that they did not appear till
the 0901 < x < 1000tenth. Basnage asserts, that they were
not a society, but a succession of men; and P2 P3v 174
that the Masora was the work of many grammarians,
who, without associating and communicating
their notions, composed this collection
of criticisms on the Hebrew text. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 182.

The 0501 < x < 0600sixth century commenced with a violent
persecution of the Jews in the east, under
Cavades, a prince of a cruel and imperious disposition,
who attempted to compel all his subjects
to embrace the Persian religion. The
celebrated Meir, a learned rabbi, lived at this
time, and, exasperated at the severe treatment
of his brethren, declared war against the king
of Persia. It is said, that with four hundred
men only, he successfully contended against
him seven years. At length, however, he was
defeated and put to death. The Persians then
entered the city in which Zeutra, the prince of
0522A.D.
522
.
the captivity, resided, and having pillaged it,
caused him and the president of the council to
be executed. The family of the prince escaped
destruction by a precipitate flight. Zeutra,
his son, retired into Judea, and was raised to
an office of trust and honour by his brethren in
that country. Ibid. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 564.

Chosroes the great, who succeeded Cavades,
treated the Jews with greater severity than his
predecessor. They endeavoured to obtain the
favour of this prince, by persuading him to P4r 175
break off his negotiations for peace with the
emperour Justinian, which were then in great
forwardness. For this purpose they promised
Chosroes, that, if he would consent to continue
the war, they would furnish him with fifty
thousand men, by whose assistance he might
be enabled to conquer Jerusalem, one of the
richest cities in the world. The king, duped
by their flattering promises, broke off
his treaty with the emperour, and prepared to
carry the project into execution. He was,
however, soon informed, that the persons who
were employed in the treacherous design
had been seized by order of government; and
after making a full discovery of their plan and
abettors, had been put to death. But this intelligence
did not deter Chosroes from prosecuting
the war, which was conducted with
great energy, and many successful inroads
were made into Syria and Palestine. The
Jews, however, in those parts participated in
the common calamities, and were treated with
equal severity with the other inhabitants of the
conquered countries. Their academies were
shut; their love of learning became extinguished;
the prince of the captivity was obliged to
remove into Judea, and the eastern Jews were
destitute of chiefs to preside over them. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 565.

P4v 176

0589A.D.
589
.
When Hormisdas the third ascended the
throne, he restored their former privileges,
which they continued to enjoy during the
reign of this prince. The academy of Pundebita
was opened under the direction of the celebrated
rabbi Chanan Mehischa. A new order
of doctors appeared, who were called Gaons,
sublime or excellents, and destroyed the
Sebureans, or Sceptics. These doctors were
constituted chiefs of the academies, were consulted
upon all difficult questions, and their decisions
were regarded as oracles by their brethren,
who considered them the ablest interpreters
of the law. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 565. Modern Universal Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 208.

After Chosroes II. had murdered his father
Hormisdas in order to obtain the throne, his
son Varanes rebelled against him, and had the
address to engage the Jews in his interest.
They, however, paid dear for their presumption;
and Varanes being reduced to subjection,
they were regarded as a faithless and implacable
people, that excited the subjects
against their princes, and fomented sedition.
Those of Antioch were the first victims of
Chosroes’ resentment; many of whom perished
by the sword; others were put to death by
the most cruel torments; and those, who survived,
subjected to the most abject slavery. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 566. Mayor’s Universal Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 18.

P5r 177

0613A.D.
613
.
Chosroes, however, was afterwards reconciled
to the Jews, who appear to have rendered
him many signal and important services.
They acted in concert with this monarch during
his invasion of Palestine, and even furnished
him with an army of twenty thousand men.
When, after the reduction of Galilee, the Persian
monarch made himself master of Jerusalem,
Jerusalem was recovered from the Persians by the Greek emperour
Heraclius; and soon after taken by the Arabians. See the
following chapter.
they, with furious bigotry, pillaged and
destroyed the christian churches; and the
king having delivered the christian prisoners
into their hands, they satiated their implacable
hatred against them, by putting ninety thousand
of this unhappy people to a cruel death. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 566.

While Chosroes was besieging Constantinople,
and all the forces of Syria and Judea
were employed in defence of that city, the Jews
conspired with their brethren in Palestine to
make an attempt to conquer Tyre, and destroy
its inhabitants. But the Tyrians having obtained
timely intelligence of their design were
prepared for the attack, and repulsed them
with great bravery. After this disappointment,
they dispersed themselves through the country,
and assaulted and burned many of the
christian churches. They were, at length, P5v 178
vanquished by the Tyrians, who sallied out
of the city, and made a terrible slaughter. Basnage. Modern Univer. Hist.

Whilst the eastern Jews, in the 0501 < x < 0600sixth century,
sustained a series of persecutions in Persia,
their brethren in the west were cruelly oppressed,
and gradually stripped of their immunities
and privileges. The emperour Justinian,
who assumed the prerogative of deciding
on all religious controversies, issued an
edict which prohibited their celebrating the
passover according to their own calculation,
and obliged them to observe it at the same
time with the christian church. Soon after he
forbade the magistrates to admit them to give
evidence against the Christians; and deprived
them of the privilege of making wills, and bequeathing
legacies. These decrees were followed
by another, still more oppressive, which
interdicted them from educating their children
in their own faith. Justinian also, at the request
of the council of Carthage, deprived
those of Africa of the exercise of their religion,
and commanded the prefect to convert their
synagogues into churches. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 576. Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 215.

0530A.D.
530
.
The Jews were exasperated by these severe
edicts, and the general discontent and indignation
soon ripened into an open rebellion. One P6r 179
Julian, who pretended to be the Messiah, had
the address to attract many of his brethren in
Palestine to his standard. After assuming the
title of conqueror, he armed his followers;
led them against the Christians; and they, being
wholly unprepared for an attack, were
slaughtered in great numbers. At length,
however, Justinian sent troops against the insurgents;
and, though they fought with desperation,
they were soon entirely routed. The
false Messiah was taken, and immediately put
to death; and thus the revolt was terminated. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 576. Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 215.

0555A.D.
555
.
Twenty five years after, the Jews in Cesarea
rebelled against the Roman government; and,
notwithstanding the inveterate hatred which
subsisted between them and the Samaritans,
they united their forces against the Christians.
The insurgents attacked and demolished many
of the churches, and massacred large numbers
of the people, particularly the governour in his
own palace. Justinian, upon being apprized of
the revolt, and the cruelties which were perpetrated,
confiscated the property of the most
affluent; and the others, who engaged in the
rebellion, were beheaded or banished. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 577.

P6v 180

The Jews joined the Goths The fidelity of the Jews to the Gothic kings cannot justly be
alleged against them, since they were then their subjects.Basnage,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 579.
in Italy against
Justinian and his general Belisarius. While
this celebrated officer was engaged in the siege
of Naples, they defended the city with the
most obstinate resolution. When the citizens
were about to capitulate, they encouraged and
persuaded them to hold out to the last extremity.
In consequence of their exertions the
siege was protracted, which occasioned the
destruction of many of the Roman soldiers.
When the city was taken, though Belisarius
endeavoured to inspire his troops with
sentiments of clemency and pity, the Jews,
without any distinction of age, sex, or rank,
were cruelly put to death. Intimidated by
this dreadful severity, they remained peacable
during the two subsequent reigns.

0602A.D.
602
.
At length, under the reign of Phocas, the
Jews at Antioch, where they had become populous
and affluent, raised an insurrection against
the Christians, who defended themselves with
great resolution; but not being sufficiently
powerful to repel their enemies, they became
the victims of their cruelty. Many were burnt
in their houses; and bishop Anastasius, and
several others, after having endured the greatest Q1r 181
indignities, were put to death. The rebellion,
however, after an arduous conflict, was
suppressed by a powerful body of forces, which
Phocas sent against them; and the barbarous
conduct of the insurgents severely punished. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 578.

0606A.D.
606
.
The Jews, at this period, notwithstanding
the edict of Adrian, had become numerous in
Cyprus. About four years after the insurrection
at Antioch, bishop Leontius, fearing that
the island would suffer similar calamities, resolved
to use every possible method to effect
their conversion. His endeavours proved so
successful, if we may depend upon his apology
to be genuine, that the greater part of them, renounced
Judaism, and were baptized. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 579. Many
of their brethren, in other parts, were about
this time induced to profess the christian religion.
A learned ecclesiastical historian, however,
remarks, that “it must be acknowledged,
that of these conversions the greater part
were owing to the liberality of christian princes,
rather than to the force of argument, or love of
truth.” Mosheim’s Ecclesiast. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 98.

Vol. I. Q Q1v 182

Chap. IX.

Appearance of Mahomet. His behaviour to the Jews. They take
arms against him, are reduced, and compelled to become tributary.
Rapid conquests of the caliph Omar; he besieges and
takes Jerusalem. The Jews rejoice at his success in Persia.
They are favoured by the first caliphs. Those in Italy are protected
by pope Gregory the great. They are severely treated
by the emperour Heraclius, who instigates other monarchs to persecute
them.

0609A.D.
609
.
Mahomet, the famous Arabian impostor, appeared
in the early part of the 0601 < x < 0700seventh century,
and established a new religion, which, by force
of arms, made a rapid progress in the world.
Many of the Jews, after the destruction of
their country, had fled to Arabia; and the industrious
exiles, who aspired to liberty and
power, obtained possession of several towns
and fortresses, and had armies, and princes to
command them. Their number and respectability
induced Mahomet at first to treat them
with great attention. He ordered his followers
when they prayed to turn towards the temple
of Jerusalem; and adopted many of their opinions
and customs, in order to engage them in
his interest. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 566. Gibbon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI.

The Jews, dazzled by the splendour of his
victories, began to regard him as the expected
Messiah, and some persons of distinction
among them embraced his religion. However, Q2r 183
they were, soon after, much offended at
his eating camels flesh, which is forbidden by
the Mosaic law. But the fear of appearing
inconstant, or the hope of deriving advantage
from the impostor, induced them to aid him in
his design. The Arabian writers assert, that
this nation sent twelve of their doctors to assist
him in compiling the Koran. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 566. But they afterwards
became his inveterate enemies; and
their behaviour gave rise to the most implacable
hatred on his part. His aversion to this
unhappy people continued till the last moment
of his life; and, in “the double character of an
apostle and a conqueror, his persecution extended
to both worlds.” Gibbon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI.
In his Koran he
reproaches them with betraying and murdering
the prophets, and styles them “a people
justly cursed of God for their violation of his
sabbath and laws; for their treatment of Jesus
Christ
, whom he acknowledges to be a great
prophet; and for having filled up the measure
of their iniquity by rejecting his own mission.”
Sale’s Koran, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 35.

The Jewish tribe at Kainoka dwelt at Medina
under the protection of the city. Mahomet
seized the occasion of an accidental tumult,
and summoned them to embrace his religion, Q2v 184
or contend with him in battle. “Alas!” replied
the trembling Jews, “we are ignorant of
the use of arms; but we persevere in the faith
and worship of our fathers; why wilt thou reduce
us to the necessity of a just defence.”

But as war was inevitable, Cajah, one of the
most distinguished persons of the Jewish nation,
who had uniformly opposed all the measures
of the impostor, appeared at the head of
his countrymen. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 569.

In the third year of the Hegira Hegira is a term signifying the epochs, used by the Arabians
and Turks, who begin their computation from the day that Mahomet
was compelled to make his escape from the city of Mecca,
which took place, 0622-07-16July 16, A.D. 622, under the reign of the emperour
Heraclius.
Mahomet
besieged the Jews in Hegiasa, and, having
obliged them to surrender at discretion, drove
them into exile. Their wealth was confiscated,
and distributed among his followers.
After several engagements, in which the impostor
was victorious, Cajah attacked him near
Kaibar; and though this place was the seat of
the Jewish power in Arabia, this miserable
people were defeated with great slaughter.
Their leader, who with difficulty escaped, being
resolved to try the event of another engagement,
was again completely routed; and
suffered death with that constancy which characterizes Q3r 185
his nation. After the termination of
the unequal conflict, the Jews were compelled
to submit to the power of the conqueror, and
became tributary. Some time after the death
of the impostor, they were transplanted to
Syria, he having left it as his dying injunction,
that one and the true religion should
alone be professed in his native land of
Arabia. Gibbon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI.

The caliphs, who succeeded Mahomet, united
the temporal and spiritual power; and
their valour, being animated by the violent
spirit of fanaticism, was altogether irresistible.
Omar, the second caliph, was one of the most
rapid conquerors, who ever spread desolation
over the face of the earth. During the ten
years of his reign he subdued Arabia, Syria,
Mesopotamia, Persia, and Egypt. With the
Saracens under his command, he invested Jerusalem,
and after an obstinate siege, which
lasted four months, the Christians, having obtained
an honourable capitulation, surrendered
the city. The conqueror would not allow
them to be deprived of their churches. But
by his command, the ground where Solomon’s
temple stood was prepared for the foundation Q2 Q3v 186
of a mosque, which was the first Mahometan
place of worship erected in Jerusalem. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 572. Jerusalem was transferred from the possession of the Greek
Christians to the dominion of the Arabian Musselmans, and continued
in subjection to the caliphs, about four hundred years. When
Omar took the city the inhabitants were allowed the exercise of
their religion; but, they were prohibited from building any new
churches, either in the metropolis, or the adjacent country; from
riding upon saddles, or bearing any kind of arms. They were
obliged to dress in a different manner from the Mahometans, and
subjected to pay tribute to their conquerors.Ockley’s Saracens
Conquests
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 258.

When Persia submitted to the victorious
Saracens, the Jews, who hoped for a favourable
change in their affairs, rejoiced in their
success. Isdesgerdi III. the last Persian monarch,
had, according to their annals, either begun,
or carried on a bloody persecution against
them; giving their synagogues to the Magi,
and causing their academies to be shut. The
rapid conquests of the enemies of their cruel
oppressors, who were either Pagans or Christians,
and the frequent destruction of the
churches of the latter, highly gratified their
inclinations. They are even accused of having
ingratiated themselves with the Saracens,
by instigating them against the Christians.
Those enthusiastick conquerors for some
time used their prosperity with moderation;
and though the Jews often changed masters
by the swift succession of monarchs, they Q4r 187
only participated in the common calamities
which attend great revolutions in governments.
They highly extol the humanity of the
first caliphs, who restored them to the free
exercise of their religion; allowed the princes
of the captivity to enjoy great authority, and
permitted their academies to be opened, and
placed in a nourishing condition. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 573.

0606A.D.
606
.
A number of the Roman pontiffs have been
equally indulgent to the Jewish nation with the
first caliphs. In Italy, where this people were
numerous in the 0601 < x < 0700seventh century, they were
treated with moderation and kindness by pope
Gregory the great
. Their general conversion
was the object of his ardent desires, and earnest
endeavours. In order to effect this benevolent
design, he wrote to his receiver in Sicily, to
abate those who professed the christian religion
a third part of the revenues they were indebted
to him. He also warmly exhorted his
clergy and flock to use them with candour and
tenderness, alleging, that they were one day
to be recalled, and become a large part of
Christ’s fold; and that the proper method to
conduct them to the unity of the faith, was
kind and friendly treatment. “Violence,”
said he, “will disgust those who might be allured
by gentleness and charity”
. He strongly Q4v 188
expressed his abhorrence of the persecution
they suffered in different countries, and condemned
the zeal of some of the bishops against
them. He even reprehended the conduct of
a converted Jew, who, in order to ingratiate
himself with the Christians, set up a cross,
and image of the virgin in a synagogue.
Gregory ordered the cross and image to be
removed, alleging, that since the laws did not
permit the Jews to build new synagogues, they
ought to be allowed the free enjoyment of those
they already possessed. It appears that the former edicts of the emperour Theodosius
were still in force against the Jews, notwithstanding the clemency
of pope Gregory towards this people.Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol.
XIII. p. 220
.
With the same liberal
spirit he condemned the conduct of the
bishop of Terracina, who had deprived them
of a synagogue in his diocese, which was permitted
by the laws; and had expelled them
from another place, where they had retired in
order to perform their devotional exercises. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 579.

This pontiff, however, who was frequently
consulted respecting the domestic affairs of
the Jews, disapproved of their purchasing
christian slaves, and revived the laws which
had been enacted against this traffick. He also
ordered, that all their Jewish domestics, who Q5r 189
professed the christian religion, and received
baptism, should obtain their liberty. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 579.

The cruel treatment which the Jews soon
after experienced from Heraclius, the Greek
emperour, formed a striking contrast to the
clemency of the Roman pontiff. This monarch
hated the Hebrew race on account of their
religion, and his animosity against them was
increased by finding at Tiberias one of the
nation so rich as to be able to supply his army
and court with provisions. This man, elated
with his affluence, molested the Christians with
troublesome law suits, and malicious prosecutions.
But, being sensible that he had exposed
himself to the resentment of the emperour,
he endeavoured to elude his vengeance by professing
the christian religion. This expedient,
however, did not lessen the monarch’s aversion
to the Jewish nation. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 580. According to the account of Mosheim, “the emperour Heraclius,
being incensed against this miserable people, by the insinuations
of the christian doctors, persecuted them in a most cruel manner,
and ordered multitudes of them to be inhumanly dragged into
the christian churches, in order to be baptized, by violence and compulsion.Mosheim’s”
Ecclesiastical History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 152.

Heraclius was still more exasperated against
the Jews, when, upon his consulting the diviners
concerning the fate of the empire, he received
for answer, that a circumcised nation would Q5v 190
prove its ruin. Considering how powerful
and numerous the Hebrews were in most
parts of his dominions, and that they still
cherished the hope of being restored to their
native country, he believed them to be the people
intended by the prediction. The great and
frequent efforts they had made to recover their
liberty, and their cruel and sanguinary proceedings
against the Christians at different
times, and in various places, confirmed him in
this belief; and induced him to persecute them
with the utmost severity. He banished them
from Jerusalem, to which they had once more
gained access; Previous to the conquest of Jerusalem by the Saracens, which
has been mentioned in the preceding part of this chapter.
and issued an edict, prohibiting
them from approaching within three miles of
the city. The emperour was not satisfied
with persecuting and destroying this unhappy
people in his own dominions; but instigated
other monarchs to follow his example. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 581. The
calamities which they suffered in Spain, Gaul,
and other kingdoms, will be related in the following
chapter.

Q6r 191

Chap. X.

The Jews in Spain are cruelly persecuted by Sisebut, the Gothic
king of that country. Decrees of the councils of Toledo. Frequent
apostasy of the Jewish converts. The archbishop of Toledo
writes in order to convert them. They form a conspiracy
against the Spanish government. Severe laws are enacted
against them. Of the Jews in Gaul. They are expelled by king
Dagobert
, and by Wamba, king of the Goths. They found an
academy in Lunel.

The Jews, who were transplanted to Spain by
the policy of Adrian, had become numerous
in that kingdom, and acquired wealth by their
dexterity in trade. Their affluence excited the
avarice of their masters; and, as they had lost
the use of arms, they might be oppressed with
impunity. The emperour Heraclius, who had
been engaged in war with Sisebut, the Spanish
monarch, made it one of the principal articles
of the peace, that the king should compel them
to receive baptism, or abandon the kingdom.
The religious bigotry of Sisebut induced him
readily to accede to this article; and without
consulting any of his bishops, and even contrary
to their remonstrances, he imprisoned the
most distinguished personages among this unhappy
people. Mariana’s History of Spain.

After having remained some time in confinement,
large numbers of Jews, in order to preserve
their wealth and lives, consented to be Q6v 192
baptized. The estates of the more obstinate
were confiscated, and their bodies tortured.
Some found means to retire into Gaul, where
similar miseries awaited them. They assert,
however, that during the life of Sisebut, they
were not even allowed the privilege of prefering
their religion to their country, and endeavouring
to escape by a voluntary exile from the
evils they endured. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 581. History of Spain.

0633A.D.
633
.
The conduct of the king was highly censured
by Isidore, bishop of Seville, and condemned
even by the catholic clergy in Spain.
In the fourth council of Toledo, This council was assembled by Sisenand, who, having dethroned
the son of Sisebut, endeavoured to reconcile the minds
of the people to his government, by prevailing upon the clergy to
give a religious sanction to his proceedings. The council conformed
to his views, and instructed the Goths to unite under his government.Basnage,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 581.
in which
Isidore presided, it was declared unchristian
and unlawful to use compulsory measures in
religion. The reasons assigned were, that
God hardens, and has compassion on whom
he pleases; and that none can be saved without
their own free consent. This council,
however, ordained, that those whom persecution
had induced to receive baptism, should
be compelled, for the honour of the church, to R1r 193
persevere in conforming to the external rites
of the christian religion. This decree, which
derogates from the liberal spirit exhibited in
the former, was enacted, because the pretended
converts relapsed into Judaism, whenever the
immediate influence of terrour was withdrawn. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 582. History of Spain.

0638A.D.
638
.
Chintila, who succeeded Sisenand, treated
the Jews with the greatest rigour; and appeared
to be totally regardless of the sacred
rights of conscience. The decree of this monarch,
which commanded all his subjects to profess
the christian faith, was the signal of persecution
and exile; and an edict was passed for
their total expulsion. It appears probable, that
the usurious advantage, which they might derive
from their wealth, augmented the publick
hatred against them. Yet the Goths were unwilling
to deprive themselves of the industrious
slaves over whom they might exercise lucrative
oppression; and the Jews continued in
Spain under the weight of the civil and ecclesiastical
laws. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 582. History of Spain.

In order to engage the Spanish clergy to forward
his views, Chintila convened the fifth
council of Toledo. This assembly passed
several decrees in his favour, which the king
caused to be confirmed by another council, convoked
the same year, and at the same place. Vol. I. R R1v 194
The divines, who composed this assembly,
highly commended his zeal against the Jews;
and blessed God for having given them such
a wise and pious prince. They solemnly ratified
the edict he had enacted for the banishment
of this miserable people; and declared,
that no prince for the future should ascend the
Spanish throne till he had taken an oath to observe
all the laws against them; and he who
violated this sacred engagement was to be
anathematized. Basnage observes, that the different decrees enacted in this,
and the preceding council, were owing to the death of Isidore of
Seville. This benevolent prelate, who was a strong advocate for
mild treatment, presided in the fourth council of Toledo, but died
before the sixth.Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 582.

These severe laws were punctually observed
by the succeeding monarchs. The Visigoth
kings enacted a law which completely
authorized persecution; and alleged in their
vindication, that “since the violent take the
kingdom of heaven by force, men ought to be
stimulated to obtain this blessing.”
By this
law it was ordained, that every Jew, who refused
to receive baptism, should suffer a severe
corporal punishment, be exiled from the kingdom,
and have all his goods confiscated. Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. History of Spain.

0601 < x < 0700A.D.
653
.
Multitudes of this persecuted people, intimidated
by the gloomy prospects before them,
were induced to conform externally to the national R2r 195
faith. But as their conformity was only
extorted by terrour, many were soon observed
to apostatize. To remedy this evil, a new
council was convened. The Jews, apprehending
that the decrees of the assembly would be
the prelude of a violent persecution against
them, resolved to shelter themselves from the
impending calamity. For this purpose, the
most distinguished personages of their nation
met, and wrote to the king in the name of their
brethren in Spain, declaring that, though they
had till then dissembled, they were now firmly
resolved to become sincere converts, and
wholly to conform to the laws of the gospel.
They assured his majesty, that they would no
longer observe their sabbath, circumcise their
children, or form any connexions by marriage
with those who were unbaptized; and promised
to persecute any of their brethren, who should
presume to violate these engagements. They
even consented, provided their lives might be
spared, to be doomed to perpetual slavery, and
have all their effects confiscated. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 582. Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 223.

The ample promises contained in this letter,
rebdered their sincerity more suspected, and
their conduct more strictly observed. It was
accordingly discovered, that they still performed
the Jewish rites, and even ventured to attack R2v 196
the christian religion. The king, finding
the difficulty of effecting his purpose by coercive
measures, ordered Julian, archbishop of
Toledo, to write against them; and this prelate,
in 0686686, published a learned treatise, in which
he proved from the prophetic writings, that
Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah.

The Gothic kings and bishops at length
discovered, that injuries would produce hatred,
and that hatred would find an opportunity of
revenge. The Jews exulted in the victories of
the Mahometans, and commenced a dangerous
and hostile correspondence with their
brethren, who, under the administration of
Chintila, had sheltered themselves from persecution
in Africa. On receiving from them assurance
of support, and with the secret hope of
more effectual succour from the Saracens,
they fixed a day to erect the standard of revolt.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 583. History of Spain.

Before the appointed time arrived, their
preparations had alarmed, and their intentions
been betrayed to king Egica. This monarch
complained of the conspiracy to the council of
Toledo, and demanded the assistance and advice
of the divines, who composed the assembly.
Upon deliberation they resolved, that
all the circumcised should be declared perpetual R3r 197
slaves, that their estates should be confiscated,
and their children taken from them, and
educated in the christian faith. Basnage.

If from Spain we turn to a neighbouring
country, we find the Jews still oppressed and
persecuted. As soon as the Romans Gaul was shared by the Visigoths and Burgundians, when
Clovis, king of the Franks, defeated Syagrius, a Roman usurper in
that province, and established a new kingdom, to which he gave
the name of France, or the land of freemen. Russell’s Modern
Europe
.
were
driven out of Gaul, and the Visigoths suppressed,
several directions and decrees were
0540A.D.
540
.
made respecting them, and one in particular,
under Childebert, who forbade them to appear
in the streets of Paris from Tuesday in
the holy week to Easter Sunday. The council
of Orleans about the same time enacted a similar
decree, which renders it evident, that they
were dispersed in several parts of France. The Jews, who settled in Gaul at an early period, made but
little figure, and are only known by some edicts of Constantine,
which mention them in Belgic Gaul. They began to be noticed in
the histories of the country in the 0501 < x < 0600sixth century.

They were still more numerous in Languedoc.
Ferreol, bishop of Uzes, was expelled from his
diocese, for having treated them with too great
familiarity and kindness. His motive was an
ardent desire to effect their conversion. After
he had continued an exile many years, and R2 R3v 198
the king had restored him to his bishopric, he
fell into the other extreme, and banished the
Jews. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 583.

Avitus, bishop of Clermont, was distinguished
by his zeal for the conversion of this people,
and induced several persons among them to
profess their belief in christianity. One of the
new converts entered the city in his white garment,
which being observed by a Jew, he
threw a pot of oil of very offensive odour upon
him. This outrage irritated the Christians to
such a degree, that had not the bishop interposed,
the offender would have been immediately
put to death. The humanity of Avitus,
however, only delayed the effects of their resentment
till the succeeding festival. The
people at that time demolished their synagogue,
and the Jews were reduced to the alternative
of professing christianity, or being exiled.
The greater part of them chose to conform
to the established worship, and were
baptized. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 584.

King Chilperic, who observed, that the Jews
in Paris were numerous and affluent, resolved
to use compulsory measures to induce them
to abjure their religion. As he led an immoral
life he hoped, by his zeal in attempting the conversion
of an unbelieving people, to make an R4r 199
atonement for his sins, and secure the favour of
heaven. He therefore commanded, that all
who refused to receive baptism, should be
punished with the utmost rigour. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 584.

0601 < x < 0700A.D.
698
.
They were treated with still greater severity
by king Dagobert, who was notorious for the
scandalous irregularity of his conduct. In order
to avoid publick odium, to ingratiate himself
with his clergy and people, and gratify the
emperour Heraclius, The emperour Heraclius, who had expelled the Jews from his
dominions, and caused them to be banished from Spain, sent ambassadors
to Dagobert to oblige him to imitate these examples.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 584.
he banished from his
kingdom upon pain of death, all the Jews, who
refused to profess the christian religion. Many
who had fled from Spain to escape persecution
suffered a second exile. But still more of
them preferred dissimulation, and consented to
be baptized. Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 226.

0601 < x < 0700673. Wamba, king of the Goths in Languedoc,
also exhibited a violent enmity against this
people; and issued an edict which expelled
them from his dominions. But he experienced
the most determined opposition from the abbot
Raymirus, and the court of Thoulouse, who
united to protect this persecuted race, and opposed R4v 200
the king’s edict by force of arms. The
king entrusted count Paul, his favourite, with
the command of an army, which was destined
to act against the rebels. But, instead of suppressing,
he united with them, took Narbonne,
and caused himself to be crowned king. At
length, however, he was defeated, and condemned
by Wamba; and his accomplices, especially
the Jews, felt the effects of this monarch’s
resentment, and were expelled from the
kingdom. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 584.

Notwithstanding the sufferings of the Jewish
nation in the 0601 < x < 0700seventh century, the academy
which they had founded at Lunel, a city in
Languedoc, began to flourish. In process of
time it acquired great celebrity, and was the
place where some of the most learned Jewish
rabbis received their education.

R5r 201

Chap. XI.

Of the pretended conversion of the king of Chozar to Judaism.
State of the eastern Jews in the 0701 < x < 0800eighth and 0801 < x < 0900ninth centuries.
They are favoured by several of the caliphs, who were attached
to literary men. Edict of Iman Jaaffar against them. Al-Wathek
obliges them to pay heavy taxes. Motavel condemns them to
wear a disgraceful badge of distinction. State of the Jews under
the Grecian emperours. A false Messiah appears in Spain. Of
their state in France. Punishment inflicted upon them by the
emperour Charlemagne. They are highly favoured by Lewis,
surnamed Debonair; but their condition is less agreeable under
Charles the bald.

The 0701 < x < 0800eighth century is celebrated by Jewish
writers for the conversion of Chozar, a Pagan
prince to their belief. According to their accounts
he became dissatisfied with the religion
of his people and progenitors; and conversed
on this subject with philosophers, Christians,
Mahometans, and Jews. At length, a learned
rabbi convinced him, that Judaism was the
only true religion, to which all others were but
as the shadow to the substance, or the picture
to the living original. Chozar therefore abjured
his former tenets, and, after he was initiated
in the belief and ceremonies of the Jews,
employed himself in converting his subjects.
He sent for the most learned men of this nation
from all countries to instruct his people; and
from that time the original Jews were held in
high estimation. A tabernacle was erected,
similar to that of Moses in the wilderness; to
which they and the Chozrean converts repaired R5v 202
to the Jewish worship. The king became
prosperous; triumphed over his enemies, and
enlarged his dominions by new and considerable
conquests. Such is the account of Jewish
writers; but notwithstanding the degree of
credit which they have endeavoured to attach
to the conversion of Chozar, and of his subjects,
the real existence of that prince, and of
his kingdom, has always been much disputed. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 587. Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 228.

During the 0701 < x < 0800eighth, and part of the 0801 < x < 0900ninth
century
, the eastern Jews, under the dominion
of the caliphs, sustained their share in the calamities
which resulted from the civil wars
among their conquerors. They, however, enjoyed
entire liberty of conscience under the
caliph Abdalmelech, and his two successors
Alwalid and Solyman. Their academies flourished,
and their doctors possessed all their
antient privileges.

In the reign of Zeyd they suffered some oppressions,
which were caused more from the
rapaciousness of his ministers, than the cruelty
of the monarch. But upon the dissolution of
the government of the Ommiades under Mervan,
their condition was ameliorated by the
princes of the dynasty of the Abbassides. The fall of the Ommiades, and the establishment of the dynasty
of the Abbassides took place about 0750750. Gibbon.

R6r 203

0740A.D.
740
.
The caliph Almansor, who was a learned
prince, patronized and encouraged literary
men, and invited a large number of them to
his court, without any regard to their particular
religious opinions. Many Jews accepted the
invitation of this monarch, and took advantage
of his liberality to place their academies in a
more flourishing condition than ever. They
boast of the many famous men who appeared
among their nation at this period. Among
whom rabbi Acha was distinguished for his
profound learning, and his voluminous treatise
on the precepts of the law, under the title of
Shealtoth, or Questions. About this time rabbi
Annanus
revived the sect of the Sadducees,
which had been almost extinct after the destruction
of Jerusalem; but under him the denomination
acquired new vigour, and became
formidable to that of the Pharisees. *Some writers have styled Annanus the founder of the Caraites;
but according to Basnage, and the authors of the Modern
Universal History
, this denomination were of much earlier date;
and Annanus only revived the sect of the Sadducees.

0740760. The Jews of Arabia and Persia experienced
the mortification of having an edict issued
against them by Iman Jaaffar, surnamed the
Just
. Stimulated by zeal for his religion, he
ordained, that those who embraced the Mahometan
faith should be sole heirs of the property
of the whole family. This decree, which R6v 204
was punctually executed, induced many Jewish,
and other children to apostatize, in order
to obtain estates, to which they were unable to
claim any just title.

Almansor was succeeded by Mohadi, who
obliged the Jews either to embrace the Mahometan
religion, or wear a disgraceful badge
of distinction. In the reign of this prince,
Hakem, an impostor, appeared, and by pretended
miracles gained many disciples. This man,
who is said to have been of Jewish origin, asserted,
that the divinity, which in former times
appeared in a human shape, now made his
abode in him, and that he was the visible image
of the most high God. Mohadi sent forces
against the impostor, who besieged him in one
of his fortresses. Upon which he first poisoned
his followers, and then destroyed himself. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 591. Gibbon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VII. p. 189.

0786A.D.
786
.
Aaron, the successor of Mohadi, was distinguished
for his love of literature, and encouraged
and patronized learned men of all
religions, and of every profession. In particular
he highly favoured the Jews, who were
dispersed in his dominions, and chose one of
their nation to send on an embassy to Charlemagne,
the emperour of the west. He
succeeded in his commission, and enjoyed a
distinguished reputation at the court of Aaron. S1r 205
This caliph placed the academies of the eastern
Jews in a flourishing condition; and they enjoyed
profound tranquillity during his reign. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 592.

0831A.D.
831
.
Mamoun, the brother of Aaron, was also
attached to literature, and caused the most valuable
Jewish works to be translated into Arabic.
And though this instance of his liberality
exasperated his subjects, he continued to distinguish
learned men of all nations and religions.
Mashalla, a celebrated Jewish astronomer,
was so highly esteemed at his court,
that he was styled the Phœnix of the age.
During the reign of Mamoun, the famous impostor
Moses appeared, who pretended that he
was the great lawgiver of the Jews, whom God
had recently raised from the dead. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 594.

0841841. Al-Wathek, instead of imitating the conduct
of the most enlightened caliphs who
preceded him, became an implacable enemy
to the Jews. He hated this people, because
they refused to receive the Koran as an authentick
revelation; and the fraudulent practices
of which they had been guilty in the management
of the finances, during the reign of his
predecessor, increased his enmity against them.
During his reign they were loaded with heavy Vol. I. S S1v 206
taxes, and obliged to pay large sums into the
treasury. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 594.

0849A.D.
849
.
Motarakel, the successor of Al-Wathek,
treated the Jews with still greater severity.
He compelled them to wear a cord or sash
round their waists, as an invidious mark of
distinction; and excluded them from all offices
in the Divan, which it appears they had till then
enjoyed. He forbade their riding on horses,
and only permitted them to use asses or mules
with iron stirrups.

The edicts of this monarch not only extended
through his empire, but spread into the
neighbouring kingdoms; and these marks of
infamy, in a greater or less degree, have subsisted
ever since in those countries which are
subjected to the Turks; and also in other parts
of Europe under christian kings. Many of
Motarakel’s successors treated this degraded
people with equal contempt. In the reign of
Mahomed, the last of the princes who succeeded
him, Achmet, the governour of Egypt,
revolted, and formed a new dynasty. Egypt was dismembered from the caliphate about the end
of the 0801 < x < 0900ninth century.

If we turn from the mahometan, to the
christian monarchs, we find the Jews exposed
to equal, if not greater vexations and persecutions. S2r 207
The empire in the west, in the 0701 < x < 0800eighth
century
, was greatly agitated by the civil dissensions
between the Iconoclasts and the worshippers
of images; and the Jews were unjustly
accused of fomenting these dissensions.
Leo Isauricus, the Grecian emperour, commenced
his reign with the persecution of this
people; and commanded them to abjure their
tenets, and embrace christianity under the severest
penalties. They saved their lives by
dissimulation, and consented to be baptized,
and receive the communion; but at the same
time expressed their internal aversion to the religion
they had recently professed, by washing
themselves in common water, and eating common
bread immediately after receiving the
sacraments. The patrons of images, notwithstanding
the strenuous exertions of the emperour,
at length prevailed. The Jews, who had
pretended obedience to the mandates of Leo,
being suspected of insincerity, were obliged to
subscribe a new formulary, in which they acknowledged
themselves worshippers of the
cross, and holy images; and prayed to God
that he would inflict upon them the leprosy of
Gehazi, and the fear of Cain, if they did not
willingly conform to the established religion. Fleury’s Ecclesiastical History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. V. p. 43. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 569.

S2v 208

Nicephorus, who succeeded Leo about the
commencement of the 0801 < x < 0900ninth century, protected
the Jews, and permitted them to live quietly
under his government. They were still more
favoured by his successor Michael, who tolerated
all religions; is said to have imbibed
something from each denomination; and entertained
a peculiar regard for the Jews. Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 239.

But little is known respecting the situation
of this people in Italy and Spain during the
0701 < x < 0800eighth and 0801 < x < 0900ninth centuries. About the year
0724724, those who resided in Spain involved
themselves in a new calamity by listening to
the delusive promises of one of their countrymen,
named Serenus. This man, taking advantage
of the dissensions between France and
Spain, proclaimed himself the Messiah, and
induced multitudes to follow his standard towards
Palestine, where he engaged to establish
his empire. The wealth which this
infatuated people left behind them was seized
by the government. Those, who did not perish
by the way, returned to Spain to lament
their blind credulity, and the losses they had
sustained. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 597.

0763A.D.
763
.
Languedoc, being at this time in the possession
of the Visigoths, (as well as part of S3r 209
Spain,) The Saracens, or Moors, had invaded Spain, and reduced a
large part of that kingdom.
was infested with frequent incursions
of the Arabs. It is said, they were in alliance
with, and even invited by the Jews, who engaged
to assist them in destroying the Christians.
They are also accused of requesting
the aid of the Saracens to emancipate themselves
from the tyranny and oppression of the
bishop of Toulouse. These mahometan invaders,
after traversing Narbonne, penetrated
as far as Lyons, and laid waste the country
with fire and sword. Charlemagne, having
afterwards completely defeated the Saracens
and retaken Toulouse, resolved to destroy the
treacherous Jews, who had encouraged the invasion,
and occasioned so much bloodshed.
He was, however, prevailed upon to commute
their punishment, and only the principal
and most guilty suffered death. The
others, who inhabited the city, were condemned
to receive a box on the ear thrice
a year at the gates of one of the churches,
which should be named by the bishop; and
to pay a perpetual fine of thirteen pounds of
wax. This event, though related by many historians, is disputed by
Basnage, who admits only the truth of two facts, viz. that Toulouse
was besieged by the Saracens, and that the Jews in the city were
ill used in the city, and buffeted in the person of their syndick.
“This, says he, was done out of hatred to the Jews, without their
being guilty of the imputed crime of betraying the city; and the
story of their treachery was invented, in order to authorize the
punishment and the infamy.”
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 598.

S2 S3v 210

Charlemagne, however, in some instances,
treated the Jews with gentleness and moderation.
They boasted of having the liberty of
purchasing the sacred utensils and rich furniture
of the churches, which the bishops and
abbots, induced by luxury and avarice, had
exposed to sale. And though this monarch
enacted a severe law, prohibiting the clergy
from carrying on this scandalous traffick, he
did not exact any restitution fom those of Hebrew
origin, or lay any restrictions upon their
commerce. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 598.

They were highly favoured by Lewis, surnamed
Debonair, whose chief physician, named
Sedecias, was one of the Jewish nation.
This man had acquired such an ascendancy
over the monarch, that the courtiers endeavoured
to conciliate his, and his countrymens’
friendship with the richest presents. They
had an easy access to the person of their sovereign,
who allowed them the liberty of erecting
new synagogues, and granted them other extensive
privileges. Such powerful protection
rendered them haughty and insolent, and excited
the jealousy of the Christians.

S4r 211

Agobard, bishop of Lyons, not only prohibited
them from purchasing christian slaves,
but forbade them to observe the sabbath, and
carry on any commerce with the Christians
during lent. They complained of these edicts
to the king, who sent three commissaries to
Lyons to make inquiries into the bishop’s
conduct; and, upon their report, the Jews were
immediately restored to their antient privileges.
Agobard, being mortified and disappointed,
formed new accusations against them;
but they were rejected at court, as false and
groundless. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 599. Modern Universal Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 241.

After the bishop found all his attempts frustrated,
he resolved to take a journey to court,
to solicit Lewis more effectually against the
Jews. But the king, surrounded by courtiers
who hated the prelate, and were attached to this
people, absolutely resisted all his solicitations,
and only granted him an audience when he was
about to depart. The protection the outcasts
of Israel found at the court of Lewis against
one of the most learned bishops of the age,
rendered them so popular, that it was said
openly at court, that the descendants of Abraham
were entitled to respect. Even some
Christians observed Saturday for the sabbath,
and preferred attending the sermons of the rabbis S4v 212
to those of the curates and monks, who at
this time were extremely ignorant. It is even
said, that a deacon named Paudo quitted his
office in the church, and went over to the synagogue.
gogue. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 599.

The Jews, under Charles the bald, were less
flourishing and popular, than they had been
during the reign of his predecessor. One of
the French bishops, named Remisius, ordered
the clergy in his diocese to preach every Saturday
in the synagogues. This induced a number
of Jewish parents to send their children to
other parts of the kingdom in order to prevent
their conversion. Remisius complained of
their conduct to the king, and persuaded him
to command the bishop of Arles, and other
prelates, to follow his example. The consequence
was, that many of the Jewish children
were voluntarily baptized. Soon after Charles
was poisoned by Sedecias, the Jewish physician,
who was so famous in the preceeding reign;
and it was supposed he was instigated to commit
this crime by his countrymen, who hated
the king, because he favoured these conversions.
It was, however, discovered, that many
of the nobility corrupted Sedecias, and engaged
him to destroy the life of his sovereign. Ibid. Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 243.

S5r 213

The Jews were also accused of favouring the
incursions of the Normans, which took place
during the reign of Charles; and of treacherously
betraying Bourdeaux and other cities into
the hands of these invaders. They were still
exposed to the ignominious sentence of being
buffeted three times every year at the church
door. But this indignity, which originated
from a decree of Charlemagne, was not executed
on all the Jews, but confined to the syndick,
or head magistrate, who received this
punishment in the name of the rest. In remote
cities they were also liable to many insults
from the populace. At Beziers, in Languedoc,
it was the custom to throw stones upon
them from Palm Sunday to the Tuesday on
Easter week. This indignity, however, was
at length redeemed by a tribute which they
paid to the bishop in this place. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 692. Gregoire, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 224.

S5v 214

Chap. XII.

Flourishing state of learning among the eastern Jews at the commencement
of the 0901 < x < 1000tenth century. Their tranquillity is interrupted
by internal divisions. Of their learned rabbis. The Jews
in Egypt are persecuted by the caliph Hakem, who introduces
a new religion. They are expelled from the east. Some of the
most learned among them pass into Spain, and cultivate literature
under the Saracens. The Talmud is translated into the
Arabic language. They attempt to convert the Mahometans;
and are persecuted by the king of Grenada. King Ferdinand I.
resolves to destroy them; but is prevented by the pope and
bishops. The revolution caused by the Moors in Africa extricates
them from persecution. They are favoured by Alphonso,
and his grandson Peter. The Crusaders massacre the Jews.
Disputes arise among them respecting the study of the sciences.
Of the learned rabbis in Spain and France.

0927A.D.
927
.
While Christendom was involved in darkness
and ignorance, the Saracens became the
patrons of philosophy in the east. The Jews,
under their dominion, imitated their example,
and applied to learning with assiduity and success.
In the 0801 < x < 0900ninth century the Jews began to make themselves acquainted
with the sciences of the Arabs. In particular they excelled
in the study of medicine. From the beginning of the 0801 < x < 0900ninth
to the end of the 1201 < x < 1300thirteenth century eminent schools of philosophy
flourished in the Saracen empire.Enfield’s Philosophy, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II.
p. 234
.
New academies were erected in consequence
of the rapid increase of professors and
pupils; and those which had subsisted for
ages were placed in a flourishing condition,
under able preceptors. The Jews boast, that
the famous men who appeared among them at S6r 215
this time, were superiour to those of any preceding
age, since their dispersion. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 601.

Their tranquillity was, however, soon interrupted
by internal divisions. David, prince of
the captivity, an haughty and ambitious man,
had, according to the Jewish accounts, found
means to deliver his nation from the tribute,
which till then they were compelled to pay to
the caliphs. After having thus augmented his
authority, he reigned as absolutely as an eastern
monarch. In consequence of his arrogant behaviour,
frequent altercations took place between
him and the heads of the academies, The power of the heads of the academies was almost equal to
that of the princes. For the latter could not enact any laws except
they were sanctioned by the former. These chiefs have had frequent
insurrections against each other. The priuecnces of the captivity
and heads of the academies were both elected by a majority
of votes; and sometimes both these dignities were vested in the
same person.Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 602.

which produced fatal divisions, and involved
the Jews in fresh difficulties.

1037A.D.
1037
.
The nation at this time were so numerous
and powerful, that those in the city of Pheruty
Shiboour
are said to have amounted to nine
hundred thousand. A new academy was
founded in this city, at the head of which was
the famous rabbi Sherira, under whom it flourished
about thirty years. He was a man of S6v 216
great learning, but a violent enemy to the Christians,
particularly to the monks; and on that
account more highly respected by his brethren.
When arrived at an advanced age, he
was succeeded by his son Hay, The Jews pretend that he was lineally descended from king
David
, hence he bore the lion on his arms, as did all the kings of
Judah, agreeably to Jacob’s prophecy concerning that tribe. But
he acquired still greater celebrity by various writings, particularly
the famous cabbalistical work, styled “the voice of God in power.”
Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 247.
who obtained
such a distinguished reputation, that the Jews
resorted from all parts to attend his instructions;
and styled him, “the most excellent of
all the excellent.
He was placed at the head
of two academies, and elected prince of the
captivity. He died in 10371037, aged sixty nine
years. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 602.

The Jews, in the reign of the caliph Hakem,
suffered persecution for a short time in Egypt.
The object of this monarch was to abolish
Islamism, and establish a new religion, of
which he should be the head. He blended the religion of the Druses, an ancient sect little
known, with other tenets; which he pretended to receive from the
Deity.Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 605.
The large number
of Pagans, who acceded to his novel dogmas
and pretentions, flattered his vanity, and
induced him to persecute the Christians and
Jews, who opposed and contemned his doctrines. T1r 217
He obliged the latter to wear a disgraceful
mark of distinction; commanded their
synagogues to be shut; and compelled them
to embrace his tenets. But he soon changed
his opinions, and permitted them to return to
their former religion. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 605.

1039A.D.
1039
.
The caliphs of the house of the Abbassides,
who had always favoured the Jews, having lost
their authority, the sultan Gela Doullat, who
reigned by the name of Cajem, resolved to extirpate
this unhappy people. For this purpose
he shut up their academies; banished their
professors; and killed the prince of the captivity,
with his family. This persecution dispersed
some of the nation into the desarts of
Arabia, while others sought an asylum in the
west. From the period in which the Jews
were expelled from the east, most authors
date the total extinction of the princes of the
captivity; but, if we may believe the Jewish
travellers, Benjamin de Tudela and rabbi Petachiah,
who visited their brethren in the
1101 < x < 1200twelfth century, they still found one of these
chiefs among the Israelites in Persia, who
boasted that he was lineally descended from
the prophet Samuel. If this account is true,
it proves that these princes were not all of the Vol. I. T T1v 218
lineage of David, as the Jews pretend. It is
evident, however, that they were seldom seen
after the 1001 < x < 1100eleventh century; and preserved only
an empty name without authority. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 605.

When the Jews were expelled from the east,
multitudes of the nation passed into Africa,
and from thence joined their brethren in Spain,
who were favoured by the caliphs. They had
assisted the Saracens in the conquest of this
kingdom; and gratitude, as well as policy, induced
the victors to reward those to whose open
or secret aid they were so much indebted.
An intimate connexion, therefore, took place
between the disciples of Moses and those of
Mahomet, which was cemented by their reciprocal
hatred of the Christians; and subsisted
till their common expulsion. History of Spain.

Some of the most learned men among the
Jews, after their banishment from the east,
found an asylum in Spain, and were patronized
by the Saracen monarchs. This period, therefore,
was one of the most brilliant epochas of
Jewish literature from the time of the destruction
of Jerusalem. Even in the darkest ages
of their history they cultivated their language
with assiduity, and were never destitute of
grammarians, or subtle interpreters of the
scripture. But, generally speaking, it was only T2r 219
during their union with the Saracens in Spain, The Saracens subdued Spain in the 0701 < x < 0800eighth century.
or in the flourishing ages of the caliphs of
Bagdat, that they ventured into general literature,
and used in their writings a foreign, and
consequently (in their view) a profane language.
Butler’s Horæ Biblicæ.

While the attention of the Christians and
Mahometans in Spain was occupied by their
mutual hostilities, the Jews enjoyed an interval
of tranquillity. Their academies were in a
flourishing state under the Saracen monarchs;
and they became numerous and affluent. During
this prosperous era many learned doctors
appeared among them, whose erudition has
been celebrated by Jewish writers. The Talmud,
however, was so little known in Spain,
that they were obliged to send deputies to the
Babylonian academies, to decide the disputes
which arose among them. Even the prayers
which they offered up on the grand expiation
day, and other national fasts, were composed
by one of the Babylonish rabbis. Hasheym II.
the Saracen monarch of Cordova, who was a
friend and patron to the Israelites, commanded
this celebrated work to be translated into the
Arabic language, in order either to gratify his
curiosity, or prevent their frequent excursions T2v 220
to Bagdat, or Jerusalem, from which it is said
he apprehended fatal consequences. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 606.

The wars in Spain, which raged with violence
during the 1001 < x < 1100eleventh century, About the beginning of the 1001 < x < 1100eleventh century, Toledo, Valentia,
Seville, and almost all the great cities in Spain, had their independent
kingdoms.Russell’s Modern Europe, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 180.
and the
revolutions to which they gave rise, were in
their commencement beneficial to the Jews.
Rabbi Samuel Levi, being secretary and prime
minister to the king of Grenada, was by him
appointed chief of their nation, and exerted
himself to the utmost to promote their interest
and honour. For this purpose he sent for
some of the most learned Jewish rabbis from
Babylon and Egypt, to whom he was a liberal
benefactor. His countrymen had the satisfaction
of seeing his son succeed him in all his
1055A.D.
1055
.
dignities. Their joy, however, was damped
by his arrogant behaviour, which was very
different from that of his father, who in the
zenith of his prosperity was distinguished for
humility and moderation. * Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 607.

The interval of tranquillity which the Jews
enjoyed, was, about the middle of the 1001 < x < 1100eleventh
century
, disturbed by an unfortunate event.
Joseph Hallevi, a learned and zealous rabbi, T3r 221
assisted by the Arabic version of the Talmud,
endeavoured to convert the Mahometans to
the Jewish faith. The king of Grenada, highly
exasperated at this attempt against the established
religion, caused the principal offender
to be apprehended and executed. A violent
persecution of his nation immediately followed,
and one hundred thousand families experienced
its destructive effects. The severity of this
monarch was more sensibly felt after a series
of prosperity, which had rendered them affluent
and powerful. They were apprehensive that
the other sovereigns would follow his example.
But the persecution was quickly suppressed,
and did not extend beyond the kingdom
of Grenada. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 607.

The Jews were exposed to suffer still more
severe and cruel treatment under king Ferdinand.
This monarch, having declared war
against the Saracens, resolved to consecrate
his enterprize by previously extirpating all
the Israelites in his kingdom. But the Spanish
prelates openly condemned and opposed this
measure; and pope Alexander II. wrote a letter
to them, in which he highly commended
their opposition to Ferdinand’s bloody design;
severely reproved this monarch for his furious T2 T3v 222
and unchristian zeal; and reminded him of
the example of pope Gregory the great, who
had strenuously opposed similar persecution,
and the demolishing of the synagogues. The
united remonstrances of the pope and bishops
delivered the Jews from the impending evil. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 607.

1080A.D.
1080
.
The revolution, caused by the Moors in
Africa, more effectually extricated them at this
period from persecution. Alphonso, the successor
of Ferdinand, being extremely distressed
by the increasing power of the Saracens,
found himself obliged to befriend and caress
the Jews in order to obtain from them personal
and pecuniary assistance. Accordingly he
promoted them to great and lucrative offices;
and even allowed them to be judges over the
Christians. Pope Gregory highly disapproved
of this last instance of the king’s indulgence;
and upbraided him with having “exalted the
synagogue of Satan above the church of
Christ.”
The remonstrances of the Roman
pontiff could not induce the monarch to diminish
those privileges, which he had granted
merely from interested motives. Ibid.

1096A.D.
1096
.
Peter I. the grandson of Alphonso, was
equally regardless of the remonstrances of
Nicolas de Valentia, who endeavoured to prejudice
the king against the Jews, by painting T4r 223
in strong colours their hatred to the Christians;
and assuring him, that they were his
most dangerous and inveterate enemies. But
this monarch was averse to persecution; and
maintained that violence would have no lasting,
or beneficial effect. T4he moderation of
Peter could not, however, preserve this unhappy
people in several other parts of Spain
from the fury of the Crusaders, The crusades, or expeditions to recover the holy land from
the hands of the Mahometans, commenced about the year 10951095.
The foundation of these expeditions was a superstitious veneration
for those places where our Saviour performed his miracles, and
finished the work of redemption. Peter the hermit, a native of
Amiens in Picardy, had made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and being
deeply affected with the dangers to which the pilgrims were
exposed, as well as the oppressions which the eastern Christians
endured, formed the bold design of leading into Asia, from the
furthest extremities of the west, armies sufficient to subdue that
warlike nation, which then possessed the holy land. This fanatical
monk ran from province to province, with a crucifix, exciting
princes and people to the holy war; and wherever he came kindled
the same enthusiastick ardour with which he himself was animated.
People of all ranks caught the contagion; not only the
gallant nobles of the age with their martial followers, but men in
the more humble and pacifick stations in life; ecclesiasticks of every
order, and even women and children engaged with emulation in
an undertaking which was deemed sacred and meritorious. If we
may believe the concurring testimony of cotemporary authors,
six millions of persons assumed the cross, which was the badge that
distinguished such as devoted themselves to this holy warfare. Nor
did the fumes of this enthusiastick zeal evaporate at once; the
phrenzy was as lasting as it was extravagant. During two centuries
Europe seems to have had no object but to recover, or keep possession
of the holy land; and during this period vast armies continued
to march to Palestine.Robertson’s History of Charles V.
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 22.
who massacred T4v 224
vast numbers of them. Under the idea
of procuring a blessing on their expedition,
they destroyed the descendants of those, who
crucified our Saviour. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 609.

Notwithstanding all the persecutions the
Jews suffered in Spain during the 1001 < x < 1100eleventh
century
, many rabbis appeared, who were distinguished
for ability and learning. Samuel
Cophni
, a native of Cordova, published a commentary
on the Pentateuch, the manuscript of
which is still extant in the Vatican library.
Soon after him flourished the five Isaacs at
nearly the same period; one of whom, called
Isaac Alphesi, came from Africa to Spain.
He was esteemed the most learned man of his
age; and was chosen chief of the captivity in
this kingdom. The second of the Isaacs was
the son of Baruch, who derived his origin from
the ancient Baruch, and pretended, that his
family came to Spain as early as the reign of
Titus, and had subsisted there till this time.
He understood Latin, Greek, and Arabic;
and was so profoundly versed in mathematicks,
that the king of Grenada, who was a passionate
admirer of this science, sent for him to court
in order to receive his instructions. This
monarch treated him with such flattering distinction,
that he continued to reside at his court T5r 225
till his death, which took place 10071007. The
other three Isaacs were also men of distinguished
ability and learning. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 609. Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 256.

The number of famous rabbis, who appeared
in Spain during the 1001 < x < 1100eleventh and 1101 < x < 1200twelfth
centuries
, gave rise to disputes respecting the
utility of studying the sciences. Those who
had acquired a taste for literature ardently wished
to make farther improvements. According
to Enfield, Enfield’s Philosophy, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 204. “the attention, which was paid
to the writings of Aristotle, To facilitate the study of Aristotle among the Jews, his writings
were translated from the Arabic to the Hebrew tongue. Several
other ancient works, particularly the Elements of Euclid, and
the medical writings of the Greeks, towards the close of the 1201 < x < 1300thirteenth
century
, appeared in a Hebrew dress.
both by Arabians
and Christians, excited the emulation of
the Jews, who addicted themselves to the study
of the Peripatetic philosophy. This innovation,
so inconsistent with the reverence which
they professed to entertain for the law and
traditions of their fathers, was exceedingly
displeasing to the zealous advocates for Talmudic
learning, who easily perceived, that as
the one gained ground, the other would decline.”
The ancient curse denounced upon
the Jew who should instruct his son in Grecian T5v 226
learning was revived. But rabbi Solomon-Ben-Abraham,
who taught at Barcelona,
mitigated the severity of this decree, which he
had not sufficient courage to abolish; and pronounced
an anathem and sentence of excommunication
against all, who began to study
Greek before they were twenty years old.
Rabbi Mar, however, restored the Jewish students
to the entire liberty of learning the languages,
as well as the arts and sciences. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 610.

In France, during the 0901 < x < 1000tenth and 1001 < x < 1100eleventh
centuries
, only a few rabbis appeared, who
were distinguished for ability and learning.
The most celebrated among them was rabbi
Gersion
, who flourished in the 1001 < x < 1100eleventh century.
Some suppose he was a native of Germany;
however, he published his book of constitutions
in this kingdom. Though a long time
elapsed before this work met with the approbation
of the other Jewish doctors; yet it was
received as a code of excellent laws about the
year 12041204, and its author dignified with the
title of the “Light of the French Captivity..” Ibid.

Jacob, the son of Jekar, one of Gersion’s
pupils, was a great musician and casuist; and
the succeeding Jewish doctors followed his
decisions with implicit reverence. Rabbi Judah,
another of his disciples, also held a distinguished T6r 227
rank among the learned men of his
nation. He composed a treatise on the rights
of women; and a work on the Jewish calculations
of time. According to his account
their first epocha was from their departure
from Egypt; they began another date from
the period in which they were first governed
by kings; and a third from the time Alexander
the great
first entered Jerusalem, which was
observed till the 0901 < x < 1000tenth century, during which
period rabbi Sherira flourished, and obliged
his nation to date from the creation of the
world. He also published a number of sermons.
Another of Gersion’s pupils, rabbi
Moses Hardarshian
, or the preacher, acquired
a distinguished reputation. He, and rabbi Judah,
introduced the custom of preaching in
the synagogues, which had been much neglected.
The former was the author of a commentary
on Genesis, which has often been
quoted by Christians against the Jews. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 609.

Joseph-Ben-Gorian, known to his nation by
the name of Josippon, is supposed by Basnage
and others, to have been a French rabbi of the
1001 < x < 1100eleventh century. He endeavoured in his
History of the Jews, written in Hebrew, to
pass for the famous historian Josephus, and T6v228
has succeeded with his nation. Priestley’s Letters to the Jews, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 4. David Levi asserts, that
the work called Josephoen Ben Gorian was written by Josephus to
the Jews in Hebrew; and that the other history, to which his
name is prefixed, was written to the Romans in Greek. Levi’s
Letters to Priestley, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 67.
But the
most learned christian writers reject this performance
as spurious, on account of the many
interpolations, modern names, and contradictions,
which are found in this history.

Chap. XIII.

Of the Jews in Hungary during the 1001 < x < 1100eleventh century. Persecution
of this people in Germany and Bohemia. The Crusaders massacre
vast multitudes of them in their march through the cities
of Germany to the holy land. They arrive at Jerusalem, besiege
and take the city, and put all the Jews to death. Of the second
crusade. The Jews are massacred in most parts of Europe.

1092A.D.
1092
.
During the latter part of the 1001 < x < 1100eleventh century,
St. Ladislaus, king of Hungary, convened
a synod, which prohibited the Jews from marrying
christian women, or purchasing slaves
who had embraced this religion. Coloman, his
son and successor, also forbade their making
use of christian slaves; but he permitted them
to buy and cultivate lands within the jurisdiction
of a bishop. These laws clearly demonstrate,
that they were numerous and powerful
in this kingdom. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 616.

U1r 229

The number and power of the Jews had also
become great in Germany; and they had
erected superb synagogues in most of the
principal cities, particularly at Treves, Cologn,
Metz and Francfort. They had passed from
Franconia into Bohemia; and having in the
1001 < x < 1100eleventh century assisted the Christians against
the irruptions of the barbarians, were allowed
the privilege of a synagogue. They suffered
indeed severe persecutions in several parts of
these kingdoms; and the fanaticism of the
populace frequently exposed them to destruction.
A priest named Gotescal, at the head
of fifteen thousand banditti, declared war
against them; and being supported and encouraged
by several monarchs, passed into
Hungary, and committed the most horrid outrages
upon this unhappy people. But at
length it being discovered, that he pillaged the
Christians as well as the Jews, he was surprised
and slain with the greatest part of his
army.

Not long after, the landgrave of Lininghen
declared himself the persecutor of the Jews, and
committed several acts of violence against them.
But on his attempting to penetrate into Hungary,
he was surprised and defeated. The emperour
Henry IV. exerted himself in defence of Vol. I. U U1v 230
this oppressed people; and ordered them to be
reinstated in their abodes and property. This
occasioned fresh complaints against them; and
they were accused of having exaggerated their
losses, in order to enrich themselves by a more
plentiful restitution. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 616.

1096A.D.
1096
.
Soon after, the Crusaders involved them in
the most terrible calamities they had ever experienced
since the reign of Adrian. These
expeditions awakened all the rage of their enemies
against them; and “their population
seemed to have increased only to furnish new
victims.”
The champions of the cross, in
their march through Germany to the holy
land, massacred all who refused to profess the
christian religion. Fifteen hundred were burnt
at Strasburgh, thirteen hundred at Mayence;
and the flames being communicated to the
city, it was in great danger of being reduced
to ashes. Gregoire on the Reformation of the Jews, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 5. This massacre was continued from
the month of --04April till --07July. According to
the Jewish A Modern Jewish author has thus described the miseries his
nation endured from the fury of the Crusaders: “When from his
solitary retreat an enthusiastick hermit preached the crusades to
the nations of Europe, and a part of its inhabitants left their country
to moisten with their blood the plains of Palestine, the knell of
promiscuous massacre tolled before the alarm-bell of war. Millions
of Jews were then murdered to glut the pious rage of the Crusaders.
It was by tearing the entrails of their brethren that these
warriors sought to deserve the protection of Heaven. Skulls of
men and bleeding hearts were offered as holocausts on the altars of
that God who has no pleasure even in the blood of the innoceant
lamb; and ministers of peace were thrown into a holy enthusiasm
by these bloody sacrifices. It is thus that Basil, Treves, Coblentz,
and Cologn, became human shambles.”
Appeal to the Justice of
Kings and Nations
, by M. Michæl Berr.
historians, five thousand of their U2r 231
nation were either slaughtered or drowned;
and the number of those, who preserved their
lives by dissimulation, was much more considerable.
They were so far from exaggerating,
that the christian writers make the
amount of those who were destroyed vastly
greater. The Batavian annalists assert, that
upwards of twelve thousand were slain in their
country; and all agree, that the number of
those who perished in other parts of Germany Metz is, perhaps, the only city in Germany where the Crusaders
did not embrue their hands in the blood of the Jews. Lewis
the young
, on his departure for Palestine, assembled his army in
this place; and yet it is not said, that the Jews received any insult.
The silence of history in this respect amounts to a positive proof,
if we consider, that Metz then had historians. Gregoire, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 242.

was almost incredible. Many, in the phrenzy
of despair, put a period to their own lives.
Even some women at Treves, seeing the
Crusaders approaching, killed their children,
telling them, “that it was much better to send
them into Abraham’s bosom, than to abandon
them to the Christians.”
Some of the men
barricaded their houses, and precipitating U2v 232
themselves, their families, and wealth into the
rivers, or the flames, disappointed the malice,
or at least the avarice of their implacable enemies.
Others, who were less obstinate, fled for
refuge to the palace of Egibert the bishop.
This prelate preached to them a sermon, by
which they pretended to be converted. But,
as soon as the influence of terrour was withdrawn,
all except one resumed their former
religion.

During this period of darkness and fanaticism,
while the publick outcry denounced
vengeance against an unbelieving race, it must
gratify every benevolent heart to catch a feeble
voice in history whispering consolation to
the sufferers in Israel. Our pleasure is increased
when we discover this humanity among
the clergy, who have been often accused of instigating
the persecutions against them. At
Mayence and Spires we find prelates sheltering
them from the fury of the Crusaders, receiving
the fugitives to their houses, and even
causing some of their persecutors to be executed.
The bishop of Spires, in particular,
has been celebrated for his active interference
in their behalf. Gregoire on the Reformation of the Jews, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 5, 6.

1099A.D.
1099
.
After murdering the Jews in the cities
through which they passed, the champions of U3r 233
the cross advanced in order to invest Jerusalem,
which they regarded as the consummation of all
their labours. They took the city This great event took place on the --07-05fifth of July, in the last
year of the 1001 < x < 1100eleventh century. The christian princes and nobles,
after choosing Godfrey of Bouillon king of Jerusalem, began to
settle themselves in their newly conquered countries. Some of
them, however, returned to Europe, in order to enjoy at home the
glory which they had acquired by this popular enterprize. Hume’s
History of England, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 232.
by assault,
after a siege of five weeks; and, impelled by a
mixture of military and religious rage, destroyed
the inhabitants without distinction of sex or
age. Their fury rose to such an height, that
all the Jews, being the successors of those who
had crucified our Saviour, were most inhumanly
put to death. Guthrie’s History of the World, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VII. p. 66.
Gibbon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XI. p. 85.

1147A.D.
1147
.
The persecutions which the Jews suffered
from the Crusaders were not terminated after
the conquest of Jerusalem. Other expeditions
were undertaken in order to secure to the
Christians the possession of the holy land, to
enlarge their conquests, and to recover the
city after it was retaken by the Mahometans. From the time that Jerusalem was taken by the western Christians,
that is from 1099-07-05July 5th. 1099 to the end of year 11621162, the city
was governed by five Latin kings, and the church by eight patriarchs.
Maritie’s Travels.

The second crusade was promoted by the exhortations
of St. Bernard, and supported by U2 U3v 234
the emperour Conrad, and the French king
Lewis VII. The hermit Rodolphus, who
was commissioned to proclaim the holy war
along the banks of the Rhine, earnestly inculcated
upon the German princes the necessity
of exterminating the enemies of Christ within
their own territories. Other preachers followed
his example; and the Jews, seized with
consternation, retired to Nuremberg, and other
cities, in which the emperour kindly received
and protected them. Many of the christian
bishops highly condemned the hermit’s persecuting
doctrine. St. Bernard in particular
severely censured it; and, in a letter to the
archbishop of Metz, advised to have the fiery
zealot banished to his solitude. Not contented,
however, with writing pathetick letters upon
the subject, he repaired to Germany, where he
afforded an efficacious protection to the Jews
by the influence he derived from his talents,
learning, and virtues. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 617. Gregoire, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 6.

The persecution kindled by the Crusaders
was not confined to Germany, but extended
through the greatest part of Europe. The
publick outcry was, “Let us exterminate the
descendants of those, who crucified Jesus
Christ
; and let the name of Israel be no more
remembered.”
But though vast multitudes U4r 235
fell a sacrifice to the bigotry of the princes and
people, a still greater number, driven to despair
by the miseries they suffered, perished by
suicide. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 616.

While our attention is engaged, and our
feelings agitated in reviewing the terrible calamities
which the Jews were compelled to
endure, we may be led to inquire, what are
the causes of the reciprocal hatred which has
subsisted between them and other nations?
A celebrated author, who has deeply interested
himself to ameliorate the condition of this persecuted
nation, has given the following answer
to this query.

“The resistance of the Jews in their last
war against the Romans greatly incensed the
latter, who took every opportunity of inspiring
all the people of the empire with their prejudices.
The Jews, driven from their country,
but continually elevated by the imposture of
false Messiahs, who added fuel to their fanaticism,
could not tamely submit to a foreign
yoke; and they preserved, even to the 0601 < x < 0700seventh
century
, a spirit of sedition, which excited
hatred against them.
Besides, people pardon each other least for
thinking differently in respect to religion; and U4v 236
if there be any religion capable of offending
the vanity of those, who are not followers of it,
without doubt it is that of the Jews. Its divine
author gave it this spirit with a view to
raise a barrier between his people and the corruption
of those idolatrous nations, by whom
they were surrounded. Judaism is an exclusive
worship; and though it imposes the obligation
of universal philanthropy, its singularity
tends to make other men be considered as
odious and profane. As it professes that
there is only one God, the Gentiles revolted
against a dogma which sapped the very foundation
of Paganism; besides, they never spoke
of circumcision, the most ancient of all rites,
but with a smile of derision; and the passage
from ridicule to contempt is immediate. It is
a principle in morals, that people do not hate
what they despise; but the misfortunes of the
Jews have rendered them an exception. Contempt
consigned them to disgrace, and fury to
torture. The Christians, beholding in them
the authors of a Deicide, sometimes forgot the
example of their Founder, who, when upon
the cross, implored forgiveness for his executioners.
Mahomet at first shewed a great
respect for the Jews; but this sentiment
soon gave place to fury. His Koran was filled
with violent declamation against men, enemies U5r 237
to his doctrine; and the Mussulmans, who argued
with the sabre, included the Jews in the
proscription of all religions different from
Islamism. Length of time gave strength to
this animosity, which became hereditary, because
fathers took care to inspire it into their
children. Soon after, it was supposed that
the Jews, irritated, but too weak to oppose
striking vengeance to barbarous oppression,
privately occasioned publick misfortunes; and
the vulgar, adopting this idea without examination,
massacred them in the most brutal
manner. The Jews, forced to follow usurious
practices, when they became rich excited envy
by their opulence, which rendered them
still more odious. Such are the sources of
the hatred which the whole world have sworn
against the Jewish people, and of the persecution
that has every where followed them.
The result of these events exhibits action
and re-action. The Jews of the same sect
have always been united together, because
there was little disproportion among them of
rank and fortune, and very little luxury. Their
years of Jubilee brought them very near to the
primitive equality, which civil institutions continually
destroy; and their misfortunes have
made this union closer, and strengthened its
ties. But, being banished, proscribed, and U5v 238
every where abused, can they entertain any
affection for their tyrants? They must indeed
conceive an aversion to all those who are
leagued against them; and particularly to the
Christians, whom they consider as guilty intruders,
for having eclipsed their religious
splendour.”
The above extract is made from the English translation of Gregoire’s
Essay on the Physical, Moral, and Political Reformation of
the Jews
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 30, 31, 32.

Chap. XIV.

State of the Jews in various parts of the east in the 1101 < x < 1200twelfth century.
Of the princes of the captivity. The Israelites were numerous
in Egypt, but only a small number was found in Palestine. Of
those in the Turkish dominions, and in Italy, Germany, and
France. St. Bernard exerts his influence in their behalf. They
are favoured by pope Innocent II. and Alexander III. They become
powerful in Spain during the reign of Alphonso VIII.

1178A.D.
1178
.
Benjamin of Tudela, a city in Navarre, in
the 1101 < x < 1200twelfth century visited many regions both
in the east and west for the purpose of ascertaining
the situation of the Jewish people. He
published an account of his travels, This work has been translated from the Hebrew into the
French, by J. P. Barratier.
and gave
a minute relation of whatever was honourable
and interesting to his nation. He even invented
new countries, and mentioned kingdoms
and cities, which did not then exist. A
learned modern author, speaking of this work, U6r 239
and that of rabbi Petachiah, who travelled
about the same period, observes, that “a wish
to magnify the importance of their brethren is
discernible in the writings of both; and, for
their extreme credulity, both are justly censured.
But, after every reasonable deduction
is made on these accounts from the credibility
of their narrative, much will still remain to
interest an intelligent and cautious reader.” Butler’s Horæ Biblicæ.

Benjamin informs us, that the Jews in the
east, in the 1101 < x < 1200twelfth century, enjoyed the peaceable
exercise of their religion; and possessed
several considerable synagogues. Four thousand
of his brethren inhabited Bassorah, an
island on the Tigris. Seven thousand resided
at Almozal, answering to the ancient Nineveh.
In this city our traveller found Zaccheus, a
prince descended from the house of David,
and a Jewish astronomer named Beren al
Pherec
, who officiated as a chaplain to Zin
Aldin, It may appear surprising, that a Jewish astronomer should be
chaplain to a Mahometan prince; but many of the Jews were induced
to temporize, either through fear, or interested motives.

Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 262.
a Mahometan king. Passing through
Rehoboth, in his way to Bagdat, he discovered
three thousand Jews; and five hundred at
Karchemish, famed for the defeat of Pharoaaoh U6v 240
Necho
, and situate on the banks of the Euphrates.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 619.

The celebrated academy of Pundebita had
lost much of its original grandeur, and contained
only a few learned rabbis, who superintended
about two thousand of their brethren,
part of whom applied themselves to the study
of the law. The academy of Sora was also in
a decayed condition; and that of Nahardea
was only famed for a synagogue, which its
superstitious inhabitants had built of materials
conveyed from Jerusalem. The great men,
who formerly resided in the eastern countries,
had fled to the west; and the Jewish academies
declined in consequence of their departure.
But, though there were but few learned rabbis
in the east, the Jews, according to our author’s
account, were still numerous; he informs us
he found ten thousand of them at Obkeray,
which city he pretends was built by king Jechoniah
during the Babylonian captivity. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.620.

Benjamin arrived at Bagdat during the reign
of the caliph Mostanged, who highly favoured
his nation, and retained a number of Jews in
his service. This prince was well versed in
the Hebrew language, and had acquired some
knowledge of the Mosaic law. The city of V1r 241
Bagdat contained about one thousand Jews,
who possessed twenty eight synagogues. They
were also allowed ten tribunals, under the direction
of ten eminent men of their nation,
who were chosen to transact their affairs.
These chiefs were, however, subordinate to
the prince of the captivity. Benjamin asserts,
that the person who then enjoyed this dignity
was styled lord by the Jews, and by the Mahometans,
the son of David, he being, according
to our author, lineally descended from
that monarch. His authority extended over
all his brethren in the dominions of the caliph;
and from Syria to Indostan. Our traveller
also affirmed, that this chief received regal
honours; had an hundred guards to escort
him when he visited the caliph; and, that a
herald marched before him crying, “prepare
the way for the Lord, the son of David.”
The
Jewish people in the most remote parts were,
he says, obliged to receive their teachers from
him by the imposition of hands; and he was
enabled to support his dignity by the large
presents and tribute, which he received from
his nation. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 620.

The existence of a succession of these imaginary
potentates has been strenuously maintainedVol. I. V V1v 242
by Jewish authors. Their views were
to aggrandize the glory of their nation, and
deprive Christians of the force of the argument
furnished by the prophecy of Jacob, concerning
the termination of the Jewish polity and independence
speedily after the coming of the
Messiah. Gisborne on the Christian Religion.

Some of the most learned of the Jewish rabbis,
however, acknowledge, that the regal and
judicial power has been abolished. David
Kimki
lamented the calamities of his nation,
foretold by the prophet Hosea, and exclaimed,
that “he saw in his time the accomplishment
of the oracle; and those days of exile, in which
there was neither prince or king of the house
of David; but on the contrary, they were
subjected to other nations.”
Abravanel also
observes, that “Isaiah speaks of a new calamity
the Jews were to suffer, viz. that they
should have neither kingdom, sovereignty,
nor judicial sceptre.”
The testimony of
these eminent men clearly evinces, that the
Israelites, deprived of jurisdiction in their native
country, possessed only the shadow of authority
in the east. Even Benjamin confesses,
that his nation was tributary, that the synagogues
were maintained by means of a patent V2r 243
given by the caliph, when he was promoted to
the regal dignity; that the prince of the captivity
purchased his privileges and grandeur;
and that he received his power from this monarch
by the imposition of hands. The persecution, which the Jews in the east suffered in the
preceding century renders it probable, that our author’s account
of the grandeur of the prince of the captivity is greatly exaggerated.
Yet still he acknowledges, that his dignity was purchased
by a tribute to the caliph, and by large presents to his officers.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 20. Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 264 .

Leaving the province of Bagdat, our traveller
passed through Resen, where he found
five thousand of his brethren, who possessed a
spacious synagogue. In Hila, about five miles
from ancient Babylon, he discovered four synagogues,
and ten thousand Jews. Passing eastward,
he arrived at the banks of the river Chebar,
where he found sixty synagogues. He
asserted, that the prophet Ezekiel was buried
on the banks of this river; that his tomb was
preserved; and that both Jews and Persians
resorted to it as a place of devotion. In Cufa,
once the metropolis of the caliphs, he discovered
nearly seven thousand of his nation, who
possessed only one synagogue. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 620.

Our traveller found the Jews numerous in
Egypt, and computed thirty thousand of them
in one city upon the frontiers of Ethiopia. V2v 244
There were about two thousand Israelites and
two synagogues at Misraim, at present Grand
Cairo
. The chief of all the synagogues in Egypt
resided in this city; appointed the Jewish doctors;
and supported the interest of his nation.
Several parts of the land of Goshen were inhabited
by Jews; two hundred were found in
one place, in another five hundred; and nearly
three thousand in the city of Goshen. About
the same number resided at Alexandria, and
but a few at Damietta. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 620.

Our author found at Tyre about four hundred
of his nation, most of whom were employed
in the glass manufacture. There were,
however, a few learned men among them, who
were well versed in the Talmud. The Samaritans
having abandoned their ancient capital,
some of them retired to Cesarea, where he
found about two hundred, and one hundred
at Sichem, which had become the seat of their
religion. They were extremely strict in
solemnizing their festivals, and offering their
sacrifices on Mount Gerizim. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 622.

In Jerusalem, the ancient capital of the Jewish
religion, Benjamin found only two hundred
of his nation, who all resided together,
and made but a mean figure in the metropolis. V3r 245
They were not numerous in other cities of Judea;
in one of which he found only two, in
another twenty. Shunan contained about
three hundred. At Ascalon there were five
hundred and fifty three, Jews and Samaritans.
Upper Galilee contained a larger number;
many of the Israelites retired into this
province after the destruction of Jerusalem,
and founded the famous academy of Tiberias.
Yet he discovered only one synagogue in this
part of Judea. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 622.

From Palestine our author passed into
Greece, and found two hundred Jews, who resided
in and about Mount Parnassus, and obtained
a subsistence by cultivating vegetables.
There were three hundred of this nation at
Corinth, and two thousand at Thebes, who
were either dyers, or silk weavers. There
were a small number at Lepanto, Patras, and
other parts of the Turkish empire; but they
were neither numerous nor affluent. When
Benjamin arrived at Constantinople, he discovered
about two thousand of his nation,
who resided in the suburb called Galata, or
Pera, where they had formerly been settled by
the emperour Theodosius. They were all
silk weavers, or merchants. There were besides
five hundred Caraites, who were separated by V2 V3v 246
a wall from the other Jews, in order to prevent
all intercourse between them. The remnants
of the nation in the Ottoman empire
were forbidden to ride on horses throughout
the streets of the cities; and were hated and
insulted both by Turks and Greeks. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 624.

From Constantinople our traveller passed
into Italy; and relates the dissensions, which
then reigned between the inhabitants of Genoa,
Pisa, and other republican cities. He observes,
that the Jews were few in these parts; and that
whatever party gained the ascendancy, they
were sure to be oppressed. When he repaired
to Rome, he found his brethren more numerous;
among whom were several learned
doctors, particularly rabbi Jechiel, who was
superintendant of the pope’s finances. Capua
was no less famed for the number and learning
of her doctors, though the city contained only
three hundred Jews. Benjamin reckoned five
hundred at Naples, two hundred at Salermo.
There were others settled at Benevento, Ascoli,
and Trani. The islands of Sicily and Corsica
also contained a considerable number of
Jews; particularly the former, where he discovered
about two hundred at Messina, and five
hundred at Palermo. Modern Universal Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 274.

V4r 247

Our traveller passed from Italy into Germany,
where he asserts, that he found his nation
not only more numerous and affluent, Benjamin wrote an account of his travels about 11701170; in seventy
years, the Jews had recovered from the massacres of the Crusaders,
mentioned in the preceding chapter.Gibbon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 26.
but also
more learned, devout, and hospitable to strangers.
They lamented the desolation of their
city and temple; and earnestly expected a
glorious recall to their once happy country.
Those, however, who dwelt upon the banks of
the Rhine, were uneasy on account of the long
delay of the Messiah’s appearance; and Benjamin
confesses he was not able to console them
by what he related respecting the state of their
nation in the east. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 624.

He concluded his tour with visiting the synagogues
in France, in some of which he found
but few Jews. Three hundred of his brethren
resided at Narbonne, under the direction of the
famous rabbi Calonymo, who had acquired
great power and wealth, and was said to have
been lineally descended from king David. In
Montpelier there were many Jews, as well as
Turks and Greeks, who resorted thither from
foreign parts.

Lunel, a city in Languedoc, contained an
academy, in which the Jews studied the divine V4v 248
law with intense application. Our author also
discovered an assembly at Paris, who were devoted
to the study of the law, and received
those of their nation who repaired to the city
from foreign parts as brethren. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 624.

It appears from the above account, and that
of rabbi Petachiah, Rabbi Petachiah gives an account of some Jews he found in
Tartary, who did not observe the traditions of the fathers. Upon
his inquiring why they neglected the observance of these traditions,
they answered, they had never heard of them. Modern Universal
History
.
a native of Ratisbon, who
visited his nation at nearly the same period, that
the Jews were in a declining state in many
countries. In particular, their number was
greatly diminished on the banks of the Euphrates;
and in the ancient cities where they
were formerly computed to have amounted to
nine hundred thousand.

1147A.D.
1147
.
St. Bernard, whose humanity to the Jews
has been noticed in the preceding chapter,
continued to repress the violence of their enemies.
He alleged, that it was necessary to
tolerate them at present, in order to effect their
future conversion; and made use of his influence
over pope Innocent II. to inspire him
with the same sentiments of gentleness and
forbearance. When this pontiff made his
grand entrance into Paris, they approached V5r 249
him with profound respect, and presented him
the roll, or volume of their law. Upon receiving
it from their hands, he returned this
answer, “I reverence the law given by God
to Moses, but condemn your exposition of it,
because you still expect the Messiah, whom
the catholick church believes to be Christ,
who liveth and reigneth with the Father, and
the Holy Ghost.”
His successor, Alexander
III.
also favoured and protected the Jews, and
prohibited the people from insulting them on
their sabbaths, festivals, or any other occasion.
Under such powerful patronage, they became
flourishing, affluent, and learned in Rome, and
1170A.D.
1170
.
several other cities in Italy. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 634.

The Jews were no less powerful in Spain
during part of the 1101 < x < 1200twelfth century. One of
them named Joseph was prime minister to Alphonso
VIII.
and had a coach of state, and
guards to attend him. At length, however,
he was expelled from his office, by the treachery
and intrigues of Gonzales, one of his dependents,
who, having incurred the displeasure
of his benefactor by his criminal conduct,
resolved to escape the punishment he deserved
by effecting his ruin. Under pretence of filling
the monarch’s coffers, this wretch prevailed
upon Alphonso to grant him eight of the principal V5v 250
Jews. These he caused to be put to
death, and confiscated their effects. He
next offered a much larger sum for twenty
more. But the king thought it more honourable
to seize their estates for defraying his expenses,
than to deprive them both of their lives
and property. This unhappy people, who rejoiced
to be able to purchase their lives and
liberty upon any terms, voluntarily poured immense
sums into the treasury. Gonzales was
soon after imprisoned by the king, and his fall
established their tranquillity. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 635.

Alphonso was afterwards induced to treat
the Jews with great indulgence in consequence
of his passion for a beautiful young Jewess,
named Rachel, to whom he sacrificed his honour
and interest. Her countrymen, seizing
the advantage, grew extremely powerful and
insolent, and the court and clergy were offended
at the haughtiness of their behaviour. At
length, the fury of their enemies rose to such
an height, that they caused the young Jewess
to be murdered. The nation, however, derived
essential benefit from this prosperous
epoch, and became numerous and affluent.
Rabbi Eliakim, who was highly esteemed in
Spain, and composed his ritual of all the ceremonies
used in every synagogue, commonly V6r 251
styled, The Ritual of the Universe, has
computed that there were twelve thousand
Jews in the city of Toledo. They were also
in a flourishing state at Andalusia, where great
numbers applied to the study of theology and
the sciences. At length, they divided themselves
into three different sects, of which Maimonides,
who lived at this time, has given an
account. This division was regarded by him
as one of the fatal consequences of the abolition
of the sanhedrim. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 635.

Chap. XV.

Of the learned men who flourished among the Jews during the
1101 < x < 1200twelfth century. An account of the impostors who pretended
to be the Messiah, and of the calamities in which they involved
their nation during this period.

During the 1101 < x < 1200twelfth century many celebrated
Jewish rabbis appeared, whose abilities and
learning did honour to their nation; and whose
writings have furnished assistance towards understanding
the Old Testament. They often,
however, instead of explaining the literal sense,
eagerly searched after mystical and allegorical
interpretations; and gave a tedious and minute
detail of the ceremonies, which had caused
them to relinquish the spirit of their law. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.625.

V6v 252

Nathan Ben Jechiel is ranked among the
great men, who appeared in the 1101 < x < 1200twelfth century.
He was the author of a work called
Harak, in which he explained all the terms in
the Talmud in so copious a manner, that he
has exhausted the subject. He was chief of
the Jewish academy at Rome; and died in that
city in the year 11061106. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 625.

Abraham Ben Ezra, one of the greatest men
of his age and nation, was born at Toledo in
Spain, and styled by the Jews, the wise, great,
and admirable doctor. He travelled for the
purpose of acquiring knowledge; and far excelled
his brethren in sacred and profane literature.
A learned Italian writer De Rossic’s Hebrew Biography. Enfield’s Philosophy. asserts, that
“he was an able philosopher, physician, astronomer,
mathematician, grammarian, and poet;
and, that he was so well versed in Hebrew,
Chaldaic, Arabic, and other languages, that
he composed in them all with great facility.”

His method of explaining the scriptures differed
from the other rabbis; for instead of seeking
after mystic interpretations, he generally adhered
to the literal meaning; and gave such
proofs of his genius and good sense, that the
Christians prefer him to the other Jewish expositors.
His most celebrated work is, Commentaries W1r 253
on the Old Testament. He also wrote various theological, grammatical, mathematical,
and astrological works, many of which remain in ancient libraries,
not yet edited.
He died
at Rhodes, 11741174, in the seventy fifth year of
his age. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 626.

Moses Maimonides, who was eminently distinguished
among the learned men of this age,
was born of an illustrious family at Cordova in
Spain, in the year 11311131. He boasted of being
descended from the house of David, as did
many of the Spanish Jews. He made such a
rapid progress in science and literature, that his
countrymen styled him the “eagle of doctors;”
and asserted, that “of all their nation
none ever so nearly approached to the wisdom
and learning of their great founder and lawgiver
as Moses the son of Maimon.”
At
length, however, the superiority of his genius,
and the vast fund of knowledge which he acquired,
excited the envy and jealousy of the
Jews. Perhaps also his connexion with Averroes,
a celebrated Arabian philosopher, who
was one of his preceptors, might have led him
to adopt obnoxious opinions. His writings,
particularly his Morch Nevochim, or resolution
of doubtful questions, soon raised him many
opponents. The design of this work was Vol. I. W W1v 254
to explain the meaning of several difficult and
obscure words, phrases, metaphors, parables,
allegories, &c. in scripture. It was written for
the benefit of those who were in doubt whether
they should interpret such passages according
to the letter, or rather figuratively and
metaphorically. It was asserted by many at
this time, that the Mosaic rites and statutes
had no foundation in reason; but were ordained
by God upon a principle purely arbitrary.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 627. Biographical Dictionary.

On the other side, Maimonides argued, that
the Mosaic dispensation in general was instituted
with a wisdom worthy of its divine
author, and explained the causes and reasons
of each particular branch of it. But he exhibited
less respect for the decisions of the
Talmud, than the other Jewish doctors who
preceded him. Those of his nation who were
most attached to these fables were highly offended.
Rabbi Solomon, then chief of the
synagogues at Montpelier, persuaded the doctors
who studied under him to engage in defence
of the Talmud. Accordingly they not
only opposed the doctrine of Maimonides, but
endeavoured to blast his reputation. They
burnt his works, and excommunicated those W2r 255
who read them, and addicted themselves to the
study of philosophy. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 627. Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 287.

The rabbis of Narbonne, with the great David
Kimki
at their head, exerted all their eloquence
in defence of Maimonides, and excommunicated
their brethren at Montpelier.
This contention lasted forty years, and called
forth the abilities of the learned men on both
sides of the question. The schism to which
this dispute gave rise was abolished in 12321232.

Maimonides, finding his residence in Spain
troublesome and hazardous, removed to Egypt,
and settled at Cairo. His knowledge of the
healing art induced the sultan of Egypt to
choose him for his physician; and he employed
his credit at court in protecting his nation.
He also founded an academy at Alexandria for
their benefit, and gained many pupils from
various countries. They were, however, soon
dispersed by persecution. Some assert, that
this great man died in Egypt 12011201; others,
that his death took place in Palestine 12051205. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 637.

This learned Jew was not only master of
many eastern languages, which was a singular
accomplishment in his time, but was well
versed in the Greek tongue, and had read the
works of the Grecian philosophers, whom he W2v 256
frequently quotes. He was celebrated for his
knowledge of the arts and sciences, as well as
languages; was eminently distinguished as a
physician; and in Talmudic learning excelled
all his cotemporaries. Enfield’s Philosophy, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 205. His writings are too
numerous to be particularly mentioned. He was the author of twenty five noted works, besides some
others of less importanceimportance.Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII.
p. 271
.

Solomon Ben Isaac Jarki is ranked among
the illustrious rabbis of the 1101 < x < 1200twelfth century.
He was born 11041104, at Troyes in Champagne,
in France. Having acquired a large fund of
Jewish learning, he travelled through Germany,
Italy, Greece, Jerusalem, Palestine and Egypt,
where he had an interview with Maimonides.
From Egypt he passed to Persia, and thence
to Tartary and Muscovy. After his return
to Europe, he visited all the academies, and
disputed against the professors, upon any
questions proposed by them. He was well
versed in physick and astronomy, and master of
several languages besides the Hebrew. He
wrote Commentaries on the Pentateuch, and
some of the Prophets; also on the Gemara
which procured him the title of Prince of Commentators.
He died at Troyes, 11801180. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 657. General Biographical Dictionary.

W3r 257

The family of the Kimkis has been eminently
distinguished in the annals of Jewish
literature. Joseph Kimki was a man of great
learning, but a violent enemy to the Christians,
whom he inveighed against in his writings.
David Kimki, his son, one of the most zealous
defenders of Maimonides, flourished in Spain
at the end of the 1101 < x < 1200twelfth, and at the commencement
of the 1201 < x < 1300thirteenth century. This celebrated
rabbi far excelled his father in ability
and learning, and had not imbibed such strong
prejudices against the Christians. His writings
have been held in such high estimation by his
nation, that they supposed it impossible to attain
to any eminence in letters and theology
without studying them. He composed a
grammar and dictionary of the Hebrew language,
by which he acquired the reputation of
excelling all the Jews who preceded him in
grammatical knowledge. He also was the
author of a Commentary on the Psalms, and
other books of the Old Testament. Part of
this work has been translated into Latin, and
inserted in the Bibles of Venice and Basil.
Moses Kimki, his brother, was also distinguished
for his learning; and has written a
treatise, styled the Garden of Delight, the W2 W3v 258
manuscript of which was preserved in the Vatican
library. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 630.

Three celebrated rabbis, named Levi, or
Halevi, appeared during the 1101 < x < 1200twelfth century.
Abraham Halevi was a learned cabbalistical
Jew, who, having placed himself at the head
of the traditional party, violently attacked the
Caraites; but, being inferiour to them in point
of argument, he had resource to Alphonso
VII.
for whom he had performed signal services,
and who rewarded him by commanding
his opponents to be silent. Ibid.

Juda Levi was the author of the Cosri, a
polemical treatise on religion, especially the
Jewish; and a pathetick elegy, in which he
deplored the destruction of Jerusalem. This elegy has been translated by Mr. Bing, and inserted in a
note of Gregoire’s work on the Reformation of the Jews, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 280.

Another learned rabbi, named Judas Halevi,
was born at Cologn; and after many conferences
with the Christians became a convert,
and was baptized by the name of Herman.
After he embraced christianity, he entered
among the regular canons of St. Augustine. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 630.

Some learned Jewish women appeared during
the 1101 < x < 1200twelfth century. The rabbi Petachiah,
who visited the synagogues of his nation at W4r 259
that period, has asserted, that the daughter of
the prince of the captivity was so well versed
in the law and Talmud, that many resorted to
her for instruction, and that she read lectures
through the lattice of her window, in order to
be heard without being seen by her pupils.

It appears from the Jewish annals, that some
of the nation have been raised to the highest
offices in the courts of princes. Others have
acquired applause at the head of armies; in
particular, the celebrated don Solomon, a Portuguese
Jew, who was as much distinguished
for his knowledge in philosophy, as for his
skill in the military department. His merit
raised him, in 11901190, to the dignity of field-master-general;
and he discharged the duties of
his office with such fidelity, that he soon obtained
the command of the whole army. The
envy and jealousy of the Grandees was at length
excited by his valour and success. But he
subdued their enmity by his remarkable humility
and moderation. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 630.

In the 1101 < x < 1200twelfth century several learned Jews
renounced their religion. For instance, Samuel
Ben Jehudah
, or, as he is commonly called,
Asmouil, deserted the synagogue, and professed
the Mahometan faith. In order to
prove the sincerity of his conversion, in 11741174 W4v 260
he wrote a book against his nation, in which he
charges them with having altered the law of
Moses. This accusation was received with
such applause by the Mahometans, that they
forbade the quoting or translating any part of
the Pentateuch according to the Jewish or
Christian copies. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 630.

One of the christian converts received the
name of Peter Alphonso at his baptism. After
he deserted the synagogue, he wrote dialogues
against the Jews, and was appointed physician
to Alphonso VII. king of Castile and Leon.
He died in the year 11081108. Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 291.

It is indeed surprising, that the learned rabbis
of the 1101 < x < 1200twelfth century did not sufficiently
enlighten their nation as to prevent their being
frequently duped by impostors. But the number
of those who appeared in this age was
greater than in any preceding or subsequent
century. In 11371137, a false Christ arose in
France, and engaged his followers to hold unlawful
assemblies. In consequence of the impostor’s
crimes, the government caused many
of the synagogues to be demolished. But at
length he and a large number of his followers
were apprehended and put to death. Jortin’s Remarks, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 301.

W5r 261

The following year the Persians were disturbed
by a Jew who called himself the Messiah;
and collected a formidable army of his
nation. The Persian monarch hired him to
disband his soldiers; but when the stipulated
sum was paid, the king finding himself out of
danger, compelled the disarmed Jews to reimburse
him the money, and caused the impostor
to be beheaded. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 632.

In 11571157, another false Messiah appeared in
Spain. He was a native of Cordova, and was
supported in his imposture by one of the greatest
rabbis in that city, who had previously
written a book to prove the near approach of
his manifestation by the stars. The majority
of the most intelligent Jews regarded him as
insane; but the great body of this infatuated
people believed in him, and many were ruined
by their blind credulity. Ibid. Jortin’s Remarks, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 304.

Ten years after, another impostor declared
that the Messiah would manifest himself in the
course of a year. This person appeared in the
kingdom of Fez, and involved the Jews, who
were dispersed through the country, in a new
persecution.

The same year an Arabian Jew assumed the
title of the Messiah, and pretended to work
miracles, and gained many followers. But at W5v 262
length he was apprehended, and brought before
the Arabian king. When he was questioned
by the monarch, what had induced him
to act this imposture, he boldy replied, that he
was indeed a prophet sent from God. The
king then asked him, what miracle he could
perform to confirm his mission? Cut off my
head, said he, and I will return to life again. This is supposed to have been an artifice of the impostor, who
preferred a speedy death to the cruel and lingering torture to which
he would otherwise have been exposed.

The monarch took him at his word, promising
to believe in him, if his prediction was fulfilled.
After his death his deluded followers
cherished the expectation, that though he did
not immediately rise from the dead, he would
at length reanimate their hopes by his appearance.
But they were compelled to give up
the idea, and were severely fined and punished
for their blind credulity. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 632.

Some time after, a Jew who dwelt beyond
the Euphrates, called himself the Messiah, and
drew vast multitudes after him. He founded
his pretensions on his having been a leper, and
being wonderfully healed in one night of this
obstinate disease. The Jewish doctors soon
persuaded him and his followers, that this supposed
miracle was not a sufficient evidence of W6r 263
his mission. The populace became ashamed
of their blind credulity; but, as they had taken
arms in his cause, a fresh persecution was raised
against them. One of their writers informs
us, that, exhausted with their sufferings on his
account, ten thousand of this miserable people
renounced their religion; which has rendered
the memory of this impostor odious to the
whole nation. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 632.

In the year 11741174, another pretended Messiah
arose in Persia. This impostor seduced
multitudes of the common people, and involved
his nation in a new and severe persecution.

A Jews, named David Almusser, appeared in
Moravia, in the year 11961196, who set up for the
Messiah, and boasted that he possessed the
power of rendering himself invisible whenever
he pleased. Vast multitudes followed him,
and were deceived by his artifice. In order to
prevent the ill consequences of his popularity,
the king promised him his life on condition
that he would surrender himself. He complied;
but the prince caused him to be imprisoned.
He had the address, however, to
escape; and for some time eluded all pursuit.
At length the king summoned the Jews to deliver
him up; and, in order to avoid a fresh W6v 264
persecution, they complied. He was put to
death, and a heavy fine imposed upon his nation.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 632. Jortin’s Remarks, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 304.

David Alroi, or El-David, was the most
famous impostor, who appeared during the
1101 < x < 1200twelfth century. He was a native of Almaria,
which city contained about one thousand Jews,
who paid tribute to the king of Persia. In the
year 11991199 he assumed the title of the Messiah;
and being a man of learning, and well versed
in all the arts of deception, he attracted many
followers. After he had deluded the populace
by his pretended miracles, he prevailed upon
them to arm themselves in his cause. The
Persian king, alarmed at the rapid progress of
the insurgents, commanded the impostor to repair
to court, promising, that if he proved himself
the Messiah, he would acknowledge him
as a king, sent from heaven. El-David, contrary
to expectation, obeyed the summons,
and assured the king that he was really the
Messiah. Upon which he was ordered to be
imprisoned till he could prove his mission by
extricating himself by a miracle. He had the
address to escape, and though the king despatched
messengers in search of the impostor,
they were unable to find and apprehend him.
But at length, upon a promise of receiving ten X1r 265
thousand crowns, his father-in-law consented
to betray and put him to death. Vast numbers
who had been deluded by him were cruelly
slaughtered. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 633.

After giving an account of the false Messiahs
who appeared among the Jews, Dr. Jortin
remarks, “It may seem strange they should
have rejected Christ, who gave them so many
proofs of his mission, and yet should follow
every impostor who pretended to be the Messiah,
without offering any sufficient or even
plausible evidence of it. The reason is plain;
our Saviour, by not setting up a temporal kingdom,
dashed all their worldly views at once;
but the claimers of the title of Messiah began
with promises of delivering them from their
enemies, and restoring to them their country,
and their lost liberties.” Jortin’s Remarks, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 319.

Vol. I. X X1v 266

Chap. XVI.

Of the Jews in England. William the conqueror brings a colony
of them into the kingdom. They are favoured by William Rufus.
Henry II. grants them new cemeteries in London. They
are massacred at the coronation of Richard I. Their sufferings
from the Crusaders. Five hundred perish by suicide in York
Castle
. Of the cruel oppression they suffered under king John.
They are also oppressed by Henry III. They are accused of
adulterating the coin; two hundred and eighty are executed for
that crime in London. They are expelled from England by
Edward I.

It is difficult to ascertain at what period the
Jews first settled in England. From the spread of christianity among the Britons, previous
to its establishment by Constantine, it is reasonable to suppose
there had been some Jews in England at an early period. It appears,
that the inroads of the Saxons and Danes, having obliterated
much of the imperfect conversion of the native inhabitants of
Britain, the Jews, it is said, with singular liberality, patronized the
civilization of these barbarous heathens, by endowing christian
monasteries.Monthly Magazine, &c. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.17961796.
But it appears
that there were considerable numbers
established in the kingdom before the conquest.
Basnage asserts, that the English Jews were banished from the
kingdom in the beginning of the 1001 < x < 1100eleventh century. But does not
mention on what account, or under what monarch the expulsion
took place.
Dr. Tovey, the author of a work called Anglia Judaica, who
has taken great pains to search after the antiquities of the Hebrew
nation in England, contends for the existence of Jews in the
kingdom, coeval with Julius Cæsar, and says nothing of any banishment
of them prior to that of Edward I. Adams’ Religious
World Displayed
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 11.
William the conqueror brought a
large colony of this nation from Rouen to Normandy X2r 267
for a stipulated sum of money, which
they presented him. After he had introduced
them, he assigned them a place to inhabit, and
carry on commerce. It appears by an ancient
law, mentioned by Sir Henry Spelman, that
they were mere vassals to the king, and could
not dispose of their persons or property without
his consent.

During the feudal ages, the Jews appear to
have been the most opulent, polished, and literary
portion of the laity. They were the only
bankers, or, as the vulgar termed them, the
usurers of the times. They conducted what
then existed of foreign trade; and often visited
the civilized south of Europe. They wrought
most of the gold and silver ornaments for
churches.

William Rufus, who was an irreligious
prince, highly favoured this singular people;
and not only permitted, but encouraged them
to enter into solemn contests with his bishops
concerning the true faith. It is said, that he
sent for some learned christian divines and rabbis,
and ordered them fairly to dispute the question
of their religion in his presence; assuring
them he was perfectly indifferent between
them, and that he would embrace that doctrine
which, upon comparison, appeared to be
supported by the most solid arguments. Accordingly, X2v 268
it is related, that there was a publick
meeting of the chief leaders on both sides in
London, where the Jews opposed the Christians
with so much energy, that the bishops
and clergy were not without some solicitude
how the dispute might terminate. No other
class of men were at this time sufficiently enlightened
to engage with the priesthood. Some
young Jews were even so imprudent as to value
themselves upon their infidelity. It has been
asserted, that they became so powerful and
opulent towards the conclusion of the reign of
William Rufus, that they not only held publick
disputes, but endeavoured by pecuniary
bribes and other allurements to induce the
poor to embrace their religion. Hume’s History of England, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 189. Molloy De Jure
Maritimo
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 400.

1177A.D.
1177
.
Henry II. has been highly censured by
Monkish writers for tolerating and protecting
the Jews. They were so numerous in his
reign, that, possessing only one burying ground
in the city of London, they petitioned the king
to allow them some new cemeteries. This request
was granted; and places to inter their
dead were assigned them on the outside of
every city where they dwelt. In this reign
one Joshua, a Jew, furnished the rebels in Ireland
with large sums of money; and their opulence X3r 269
had rendered them so presumptuous as
to ridicule the higher dignitaries of the church.
We may in part attribute to them the spirit
which dictated the constitution of Clarendon. Decrees enacted by the council of Clarendon, which Henry II.
convened in order to check the usurpations of the pope and clergy.
Hume, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I.

IN 11881188, the parliament at Northampton, proposed
to assess them at 60,000 l. and the Christians
at 70,000 l. towards the projected war. The
Jews must, therefore, have been vastly rich, or
the parliament extremely tyrannical. But this
nation, from their first residence in England,
were always considered as vassals to the crown,
who might be pillaged according to the caprice
of the reigning sovereign. Monthly Magazine and British Register, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.17961796. Molloy De
Jure Maritimo
.

1189A.D.
1189
.
When Richard I. ascended the throne, this
people brought large presents in order to secure
the royal protection. Many having hastened
from remote parts of England to Westminster,
the court and populace imagined they
had conspired to bewitch the king, A superstitious idea that the Jews were most of them conjurors
was prevalent during the dark ages.Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 638.
and an
edict was issued to prevent their presence at
the coronation. But considerable numbers,
whose curiosity was greater than their prudence,X2 X3v 270
fancied they might pass unobserved
among the crowd, and ventured to insinuate
themselves into the abbey. Upon being discovered,
they fled in great consternation; but the
people pursued them and murdered several. Hume’s History of England. Smollet’s History of England.

A rumour spread rapidly through the city,
that the king, in honour of the festival, had
given orders for the massacre of the Jews; a
command so aggreeable was instantly executed
on all who fell into the hands of the populace.
Those who remained at home were exposed to
equal danger; the people moved by rapacity
and zeal broke into their houses, which they
plundered, after having murdered the owners.
Where the Jews barricaded their doors and defended
themselves with vigour, the rabble set
fire to the houses, and made way through the
flames to exercise their pillage and violence.
The usual licentiousness of London, which
the sovereign power with difficulty restrained,
broke out with fury, and continued these outrages.
The inhabitants of the other cities of
England, hearing of the slaughter of this unhappy
people in the metropolis, imitated the
example; and, though the government published
a proclamation the day after the coronation,
in order to suppress the fury of the populace, X4r 271
the persecution was continued the greater
part of the year. Hume’s History of England.

This miserable race suffered a still more severe
persecution, when Richard I. impelled
more by the love of glory than by superstition
engaged in the crusades. This was the third crusade. Saladin, the sultan of Egypt and
Syria, had taken the city of Jerusalem from the Christians, and
placed on its walls the banners of Mahomet. This incident rekindled
with fresh fury the zeal of the ecclesiastical military adventurers
among the Christians.
They had furnished
him with vast sums towards the expedition;
but this did not satisfy the people, whose zeal
against an unbelieving race was heightened by
the holy war; and who complained of the conduct
as well as the faith of the Jews. The
prejudices of the age had made the lending of
money on interest pass by the invidious name
of usury; yet the necessity of the practice had
still continued it, and the greater part of this
dealing fell every where into the hands of the
Jews, who, being already infamous on account
of their religion, had no honour to lose. They
were therefore apt to exercise a profession,
odious in itself, by every kind of rigour, and
even sometimes by rapine and extortion. The
industry and frugality of this nation had put
them in possession of all the ready money
which the idleness and profusion, common to X4v 272
the English and other European nations, enabled
them to lend at an exorbitant and unequal
interest. Hume, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 135. The Jews took this extravagant interest with the dreadful prospect
of murder before their eyes, and a certainty of paying a large
portion of it to the king. It is, therefore, natural to suppose, that
a people who were exposed to such cruelties and insults, and had so
uncertain an enjoyment of their riches, would carry usury to the utmost
extremity.Macpherson on Commerce.

Those who were preparing for the holy war,
felt indignant that the enemies of Christ should
abound in wealth, while they, who supposed
themselves his peculiar friends and favourites,
should be obliged to deprive their families of
necessaries in order to defray the expenses of
the crusades. Hence they persuaded themselves
it would be a meritorious act to destroy
the descendants of those who crucified our Saviour,
and apply their wealth to this holy enterprize.
Though the king at his departure had
left orders that they should not be molested;
yet as soon as he quitted the kingdom their
fury broke out anew. They destroyed many
of these wretched people at Norwich, Stamford,
and other places, and seized upon their
property. The murderers took shipping as
soon as possible, and fled to Jerusalem, not so
much as one of them being detained by the X5r 273
magistrates, or any further inquiry made respecting
their injustice and cruelty. Monthly Magazine and British Register, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.17961796.

A still more horrid transaction took place at
York, where the Jews were great usurers; and,
as they lived in a splendid manner, their opulence
excited envy, and increased the hatred
against them. The populace in this city assembled
to inflict the same barbarities upon
them, which their countrymen had suffered
in London, and other places. Upon which,
the principal persons among this people applied
to the governour of York Castle, and prevailed
upon him to grant them an asylum.
The place was sufficiently strong for their defence.
But a suspicion arising, that the governour,
who frequently went out into the city,
had combined with their enemies to destroy
them, they one day refused him entrance. He
complained to the sheriff, and to the heads of
the violent party who were deeply indebt to the
Jews, and was ordered to attack the castle.
The sherriff, however, repented of, and revoked
the order, and the superiour citizens refused
their aid. But, as the fury of the populace
could be appeased only by murder and robbery,
an attack was made. A late writer asserts, that the lender of the rabble who attacked
the castle was a canon regular whose zeal was so fervent, that he
stood by them in his surplice, which he considered as a cost of mail, =
and reiteratedly exclaimed, “Destroy the enemies of Jesus.” This
spiritual laconism invigorated the arm of men, who perhaps wanted
no other stimulative than the hopes of obtaining the immense property
of the besieged. The same author also asserts, that a venerable
rabbi, who was highly esteemed among his brethren, first proposed
to them to perish by suicide, in order to elude the tortures
which they expected would be inflicted upon them if they fell into
the hands of their enemies.Curiosities of Literature, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.V. II. p. 427.
When the Jews X5v 274
found that they could not hold out any longer,
and their offers of purchasing their lives with
money were rejected, they took the horrid resolution
of destroying themselves, one of the
most desperate among them exclaiming in despair,
that “it was better to die courageously
for the law, than to fall into the hands of the
Christians.”
Accordingly, after setting fire to
the towers of the castle, and destroying their
wives and children, they put a period to their
own lives. Five hundred perished at this
time. A few, who surrendered in hopes of
mercy, were murdered by the populace. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 638. Anderson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 224. Macpherson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol.
I. p. 83
.

Immediately after this dreadful catastrophe,
those who were indebted to the Jews, repaired
to the cathedral where the bonds were deposited,
compelled the officer to deliver the obligations,
and discharged their debts by burning
them in the church, with great solemnity.
They also entered and plundered the desolate X6r 275
houses which belonged to the Jews. The
king, incensed at this insult to his authority,
ordered the bishop of Ely, at that time chief
justice of the realm, to make severe examples
of the guilty. But before he arrived in Yorkshire,
the principal offenders had fled into Scotland,
and the city of London, imputing what
had happened to the ungoverned fury of the
multitude, the prelate contented himself with
depriving the high sheriff and governour of their
offices, and levying fines upon the most opulent
of the inhabitants. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 688. Smollet’s History of England, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 227. When the king employed Granville the justiciary to inquire into
the authors of these crimes, the guilt was found to involve so many
of the most considerable citizens, that it was deemed more prudent
to drop the persecution, and very few suffered the punishment due
to this enormity.Hume’s History of England, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 331.

1199A.D.
1199
.
The cruel persecutions which the Jews suffered
during the reign of Richard, had induced
many of the wealthiest among them to leave
the kingdom. The consequent diminution of
the revenue was so sensibly felt, that John, upon
his accession to the throne, used various arts
to allure them to return. He granted them,
upon receiving a large sum of money, a charter
which confirmed all their ancient privileges;
and allowed them to hold land, to build synagogues,
and name an high priest by the title X6v 276
of Presbyter Judeorum. By the canon law no Jews could erect a synagogue; for if they
attempted to build these places of worship they might be seized by
the crown.Matthew Paris’s History of England. Macpherson
on Commerce.
Many of this oppressed
people returned, and were afterwards
more cruelly plundered than ever. Their exorbitant
usury, united with the religious prejudices
of the age, had rendered them so odious to
the people, that they were continually demanding
their expulsion, or rather extermination.
But the English kings found a more advantageous
way of punishing them by heavy fines.
This procedure proved to the Jews, that their
extortions would not only be tolerated, but encouraged,
if they were well paid for. This compelled
them to rise in their demands upon those
who applied to them for the use of money.
And thus a system of usurious oppression was
at the same time prohibited by law, and sanctioned
by the practice of the sovereigns, who
used them as their instruments to fleece the
people in order to fill their own coffers. The kings even went so far as to claim the whole property of
the Jews. They were to reside only in such places as they assigned
them, so that their officers might on all occasions find them and
their families; they were not suffered to remove without special
license. They were banished, executed, and subjected to fines and
ransoms whenever the kings thought proper, and were sold or
mortgaged to those who would advance money or their assignment.
They were always obliged to wear a disgraceful mark of distinction
on their garments. The revenue arising from their wealth was so
great, that there was a particular office established for the management
of it, called the Exchequer of the Jews. Molloy De Jure
Maritimo
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 407, 408.

Y1r 277

1210A.D.
1210
.
King John, regardless of the privileges which
the Jews had purchased from him in the beginning
of his reign, ordered the whole of them,
women as well as men, to be imprisoned and
tormented till they should pay 66,000 marks.
The ransom required from a wealthy Jew of
Bristol was 10,000 marks of silver; and on
his refusing to pay that ruinous fine, he ordered
one of his teeth to be extracted every day,
to which the unhappy man submitted seven
days, and on the eighth agreed to satisfy the
king’s rapacity. Isaac, a Jews of Norwich, became
bound to pay 10,000 marks. It is asserted
by some historians, Matthew Paris. Macpherson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 376. that the king, not
satisfied with the vast sums extorted from this
miserable people, confiscated all their property,
and expelled them from the kingdom. It appears,
however, that they soon returned.

12161216. Henry III. liberated such Jews as were in
prison, and ordered them to be protected
against the cruelty of the Crusaders. The Jews were so deeply alarmed with the persecution which
their brethren in France, Spain, and Germany, suffered at this
time from the Crusaders, that they purchased an edict from the
king to preserve them from similar outrages.Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 678.
In
12331233 this monarch founded a seminary, where Vol. I. Y Y1v 278
Jewish converts might be supported without
labour or usury. This induced many of the
nation to profess christianity; and the house
continued till after their expulsion from England.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 679.

Upon a petition of the inhabitants of Newcastle,
the king granted them the inhospitable
privilege, that no Jew should reside among
them. During this reign the archbishop of
Canterbury, and the bishops of Lincoln and
Norwich, in order to expel the Jews for want
of sustenance, published injunctions through
their respective dioceses, that no Christian
should presume to sell them any provisions
under pain of excommunication. The prior
of Dunstable, however, about the same period,
granted to several Jews liberty to reside within
his domains, in consideration of the annual
payment of two silver spoons. Monthly Magazine, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.17961796.

1235A.D.
1235
.
The Jews of Norwich were accused of having
stolen a christian child and kept him a
year, that they might circumcise and crucify
him at the ensuing passover; but being detected
previously to that period, they suffered
a severe punishment. In London they were
also accused of murder, It appears probable, that most, if not all the accusations of this
kind were made against the Jews to give a better pretence for extorting
their money; for according to Basnage those of London
were accused of murder, on their refusal to pay the great sums the
king demanded. The least surmise, made upon the slightest foundation,
obtained credit among their enemies, who sought their destruction.
and, after enduring Y2r 279
various vexations and torments, were deprived
of a third part of all their estates. This, however,
did not satisfy the insatiable king, who
soon after renewed his extortions. This
wretched people were accused of coining false
money, and counterfeiting the prince’s seal;
and under these pretences were loaded with
enormous taxes. In 12411241, 20,000 marks were
exacted from them. Two years after, a Jew,
named Aaron, of York, was compelled to pay
four gold and four thousand silver marks.
Seven years after the same man was accused
of forgery, and condemned to pay four thousand
marks
of gold and fourteen thousand of
silver. The high penalty imposed upon him,
which it seems he was thought able to pay, is
rather a presumption of his innocence than of
his guilt. Hume’s History of England.

1254A.D.
1254
.
New supplies were demanded from the Jews
for carrying on the Spanish war. Irritated to
the highest degree by this oppression, they requested
permission to depart from England for
some more propitious and friendly country. Elias, a London Jew, undertook to plead for his brethren before
the council; and made a pathetick speech, representing the impossibility
of their paying the sum demanded. Several instances
are related by Basnage of the Jews bribing their judges to be favourable
to them. In particular, John Lunel, though in the ecclesiastical
line, was accused of receiving large sums from many Jews
for his protecting them at the bar, and diminishing their taxes.
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Page 679.
Y2v 280
But this they were refused, and compelled to
pay part of the contribution. The following
year the king renewed these extortions. He
represented, that notwithstanding the taxes he
had raised, he still continued poor and involved
in debt; and declared, that “he must
have money from any hand, from any quarter,
or by any means.”
He then demanded eight
thousand marks
of the Jews, and, upon their
pleading insolvency, sold them to his brother
Richard for that sum. It was expected he
would demand a rigorous payment of the debt;
but he compassionated their situation, and was
convinced of their poverty and inability.

1262A.D.
1262
.
The hatred of the people against the Hebrew
nation had, during the reign of Henry, arrived
at such a height, that, when the barons appeared
in arms against the king, they endeavoured
to attach the citizens of London to their interest
by massacring seven hundred of this devoted
race. An attempt, which was made by one of
the nation to oblige a Christian to pay an enormous
interest for a loan of money, is said to
have afforded a pretence for this barbarous Y3r 281
act. Macpherson on Commerce. They first plundered their houses, and
burnt their new synagogue to the ground. This synagogue was built during the time the Jews were most
favoured by king Henry; and surpassed in magnificence the christian
churches. After this synagogue was seized by the king, it was
dedicated to the blessed virgin.M. Paris’s Hist. of Eng. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 393.

It was however rebuilt; but in 12701270 taken
from them by the king and given to the friars
penitents, who had complained that “they
were not able to make the body of Christ in
quiet for the great howlings the Jews made during
their worship.” The learned author of Anglia Judaica observes, “that the
friars were situated in Old Jewry, and having but a small dark
chapel belonging to their friary, thought the Jews’ fine synagogue,
which stood next to it, more convenient for them, and therefore
begged it of the king, and furnished him with that reason for it.”

David Levi’s Letters to Priestley, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 6.

1276A.D.
1276
.
In the third year of the reign of Edward I.
a law passed the commons concerning Judaism
which seemed to promise this unhappy
people a qualified security. The apparent design
of it was to introduce a regularity in the
revenue exacted from them, which had hitherto
consisted of arbitrary taxes levied upon them
by the king. This statute prohibited the usury
of the Jews, but allowed them to purchase
houses and lands. Among other curious particulars contained in this statute, with
regard to the terms on which the Jews were tolerated in England,
by the second section, “the good Christians were not to take above
half their substance.”
Observations on the statutes, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 120.
No Christian was, however,Y2 Y3v 282
permitted to lodge in their dwellings; and
every Jew above seven years of age was obliged
to wear a peculiar mark of two cables joined
upon his upper garment.

1287A.D.
1287
.
King Edward, however, whose prejudices
against this unhappy people were increased by
his expedition into the holy land, treated them
with great rigour. He forbade their selling or
assigning their debts without his license. He
ordered all their repositories throughout the
kingdom to be searched, and established an
inquisition to take cognizance of those who
neglected to wear the distinguishing badges.
The oppression and misery under which they
continually groaned appear to have rendered
them regardless of character; and the frequent
extortion of vast sums from them It was computed, that the Jews paid the crown in the space of
seven years, viz. from the fiftieth year of Henry III. to the second
year of Edward I. no less than four hundred and twenty thousand
pounds
, or two hundred and sixty thousand pounds of our modern
money.Anderson on Commerce, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 322.
seems to
have made them imagine every method justifiable,
which they could take to indemnify
themselves. They were accused of adulterating
the coin, circulating counterfeit money,
and making fraudulent exchanges. In consequence
of their guilt, and the outcry raised
against them, all the Jews in England were
imprisoned on one day, and two hundred and Y4r 283
eighty executed in London, besides vast numbers
in other parts of the kingdom. Their
houses and lands, as well as the goods of multitudes,
were sold and confiscated. The king,
lest it should be suspected that the riches of
the sufferers were the chief part of their guilt,
ordered a moiety of the money raised by these
confiscations to be set apart, and bestowed
upon such as were willing to be converted to
christianity. But resentment was more prevalent
with them than any temptation from their
poverty; and very few could be induced by
interest to embrace the religion of their persecutors.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 680. Macpherson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 432. Hume, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol.
II. p. 4
.

1290A.D.
1290
.
About this time king Edward, prompted by
his zeal and rapacity, ordered the Jews to be
banished from the kingdom, and never to return,
upon pain of death. He seized at once
their whole property, and allowed them only
money sufficient to bear their expenses into
foreign countries, where new persecutions and
extortions awaited them. The clergy were so well pleased with the banishment of the
Jews, that they granted a tenth of their beneficies to the king; and
afterwards joined with the nobility in obliging him with a fifteenth
of their temporalities, to make some amends for the loss he sustained
by the expulsion of a people, from whom his predecessors had
exacted considerable subsidies in the emergency of affairs. Smollet,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 140.
But the seamen of Y4v 284
the cinque ports despoiled most of them of this
small pittance, and even threw some hundreds
of this miserable people into the sea. The
king inflicted a capital punishment upon the
perpetrators of this crime. The number of
those who were expelled amounted to sixteen
thousand five hundred and eleven. Edward
had previously banished them from his territories
in France. After this expulsion, the
Jews never appeared again in a body in England
during three hundred and fifty years. Anderson on Commerce, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 322. Macpherson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I.
p. 450
. Henry’s History of Britain, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. IV. 46.

Chap. XVII.

State of the Jews in France. They are expelled the kingdom by
Philip Augustus. They are severely persecuted under the reign
of Lewis IX. who at length banishes them from his dominions.
Severe laws enacted against them by the duke of Brittany, and
the councils of Lyons and Vienne. The Jews are recalled by
Philip the bold. They are banished by Philip the fair, and recalled
by Lewis XI. Irruption of the shepherds, and their cruelty.
The Jews are accused of causing the rivers, wells, &c. to be
poisoned. The terrible punishment they suffered for this supposed
crime. They are banished by Philip the tall. They invent
bills of exchange. They are recalled by John II. They are accused
of various crimes, and cruelly treated during the reign of
Charles VI. They are finally expelled the French dominions.

While the Jews in England were enduring
all kinds of oppression and misery, their brethren
in France were subjected to similar sufferings Y5r 285
and persecution. About the year 11821182,
king Philip, surnamed the august, under pretence
of piety and zeal for the honour of God,
banished them from his dominions, The murder of a youth named Richard, was laid to their
charge, and served as a pretense for expelling them from France.
Picart, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 173.
and confiscated
their estates. They were permitted
to retain only what could be collected from the
sale of their furniture; for which they found
it difficult to obtain purchasers. It is even said,
that they were robbed of the small sums they
were enabled to raise, and reduced to the greatest
misery, and that many fell victims to these
tyrannical proceedings. Soon after, however,
the king ordered them to be recalled; and upon
finding that this measure excited the resentment
of the Zealots, he excused himself by
alleging, that his object was to extort money
from them to defray the expenses of the crusade.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 636.

1218A.D.
1218
.
After the Jews were resettled in the kingdom,
they resumed their former usurious practices,
and accumulated wealth, with which they
purchased lands. During the reign of Philip Augustus, the Jews were in some
measure the property of the lord in whose territories they resided;
but servitude did not always prevent them from becoming the
possessors of land. We even find that in France they were the
owners of vast domains; yet it may be readily perceived that it was
a matter of no great difficulty to deprive these of their wealth, who
were not masters of their own persons.Gregoire, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 40.
The king at first connived Y5v 286
at their extortions, because they had bought
his protection; but, upon the remonstrance of
his people, new laws were enacted to remedy
this evil.

1230A.D.
1230
.
Lewis IX. surnamed the saint, in the beginning
of his reign called a council at Melun;
in which a new law was enacted, expressly
prohibiting all his subjects from borrowing
any money of the Jews. It appears from various
edicts, that the effects of all this unhappy
people who were settled in the kingdom belonged
to the barons, within whose territories
they had fixed their residence. They were
forbidden by the law to change their abode
without the permission of their lord, who was
empowered to follow and claim them as fugitive
slaves even in the royal domain. It also
appears that they were regarded as an object
of traffick, and transferred with the land from
one proprietor to another, and sometimes sold
separately, their value being estimated according
to their talents and industry. The spirit
of persecution was carried still further; for, if
a Jew became a convert to christianity, the
whole of his property was confiscated to the Y6r 287
use of his lord. This singular custom of confiscating all the goods of the Jews
who embraced christianity, was first introduced into France, and is
known only by the law which suppressed it, given at Basville, 13921392.
Thus by a strange and impious inconsistency, this wretched people
at one time incurred a severe penalty by renouncing Judaism; at
another epoch, those in the same country who refused to profess
christianity were ordered to be burnt. The practice of confiscating
the property of those Jews who professed christanity began under
the feudal government, and was continued in most parts of Europe
till the end of the 1301 < x < 1400fourteenth century. Montesquieu’s Works.
French Encyclopedia.
The passion for extorting
wealth from this miserable race was so vehement,
“that a conversion was considered as a
bankruptcy, and even paradise did not possess
the right of asylum.” Essay on Publick Happiness, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 427.

Saint Lewis not only sanctioned and confirmed,
but even extended these oppressive
laws. He ordered the Jews to be severely
fined if they neglected to wear a distinguishing
and disgraceful badge on their garments, and
prohibited them from having any intercourse
with the Christians. During his reign, when
a Jew appeared in evidence against a Christian,
he was compelled to swear by the ten names
of God; and his oath was accompanied with a
thousand imprecations upon his own head, if
he deviated from the truth. The person who
administered the oath thus addressed him,
“May the Lord God send you a continual
fever or ague, if you are guilty of perjury; Y6v 288
may he destroy you in his anger, you, and
your family, and your effects; may the sword
and death, fear and inquietude, pursue you on
all sides; may the earth swallow you up like
Dathan and Abiram; may all the sins of your
parents, and all the maledictions contained in
the law of Moses fall on your head.”
To this
dreadful imprecation the miserable objects of
persecution were compelled to answer three
times, “So be it.” Gifford’s History of France, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 436, 437–450.

1238A.D.
1238
.
The most signal calamity which the Jews
suffered during the reign of St. Lewis was a
persecution raised against them by the Parisians,
on account, as was pretended, of their
sacrificing some christian children on good
Friday, and of using their blood at the solemnity
of the passover. For this imputed act of
murder and impiety, they were cruelly slaughtered
in the metropolis. The persecution was
also extended to Brie, Toraine, Anjou, Poitou,
and Maine; in which places upwards
of two thousand five hundred Jews, who refused
to embrace christianity, were put to death
by the most cruel tortures. Their sufferings
would probably have been prolonged had not
pope Gregory IX. interposed, and wrote to St.
Lewis
, requesting him to allow them liberty of
conscience.

Z1r 289

During the king’s imprisonment in the holy
andl St. Lewis was at the head of the sixth and seventh crusade in
12401240 and 12701270.
a crusade was formed in his kingdom
of simple shepherds, whose professed object
was to march thither and release him. They
grounded their chimerical design upon revelations,
and pretended they had the gift of
working miracles. The enthusiastick fury
spread till their army amounted to an hundred
thousand men, who marched to Bourges, plundered
the Jews, and seized all their books in
order to commit them to the flames. At
length, however, they were subdued, and
many of them put to death. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 672.

The following year a conference was held
in the presence of Blanche, the queen regent
during St. Lewis’s absence, between rabbi Jechiel
a learned cabbalist, and Nicolas Donim
a celebrated Jewish convert. The French
authors assert, that Jechiel, baffled and mortified
by the powerful arguments of his opponent,
retired in disgust to Jerusalem. While
the king was under confinement in the holy
land, he sent an edict to France to expel the
Jews from his dominions, which was punctually
executed by the queen regent.

Vol. I. Z Z1v 290

1239A.D.
1239
.
The Israelites being numerous, and great
usurers in Brittany, the nobility and merchants
united in a complaint against them to John le
Roux
, the duke. An act was passed which
declared, that at the request of the bishops,
abbots, barons, and vassals in Brittany, all the
Jews should be forever banished from that
province. By this law all their debtors were
exonerated, and their effects ordered to be retained;
and those who had recently killed a Jew
were forbidden to be disturbed. The king of
France was to be requested to expel this hated
race, and confiscate their property. The duke
engaged for himself and his successors, for the
present and future to support this law; and, if
he violated it, he authorized the bishops to excommunicate
him, and confiscate his lands in
their dioceses without regard to any privileges.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 671. Gregoire, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 245.

12401240. The celebrated council of Lyons passed also
a decree enjoining all christian princes who
had Jews in their dominions, under penalty of
excommunication, to compel them to refund
to the Crusaders all the money they had obtained
by usury. This oppressed people were
also prohibited from demanding any debts due
to them from the Crusaders till their death or
return.

Z2r 291

The council of Vienna, held in the same
century, defended the Christians against the
exorbitant usury of the Jewish nation. This
people, however, notwithstanding these decrees
and precautions, in some provinces of France,
particularly in Languedoc, were raised to the
magistracy, The city of Montpelier in particular had been frequently in
danger of seeing a Jew at the head of the magistracy; upon which
account, William IV. lord of it, found himself obliged to forbid it
by his last will, as his grandfather had done about fifty years before.Modern
Univer. Hist., INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 317.
and in most parts of the kingdom
kept christian slaves.

1275A.D.
1275
.
Philip the bold, the successor of St. Lewis,
was induced to recall the Jews in order to promote
commerce, effect the circulation of
money, and improve his exhausted finances.
They became powerful and affluent under the
reign of this prince. In 12901290, Edward, king
of England, banished this people from Gascony,
and his other dominions in France. Hume’s History of England.

13001300. The example of the English monarch was
followed by Philip the fair, who published an
edict by which all the Jews who refused to
profess christianity were expelled the kingdom,
never to return upon pain of death. It
is allowed, that this unhappy people were sacrificed
to the king’s extreme avarice, Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 674. for he
seized upon all their wealth, and only allowed Z2v 292
them money to defray their expenses to the
frontiers. Many perished by the way with
fatigue and want, and those who survived retired
into Germany. Hence the Jews of that
country supposed themselves of French extraction.
Among those who escaped exile
by receiving baptism many relapsed and returned
to Judaism.

The conversion of the celebrated Nicolas
de Lyra
, however, appears to have been sincere.
He wrote a learned treatise against his
nation, and spent the remainder of his life
in the explanation of the scriptures. Most
of the proselytes think themselves obliged
to give a testimony of their faith by writing
against their deserted brethren; but he is
said to have adduced more cogent arguments
against them than any Jewish convert
before him. He studied some time in the
university of Paris, and then entered into the
Franciscan order. He died at his convent at
Verneuil in the year 13401340. Modern Univer. Hist., INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 321.

1314A.D.
1314
.
The same avarice which caused Philip
to expel the Jews from France induced Lewis
X.
the succeeding monarch, to recall them.
He expected by this measure to recruit his
finances, and thus be enabled to reduce the
Flemmings to subjection. The condition of Z3r 293
their return was paying a very heavy tax; and
the time of their remaining in the kingdom
limited to twelve years. During this period
they were at liberty to engage in trade, or support
themselves by labour. They were allowed
to collect their old debts, two thirds of
which the king claimed for himself. They
were also permitted to purchase synagogues,
burying-places, and their books, except the
Talmud. But they were now obliged, as before,
to wear a particular mark of distinction.
They were prohibited from lending money on
usurious interest, written obligation, or, in
short, any thing but pledges. They were
likewise forbidden to dispute on religion either
in publick or private. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 674.

1320A.D.
1320
.
In the reign of Philip V. surnamed the tall,
the shepherds and other inhabitants of the
country left their flocks and farms, and asserted,
that they were going to Jerusalem for the
relief of the holy land. With no other weapons
than a pilgrim’s staff they marched in great
bodies, which were increased by the junction
of the populace, which they met on their way.
Their leaders were two profligate priests, who
pretended to work miracles, and thus imposed
upon the credulity of the people. They ravagedZ2 Z3v 294
several of the southern provinces, broke
open the prison doors, and enlisted all the criminals
they found into their society. By these
means they made themselves masters of several
cities, and committed the vilest outrages
and cruelties; but more particularly against the
Jews. This miserable race, left to the choice
of death or baptism, collected their most valuable
effects, and fled before this tumultuous
rabble. A considerable number of them having
taken refuge in the royal castle of Verdun,
in the diocese of Toulouse, were there besieged
by the shepherds. They defended themselves
with vigour and desperation; and, finding
their arms fail, began to throw their children
over the walls in hopes to excite the compassion
of their enemies; but in vain. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 675. Gifford.

The shepherds set fire to the fortress, and
expected to satiate their rage with the slaughter
of the besieged. But the Jews perceiving
there was no means of escape, to avoid falling
into the hands of the enemy, requested one of
their brethren, a young man of great strength,
to put them all to death. The wretch accepted
the fatal commission, and after he had massacred
five hundred he presented himself to the
besiegers with a few children, whose lives he Z4r 295
had spared, and demanded baptism. His request,
however, was rejected, and he received
the punishment due to his barbarity. At
length a great number of the shepherds were
apprehended and executed at different places,
particularly at Toulouse, where they had massacred
all the Jews in the city. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 664. Gifford, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 539.

1330A.D.
1330
.
This miserable people were ten years after
involved in another calamity, pretended to have
been occasioned by their having suffered themselves
to be bribed by the Saracen king of
Grenada, to procure the poisoning of all the
rivers, wells, and reservoirs of water. A leper
having deposed, that he was hired by a certain
rich Jew to effect this purpose, the people in
several provinces, without waiting for the
necessary formality, attacked the Jews, and
put them to the most cruel death. Some,
driven to despair, perished by suicide. At
Paris, however, none but those who were supposed
guilty were destroyed. The rich were
imprisoned till they would discover their treasures,
the greatest part of which the king seized
for his own use, and expelled this devoted
race from his dominions. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 675. Gifford, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 139, Vol. II. p. 206.

After the Jews were banished the kingdom
by Philip the tall, they took refuge in Lombardy, Z4v 296
and gave to the foreign merchants bills
of exchange, drawn upon those to whom they
entrusted their effects at parting, and those bills
were accepted. Thus “commerce was seen
to arise from the bosom of vexation and despair.”
Montesquieu’s Works, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 60.
It was reserved for an oppressed
people to invent a method, by which merchants
in regions the most remote from each
other could procure the value of their commodities
without the inconvenience of transporting
gold or silver. In this way the Jews
often eluded the violence and rapacity of their
enemies; the richest among them frequently
having none but invisible effects, which they
could convey imperceptibly wherever they
pleased. Thus they accelerated their return;
for though the princes were willing to banish
their persons, they wished to retain their
wealth. French Encyclo. Gregoire’s Observations nouvelles sur les Juifs.

1360A.D.
1360
.
In the reign of John II. the Jews endeavoured
to procure their recall. During the king’s
captivity King John was taken prisoner in 13561356 by the celebrated prince
of Wales, surnamed the black prince, son of Edward III. of England.
The French king had agreed to pay three millions of gold
crowns
for his ransom. The first payment was to be 600,000 crowns;
and as France could not then furnish the money, they were obliged
to recall the Jews, and sell them the liberty of trading in France.
Anderson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 452.
they had made several proposals Z5r 297
to the regent, who evinced a disposition to
grant them a favour which they offered to
purchase at a very high price. Soon after his
release John published a declaration, by which
he permitted them to return and remain in the
kingdom twenty years. Besides the sum
which they advanced for this privilege, every
master of a family paid twelve florins of gold
on his entrance into, and six florins yearly for
the liberty of residing in France. A general
poll tax was also levied upon them of one
florin
per head. The king strictly prohibited
their exorbitant usury, and permitted them
only to take moderate interest. Gifford, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 269. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 676.

During the reign of Charles VI. the Jews
were accused of murdering a new convert, and
other crimes, Charles VI. during his reign, becoming deranged in his intellect,
it was suspected that the Jews deprived him of his reason.
Gregoire, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 22.
for which some were executed,
others scourged, and fines levied upon the synagogues.
These severities induced many to
assume the mask of christianity. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 676. The people,
however, in 13801380, insisted upon their expulsion,
and assembled as it is said at the instigation
of certain noblemen, who had borrowed
large sums of this persecuted race, who
though generally considered as the outcasts of Z5v 298
society, exerted their industry with success in
the acquisition of wealth. The houses of the
publick receivers, most of whom were Jews in
Lombardy, were broke open; the chests in
which the money was deposited were seized,
and their contents emptied into the streets;
while the registers, bonds, and all other securities
for money lent, were destroyed. In one
street alone thirty houses were pillaged, and
all the furniture, clothes, plate, and jewels, became
the prey of the populace. The Jews
endeavoured to preserve their lives by flight,
but most of them were intercepted and massacred;
while the few who escaped, took refuge
in the dungeons of the Chatelet. The
women in despair attempted to follow their
husbands with their children in their arms;
but the mob forced their children from them,
and carried them to be baptized. Gifford, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 269.

The government was too weak to inflict on
the insurgents the punishment which their
crimes deserved. The Jews, however, were
reestablished in their habitations; and an order
was issued by the council for every one to restore,
under pain of death, whatever he had
taken from them; but the order was treated
with contempt. These miserable objects of
oppression, after being despoiled of their property, Z6r 299
were exposed to prosecutions from those
who had left pledges in their hands; but an
ordinance was passed to exempt them from the
consequences on taking an oath, that the property
which was the object of the action had
been taken from them during the tumult. Gifford, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 269.

1394A.D.
1394
.
In the reign of Charles VI. a council which
was held on the 1394-09-1717th. of September, passed an
act for the final expulsion of the Jews from
France. The provost was ordered to superintend
the execution of the edict, and take an
inventory of all the effects which could be
found in their houses at the time of their departure.
They were obliged to leave the kingdom
in 1394-11November; and from this last exile
they begin the date of their years. The greater
part of this persecuted people retired into Germany.
In the city of Metz in Lorraine they
preserved their ancient privileges, The Jews were established at Metz as early as the year 0888888,
since at that epoch Gombert the deandean brought some complaints
against them. Sigebert de Gemblours taught in this city in the
1101 < x < 1200twelfth century with such success, that they eagerly resorted to
hear his instructions.Gregoire on the Reformation of the Jews,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.page 283.
the city being
at the time of their expulsion a free town
in the imperial territories. After it was annexed
to the French dominions, the king of
France continued to tolerate the Jews who Z6v 300
were settled there, and for a long period it was
the only place in the kingdom where they enjoyed
a privileged abode. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 676. Gifford, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 344.

Respecting the repeated accusations brought
against the Jews, of crucifying christian children,
poisoning the rivers, &c. a late author
observes, “in the dark periods of the middle
ages The middle age, as it is called, is considered as terminating at
the taking of Constantinople in the 1401 < x < 1500fifteenth century. Its commencement
is not so well fixed by historians, some carrying it back
even to the reign of Constantine, and some only to the division of
the empire under Theodosius. The middle age contains a period
of about one thousand years. The term dark age is sometimes
used to express the 0801 < x < 0900ninth, 0901 < x < 1000tenth, and 1001 < x < 1100eleventh centuries, which
were the most barbarous portions of this dark period.
the Jews, punished but in the most
dreadful manner for real crimes, suffered oftener
for crimes merely chimerical. The relations
of their sacrificing christian children are given
by christian historians. But even granting,
that rage, madness, or a desire of revenge may
have induced some fanaticks to commit these
excesses, are we to consider the whole nation
as culpable?”

“The poisoning of fountains by bundles of
herbs, or noxious mixtures, forms an accusation
much more absurd, for in order to commit
crimes, people must be actuated by some
motives, and the hopes of success. But what
success could the Jews expect in poisoning the Aa1r 301
springs, which were constantly renewed, and
from which they themselves daily drew water.
Ask the physicians, if, at a time when chemistry
was only in its infancy, a poison was
known sufficiently active to produce that effect.
Can we allow ourselves to be persuaded,
that the Jews, who were so much interested in
living upon good terms with other nations,
should attempt crimes, the execution of which
was evidently impossible; and which they
must naturally expect would provoke new
persecutions? But though all the crimes imputed
to the Jews should be true, when we examine
them thoroughly, they will appear less
culpable than the nations by whom they have
been compelled to commit them.” Gregoire on the Reformation of the Jews, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 26. According to Basnage most of these accusations against the Jews
were the reports of their inveterate enemies, who continually sought
their destruction, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 644.

It ought, however, to be remembered, that
the cruelty of professed christians to the Jews
in the dark ages is no argument against the
truth of that sacred religion, the genuine spirit
of which breathes “peace on earth and good
will to men.”
This spirit was exemplified in the
primitive christians, the apostles, and martyrs,
and more especially in their head and patron
Jesus Christ, who, while he expired, prayed for Vol. I. Aa Aa1v 302
his most inveterate persecutors, saying, “Father
forgive them, for they know not what they
do.” See letters of certain Jews to Voltaire.

Chap. XVIII.

The Jews in Spain are persecuted by the bishop of Toledo. They
are massacred by the Crusaders. Raymond de Penneforte attempts
to convert them. They are favoured by Alphonso X.
and James I. king of Arragon. They are deluded by an impostor,
who predicted the appearance of the Messiah. Irruption of
the shepherds. The pestilence spreads from their army. The
Jews are accused of poisoning the rivers. They are favoured by
Alphonso XI. Their enemies conspire to destroy them. Fresh
insurrections at Toledo. Many Jews perish by suicide. Of the
persecutions they suffered at Castile and Arragon in the latter
part of the 1301 < x < 1400fourteenth century. Pope Benedict appoints a conference
between them and the Christians. A large number of
Jews profess christianity. Of the pretended conversions by Vincent
Ferrier
. Cruelty of the inquisition. They are banished
from Spain. Terrible distress of the refugees. They are received
into, and soon after expelled from Portugal.

1209A.D.
1209
.
The sufferings of the Jews in Spain, were
equally severe with those of their brethren in
England and France. At the commencement
of the 1201 < x < 1300thirteenth century, the bishop of Toledo
perceiving them to increase in number and
wealth excited the populace against them, and,
putting himself at their head, entered and plundered
their houses and synagogues. He endeavoured
to vindicate his conduct by accusing
the Hebrews of having betrayed the city Aa2r 303
when it was besieged by the Moors; but the
silence of impartial historians exculpated them
from the charge. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 659.

1212A.D.
1212
.
The Crusaders, who soon after assembled
near Toledo, completed the work of destruction
which the bigoted prelate had begun.
They prescribed no limits to their cruelty, but
made such havock and carnage among this
miserable people, that Abravanel, a celebrated
Jewish writer, considered this as one of the
most severe and bloody persecutions which
his nation ever suffered, and that it caused a
greater number to abandon Spain than Moses
conducted out of Egypt. The Spanish nobles
endeavoured to interpose their authority, and
to suppress these cruelties. But Ferdinand,
who then possessed the sovereign power, and
wished to ingratiate himself with the populace
by the extirpation of the Albigenses and other
sects, encouraged and promoted the persecution.
Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 670.

12501250. During the reign of James I. king of Arragon,
who was distinguished for his zeal for
christianity, great efforts were made to convert
the Jews. Raymond de Penneforte, Raymond was canonized by pope Clement VIII. general
of the Dominicans, confessor to the king and
minister to the pope, used energetic measures Aa2v 304
to effect this purpose. He had already, by his
reputation and address, suppressed the violence
of the populace against this unhappy
people; and persuaded the king that mildness
and instruction were the most effectual means
to induce them to embrace christianity. Agreeably
to his benevolent plan, several of the Dominican
friars were chosen to learn the Hebrew
and Arabic languages, and directed to
apply themselves assiduously to the study of
the scriptures, that they might be enabled to
dispute with the Jewish rabbis in order to convince
them of their errours. The attempts
made to convert the Jews were, however, in
general unsuccessful; though they highly esteemed
Raymond for his singular humanity
and moderation. Raymond Martin, another Dominican, wrote a treatise against
the Jews, called Pugio Fidei, or the Poignard of Faith.
This work is considered as a learned and powerful defence
of the christian religion against the arguments of the Jews.
Another monk named Paul, of the same order, held a conference
in the palace of the king with Moses Nachmanides, a famous cabbalistical
Jew. Both sides claimed the victory. Paul obtained an edict
from king Ferdinand, enjoining the Jews to open their houses and
synagogues to him, and to furnish them with all their Hebrew books
whenever he come to dispute with them.Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 660.

1255A.D.
1255
.
Alphonso X. king of Castile, and a celebrated
astronomer, encouraged and promoted
learned men of all religious denominations.
By his order Judah de Toledo translated and Aa3r 305
improved the astronomical works of Avicenna,
a learned Arabic writer. Isaac, the son of
Cid, and other rabbis assisted him in compiling
certain astronomical tables, which bear the
name of the king, and do honour to his memory.
Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 30 4.

Alphonso rewarded them with royal munificence,
and became so generous a patron to the
nation, that the jealousy of the Zealots was excited,
and they formed new plots and accusations
against them. Three villains of the city
of Orsana, in Andalusia, threw the dead body
of a man into the house of a Jew, and accused
him of the murder. This improbable assertion
gained credit, and awakened the popular
fury and hatred against them. A great number
of Jews were inhumanly put to death, and
others fled for refuge to the houses of their
christian acquaintance. The inhabitants of
Palma also rose, and destroyed many of this
unhappy people. Upon this they sent a deputation
to court to obtain the suppression of a
massacre which was so likely to prove general.
Their enemies also sent deputies on their part,
who arrived first at court, and accused them.
Joseph, however, who was at the head of the
deputation, and chief of the Jewish council, Aa2 Aa3v 306
was so eloquent in pleading his cause before
the Spanish monarch, that his countrymen were
acquitted of the pretended murder. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 663.

Many learned men appeared among the Jews
during that time that they enjoyed the favour
of the king Alphonso. In this number, Meir
Mithridos
, a native of Toledo, was eminently
distinguished. He was the author of a famous
cabbalistical work, and a volume of letters
against Nachmanides and Maimonides, and educated
many pupils who became the boast of
the Jewish nation.

Nor was it only at the court of Castile that
learned rabbis appeared and were respected.
James I. king of Arragon, was so far from
adopting the prejudices against them, that he
applied to them for moral and religious instruction.
The king, it is said, expressed an approbation of some parts of
the Jewish prayer books. The clergy in this age applied themselves
rather to controversy than devotion.Modern Universal History,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 307.
For, though the Jewish people
were hated and despised by the populace, and
by the ignorant among the clergy, they were
at this time admired and encouraged by the
great and learned.

12581258. Their happiness was, however, soon after
disturbed by a celebrated impostor named Zechariah,
who formed the design of deceiving Aa4r307
all the synagogues in Spain. He pretended,
that by his knowledge of the prophecies he had
discovered the exact time of the appearance of
the Messiah, which he predicted to be just at
hand. This impostor even foretold the very
day on which this mighty deliverer was to appear,
who should gather together his elect
people, subdue their enemies, and replace them
in their ancient inheritance. Deceived by this
prophecy and expectation of the Messiah, the
Jews prepared themselves for the event by
fasting and prayer, and at the time appointed
repaired to the synagogues clothed in white.
But discovering the imposture, they became
ashamed of their blind credulity, and were exposed
to the insults and derision of their enemies.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 664. Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII.

1320A.D.
1320
.
But the most terrible calamity which they
suffered during this period was by the body
of shepherds who had committed such fatal
ravages in France. Having become numerous
and powerful they entered Spain, and carried
fire and sword into several provinces. The
Jews, in particular, were the victims of their
rapacity and cruelty. Many preserved their
lives by surrendering their property and renouncing
their religion. Those who could Aa4v 308
not be induced to make these sacrifices were
instantly and inhumanly put to death. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 664.

The pestilence which arose in the army of
the shepherds, and extended through the
neighbouring countries, was productive of
new evils to this unhappy people. The desolation
occasioned by this destructive scourge,
was attributed to their malice against the Christians.
They were accused of having bribed
the peasants of Mesura to poison the rivers,
and of having furnished them with poison for
that purpose. This absurd allegation The inventors of this palpable calumny were those who owed
money to the Jews, and who wished to be delivered from their
embarrassment without paying it.Gregoire, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 28.
gained
credit, and caused great numbers of Jews to be
imprisoned and tried. After a long confinement,
however, they acquitted themselves of
the crimes laid to their charge. But the king,
who was unwilling to confess and condemn the
injustice of his conduct, pretended that he detained
them in prison in order to effect their
conversion; and caused fifteen thousand who
refused to receive baptism to be put to a cruel
death.

1333A.D.
1333
.
Alphonso XI. king of Castile, was the friend
and protector of the Jews, being principally directed
in his affairs by Joseph, one of the nation,
whom he had appointed intendant of his finances. Aa5r 309
This monarch was, however, prevailed upon
by his mutinous and discontented subjects
to pass a decree against them, on account of a
pretended indignity offered to the sacrament
by a Jewish boy. The clamour of the populace
was so violent, that a council was convened
to deliberate whether they should be put to
death or banished. The latter measure being
preferred, they were commanded to abandon
the kingdom in three months. Happily for
them, the prince royal obtained a revisal of the
process, by which it appeared, that a young
christian had inadvertently committed the supposed
crime. On this deposition, the king recalled
his edict. The acquittal of the Jews
highly mortified and exasperated their enemies,
who asserted, that the christian had been
bribed to give an evidence in their favour. In
another city many of the nation were put to
death for the pretended offence. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 665

1349A.D.
1349
.
Soon after, a fresh insurrection against the
Jews broke out in Toledo, and their terrour
and desperation on this occasion baffles all description.
One of them, perceiving the Zealots
breaking into the house in order to massacre
all they found, in a phrenzy of rage and despair
killed his relations who had taken refuge Aa5v 310
with him, and then destroyed himself in order
to avoid falling into the hands of his enemies. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 667

1396A.D.
1396
.
In the reign of Henry III. of Castile, Martin,
archdeacon of Astigi, by vehemently
preaching against the Jews through the streets
of Seville and Cordova, exasperated the populace
to such a degree, that they massacred them
in both places. The persecution spread to
Toledo, Valencia, and Barcelona, where some
were plundered, others murdered, while the
most artful professed christianity in order to
escape such acts of violence. The populous
synagogues of Seville and Cordova became
almost deserted. These wretched fugitives,
who had fled to Andalusia and other provinces,
were put to death by the inhabitants. King
John
, the son and successor of Henry, treated
the Jews with equal cruelty. During his reign
many perished by being deprived of the necessaries
of life, and those who survived were
compelled to wear a disgraceful mark of distinction.
Ibid.

The situation of the Jews in Arragon was
not much more eligible than that of their
brethren in Castile. That kingdom was involved
in civil and intestine wars, which could
only be supported by large imposts. The
heaviest taxes were levied upon a people who Aa6r 311
had been so long the miserable objects of oppression.
But though they were exposed to
continual vexations and persecutions, several
learned men during the 1301 < x < 1400fourteenth century appeared
among those in Spain. In particular
two physicians The learned Dr. Friend in his History of Medicine asserts,
that the Jews were the princes of that science in Europe during the
middle ages.Gregoire, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 218.
of the Castilian king acquired
great celebrity. One of these famous men,
named Meir Algudes, was chief of all the synagogues
in Spain. He translated Aristotle’s
Ethics, and flourished till the year 14051405. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 680.

1412A.D.
1412
.
At the commencement of the 1401 < x < 1500fifteenth century,
the antipope Benedict XIII. who was then
in Arragon, distinguished himself by his zeal
for the conversion of the Jews. To effect this
purpose, he summoned the most celebrated
rabbis in Spain to attend a conference which
he appointed for religious discussions between
them and the Christians. Jerome de Sancta
Fide
, who had deserted the synagogue and embraced
christianity, persuaded the pope to take
this step, by assuring him that he could convince
his countrymen by passages out of the
Talmud, that Jesus Christ was the Messiah.
This convert was not only the chief promoter,
but the principal conductor of the dispute.
Rabbi Vidal was chosen to defend the Jewish Aa6v 312
religion. The Jews at this time expressed
unusual respect for the pope, who entertained
them with politeness, and defrayed their expenses.
They, it is said, even carried their impious flattery so far as to
apply to him the words of David’s petition to God; “shew us thy
mercy, O Lord, and grant us thy salvation.”
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 680
But they treated Jerome with great
asperity, their minds being exceedingly embittered
against him, both for deserting the
synagogue, and involving them in a dispute
from which they apprehended fatal consequences.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 680. Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII.

The tenour and result of this famous conference
is variously related by Christian and
Jewish historians. The latter, however, confess
that they bribed several bishops to persuade
Benedict to break off the dispute, from
an apprehension that it would exasperate their
enemies against them. But the pope insisted
upon Jerome’s performing his engagement;
and four or five thousand Jews were converted
upon reading his relation of the conference,
which he presented to this pontiff. The high
celebrity of this performance induced Joseph
Albo, This rabbi, finding the arguments which were adduced to
prove that the Messiah was come made a great impression upon
the Jews, maintained, that a belief of his coming was not an essential
article of faith, and wished to have it expunged from the
creed of Maimonides.Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 344.
a Spanish rabbi to compile his articles Bb1r 313
of faith in order to confirm the wavering minds
of his brethren. He pretended, that a belief of
the future coming of the Messiah was not
necessary to salvation; and censured Maimonides
without naming him, for having made
this an essential part of his creed. He reduced
the fundamental dogmas of the Jewish faith to
three, viz. the existence of God, the law of
Moses, and future rewards and punishments. Addison’s Present State of the Jews, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 17.

1413A.D.
1413
.
The following year Benedict XIII. published
his constitution against the Talmud,
and the usury of the Jews. But, as he was
deposed soon after, all his ordinances were revoked;
and it does not appear, that his plans
were followed by Martin of Florence his successor.

14131413. Vincent Ferrier, who has been canonized for
his miracles and zeal for converting the Jews,
appeared at this time. The Christians compute,
that the number whom he induced to
abandon their religion amounted to twenty
five thousand. According to the Jewish accounts
still more deserted the synagogues.
But whatever was their number, it appears that
the greatest part of them renounced their
former religion, merely to avoid severe and
cruel treatment. They secretly circumcised Vol. I. Bb Bb1v 314
their children, observed the passover, and
neglected none of the Jewish rites and ceremonies.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 689. Modern Universal Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 347. A small number of Jews were, however, esteemed sincere converts;
among whom Solomon, the son of Levi, was included. Having
read a work of Thomas Aquinas, he embraced christianity, and
took the name of Paul of Burges. Soon after his baptism he was
raised to the bishoprick of that city, which was his native place,
and afterwards to the patriarchate of Aquileia. He left a son, who
succeeded him in the bishoprick, and wrote a history of Spain.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 690.

The dissimulation of the pretended converts
did not long pass unnoticed by the clergy, who
acquainted Ferdinand the Spanish monarch,
and the pope Sixtus IV. with their conduct.
Exasperated at the affront offered to the christian
religion, the tribunal of the inquisition The court of the inquisition was introduced into Spain in the
1401 < x < 1500fifteenth century by Ferdinand and Isabella; and was principally
intended to prevent the relapse of the Jews and Moors, who had
been, or pretended to be converted to the faith of the church of
Rome. Torquemade, a Dominican, confessor to queen Isabella,
pretended that the dissimulation of the Jews would greatly injure
the cause of religion. The queen listened with respectful deference
to her confessor, and at length gained over the king to consent to
the establishment of this barbarous tribunal. Its jurisdiction extended
over all who in their practice or opinions differed from the
established church.Watson’s History of the reign of Philip II.
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 134, 135.

was directed to pay close attention to the behaviour
of these delinquents; and all christian
princes were exhorted to assist in bringing
them to condign punishment. This decree,
which was published in most parts of Spain, Bb2r 315
filled the Jews with such consternation, that
seventeen thousand immediately returned to
the church, and submitted themselves to whatever
censure or penance should be inflicted.
Two thousand of this miserable people, part of
whom confessed that Jesus Christ was the
true Messiah, were put to death. Many were
sentenced to a long imprisonment, and, after
regaining their liberty, were ordered to
wear two red crosses on their upper garments,
in acknowledgement that they had deserved
the flames. Nor were the sacred repositories
of the dead spared; human bodies were disinterred
and burned; their property was confiscated,
and their children were declared incapable
of succeeding to the possessions of their parents.
Notwithstanding the watchfulness of the inquisition,
many found means to emigrate;
others were more careful to conceal their dissimulation;
and some endeavoured to be better
instructed previously to their professing christianity.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 691. Modern Univer. Hist.

1443A.D.
1443
.
The populace still continued to oppress and
insult this unhappy people, and attributed all
the publick calamities to the obstinacy of the
recusant, or the hypocrisy of the conforming
Jews. At this time an insurrection took place Bb2v316
at Toledo, on account of a pretended infringement
on their privileges. The resentment of
a mutinous people was principally levelled
against the Jews, whose houses they plundered,
and murdered all who opposed them. After
the tumult subsided, laws were enacted which
excluded the new converts from all offices of
trust and honour.

The Spanish clergy, however, took them
under their protection. The dean of the cathedral
church in the city particularly exerted
all his eloquence in their favour, and endeavoured
to interest the feelings of the people by
representing, that many illustrious families, who
had intermarried A number of the Grandees who had nothing left but their
titles had married into Jewish families in order to repair the losses
they had sustained by their prodigality.Voltaire’s Works, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol.
III. p. 33
.
with the converted Jews,
would be deprived of all their employments by
the execution of these laws. All his efforts
would have proved ineffectual, had not pope
Nicolas I.
published a bull, by which he excommunicated
all who were for excluding the
Jewish or Pagan proselytes from any civil or
ecclesiastical preferment. This decree of the
sovereign pontiff was so displeasing to the
Spanish nation, that he was obliged to issue a
second bull to confirm it; and Mariana is almost Bb3r 317
the only Spanish writer who has given it
a place in his history. Mariana’s History of Spain. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 691.

1492A.D.
1492
.
Soon after Ferdinand and Isabella had completed
their reduction of the Moors, they issued
an edict, commanding the Jews either to
embrace christianity, or quit the kingdom in
four months. The people were at the same
time prohibited, under the severest penalties,
from affording provisions or any other assistance
to those who should be found in Spain
after this period. Their attachment to the law
of Moses was superiour to every other consideration;
and the Spanish historians affirm,
that seventy thousand families, or eight hundred
thousand persons, abandoned the kingdom
pursuant to this decree. The Jewish
writers make the number two hundred thousand;
which, reckoning only five to each family,
must have amounted to a million of souls. Ibid.

The reputation, which the celebrated rabbi
Isaac Abravanel enjoyed at court, could not
prevent his being included among the exiles. Rabbi Isaac Karo was another learned exile. He retired first
to Portugal, and thence to Jerusalem. He lived a perfect recluse
in this city, and devoted himself to study. He composed a
Commentary on the Pentateuch, partly cabbalistical and partly
literal.Modern Universal History.

He was born at Lisbon, 14371437, of an ancient
family, who boasted a lineal descent from king Bb2 Bb3v 318
David
. He founded his pretensions on the testimony of Isaac Aben
Geath
, who says in one of his commentaries on the scriptures, that
at the time of the destruction of the first temple, two families of
the race of David went into Spain; one of whom settled at Lucena,
the other at Seville; and that from the latter Abravanel was descended.
After the example of his father he assumed the title of
Don, the usual custom among the nobles of Spain. Boissi Dissertations
Critiques pour servir a l’histoire des Juifs
.
His parents took great care of his
education, and, as he possessed distinguished
abilities, he made a rapid progress in the
sciences, especially sacred literature. But his
ambition to figure at court induced him to
turn his chief attention to politics, finance,
and commerce.

During the reign of Alphonso V. king of
Portugal, he was chosen one of his privy council,
and filled his station with dignity and
splendour till the death of this monarch. But
being discarded in the reign of his successor,
who hated the Jews, he fled to Castile. He
was graciously received by Ferdinand and Isabella,
and advanced to preferments, which he
enjoyed until his countrymen were expelled
from Spain. He exerted himself to the utmost
to save himself and his nation from this fatal
stroke. But, finding all his efforts useless, he
embarked for Naples, and arrived there with
his family in 14931493. Being educated a courtier,
he ingratiated himself into the favour of Ferdinand,
king of Naples; and both that sovereign Bb4r 319
and Alphonso his successor protected and employed
him. He died at Venice, 15081508, in the
seventy first year of his age, and was interred
at Padua. Several of the Venetian nobles and
all the Jews attended his funeral. He published
many learned works, Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 692. De Rossie’s Hebrew Biography. particularly a commentary
on Exodus, Deuteronomy, Kings,
Isaiah, Jeremiah, and other books of the Old
Testament
. He applied himself to study with indefatigable ardour, and was
held in such high estimation among the Jews, that some did not
hesitate to pronounce him superiour to Maimonides. They agree,
that to a mind clear and penetrating he added a lively and fertile
imagination, which was exhibited in his easy and copious elocution.Dissertations
Critiques, &c..

The sufferings of the Jewish emigrants who
embarked for other countries were inexpressible
and almost inconceivable. Some of the
vessels took fire, and the miserable objects of
oppression perished in the flames. Others
were so heavily laden that they sunk, and many
were drowned. Great numbers were shipwrecked
on foreign coasts, and perished with
cold and hunger. One of the Spanish pilots
formed the resolution of murdering all the
Jews in his vessel, in order, as he pretended, to
revenge the death of Christ, whom their ancestors
had crucified. They represented to him
that Christ, “who died for the redemption of Bb4v 320
mankind, did not desire the death but the salvation
of the sinner.”
The sailor in consequence
of this pathetick remonstrance gave up the
design of murdering them; but caused them
to be stripped naked, and set down on the next
shore, where part of them perished with hunger;
others were destroyed by lions who came
out of a neighbouring cavern. The remainder
were saved by the humanity of a master of a
vessel, who took them in upon seeing their
miserable condition. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 693.

The pestilence also destroyed many of these
unfortunate exiles; and, to complete their calamities,
those who reached the city of Fez in
Africa were refused admittance by the merciless
inhabitants, and died for want of the necessaries
of life. When those who sailed for
Italy arrived at Genoa, they found the city afflicted
by a famine, which had greatly raised
the price of provisions. The inhabitants, seeing
them macerated by sufferings, and destitute
of money to purchase food, met them
with the cross in one hand and bread in the
other; and refused to give sustenance to any
who would not previously consent to adore the
cross. Many of this wretched people, who
had the courage to abandon their country and Bb5r 321
riches for their religion, were unable to resist
this second temptation. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 692.

The tyrannical manner, in which the bigotry
and avarice of king Ferdinand had induced
him to treat the Jews, was highly condemned
by all judicious Christians. This unhappy
race, upon the first notice of their intended expulsion,
had found means to elude the vigilant
rapacity of the monarch, and convey the richest
of their effects into the countries where
they intended to retire. In consequence of
which, the wealth acquired by their expulsion
was not so considerable as the king expected.
The Spanish nobility complained that their citties
and towns were disinhabited. The senate
of Venice and the parliament of Paris expressed
their astonishment at the banishment of a
nation, whose address in pecuniary negotiations
was so useful to the publick. The expulsion of the Jews gave a violent check to the commerce
of Spain, which was almost entirely in their hands. Bigland’s
View of the World.
Though
pope Alexander VI. dignified the Spanish
monarch with the title of Catholick, yet he readily
received the exiles into his own dominions,
and treated them with great kindness and humanity.
Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 693.

Bb5v 322

Many of the Jews sought a nearer asylum
in Portugal. John II. In the reign of John I. the Jews had their synagogues and
rabbis in Portugal.
the sovereign of that
kingdom, had formerly sent some of this nation
Murphy’s Travels in Portugal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 223. to make discoveries on the coasts of the
Red Sea; and they brought him exact and
faithful accounts. They had assisted the Portuguese
adventurers in the discovery of the
East Indies. Notwithstanding these important
services, the king consented to receive
them only on condition that each one should
pay him eight golden ducats, and quit his dominions
at a limited time, or forfeit his liberty.
On his part he engaged, when the time fixed
for their departure arrived, to furnish vessels
to transport them to any place where they chose
to retire. The king was desirous of fulfilling
his engagement; but his orders were disregarded,
and the fugitives, who were about to
leave Portugal, were treated in such a barbarous
manner by the seamen, that many chose to remain
in the kingdom and be sold as slaves,
rather than expose themselves to the perils and
hardships of a new voyage. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 694. Murphy’s Travels in Portugal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 224

Emanuel, his successor, appeared at first to
commiserate their sufferings, and restored to Bb6r323
them their liberty. Their peace, however, was
of short duration; and the king reluctantly sacrificed
them to an alliance which he contracted
with the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella.
The queen having declared, that “she wouldnot
acknowledge a son-in-law who permitted
the enemies of God to remain in his dominions,”

he issued an edict which expelled them from
Portugal, and fixed a day on which those who
remained should be deprived of their liberty.

When the appointed time arrived, the king
was greatly affected with the idea of expelling
such multitudes of people; and resolved at
least to effect the conversion of their children.
He had engaged that ships should be provided
for their emigration at three principal ports;
but he issued a proclamation forbidding them
to embark any where but at Lisbon. When
they arrived at this city, he ordered all the
children under fourteen years of age to be
forcibly taken from their parents, in order to
be educated in the christian faith. The execution
of this barbarous command was attended
with the most affecting circumstances.
Many of the wretched parents in a phrenzy of
rage and despair, first killed their children, and
then destroyed hemselvesthemselves. The king had
invented so many elaysdelays to retard the departure
of these unfortunate exiles, that many remained Bb6v 324
in the kingdom, and were sold as slaves.
Overwhelmed with these complicated afflictions,
at length they consented to assume the
mask of christianity, and recovered their liberty
and children. The sincerity of these pretended
converts was, however, greatly suspected,
and the least discovery of their predilection
for the Mosaic religion exposed them to the
cruelties of the merciless inquisition. Murphy’s Travels in Portugal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 695.

Chap. XIX.

The Jews in Germany are accused of various crimes. They
endeavour to hinder the conversion of a young man of their
nation at Frankfort. Part of the city is burned, and a number
of Jews destroyed. Accusation against those of Haguenau.
They are massacred at Bavaria and Bern. Of several learned
rabbis. The Jews flourish at Lithuania in the 1201 < x < 1300thirteenth
century
. Decrees enacted against them in the council of Vienna.
A regulation made at Augsburg respecting the oaths to be
administered to them. Disputes between the Rabbinists and
Caraites. Raind Fleisch excites the people in various parts of
Germany to massacre the Jews. They are protected by the
bishop of Spires. They are murdered by the Flagellants. Persecution
against them on pretense of their poisoning the rivers.
Cruelties practised against those of Bohemia. They are accused
again of poisoning the rivers, and banished the empire.
They are persecuted in various parts during the 1201 < x < 1300thirteenth
century
.

1222A.D.
1222
.
The Jews have been more frequently accused
of enormous crimes in Germany than in
any other part of Europe. When the Persians
and Tartars made incursions into this Cc1r 325
country they were charged with favouring and
assisting these enterprizes, in hopes of being
delivered from the persecutions which they suffered
from the Christians. They were, probably,
more justly accused the same year of opposing
the conversion of a young man of their nation
at Frankfort who was desirous of receiving
baptism. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 682. The people were incensed at this
opposition, and arms were seized on both
sides. Several Christians lost their lives; and
about one hundred and eighty Jews perished
by the sword, or the fire they had kindled.
One half of the city was consumed; and the
most prudent among them were induced to
profess christianity, to avoid being sacrificed
to the resentment of the multitude. The fervour of the Jews is singularly inclined to fanaticism;
and they are highly incensed when one of their members abjures
his religion. This is in consequence of a principle imputed to Maimonides,
that those who abandon Judaism ought to be persecuted
to hell.Gregoire, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 84.

1241A.D.
1241
.
The Jews in Germany were frequently accused
of murdering christian childen at their
passover. The first instance which occurs
was at Haguenau in lower Alsatia, where
three of them were found dead in a Jewish
house. Complaint was made to the emperour
Frederic II. who, not being inclined to believe Vol. I. Cc Cc1v 326
the report, coldly replied, “that, since the children
were dead, they must be buried.”
This
instance of his incredulity exasperated the
people; but as they were unable to prove the
alleged crime, the Jews, upon paying a considerable
sum, obtained a favourable judgment
from the emperour. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 683.

1256A.D.
1256
.
About this time those of Munich in Bavaria
suffered a severe calamity. An old woman
having confessed that she sold them a child,
whom they murdered, the people, without
waiting the event of a trial, put to death all of
this miserable race whom they could find.
The town officers, after attempting in vain to
suppress the tumult, advised the Jews to retire
into their synagogue, which was a strong
stone building. They complied; but notwithstanding
great efforts were made by the duke
and the officers to appease and disperse the
multitude, they were all burned and destroyed
in it. Ibid. An accusation of a similar nature was
brought against those of Wurtzburgh and
Bern, where they were massacred in the same
manner.

Notwithstanding these persecutions, the
Jews in Germany boast of the learned rabbis
who appeared in the 1201 < x < 1300thirteenth century, particularly Cc2r 327
Baruc and Eliezer de Germeciman,
both of whom were famous cabbalists; and
the latter wrote a celebrated treatise called
The Mantle of the Lord. Meir de Rottemburgh
was also distinguished for his
learning, and became the judge and chief doctor
of his German brethren. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 684.

The Jews flourished in Lithuania during the
1201 < x < 1300thirteenth century. King Boleslaus granted
them liberty of conscience and other privileges,
which they preserved under his successors.
Their prosperity excited the envy of the populace,
who endeavoured to disturb their peace,
and blast their reputation. It was observed in
the council of Vienna, which was convened in
12671267, that they were become so numerous and
powerful that the income of the clergy was
considerably diminished. It was, therefore,
ordained that they should reimburse them, in
proportion to what they might have considered
themselves entitled, had their families been
christian. The council also enacted, that they
should be compelled to demolish the new and
superb synagogues which they had erected, and
be contented with their former places of worship.
These decrees, however, proved abortive;
for the German princes and nobles protected
those who refused to obey; and even Cc2v 328
obliged their officers to afford shelter to the unhappy
victims who implored their assistance.
The clergy were, therefore, necessitated to
pursue more violent measures, and excommunicated
all who favoured and defended the
Jews. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 684. Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 337.

A new regulation was made at Augsburg
upon observing that they did not consider it a
crime to violate their oaths. Previously to this
time they had been compelled to swear by the
saints, by the blessed Mary, or even by the Son
of God. But, as they made no scruple to violate
these oaths, they were obliged to swear by
the name of God, and the law of Moses. Yet
they supposed even these solemn engagements
were annulled on the great day of expiation;
and could, therefore, be of force for only one
year. It is also said, that a number of their
casuists authorize deception, equivocation,
mental restriction, and hypocrisy. Gregoire, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 81. According
to a concession of the Talmud, it is lawful to
dissemble for the sake of peace. Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 338.

1285A.D.
1285
.
About this time the disputes between the
Rabbinists The Rabbinists are modern Pharisees. and Caraites were conducted with
great violence. Aaron Cohen, a rabbi of great
learning, who was the head of the latter sect, Cc3r 329
wrote a treatise to expose the absurdities of the
Talmud. He explained their articles of faith,
and styled his work, The Tree of Life, because
he supposed a belief of their dogmas
necessary in order to attain eternal salvation.
Though he acknowledged a resurrection, he
confined it only to the true believers of the
house of Israel. But notwithstanding his attempt
to lessen the attachment which the Caraites
began to discover to tradition, rabbi
Nissi
, another famous doctor of this sect, was
obliged, at the earnest request of his pupils, to
explain the Misna. Even Aaron was at length
induced to give an allegorical explication of
several passages of scripture. But though
this relaxation in the tenets of their opponents
gratified the Rabbinists, Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 685. the hatred between
the two sects continued with unabated violence.
The hatred between these sects is carried so far, that the Rabbinists
assert, that if a Caraite and a Christian happen to be in danger
of drowning together, they ought to make a bridge of the body
of the Caraite, in order to save the Christian. Gregoire, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 86.

1264A.D.
1264
.
During the contest between Adolphus of
Nassau
and Albert of Austria, each of whom
had been elected emperour, a fanatical peasant
named Raind Fleisch, taking advantage of the
wars which raged in Germany, commenced Cc2 Cc3v 330
an itinerant preacher in the upper Palatinate,
Franconia, and other provinces. He pretended
that God had sent him to exterminate the
Jews; and, in order to exasperate the people
against them, asserted that they had stolen a
consecrated host. The credulous multitude,
without further inquiry, immediately seized
upon those in Nuremberg, Rottemburgh, and
several other towns in Franconia and Bavaria,
and put them to death. Others chose rather
to destroy themselves with their wives,
children, and effects, than to be thrown into
the flames by their enemies. Albert would
gladly have suppressed this barbarous massacre;
but he was afraid that Raind Fleisch,
who was regarded as a messenger from God,
would persuade the people to favour and join
his competitor. The persecution was at length
stopped, and the city of Nuremberg laid under
a heavy fine, besides being half consumed by
the fire which the miserable Jews had set to
their houses. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 685. Modern Univer. Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 340.

1339A.D.
1339
.
The council, which pope Clement V. convened
at Vienna against the Templars, condemned
the usury of the Jews, and decreed
that those who favoured them should be considered
as hereticks. This edict involved them
in vexatious lawsuits, and other misfortunes. Cc4r 331
They were, however, in some measure relieved
by Menicho, bishop of Spires, who forbade
them to be molested on that account in his dominions;
and alleged, that the law could not
concern them, seeing the church does not
judge those that are without. A few years
after, Lewis I. king of Hungary banished them
from all his dominions. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 686.

1349A.D.
1349
.
The Flagellants, who arose in the 1301 < x < 1400fourteenth
century
, and derived their name from the cruel
scourges which they inflicted upon their own
persons, supposed that murdering the enemies
of Christ would render their penance
more acceptable. It has been asserted, that before these fanaticks began their
penance, they read their commission with an audible voice, which
was comprised in a letter sent to them by the Almighty himself,
and delivered to them by an angel, with express command to
scourge themselves and massacre the Jews.Picart’s Religious
Ceremonies of the Jews
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 172.
Accordingly they plundered
and burnt the Jews at Spires, Strasburg,
and Thuringen. But, after committing some
outrages at Frankfort, they agreed to an accommodation.
A Jew named Cicogne, whose
family was numerous in that city, being dissatisfied
with the compromise, threw fire into
the town-house, which consumed the buiding,
and all the records preserved in it. The flames
spread to the cathedral, which was reduced to Cc4v 332
ashes. This crime was severely punished; for
not only the incendiary, but all his brethren in
Frankfort, a few excepted who retired into
Bohemia, were put to death. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 686.

In the course of the same year the Jews were
accused of poisoning the rivers, wells, and reservoirs
of water. They were suspected of
this crime upon no other foundation, than that
they had escaped the common mortality which
took place in most parts of Europe. A suspicion
being sufficient to condemn them, a new
massacre ensued in several provinces of Germany,
in which some were burned, and others
cruelly slaughtered. Those of Metz, however,
resolved to defend themselves; and having
seized about two hundred unarmed Christians
put them to death in a barbarous manner.
The incensed populace collected, furiously
attacked, and killed twelve thousand
Jews. They next set fire to their houses,
which spread and raged so vehemently, that
the great bell and glass in the cathedral church
were melted down. The persecution of this
miserable people extended over all Germany.
In the imperial cities all their houses were demolished,
and castles and towers built with the
materials. Ibid.

Cc5r 333

Robert, the reigning count Palatine, and his
ministers, endeavoured in vain to suppress the
tumult and afford an asylum to an injured race,
whose innocence was acknowledged by honest
men. But they were opposed by some of the
nobility; and the populace accused them of
accepting bribes to defend the enemies of
Christ. All the Jewish inhabitants of Ulm,
together with their property and effects, were
burned; their wretched brethren who survived
in those parts were without friends, or
a place of refuge, the princes not daring at so
critical a time to interpose in their behalf.

At Lithuania, however, they met with more
equitable treatment. Casimire the great being
enamoured with a beautiful Jewess, named
Esther, had, at her request, granted them several
considerable privileges. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 686.

1391A.D.
1391
.
Those Jews who had fled for refuge to Bohemia
were not better treated than their brethren
in Germany. Winceslaus, This prince, having rendered himself odious to his people by his
intemperance and other vices, sought to regain their favour by his
severity to the Jews.
the emperour
and king of Bohemia, equally discharged the
cities and nobility from the debts they owed
to these miserable objects of persecution. The
people, therefore, considering them abandoned
by that prince, attacked them at Gotha, and a Cc5v 334
terrible carnage ensued. The Jews of Spires,
without distinction of age or sex, were all put
to death, except a few children, who were hurried
to the font to be baptized. As a pretence
for this cruelty, they were accused of insulting
a priest as he was carrying the sacrament to a
sick person. The citizens of Prague, irritated
at seeing them celebrate their passover, chose
that time to burn their synagogue, and those
who there engaged in devotional exercises.
This inhuman deed was executed without any
opposition, and not one of them escaped. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 687.

Soon after, they were again accused of
poisoning the rivers and springs, and punished
for this pretended crime. The persecution
was not confined to Germany, but extended
to Italy, Provence, and other parts. The
Jewish historians assert, that the emperour was
convinced of their innocence, and represented
to his council, that it was impossible for them
to be guilty of this offence, as the rivers and
springs, which have a free and unrestrained
course, cannot be contaminated by poison.
But the people were so highly exasperated
against this miserable race, that, in order to preserve
them from more dreadful calamities, the
emperour was under the necessity of issuing
an edict, enjoining them to depart the country, Cc6r 335
1400A.D.
1400
.
or receive baptism. The Jews assert, that
few at this time were induced to apostatize, or,
as they expressed it, “to forsake the glory of
their God.” Modern Universal Hist. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 343.

Great numbers of the Jews had settled in
Thuringia and Misnia. But, at the commencement
of the 1401 < x < 1500fifteenth century, the landgraves
exacted vast sums for affording them
an asylum. Upon their refusal to pay an enormous
tax, they were arrested and imprisoned,
and obliged to give up a large part of their
wealth in order to regain their liberty. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 687.

14541454. About this period, the council of Basil commanded
the prelates in all the places where
there were no Jews, to appoint learned divines to
preach to them, and obliged them, under the
severest penalties, to attend the sermons. At
the same time, the Christians were prohibited
from having any social intercourse with them,
or employing them as servants, nurses, farmers,
or physicians. They were not permitted to
reside in houses near any church, or in the inside
of any city. This degraded people were
also compelled to wear a particular habit; and
condemned to lose all the sums they lent on
sacred books, crosses, and the ornaments of
churches. Jortin’s Remarks on Ecclesiastical History.

Cc6v 336

Twenty years after, Lewis X. duke of Bavaria,
banished them from his dominions, without
regarding his own interest, or the remonstrances
of his friends. He also confiscated
all their effects, and erected publick edifices
in the places where they had inhabited. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 729.

1492A.D.
1492
.
The princes of Mecklenburgh also treated
this wretched people with extreme rigour.
They were accused of offering an indignity to
a consecrated host, which they purchased of a
priest; for this crime thirty Jews together
with the priest, were put to a cruel death.
Seven years after, those of Nuremberg, who
14991499. were numerous and affluent, were banished
from the city. The citizens charged them
with various offences, in order to palliate their
severity. But the principal cause appears
to have been their wealth, and the usurious
practices to which they were addicted. Ibid.

Their expulsion was probably accelerated
by the appearance of an impostor, named David
Leimlein
. Though he had not the temerity
to declare himself the Messiah, he confidently
affirmed, that the mighty conqueror would appear
in 15001500. He styled himself chief of the
army of Israel, and went to Lisbon and persuaded
a young convert to return to Judaism, Dd1r 337
and act in concert with him. He gave him
the name of Solomon Malcho, and exhorted
him to diligently read the rabbinical writings.
His pupil made such a rapid progress in his
studies, that the Italian Jews affirmed his sermons
were dictated by some angel. Not contented
with preaching, he compiled several curious
treaties, which increased his reputation.
Meantime David distinguished himself by his
long fasting, being sometimes six days without
taking any food, and thus attracted publick
notice and admiration. The credulous
Jews were hence induced to demolish their
ovens, expecting the following year to eat unleavened
bread in Jerusalem. While they
were preparing for the voyage, David, perceiving
that he had set too short a time for their
pretended deliverance, declared, that “the sins
of the nation had retarded the coming of the
Messiah.”
This caused the infatuated people
to assemble near Jerusalem and appoint a
solemn fast, in order to appease the anger of
God, and hasten the appearance of their long
expected deliverer. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 729.

At length, Malcho, who declared himself
the precursor of the Messiah, was so imprudent
as to desire an audience of Charles V, Vol. I. Dd Dd1v 338
then at Mantua. He was admitted; but that
monarch caused him to be arrested, and put
to a cruel death. Lemlein was sent prisoner to Spain, and died there a few days
after his confinement. Yet such was the infatuation of the Italian
Jews, that a long time elapsed before they would believe but that
he was still alive in this kingdom.Modern Universal History,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIII. p. 393.

Chap. XX.

The Jews are protected by the Roman pontiffs during the 1201 < x < 1300thirteenth
and 1301 < x < 1400fourteenth centuries. They are numerous in Naples.
They are massacred in Trani. They build a magnificent synagogue
in Bologna in the 1401 < x < 1500fifteenth century. The Jews are persecuted
by pope John III. Massacre of those in Trent. Alexander
VI.
favours and protects the Jews. Those refugees, who
seek an asylum in Naples, are persecuted by the inquisitors.
Paul III. is partial to the Jewish nation.

While the other European nations oppressed
and persecuted the wretched fugitives of
Israel, the Roman pontiffs, with a small exception,
treated them with lenity, defended them
against their persecutors, and often checked
the mistaken zeal of those who sought to convert
them by force. Butler’s Horæ Biblicæ, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 89. Instances of their kindness
and humanity towards the Jewish nation
occur in various parts of the foregoing history.
As early as the 0601 < x < 0700seventh century they were protected
by pope Gregory the great. In the
1001 < x < 1100eleventh, Alexander II. condemned the persecuting Dd2r 339
spirit of king Ferdinand, and endeavoured
to defend them against the rage of the
Crusaders. At a later period, Gregory IX. a
zealous promoter of the holy war, observing
that the Crusaders in many places began their
expedition with massacres of the Jews, not
only loudly reprehended them, but took all
proper methods for preventing such barbarity.
He also interposed in their favour when the inhabitants
of Haguenau accused them of murdering
christian children. He wrote a letter
to Lewis IX. to stop the persecution which
was raised against them during the reign of
that monarch. Two other letters of his, addressed
to all Christians, pass a severe censure
upon those, who, under the cloak of religion,
concealed their avarice in order to harass the
Jews; and he there enjoined them to imitate
the example of his predecessors, who had declared
themselves their defenders. Many of
the nation were indebted for their lives to his
toleration, not only in his own dominions, but
in England, France, and Spain. In 12471247 Innocent
IV.
wrote to vindicate them from the
crimes The edicts of so many pontiffs to destroy the effects of the
calumnies against the Jews render it highly probable, that these
reports were not founded on sufficient evidence.—Note to Mosheim’s
History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. VI. p. 220.
which were laid to their charge; and
said, that “they were more miserable under Dd2v 340
Christian princes, than their ancestors had
been under Pharaoh.” Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 663. Butler’s Horæ Biblicæ, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 88.

In Naples the Jewish people were become
numerous and affluent, particularly in the capital
and the city of Trani. The king, in order
to reward them for some important services,
treated them with great indulgence, and, at
his death, recommended them to the States.
But these, instead of allowing them the full
enjoyment of their religion, endeavoured to
effect their conversion. The Jews, apprehending
a persecution, offered to embrace
christianity upon condition of being permitted
to marry into the richest and noblest families
in the kingdom. To their great surprise
these terms were accepted, and they were
obliged to accede to their own proposal.
Those, however, who could not form advantageous
connexions, soon relapsed into Judaism.
A monk of Trani resolved to punish
them for their dissimulation; and, to effect this
purpose, concealed a cross in a heap of earth,
and charged a Jew of the city with the fact.
Exasperated at this supposed crime, the people
rose, and a massacre immediately followed.
The tumult extended to Naples, where the
Jews would have been put to death had not Dd3r 341
the nobility interposed and concealed the
most wealthy, and consequently the most obnoxious,
in their houses. Pope Alexander IV.
also sent to Naples to exert his authority in
their favour. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 669.

Clement V. who, at the commencement of
the 1301 < x < 1400fourteenth century had removed the papal
seat to Avignon, exerted himself to save the
Jews from the persecution of the shepherds.
He excommunicated them; but the anathemas
of the church made little impression on that
furious people. This pontiff not only protected
the Jews, but afforded them the means of instruction,
and ordered that every university
should have professors to teach Hebrew, and
men whose education rendered them capable of
disputing with and convincing the Jews of
their errours. Ibid.

John XXII. his successor, was for pursuing
a different method; and supposed the
most probablye way of effecting their conversion
was to burn all the copies of the Talmud.
Several of the bishops having asserted, that
they had seen some of this nation ridiculing the
Catholicks as they carried the cross in procession,
the pope was prevailed upon to issue an
edict which expelled them from all the territoriesDd2 Dd3v 342
of the church. In order to avoid the impending
evil, they applied to Robert, king of
Naples and Sicily, who, being a friend and favourite
of the pontiff, persuaded him, upon
their presenting him with a large sum of money,
to revoke his edict.

Clement VI. treated the Jews with singular
kindness and humanity. When they were
put to death in various parts of the kingdom
upon pretence of poisoning the rivers, he
exerted himself to the utmost to suppress the
popular fury. He also preserved them from
the cruelty of the inquisition, which raged
with unrelenting fury against the Albigenses.
Under his protection they even maintained a
friendly correspondence with some of the
members of this bloody tribunal. They presented
Emerie, who compiled the directory of
the inquisition, a Bible that they pretended
was written by Ezra, which the Dominicans
have preserved with great veneration. While
they were massacred without mercy in every
part of Europe, Avignon became their asylum;
and Clement VI. their friend and protector,
omitted nothing that could tend to soften the
lot of the persecuted, and disarm the fury of
their persecutors. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 670. Gregoire, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p.8.

Dd4r 343

1394A.D.
1394
.
The Jews were numerous and powerful
at Bologna during the 1301 < x < 1400fourteenth century.
They had there built the most magnificent
synagogue in Italy, and established an academy.
Boniface IX. did not oppose their
erecting this synagogue, which, by its size and
beauty, excited the attention and admiration of
travellers.

14121412. Though the Jews were generally favoured
and protected by the popes, yet, at the commencement
of the 1401 < x < 1500fifteenth century, John
XXIII.
issued several edicts against them.
He not only raised a persecution in his own
dominions, but encouraged and stimulated the
Spanish government to massacre this unhappy
people. Soon after, however, Nicolas II. being
raised to the pontificate, treated them with
great indulgence. He preserved those in his
own dominions from the inquisition; and sent
letters into Spain to prevent their being obliged
to abjure their own religion. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 721.

14721472. They had not long enjoyed the patronage of
this pontiff before a new persecution was
raised against them. Sextus IV. had been
prevailed upon to canonize one Simon, who,
as was pretended, had been murdered two
hundred years before by the Jews in Trent. Dd4v 344
The publick hatred being thus revived, the
populace, in the bishoprick of Trent and in the
city of Venice, plundered and massacred the
circumcised. The doge and senate were
obliged to interpose their authority to suppress
the slaughter; but the magistrates of Trent,
being less equitable, expelled the Jews from
the city.

1492A.D.
1492
.
After the Catholicks in Spain and Portugal
had banished the Jews, the Italians received
them with open arms. Pope Alexander VI.
not only relieved the wants of the unhappy
fugitives, but enjoined their brethren at Rome,
who had treated them with great neglect, to
afford them every assistance in their power
for establishing themselves in his dominions.
He allowed them the same privileges as their
brethren had formerly enjoyed; and endeavoured
to procure them the free and unrestrained
exercise of their religion in all the other
states of Italy. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 722.

It is said, that when the Portuguese exiles
came to Italy, the university of Jews at Rome
offered the pope a thousand ducats on condition
of his refusing those of Spain permission
to settle in his territories. But Alexander rejected
their offer with disdain, and reproved Dd5r 345
them for their barbarity towards their brethren.
He also decreed, that they should be banished
from his dominions, and the Spanish Jews received
in their place; and they were obliged
to pay a vast sum before they could obtain a
revocation of this order. This curious fact is handed down to posterity by Jewish
writers.Rossie’s Hebrew Biography.

The favourable disposition of pope Alexander
towards the Jewish nation, induced many
of them from various parts to seek an asylum
in his territories. Among others, whom the
pontiff’s kindness invited to Rome, was the
learned rabbi Jochanan, a German, who had
been settled at Constantinople, and who was
celebrated for his knowledge in the mysteries
of the cabbala. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 722.

Part of the Spanish and Portuguese exiles
sought an asylum in Naples. But they were
exposed to the unrelenting cruelty of the inquisitors
in that kingdom, and suffered such
terrible oppressions, that the people rebelled.
The viceroy was induced to expel them, in
order to be delivered from the tyranny of these
merciless men. He alleged, that, “as the
ancient inhabitants were sound in the faith,
there was not any farther need of this bloody Dd5v 346
1534A.D.
1534
.
tribunal.”
Charles V. soon after authorized
his viceroy’s conduct by refusing to tolerate
them either in Naples or Sicily. This severity,
however, did not deter one Ricci, a converted
Jew, from dedicating to that monarch
a celebrated treatise on what he styled Celestial
Agriculture.
He was a physician in Germany
and a profound cabbalist, who attempted
to prove the mysteries of christianity from that
science. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 723.

15391539. Paul III. was so indulgent to the Jews, and
they became so numerous and powerful during
his pontificate, that cardinal Sadolet inveighed
against him on account of his partial
fondness for an unbelieving race. He asserted,
that this pontiff was kinder to them than to the
Christians; and that none could be raised to
civil or ecclesiastical dignities but through
their favour and interest; while at the same
time he persecuted the Protestants. Though
the cardinal’s remonstrance did not produce
all the effect that was desired, yet it caused a
redress of the most flagrant abuses. They
were, however, sometimes persecuted in
Rome; yet it must be admitted that there is
no country in the world in which less Jewish
blood has been spilled, and in which the rites
of humanity have been more respected with regard Dd6r 347
to their nation, than in the ecclesiastical
state. Basnage, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 722. Letters of certain Jews to Voltaire, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 41.

A learned writer has thus accounted for the
kindness of the Roman pontiffs to the Jews.
“The court of Rome excelled all other courts
in policy, craft, and worldly wisdom. It saw
the folly of expelling and distressing the Jews;
it knew the use that was to be made of an industrious
people, skilful in commerce, and in
the management of the revenues; who had no
particular dislike to papal authority, and no
disposition to assist heretics, schismatics, or
reformers, and had not credit sufficient to
make proselytes to their own religion.” Jortin’s Remarks on Ecclesiastical History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II.

The persecution of the Jews during the
middle ages, which has been related in the five
preceding chapters, exhibits in such a striking
manner the exact accomplishment of the famous
prophecy of Moses, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Deut. xxviii. that
this chapter appears to be a correct miniature
picture of the leading features in their history,
drawn by the pencil of inspiration. The reflecting
and devout must feel an augmented
veneration for the sacred scriptures, while they
turn their attention to the complete agreement
of the prophecies, and the events which fulfill
them; and scepticism and infidelity be confounded Dd6v 348
by seeing the history of succeeding
ages so accurately delineated, and contemplating,
in the fate of this suffering people, a
“striking phenomenon, incomprehensible to
human reason.”

Among other awful denunciations against
the Jewish nation, which we have seen fully accomplished
in the course of this history, Moses
declares, “Thou shalt only be oppressed and
spoiled evermore.”
Numerous instances occur
of the cruel oppressions and pillages this
devoted race have suffered in England, France,
Germany, and Spain. In the east, as well as in
Europe, they have been continually subjected
to heavy fines and impositions. How often in
different countries they have been forced to
redeem their lives by vast sums extorted from
them! Did sovereigns want pecuniary assistance
to carry on their wars, the Jews were
compelled to give up their riches. A massacre
was generally the prelude to a plunder, as
we have seen in various parts of Europe.
When banished from England in the reign of
Edward I. their estates, which were confiscated,
brought immense sums to the crown.
When Philip Augustus expelled them from
France, he confiscated their estates; yet he
soon after recalled this oppressed people in
order to fleece them again. They have “every Ee1r 349
where paid for liberty to exist, and have scarcely
obtained that of breathing an impure air.

The great lawgiver of the Hebrew nation
also declares, “Thy sons and thy daughters
shall be taken from thee and given to another
people.”
How exactly has this prophecy been
fulfilled in several countries, especially in Spain
and Portugal. In the former of these kingdoms
the council of Toledo decreed, that the
children of the Jews should be taken from
them, and educated in the christian faith; in
the latter, when this miserable people were expelled,
all under fourteen years of age were
forcibly detained, in order to be baptized. In
the frenzy and despair of the wretched parents
at parting with their children, we contemplate
the accomplishment of another prophetic denunciation:
“Thou shalt be mad for the
sight of thine eyes, which thou shalt see.”
Accordingly
we find that some of them, driven to
madness, put a period to their own lives; and
others, sacrificing nature to their religion, destroyed
their tender offspring. Instances of
their madness and desperation frequently occur
in the preceding chapters—in England,
when the Jews in York Castle killed themselves,
their wives, and children; in France,
when they were assaulted by the shepherds, Vol. I. Ee Ee1v 350
and destroyed their children; in Spain, when
a number perished by suicide at the insurrection
of Toledo; and in Germany, when persecuted
for the pretended crime of stealing a consecrated
host, they destroyed themselves, their
wives, children, and effects.

After mentioning the oppression and barbarous
cruelty the Jews were compelled to endure,
and the madness consequent upon their
extreme sufferings, Moses declares, “Thou
shalt become an astonishment, a proverb, and
a bye word among all nations, whither the Lord
shall lead thee.”
How exactly has this prophecy
been fulfilled upon this unhappy race, who
have been consigned to infamy ever since their
dispersion. “Is not the pretended avarice,
usury, and hard heartedness of a Jew become
proverbial?” See David Levi’s Defense of the Old Testament in a series
of letters to Thomas Paine.
In various countries of the east,
as well as in Europe, they have been subjected
to invidious, humiliating, and disgraceful distinctions,
and condemned to wear exteriorly
the badges of their abject state; and every
where exposed to the insults of the vilest populace.
They have been treated as of a different
species; and, in several parts of Europe, subjected
to the same toll with those animals which Ee2r 351
by their religious principles they abhor.