A1r

A
Summary History
of
New-England,

from the
first settlement at Plymouth,
to the acceptance of the
Federal Constitution.

Comprehending
a general sketch of the
American War.

By Hannah Adams.

“Hail, O hailMy much lov’d native land! New Albion hail!The happiest realm, that, round his circling course,The all searching sun beholds.With wisdom, virtue, and the generous loveOf learning fraught, and freedom’s living flame,Electric, unextinguishable, fir’d,Our Sires establish’d in thy cheerful bounds,The noblest institutions man has seen,Since time his reign began.” Dwight’s Greenfield Hill, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 13-15.
Published according to Act of Congress.

Dedham: Printed for the author, by
H. Mann and J. H. Adams.
1799M.DCC.XC.IX.

A1v

To the Reader.

Many, especially in early life, may wish
to peruse a sketch of American affairs, before they have
time or ability t o acquire more enlarged knowledge. Though
the compiler of the ensuing work is impressed with the many
difficulties attending it, yet she hopes the charge of arrogance
will not be incurred, since her design is merely to encourage
and gratify such a wish, by giving the outlines of the interesting
history of New-England. In the prosecution of this
work, she has, with great care and assiduity, searched the
ancient Histories of New-England. She has also had recourse
to various manuscripts, particularly, those which
throw light on the history of Rhode-Island. For more modern
information, she has recurred to Belknap’s History of
New-Hampshire
, Trumbull’s History of Connecticut, Ramsay’s
History of the American Revolution, Gordon’s History
of the American War
, Minot’s History of the Insurrection,
and his Continuation of Hutchinson; Williams’ History of
Vermont
, Sullivan’s History of the District of Maine, and
Morse’s Geography. In abridging the works of those excellent
authors, she is sensible of her inability to do them justice,
and has sometimes made use of their own words. The
reader is always referred, for further information, to those
ingenious performances; and the highest ambition of the
compiler is, that her imperfect sketch may excite a more
general attention to the large and valuable histories of the
country. In giving a sketch of the American war, her
ignorance of military terms has rendered it necessary to
transcribe more literally from the word of the authors, A2r
than in other parts of the history. But though a female
cannot be supposed to be accurate in describing, and must
shrink with horror in relating the calamities of war, yet she
may be allowed to feel a lively interest in the great cause, for
which the sword was drawn in America
. The compiler is
apprized of the numerous defects of the work, and sensible
it will not bear the test of criticism. Her incapacity for executing
it has been heightened by a long interval of ill health,
which has precluded much of that studious application,
which, in a work of this kind, is indispensably necessary.
She hopes, therefore, that generous humanity will soften the
asperity of censure, and that the public will view with candor
the assiduous, though, perhaps, unsuccessful efforts of
a female pen.

A2v
A4rA4vB1r

Chapter I.

Discovery of America by Columbus. Divisions in
England after the reformation. Persecution under
the reigns of Elizabeth and James. Mr. Robinson
and his congregation remove to Holland.
Part of his congregation embark for America.
Their settlement at Plymouth, and the hardships
they endured. They are joined by a small party.
Treaty of alliance with the Indian princes. Death
and character of Mr. Robinson. A number of the
Leyden congregation arrive at Plymouth. The colony
obtain a patent. Character, government and
religion of the settlers.

The discovery of America is one of
the most celebrated achievements in the annals
of history. Christopher Columbus, the discoverer,
was a native of the Republic of Genoa. He
was born in 14471447, and, at the age of fourteen,
entered upon a seafaring life, in which profession
he was eminently distinguished. After a long and
fruitless application to several courts of Europe,
his plan of exploring new regions obtained the approbation
of Isabella, Queen of Castile. Through B B1v 10
her patronage he set sail, 14921492, with three small
vessels, which contained one hundred and twenty
seamen. The formidable difficulties, which attended
his voyage to regions hitherto unexplored,
were, at length, surmounted by his astonishing
fortitude and perseverance. After discovering several
of the West-India islands, he built a fort, and
left a garrison of thirty-five men in Hispaniola, to
maintain the Spanish pretensions in that country.
He set out on his return to Spain in 14931493, and
arrived in March, with the joyful intelligence of a
new world, excelling the kingdoms of Europe in
gold and silver, and blest with a luxuriant soil.

The voyages of Columbus paved the way for
other European adventurers, who were stimulated
by ambition and avarice to make further discoveries;
till, finally, the rich empires of Mexico
and Peru were subdued by lawless invaders. The
feeling heart bleeds in reviewing the history of
South-America, and is filled with horror at the
successful villainy of its intrepid conquerors.See Robertson’s History of South-America.

The history of North-America exhibits a very
different scene. Many of the first settlers of this
country were animated, by the desire of possessing
religious liberty, to abandon their native land,
where they enjoyed ease and affluence; and to
struggle through a variety of hardships, in an uncultivated
wilderness inhabited by savages.

The settlements of New-England, which are
the particular object of the ensuing history, owe B2r 11
their rise to the religious disputes that attended
the reformation in England.

When King Henry VIII. renounced the papal
supremacy, he transferred to himself the spiritual
power which had been exercised by the
Bishops of Rome. He set up himself as supreme
head of the English church, and commanded all
his subjects to pay allegiance to him in his newly
assumed character.

This claim was maintained by his son and successor
Edward VI. in whose reign the reformation
made great progress, and a service book was
published by royal authority, as the standard of
worship and discipline. His sister Mary, who succeeded
him, restored the papal supremacy, and
raised such a violent persecution against the reformers,
that numbers of them fled into Germany
and the Netherlands, where they departed from
the uniformity established in England, and became
divided in their sentiments and practice respecting
religious worship.

At the accession of Elizabeth, they returned
to their native country with sanguine hopes of reforming
the church of England, according to the
respective opinions which they had embraced in
their exile. But they soon found that the Queen
was fond of the establishment made in the reign of
her brother, Edward, and strongly prejudiced in
favor of pomp and ceremony in religion. She
asserted her supremacy in the most absolute terms,
and erected an high commission court, with extensive B2v 12
jurisdiction in ecclesiastical affairs. In consequence
of the rigorous measures which were pursued
to enforce uniformity, a separation from the
established church took place. Those who were
desirous of a further reformation from the Romish
superstitions, and of a more pure and perfect
form of religion, were denominated Puritans.Neal’s History of the Puritans.Belknap’s History of New
Hampshire
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 61, 62, 63.

During the reign of Elizabeth, the Puritans, or
Non-Conformists, as they were called, from their
refusing to conform to the ceremonies of the
church of England, were severely persecuted.
Some were cast into prison, where a number perished;
others were banished, and a few were put
to death. Those Protestants who, during the
bloody reign of Mary, suffered all the rigor of
persecution, now encountered each other with the
same cruel animosity. The manner of proceeding
was indeed softened; banishment, fines and imprisonment
were substituted for the unrelenting
vengeance of the stake. But the principle was
the same, and produced a similar effect. In both
reigns the number of those who refused to conform
to the established worship increased.See Neal’s History of the Puritans.

The persecution of the Puritans was continued
with great severity during the reign of James I.
until, despairing of redress, they determined to
seek an asylum in a foreign land, where they
could enjoy the free exercise of their religious
opinions.

B3r13

16081608.At the period, when the persecution in this
reign had arisen to its highest degree under Archbishop
Bancroft
, Mr. Robinson, a dissenting clergyman
in England, with part of his congregation,
removed to Amsterdam, in Holland, and, with
permission of the magistrates, settled at Leyden
the subsequent year. There they formed a church,
and enjoyed religious liberty. After twelve years
residence in Holland, they meditated a removal to
America, because they judged it unsafe to educate
their children in a country, where the day devoted
by Christians to religious rest, was treated, by too
many of the inhabitants, as a day of levity and
diversion. The other motives, which induced them
to emigrate to America were, to preserve the morals
of the youth; to prevent them from leaving
their parents, and engaging in business unfriendly
to religion, from want of employment at
home; to avoid the inconvenience of incorporating
with the Dutch; to lay a foundation for propagating
the gospel in the remote parts of the
world; and, by separating from all the existing
establishments in Europe, to form the model of a
pure church, free from the admixture of human
additions; and a system of civil policy unfettered
by the arbitrary institutions of the old world. Prince’s Chronological History of New England, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 82.

As the new world appeared the proper theatre
for the execution of their designs, after serious
and repeated addresses to Heaven for direction,
they resolved to cross the Atlantic. They applied B3v 14
16081608. to the Virginia company for permission to establish
themselves in America within their limits,
and petitioned King James to allow them liberty
of conscience.

The Virginia company freely consented to give
them a patent, with as ample privileges as were
in their power to grant. But such was the prevailing
bigotry of the age, that the solicitations of
some of the most respectable characters in the kingdom
could not prevail on the King and Bishops
to allow the refugees liberty of conscience under
the royal seal. His Majesty, however, at last
gave private assurance, that they should live unmolested,
provided they behaved peaceably, but
persisted in refusing to tolerate them by public authority.
The hope that the distance of their situation
would secure them from the jurisdiction of
ecclesiastical courts, induced them, notwithstanding,
to put their plan in execution; and, after
long attendance, much expence, and labor, they
obtained a patent. Mather’s Magnalia, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book I. p. 6.

16201620.Whilst preparations were making for the departure
of the adventurers for New-England, a
day was appointed for solemn prayer, on which
occasion Mr. Robinson, in a discourse from the
1st of INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Samuel, xxiii. 3—4, endeavoured to dispel
their apprehensions, and inspire them with Christian
fortitude. As it was not convenient for all
to remove at first, the majority, with their pastor, B4r 15
16201620. concluded to remain for the present in Leyden.
Mr. John Brewster, assistant to Mr. Robinson,
was chosen to perform ministerial offices
to the first adventurers. Two ships were prepared,
one of which was fitted out in Holland, the other
hired in London. When the time of separation
drew nigh, their pastor preached a farewell discourse
from INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Ezra viii. 21. A large concourse of
friends from Leyden and Amsterdam accompanied
the emigrants to the ship, which lay at Delft-Haven.
The night was spent in fervent and affectionate
prayers, and in that pathetic intercourse
of soul, which the feeling heart can better conceive
than describe. The affecting scene drew
tears even from the eyes of strangers. When the
period, in which the voyagers were about to depart,
arrived, they all, with their beloved pastor, fell
on their knees, and, with eyes, hands and hearts
raised to heaven, fervently commended their adventuring
brethren to the blessing of the Lord.
Thus, after mutual embraces, accompanied with
many tears, they bade a long, and to many of
them a final adieu. Prince’s Chronology, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 66.

On the 1620-07-2222d of July, they sailed for Southampton,
where they met the ship from London, with
the rest of the emigrants.

On the 1620-08-055th of August, both vessels proceeded
to sea, but returned twice into port, on account
of defects in the one from Delft, which was dismissed.An

B4v16

16201620. ardent desire of enjoying religious liberty
finally overcame all difficulties. A company of an
hundred and one persons betook themselves to the
London ship, and sailed from Plymouth the 1620-09-066th
of September
. After many delays, difficulties and
dangers, they made Cape-Cod on the 1620-11-099th of November,
at break of day, and entered the harbor
on the 1620-11-1010th.

It was their intention to settle at the mouth of
Hudson’s River; but the Dutch, with the view of
planting a colony in that place, bribed the pilot
to conduct them to these northern coasts, and
then, under various pretences, to discourage them
from prosecuting their former plan. Morton’s New England’s Memorial, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 13.

As they were not within the limits of their patent
from the Virginia company, they saw the
necessity of establishing a separate government for
themselves. Accordingly, having offered their devout
and ardent acknowledgements to God for
their safe arrival, they formed themselves into a
body politic, under the crown of England, whilst
on board, for the purpose of establishing “just
and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions
and offices.”
On the 1620-11-1010th of November the adventurers
subscribed this contract, thereby making
it the basis of their government. They chose
Mr. John Carver, a gentleman of piety and approved
abilities, to be their governor the first
year; and the practice of an annual election continued C1r 17
16201620. unchanged during the existence of their
government. Mather, B. I., INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 8.

The first object of the emigrants, after disembarkation,
was to fix on a convenient place for
settlement. In this attempt they were obliged to
encounter numerous difficulties, and to suffer
incredible hardships. Many of them were sick in
consequence of the fatigues of a long voyage;
the provisions were bad; the season was uncommonly
cold; the Indians, thought afterwards
friendly, were now hostile, and the adventurers
were unacquainted with the coast. These difficulties
they surmounted, and on the 1620-12-3131st of December
were all safely landed at a place, which
they called Plymouth, in grateful remembrance of
the last town they left in their native country. Morse’s Geography, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 344.

The historians of New-England relate two
remarkable events, which wonderfully facilitated
the settlement of Plymouth and Massachusetts.
The one was a war begun by the Tarratenes, a
nation who resided eastward of Penobscot. These
formidable people surprised the chief sachem at his
head-quarters, and destroyed him with all his family;
upon which all the other sachems, who were
subordinate to him, contended among themselves
for the sovereignty; and in these dissensions many
of them, as well as their unhappy people perished. Goskins’ Historical Collections, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 348.
The other was a mortal and contagious distemper C C1v 18
16201620.which prevailed among the Indians two or three
years previously to the arrival of the English at
Plymouth, and proved fatal to such numbers,
that some tribes were almost extinct. The extent
of this pestilence was between Penobscot in
the east, and Narraganset in the west. These two
tribes escaped, while the intermediate people were
wasted and destroyed. Morton’s Memorial, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 18, 19, 20. Belknap’s American Biography, Vol. I. p.358
1 lineflawed-reproduction

The prospects and situation of the Plymouth
settlers were gloomy beyond expression. The
whole company, which landed consisted of but one
hundred and one souls. They were three thousand
miles
from their native country, with a dreary
winter in prospect, in an uncultivated wilderness,
surrounded with hostile barbarians, and without
any hope of human succour. Their only civilized
neighbors were a French settlement at Port Royal, and an English settlement at Virginia; the
nearest of which was five hundred miles distant,
much too remote to afford a hope of relief in a
time of danger or famine. To obtain a supply of
provisions by cultivating the stubborn soil required
an immensity of previous labor, and was, at
best, a distant and uncertain dependence. They
were denied the aid or favor of the court of England
—without a patent—without a public promise
of a peaceable enjoyment of their religious liberties.
In this melancholy situation, forty-five of
their number died before the opening of the next
spring, of disorders occasioned by their tedious C2r 19
16201620.voyage, with insufficient accomodations, and
their uncommon exertions and fatigues. Prince’s Chronology, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I p. 98.

The new colony supported these complicated
hardships with heroic fortitude. To enjoy full liberty
to worship God, according to the dictates of
their consciences, was esteemed by them the greatest
of blessings. And the religious fervor, which
induced them to abandon their native country fortified
their minds, and enabled them to surmount
every difficulty, which could prove their patience,
or evince their firmness.

To their unspeakable satisfaction, their association
in England sent them a supply of necessaries, and
a reinforcement of colonists the subsequent year. Chalmers’ Political Annals, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 88.

16211621.The prudent, friendly and upright conduct of
the Plymouth settlers towards the natives secured
their friendship and alliance. As early as 1621-03March
Massassoiet, one of the most powerful sagamores
of the neighboring Indians, with sixty attendants,
paid them a visit, and entered into a treaty of
peace and amity. They reciprocally agreed, to
avoid injuries, to punish offenders, to restore stolen
goods, to afford mutual assistance in all justifiable
wars, to promote peace among their neighbors,
&c. Massassoiet, and his successors, for fifty years
inviolably observed this treaty. His example was
followed by others. On the 1621-09-1313th of September
nine sachems declared allegiance to King James.
Massassoiet and many of his sub-sachems, who inhabited
round the bays of Plymouth and Massachusetts, C2v 20
16211621.
subscribed a writing, acknowledging subjection
to the king of England. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book I. p. 10.

The Plymotheans early agreed, and purchased
a right to the lands, which they cultivated from the
Indian proprietors. Declarations respecting the proceedings of the government of
Plymouth
.

For several years after their arrival the whole
property of the colony was in common, from
which every person was furnished with necessary
articles. In the beginning of each year a certain
quantity of land was selected for planting, and
their proportion of labor was assigned to each one. Hutchinson’s History of Massachusetts Bay, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 474.

At the close of the year 16241624 the plantation
consisted of one hundred and eighty persons.
They had built a town consisting of thirty-two
dwelling houses, erected a citadel for its defence,
and laid out farms for its support. Chalmers, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 89.

16251625.The following year the new colony received
the melancholy intelligence of the death of the
Rev. Mr. Robinson, who died at Leyden in the
moth of 1625-03March, in the 50th year of his age.
The character of this excellent man, who was distinguished
both by his natural abilities and an
highly cultivated mind, was greatly dignified by
the mild and amiable virtues of Christianity. He
possessed a liberality of sentiment which was uncommon
for the age, in which he lived.See Robinson’s farewell charge to his flock, when embarking
for America, in Neal’s History of New-England, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 84.
He was C3r 21
16251625.revered and esteemed by the Dutch divines, venerated
and beloved by his people; and the harmony
which subsisted between them was perfect and
uninterrupted. His death was greatly lamented
by the people at Plymouth, who were flattering
themselves with the pleasing hope of his speedy arrival
in New-England. In the beginning of the
year 16291629, they chose Mr. Ralph Smith for their
pastor. Previously to his ordination, Mr. Brewster,
who had been ruling elder to the church at
Leyden, performed all the ministerial offices among
them, except administering the sacraments.

After the death of Mr. Robinson, another
part of his congregation joined their brethren in
America.

16301630.When the plantation amounted to about three
hundred persons, they obtained a patent from the
council of Plymouth. By this grant their lands
were secured against all English claims. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book I. p. 12.

It is a distinguished trait in the settlements of
New-England, that they were established from religious
motives, by persons of piety and information.The

Plymotheans were a plain, industrious,
conscientious and pious people. Though their
piety was fervent, yet it was also rational, and
disposed them to a strict observance of the moral
and social duties. The leading characters among
them were men of superior abilities and undaunted
fortitude. The respectable names of Carver, C3v 22
16301630.Bradford, Winslow, Prince and others, are immortalized
in the annals of New-England.

Respecting their civil principles, an ardent
love of liberty, an unshaken attachment to the
rights of men, with a desire to transmit them to
their latest posterity, were the principles, which governed
their conduct.See an account of the church in Plymouth, in the Historical
Collections
for the year 17941794. See also Dr. Robbins’ anniversary
Sermon preached in Plymouth, 17961796.

They made the general laws of England their
rule of government, and never established a distinct
code for themselves. They added, however,
such municipal laws as were, from time to time,
found necessary to regulate new and emergent
cases, which were unprovided for by the common
and statute laws of England.

During the infancy of the colony, the whole
body of male inhabitants were frequently assembled,
to determine affairs both legislative and judicial.
When their increase rendered this method
impracticable, the governor and assistants were the
supreme judiciary power, and sole in judging high
offences. Crimes of less magnitude were cognizable
before inferior courts and single magistrates;
and in civil matters appeals could be made from
inferior jurisdictions to the supreme. In the year
16391639, they established a house of representatives,
composed of deputies from the several towns. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II p. 467. Chalmers, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 88.

As the professed design of the settlement of the
colony was the advancement of religion, their C4r 23
16301630.principal object was to form churches on what
they supposed to be the gospel plan. Part of the
Plymouth settlers had imbibed the opinions of the
Brownists; but the instructions of Mr. Robinson
lessened their attachment to their former sentiments,
and they embraced the congregational system,
which was maintained by this pious and benevolent
divine. They were of opinion, that no
churches or church officers had any power to controul
other churches or officers; and that all church
members had equal rights and privileges. Their
church officers were pastors, ruling elders and
deacons. In doctrinal points they agreed with the
articles of the church of England, which are
strictly Calvinian. Prince’s Chronology, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 93.

Agreeably to the prevailing prejudices of the
age in which they lived, they asserted the necessity
of uniformity in religious worship. Yet, however
rigid the Plymotheans might have been at
their first separation from the church of England,
they never discovered so great a degree of intolerance
as, at a subsequent period, was exhibited in
the Massachusetts colony. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 478.

C4v24

Chapter II.

Persecution in England. Settlement of the Massachusetts
colony. A charter obtained. Salem is
founded, and a church incorporated. Large additions
are made to the plantation. Sufferings of
the emigrants. Boston founded. Correspondence
settled between Plymouth and Massachusetts. Great
numbers arrive from England. Of the Massachusetts
government. Of the religion of the first
settlers of that colony. Their character.

16301630.Whilst the first settlers of New-
England
were encountering various difficulties,
their brethren, the Puritans, in England were suffering
a severe persecution. Under the reign of
Charles I. the government of the church was
committed to Archbishop Laud, a man of warm
passions and strong prejudices. Through his influence
the royal prerogative was strained to the
highest despotism. He was ambitious in his administration
to imitate the splendor of the church
of Rome
. He entertained exalted ideas of the
authority of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, and was
determined to support it by coercive measures.
His aversion to the Puritans impelled him to prosecute
them with rigorous severity. In the high
commission court and star-chamber they were imprisoned, D1r 25
fined and banished, in an arbitrary and
illegal manner.See Rapin’s History of England, and Neal’s History of the
Puritans
.

“The Laudean persecution, which caused the
destruction of thousands in England, proved to be
a principle of life and vigor to the infant settlements
in America.” Morse’s Geography.
The oppressive government,
which was exercised in England, both in church
and state, induced several men of eminence to
meditate a removal to America, if the measures
they pursued for establishing civil and religious liberty
in their native country should prove abortive.
For this purpose, they solicited and obtained grants
of land in New-England, and were assiduously engaged
in settling them. Among these patentees
were the Lords Brook, Say and Seal, the Pelhams,
the Hampdens, and the Pyms; names
which have since been greatly distinguished in the
annals of their country.

16271627.Actuated by religious motives, a small party
emigrated from the west of England, under the
conduct of Mr. Roger Conant. They first came
to Plymouth, and, upon their removal from
thence, in the year 16261626, they settled on that
part of the American coast, which afterwards acquired
the name of Salem. The various difficulties
which they were obliged to encounter induced them
to form the design of abandoning their settlement,
and returning to England. In the mean time the
Rev. Mr. White, minister of Dorchester, had D D1v 26 16271627.projected an asylum for the silenced Non-Conformist
clergy in Massachusetts-Bay. In order to facilitate
his design, he used all his influence to persuade
Mr. Conant and his party to remain, promising
to send them speedily a patent, necessaries
and friends. Relying on these assurances, and
encouraged under their present hardships by the
soft persuasions of hope, they determined to await
the event. Chalmers, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 288.

Mr. White engaged a number of influential
characters to interest themselves in his plan. On
the 1627-03-1919th of March, Sir Henry Roswel, and several
other gentlemen, who dwelt about Dorchester,
received a patent of Massachusetts-Bay from the
council of Plymouth.

16281628.These gentlemen petitioned for a royal charter,
under the idea that their existence and powers
would be thereby secured and promoted. They
succeeded; and a charter of incorporation was
granted by King Charles I. constituting them a
body politic, by the name of “the Governor and
Company of the Massachusetts-Bay, in New-England,”
with as ample powers as any other corporation
in the realm of England. The patent recited
the grant of American territory to the council
of Plymouth in 16201620. It re-granted Massachusetts-Bay
to Sir Henry Roswel and others.
The whole executive power of the corporation was
invested in a governor, deputy-governor, and eighteen
assistants; and, until the annual election of D2r 27
16281628.the company could commence, the governor, deputy-governor,
and eighteen assistants were specified.
The governor and seven or more assistants
were authorized to meet in monthly courts, for
dispatching such business, as concerned the company
or settlement. But the legislative powers of
the corporation were vested in a more popular assembly,
composed of the governor, deputy-governor,
the assistants and freemen of the company.
This assembly, to be convened on the last Wednesday
of each of the four annual terms, by the title
of the general court, was empowered to enact laws
and ordinances for the good of the body politic,
and the government of the plantation, and its inhabitants,
provided they should not be repugnant
to the laws and statutes of England. This assembly
was empowered to elect their governor, deputy-governor,
and other necessary officers, and to
confer the freedom of the company. The company
was allowed to transport persons, merchandize,
weapons,&c. to New-England, exempt from duty,
for the term of seven years; and emigrants
were entitled to all the privileges of Englishmen.
Such are the general outlines of the charter.See Massachusetts Colony Charter, in Hutchinson’s Collection
of Papers
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.

About the time in which the patent of Massachusetts
received the royal confirmation, Captain John
Endicot
, with one hundred persons, was sent over
by the patentees, to prepare the way for the settlement
of a permanent colony in that part of D2v 28
16281628.New-England. After their arrival, they began a
settlement, which they named Salem. This was
the first town in Massachusetts, the second in New-
England
.

16291629.The subsequent year, two hundred persons
came over and joined Mr. Endicot’s colony. Soon
after an hundred of the planters removed, and
settled Charlestown. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 9.

Agreeably to the professed design of their
emigration, the colony made it their primary concern
to form a church at Salem, upon a similar
plan of order and discipline with that of their
brethren at Plymouth. The church of Plymouth
was convoked to be present by their messengers at
the ordination of Messrs. Shelton and Higginson.
The day was spent in fasting and prayer. Thirty
persons, who desired to join the communion, professed
their assent to a confession of faith prepared by
Mr. Higginson, and subscribed a covenant drawn up
by the same gentleman. Messrs. Shelton and Higginson
were then ordained pastor and teacher. The
Plymouth messengers gave the right hand of fellowship,
by which ceremony the two churches
professed mutual affection and communion. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 18, 19.

Several gentlemen of fortune and distinguished
reputation made proposals to the Massachusetts
company for settling with their families in America,
on condition that the government should be
transferred to the inhabitants, and not continued
in the hands of the company in London. Mr. D3r 29
16291629.Matthew Craddock
, the governor, communicated
this proposal to the general court. After some
debate, their plan was accepted, and the company
proceeded to a new election of officers, who were
to repair to and settle in New-England. John
Winthrop
, Esq. of Groton, in Suffolk, a gentleman
of distinguished piety and ability, was chosen
governor. Mr. Thomas Dudley was elected deputy-governor;
and other worthy characters were
chosen for their council. The business of transferring
the patent and corporation, and procuring
new settlers, was prosecuted with vigor. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 12, 13, 14. Winthrop’s Journal.

16301630.Previously to leaving their native country,
the new adventurers agreed upon a respectful address
to their brethren of the church of England.
Their object was to remove prejudices, conciliate
the minds of the disaffected, and recommend themselves
and their expedition to the favorable regards
of serious Christians of the Episcopal persuasion.
In this address they desired to be called their brethren;
they requested their prayers; and, in energetic
language, professed the most affectionate regard
for their welfare.See this address in Hutchinson’s History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 487.

On the 1630-06-1212th of June, the company arrived at
Salem, with the governor, deputy-governor, assistants
and charter. Before the close of the year
the number of passengers amounted to seventeen
hundred. In this and the preceding year two
thousand planters arrived in New-England. These
settled about nine or ten towns and villages.

D3v30

16301630.Many of the first settlers of Massachusetts were
possessed of large fortunes in their native country,
and enjoyed the elegant accommodations of life.
The striking contrast between their former ease
and affluence, and the hardships they now endured,
must have augmented their distress. They were
obliged to dispose of their large and valuable estates
to make provision for their enterprize. The
rigor of the climate, together with the fatigues and
exertions unavoidable in a new settlement, occasioned
diseases, which proved fatal to a large number
the first winter after their arrival. Their stock
of provisions falling short, the dreadful apprehension
of perishing by famine was added to their
other calamities. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 19.

Towards the close of the year the colony of
Charlestown removed to a peninsula, to which
they gave the name of Boston, from a town in
Lincolnshire, in England, the native residence of
some of the first settlers, and from whence they
expected the Rev. John Cotton, a celebrated Puritan
clergyman. They established a civil government,
and congregational church, over which the
Rev. John Wilson officiated as the first pastor.

16311631.The subsequent summer a number of passengers
arrived from England, among whom was the Rev.
John Elliot
. This eminent divine spent his first
year in Boston, and performed ministerial offices
to the church in that place, in the absence
of Mr. Wilson, then on a voyage to England. A D4r 31
16311631.number of his particular friends having formed a
settlement, and collected a church, in a town
which they called Roxbury, he was ordained their
pastor the year after his arrival in New-England. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book III. p. 175.

16321632.In order to establish a union between the colonies,
the governor, accompanied by Mr. Wilson,
and other gentlemen, walked forty miles through
the woods as far as Plymouth. Mr. Bradford,
the governor of Plymouth, received them with
great respect; and the interview produced a permanent
friendship between the two plantations.

1633–16351633 to 1635.In the three following years great additions
were made to the Massachusetts colony. Among
which were several famous Non-Conformist divines,
viz. the Rev. John Cotton, Thomas Hooker,
and Samuel Stone. Mr. Cotton was immediately
chosen assistant to Mr. Wilson, in Boston,
and continued with him till his death. Mr. Hooker
was elected pastor of a church in Newtown,
since called Cambridge, and Mr. Stone was his assistant.
The settlement of these celebrated clergymen,
joined with the unrelenting severity of Archbishop
Laud’s
administration, produced great emigrations.
New plantations were formed, and congregational
churches established in various parts of
the country. Ibid.

Sir Henry Vane, who afterwards acted so conspicuous
a part in his native country, was among
the passengers who arrived at this period. In compliment
to his talents and family, he was chosen
governor the subsequent year. Chalmers, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 37.

D4v32

16351635.The settlers of Massachusetts purchased their
lands of the native proprietors, and gave what was
deemed by those savages an adequate compensation.
The soil was to them of small value, as
they subsisted chiefly by hunting, and did not possess
the patient industry, which agriculture requires.
In the year 16331633, the colony passed an
act, prohibiting the purchase of the lands from
the natives, without having previously obtained a
licence from government. Sullivan’s History of the District of Maine, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 140.

After the governor and company removed
from London to Massachusetts, the change of place
and circumstances induced them to vary in certain
instances from the directions of the charter.
“They apprehended themselves subject to
no other law or rule of government, than what
arose from natural reason and the principles of
equity, except any positive rules from the word of
God.” Hutchinson’s Letter of 1762-12-07December 7, 1762.
Influential characters among them maintained,
“that birth was no necessary cause of subjection;
for that the subject of any prince or state
had a natural right to emigrate to any other state,
or quarter of the world, when deprived of liberty
of conscience, and that upon such removal his allegiance
ceased.”
They called their own a voluntary
civil subjection, arising merely from a mutual
compact between them and the king, founded upon
the charter. They acknowledged that this
compact obligated them not to be subject to, or
seek protection from, any other prince, nor to E1r 33
16351635.enact laws repugnant to those of England,&c.
On the other hand, they maintained, that they
were to be governed by laws made by themselves,
and by officers of their own electing. Gordon’s History of the American War, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 30.

When the Massachusetts colony completed their
system of government, instead of making the laws
of England the foundation of their code, they preferred
the laws of Moses. They also created a representative
body of their own motion in six years
after the grant of their charter, which was wholly
silent upon so important an institution. And although
it gave them no power to judge and determine
capital offences, the judicatories they established
assumed this act of sovereign authority. In
the same manner they supplied a defect of authority
to erect judicatories for the probate of wills;
to constitute courts with admiralty jurisdiction; to
impose taxes on the inhabitants, and to create
towns and other bodies corporate. Minot’s Continuation of Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 20.

In 16441644, the general courts were reduced to
two in a year; and except in this, and a few other
unimportant circumstances, the government continued
the same until the people were deprived of
their charter. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 3.

Most of the Massachusetts settlers had, while
in their native country, lived in communion with
the established church. The rigorous severity used
to enforce ceremonies, by them deemed unlawful,
occasioned their removal to New-England. The E E1v 34

16351635.Massachusetts churches, in general, were formed
on the congregational model, and maintained Calvinian
doctrines. The colony had no settled plan
of church discipline till after the arrival of Mr.
Gordon
, whose opinion, in civil and sacred concerns,
was held in the highest estimation. He
gradually modelled all their church administrations,
and determined their ecclesiastical constitutions.This
Prince’s Chronology, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 285. Wood’s, New-England’s Prospect,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 3.

great man earnestly pleaded, “that the
government might be considered as a theocracy,
wherein the Lord was judge, lawgiver, and king;
that the laws he gave Israel might be adopted, so
far as they were of moral and perpetual equity;
that the people might be considered as God’s people,
in covenant with him; that none but persons
of approved piety and eminent abilities should be
chosen rulers; that the clergy should be consulted
in all matters of religion; and that the magistrates
should have a superintending and coercive power
over the churches.” Hutchinson’s Collection of Papers, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 162.

In consequence of the union thus formed between
the church and state, on the plan of the
Jewish theocracy, the ministers were called to sit
in council, and give their advice in matters of religion,
and cases of conscience, which came before
the court, and without them they never proceeded
to any act of an ecclesiastical nature. As
none were allowed to vote in the election of rulers E2r 35
16351635.but freemen, and freemen must be church members;
and as none could be admitted into the
church but by the elders, who first examined, and
then propounded them to the brethren for their
vote, the clergy acquired hereby a vast ascendency
over both rulers and people, and had, in effect, the
keys of the state as well as the church in their
hands. The magistrates, on the other hand, regulated
the gathering of the churches, interposed
in the settlement and dismission of ministers, arbitrated
in ecclesiastical controversies, and controuled
synodical assemblies. This coercive power in
the magistrates was deemed absolutely necessary
to preserve the order of the gospel. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 81.

The rigorous measures which, agreeably to
these principles, were used to enforce colonial uniformity,
and the effects they produced, will be related
in a future chapter.

Though the conduct of our ancestors, in the
application of the power of the civil magistrate to
religious concerns, was fraught with error, and
the liberal sentiments of the present age place their
errors in the most conspicuous point of view; their
memory ought ever to be held in veneration.
And while we review the imperfections which, at
present, cast a shade over their characters, we
ought to recollect those virtues, by which they
gave lustre to the age in which they lived, viz.
their ardent love of liberty when tyranny prevailed
in church and state; the fortitude with which they E2v 36
sacrificed ease and opulence, and encountered complicated
hardships in order to enjoy the sacred
rights of conscience; their care to lay a foundation
for solid learning, and establish wise and useful
institutions in their infant state; the immense
pains they took in settling and cultivating their
lands, and defending the country against the depredations
of surrounding Indians; and, above all,
their supreme regard for religion. As an eminent
author observes, “Religious to some degree of
enthusiasm it may be admitted they were, but this
can be no peculiar derogation from their character,
because it was at that time almost the universal
character not only of England, but of Christendom.
Had this, however, been otherwise, their
enthusiasm, considering the principles, on which it
was founded, and the ends, to which it was directed,
far from being a reproach, was greatly to
their honor. For I believe it will be found universally
true, that no great enterprize for the honor
and happiness of mankind was ever achieved
without a large mixture of that noble infirmity.
Whatever imperfections may be justly ascribed to
them, which, however, are as few as any mortals
have discovered, their judgment in forming their
policy was founded on wise and benevolent principles;
it was founded on revelation and reason too;
it was consistent with the best, greatest and wisest
legislators of antiquity.” Adams on the Canon and Feudal Law. Boston Gazette, 17651765.

E3r37

The Massachusetts colony rapidly increased. A
dreary wilderness in the space of a few years had
become a comfortable habitation, furnished with
the necessaries and conveniences of life. It is remarkable
that previously to this period, all the attempts
at settling the northern patent, upon secular
views, proved abortive. They were accompanied
with such public discouragement as would probably
have lost the continent to England, or have permitted
only the sharing of it with the other European
powers, as in the West-India islands, had
not the spirit of religion given rise to an effectual
colonization.

E3v38

Chapter III.

Of the settlement of New-Hampshire, and the District
of Maine
. The plantation and civil government
of Connecticut and New-Haven. Of their attention
to the promotion of learning and religion. The
religious tenets in which the New-England settlers
were agreed. The king and council in England
prohibit the Puritans from embarking for America.

Whilst religious principles animated
the settlers of Plymouth and Massachusetts
to encounter hardships in a dreary wilderness,
a spirit of enterprize and ambition induced others
to attempt settlements in different parts of the
new world. As early as 16221622, grants of land had
been made by the Plymouth council to two of
their most active members, viz. Sir Ferdinando
Gorges
, and Captain John Mason. The subsequent
year they, in conjunction with several English
merchants, who stiled themselves “the company
of Laconia,”
attempted the establishment of
a colony and fishery at the river Piscataqua. This
was the beginning of the settlement known since
by the name of New-Hampshire. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 10.

16291629.Several years after, some of the scattered
planters in the Bay of Massachusetts procured a
general meeting of the Indians at Squamscot falls, E4r 39
16291629.where they obtained from the Indian sachems
deeds of a tract of land between the rivers Piscataqua
and Merrimak. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched. Vol. I. p. 8—10. These lands, at a future
period, afforded an asylum for a number of exiles
whom persecution had driven from Massachusetts.

In this, and the two following years, the Plymouth
council made several grants of the lands on
the river Piscataqua to different proprietors. Dispirited
by the difficulties they were obliged to encounter,
the major part of the other adventurers
either relinquished their design, or sold their shares
to Mason and Gorges, who were more sanguine
than the rest, and became, either by purchase, or
tacit consent of the others, the principal, if not
sole, proprietors. These gentlemen renewed their
exertions with greater vigor; sent over a fresh supply
of servants and materials for carrying on the
settlement; and appointed Francis Williams, a
gentleman of good sense and discretion, to be
their governor.

16341634.The new settlers formed themselves into a body
politic, and entered into a voluntary association
for government. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 23.

Voluntary agreements formed a very important
title in the ancient jurisprudence of New-England.
Wherever the British emigrants settled a
colony without the authority of a charter, they
founded their police on a contract to which every
one agreed.

The District of Maine was settled by Sir Ferdinando
Gorges
in nearly the same period with New- E4v 40
16341634.Hampshire
. This gentleman was of an ambitious
and enterprizing spirit, a firm royalist, and strongly
attached to the national church. The adventurers
who repaired to this plantation entertained similar
opinions, though in the neighborhood of the
other colonies, they began to waver in their sentiments.
Gorges united with Mason, who was also
a royalist and Episcopalian, in an unsuccessful
attempt to obtain a general government over the
New-England settlements, which were intended to
be divided into twelve districts. When he found
his plan could not be effected, he solicited and obtained
16391639. a charter from King Charles I. This patent
of the crown to Gorges, is said to have contained
more and greater powers than had ever been
granted by a sovereign to a subject. It enjoined
little else, in particular, than an establishment of
the Episcopal religion. Under this delegated authority,
Gorges appointed counsellors for the ordering
the affairs of the settlement. To perpetuate
his reputation, as land proprietor, he gave the
plantation of York the name of Gorgiana.

There was never any religious persecution in
the District of Maine, nor was it considered an object
of great importance to establish a regular support
for the clergy. The early want of religious
instruction proved highly detrimental to the inhabitants
of this country. Sullivan, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 78, 79, 237, 307.

The rapid increase of Massachusetts settlement
induced a number from that colony to form the F1r 41
design of effecting a new plantation on Connecticut
river
; the land there situated being celebrated
for its luxuriancy. The first grant of this
country was made by the Plymouth council to the
Earl of Warwick, in 16301630, and confirmed by his Majesty
16311631. in council the same year. The succeeding year
the Earl assigned the grant to Lords Say and Seal,
Lord Brook, and nine others, who reserved it as
an asylum for the Puritan emigrants from England. Morse, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 465.

16351635.Several families from Roxbury, Dorchester,
Cambridge and Watertown, began to remove their
families to Connecticut. After a tedious and difficult
journey through swamps and rivers, over
mountains and rough grounds, which were passed
with great difficulty and fatigue, they arrived safely
at the places of their respective destination; and
commenced the settlement of the towns of Windsor,
16351635.
Hartford16361636. and Weathersfield.16361636. The Rev.
Mr. Hooker
, a respectable and pious clergyman,
was the leader in this enterprize.

“The hardships and distresses, of the first
planters of Connecticut,”
says Dr. Trumbull,
scarcely admit of a description. To carry much
provision or furniture through a pathless wilderness
was impracticable. Their principal provisions
and household furniture were therefore put on
board several small vessels, which by reason of delays
and the tempestuousness of the season, were
either cast away, or did not arrive.”
Several vessels
were wrecked on the coast of New-England, F F1v 42
16351635.by the violence of the storms. Every resource appeared
to fail, and the people were under the
dreadful apprehension of perishing by famine.
They supported themselves, in this distressing period,
with that heroic firmness and magnanimity
for which the first settlers of New-England had
been so eminently distinguished. Trumbull’s History of Connecticut, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 52.

The Connecticut planters at first settled under
the general government of Massachusetts; but
finding themselves without the limits of their patent,
and being at full liberty to govern themselves
by their own institutions, they formed themselves,
by voluntary compact, into a distinct commonwealth.The

16391639. constitution of Connecticut ordained, that
there should be annually two general courts, or assemblies;
one on the second Thursday in April,
and the other on the second Thursday in September;
that the first should be the court of election,
in which should be annually chosen, at least six magistrates,
and all other public officers. It ordained,
that a governor should be chosen distinct from the
six magistrates, for one year, and until another
should be chosen and sworn; and that the governor
and magistrates should be sworn to a faithful
execution of the laws of the colony, and in cases
in which there was no express law established, to
be governed by the divine word. Agreeably to
the constitution, the choice of these officers was
to be made by the whole body of freemen convened F2r 43
16391639. in general election. It provided that all
persons, who had been received as members of the
several towns, by a majority of the inhabitants,
and had taken the oath of fidelity to the commonwealth,
should be admitted freemen of the colony.
This was the most material point, in which the constitution
of Connecticut differed from that of Massachusetts,
which confined the privileges of freemen
to the communion of the churches.See original constitution of Connecticut, formed by voluntary
compact, in Appendix to Trumbull’s History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 528.

Agreeably to the constitution, the freemen
convened at Hartford on the second Thursday in
April, and elected their officers for the ensuing
year. John Haynes, Esq. a gentleman of unblemished
integrity, sound judgment and eminent piety,
was chosen for the governor of the colony. Trumbull, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 95, 96. Hutchinson.

About the time of the above mentioned emigration
from Massachusetts, the frontiers of Connecticut
were strengthened by the exertions of the
Puritan noblemen Lords Say and Brook. After
having obtained a grant, they deputed George
Fenwick
, Esq. who conducted their affairs, to
build a fort near the confluence of the river Connecticut.
He called the building Saybrook, in
honor of his noble patrons. John Winthrop, jun.
Esq. son of the first governor of Massachusetts, assisted
him in this undertaking, and was appointed
governor. Some of the grantees contemplated
transporting their families and effects to this territory;
but relinquished their design when affairs F2v 44
began to take a new turn in their native country.
After the ardor of emigration ceased, Mr. Fenwick,
agent for Lords Brook and Say, was authorised
to dispose of their lands, which were purchased
in 16441644 by the people who had removed
from Massachusetts. Chalmers.

16371637.Whilst the planters of Connecticut were thus
exerting themselves in prosecuting and regulating
the affairs of that colony, another was projected
and settled at Quinnipiak, afterwards called New-
Haven
. This year two large ships arrived in the
Massachusetts-Bay, with passengers from London
and its vicinities. Amongst these passengers were
a number of celebrated characters, in particular
Mr. Eaton and Mr. Hopkins, who had been opulent
merchants in London, and were eminent for
abilities and integrity, and Mr. John Davenport,
a famous clergyman in the city of London, who
was distinguished for piety, learning, and the uprightness
of his conduct.

The reputation and opulence of the principal
gentlemen of this company, made the people of
Massachusetts exceedingly desirous of their settlement
in that commonwealth. To effect this purpose
great pains were taken by particular persons
and towns; and the general court offered them
their choice of a place of residence. Influenced,
however, by the delightful prospects, which the
country afforded, and flattering themselves that
by removing to a considerable distance, they F3r 45
16371637.should be out of the jurisdiction of a general governor,
with which the plantations were then threatened,
they were determined to settle a distinct colony.
In the autumn of this year Mr. Eaton and
others, who were of the company, made a journey
to Connecticut, to explore the lands and harbors
on the sea coast. They pitched upon Quinnipiak
for the place of their settlement.

16381638.On the 1638-04-1818th of April they kept their first Sabbath
in New-Haven. The people assembled under
a large spreading oak, and Mr. Davenport preached
to them from INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Matthew iv. I.

The New-Haven adventurers were the most
opulent company, which came into New-England,
and they designed to plant a capital colony. They
laid out their town plat in squares, designing it
for a great and elegant city. In the centre was a
large, beautiful square. This was compassed with
others, making nine in the whole. Trumbull, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 89, 90, 94.

The colony, like Connecticut, formed a government
by voluntary agreement, without any
charter or authority from the crown. On the 1639-07-044th
16391639.of July
all the free planters assembled at Quinnipiak,
to lay the foundations of their civil and religious
policy.

The Rev. Mr. Davenport introduced this important
transaction, by a discourse from INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Proverbs
ix. I.
His design was to shew, that the church,
or house of God, should be formed of seven pillars,
or principal brethren, to whom all the other F3v 46
16391639.members of the church should be added. After
this discourse the planters formed a number of
resolutions, the fundamental article of which was,
that the scriptures hold forth a perfect rule for
the direction and government of all men in their
civil and religious duties, as well in families and
commonwealth, as in ecclesiastical affairs. Hence
the people bound themselves to settle civil government
according to the divine word. After full
deliberation it was determined,

That church members only should be free
burgesses; and that they only should chuse magistrates
among themselves, to have power of transacting
all the public civil affairs of the plantation;
of making and repealing laws, dividing inheritances,
deciding of differences, and transacting all
business of a similar nature.

That civil officers might be chosen, and government
proceed according to these resolutions, it
was necessary a church should be formed. Without
this there could be neither freemen nor magistrates.
Mr. Davenport then proceeded to make
proposals relative to the formation of a church,
and it was resolved to this effect:

That twelve men should be chosen, that their
fitness for the foundation work might be tried;
and that it should be in the power of these twelve
men to chuse seven to begin the church.

It was agreed that if seven men could not be
found among the twelve qualified for the foundation
work, that such other persons should be taken F4r 47
16391639.into the number, upon trial, as should be judged
most suitable. The form of a solemn charge,
or oath, was drawn up and agreed upon at this
meeting, to be given to all the freemen. Trumbull, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 99, 100.

Further, it was ordered, that all persons,
who should be received, as free planters of that
corporation, should submit to the fundamental
agreement above related, and in testimony of their
submission should subscribe their name among the
freemen. After a proper term of trial, a number
of the most distinguished characters were chosen
for the seven pillars of the church.

On the 1639-10-2525th of October, the court, as it was
termed, consisting of these seven persons only, convened,
and, after a solemn address to the Supreme
Being, they proceeded to form the body of freemen,
and to elect their civil officers.

In the first place, all former trust, for managing
the public affairs of the plantation, was declared
to cease, and to be utterly abrogated. Then
all those who had been admitted to the church after
the gathering of it, in the choice of the seven
pillars, and all the members of other approved
churches, who desired it, and offered themselves,
were admitted members of the court. A solemn
charge was then publicly given them, to the same
effect as the freemen’s charge, or oath, which
they had previously adopted. Mr. Davenport expounded
several scriptures to them, describing the
characters of civil magistrates given in the sacred F4v 48
16391639.oracles. To this succeeded the election of officers.
Theophilus Eaton, Esq. was chosen the first
governor of this colony.

It was decreed by the freemen, that there
should be a general court annually in the plantation,
on the last week in October. This was ordained
a court of election, in which all the officers
of the colony were to be chosen. This court
determined, that the word of God should be the
only rule for ordering the affairs of government
in that commonwealth.

This was the original, fundamental constitution
of the government of New-Haven. All government
was vested in the church. The members
of the church elected the governor, magistrates
and all other officers. The magistrates, at first,
were not more than assistants of the governor; they
might not act in any sentence or determination of
the court. No deputy-governor was chosen, nor
were any laws enacted, except the general resolutions
which have been noticed; but as the plantation
enlarged, and new towns were settled, recent
orders were given; the general court received another
form; laws were enacted, and the civil policy
of this jurisdiction gradually advanced, in its
essential parts, to a near resemblance of the government
of Connecticut. Trumbull, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 101, 102, 103. See fundamental articles
in the original constitution of New-Haven, in Appendix to
Trumbull’s History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 633.

The first settlers in New-Haven had all things
common; all purchases were made in the name, G1r 49
and for the use, of the whole plantation; and the
lands were apportioned out to each family, according
to their number and original stock. Morse, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 409.

The colonies of Connecticut and New-Haven
from their first settlement rapidly increased. From
1635–16401635 to 1640, six towns were settled, viz. Windsor,
Hartford and Weathersfield, in Connecticut;
New-Haven, Milford and Stamford, in New-Haven.
They subsisted two distinct governments till
they were united by one charter.

Connecticut and New-Haven were embarrassed
with no political restrictions. They were
free settlers under Lord Say’s patent, which granted
the privilege of purchasing the native right of
the Aboriginals, and reserved no jurisdiction for
the crown, as in the charter of Massachusetts. Manuscripts of the late President Stiles.

Dr. Trumbull observes, “that the fathers of
Connecticut, as to politics, were republicans.
They rejected with abhorrence the doctrines of
the divine right of kings, passive obedience, and
non-resistance. With Sidney, Hampden, and
other great writers, they believed that all civil
power and government was originally in the people.
Upon these principles they formed their
civil constitutions.”

Laws were enacted, both by Connecticut and
New-Haven, prohibiting all purchases of the Indians
by private persons or companies, without
the consent of their respective general courts. G G1v 50
These were to authorise and direct the manner
of every purchase. Trumbull, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 296.

From their first plantation, schools were instituted
by law in every town and parish of Connecticut
and New-Haven. Indeed the settlers of New-
England
, in general, were distinguished by the attention,
which they paid to the promotion of learning.
They early instituted schools, and made the
education of youth an important object.

This country was originally designed as an
asylum for the Puritan religion; and the planters
of both colonies, from their first rise, were assiduously
engaged in gathering congregational churches,
and settling pastors and church officers. Besides
a pastor, a teacher and deacons, ruling elders
were established in each church, whose business
was to assist the pastor in church government,
to pray with the congregation, and expound the
scriptures in his absence. In the next succeeding
churches, teachers and ruling elders were disused.

The New-England churches agreed in adopting
Calvinian doctrines—in maintaining the power of
each particular church to govern itself—the validity
of presbyterian ordination, and the expediency
of synods on certain great occasions. From their
commencement, they used ecclesiastical councils
convoked by particular churches for advice, but
not for the judicial determination of controversies. Mather.

16371637.The persecution in England still continued, and
occasioned such numbers of Puritans to go over G2r 51
16371637.to New-England, that the king and council, by a
proclamation dated 1637-04-30April 30, forbade any further
emigration. An order was dispatched to detain
eight ships lying in the river Thames, which were
prepared to sail. Among the passengers on board
were Sir Arthur Hazeltig, John Hampden, John
Pym
, and Oliver Cromwell. Disgusted with the
present administration, they had determined to
abandon their native country, and seek an asylum
in America; but by this impolitic severity they
were detained, and were afterwards the cause of
the king’s ruin, and the overthrow of the ecclesiastical
hierarchy. Notwithstanding this prohibition
(so difficult is it to restrain men whose minds
are agitated by fear or hope) great numbers found
means to elude the vigilance of government, and
transported themselves to Massachusetts. From
the same motives, the establishment of the colony
of New-Haven was undertaken, and extensive settlements
in New-England formed at this period. Chalmers, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 38.

From reviewing the above settlements, we are
led to admire the wisdom of Divine Providence,
in rendering the bigotry and intolerance of the
English nation subservient to the planting of flourishing
colonies in the new world. By these means,
the regions before inhabited by savages, now became
peopled by men of piety and information.
Hence a scene opened unparalleled in the annals
of history. No nation ever enjoyed so much liberty
and opportunity of forming civil and religious G2v 52
establishments, as the first settlers of New-England.
The increase of their numbers was rapid
beyond example. No other influence can be produced
of any other people, who at their first settlement,
were so assiduously engaged in promoting
useful learning, and in making early improvements
in the arts and sciences. It is remarkable, that at
this period, when the emigration from England
ceased, the settlements were still further extended
by similar means, viz. the bigotry and intolerance
of the new settlers. This gave rise to the plantations
of Providence and Rhode-Island, an account
of which will be given in the subsequent chapter.

G3r53

Chapter IV.

Of the intolerant principles of the Massachusetts colony.
Banishment of Mr. Roger Williams, and his
settlement at Providence. Of the Antinomian dissensions
in Massachusetts, and the settlement of
Rhode-Island. Of the plantations of Exeter, Hampton
and Warwick. The inhabitants of Narraganset-Bay
obtain a patent from the crown of
England.

The inhabitants of New-England,
who abandoned their native country, and encountered
a variety of hardships to avoid persecution,
soon discovered a determined resolution to enforce
uniformity in religious worship, among all who inhabited
their territories. At the first general court
which was held in Massachusetts, 16301630, a number
had been admitted to the privileges of freemen
who were not in communion with the churches.
16311631. But as early as the second general court, after
the arrival of the governor and company, they
resolved, that in future, none should be admitted
to the freedom of the body politic, but such as
were church members. They soon after concluded,
that none but such should share in the administration
of civil government, or have a voice in
any election. A few years after, they so far forgot G3v 54
16311631. their own sufferings as to persecute those who
refused to accede to their religious sentiments. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 26, 27.

Mr. Roger Williams, a Puritan clergyman, arrived
this year from England at Salem, where he
was immediately chosen assistant to Mr. Shelton.
The magistrates opposed his settlement, because he
refused to join with the church at Boston, unless
they would make a public declaration of their repentance
for maintaining communion with the
church of England while in their native country.
This occasioned Mr. Williams’ removal to Plymouth,
where he was elected assistant to Mr.
Smith
, in which office he continued between two
and three years. Upon a disagreement with some
of the most influential characters in this church,
and an invitation to Salem, he requested a dismission,
and returned to that town. As Mr. Shelton,
the former clergyman, was now deceased,
he was chosen to succeed him. The magistrates
still opposed his settlement, as they had previously
done. They made great objections to his sentiments.
He was charged by his opponents with
maintaining, “That it is not lawful for a godly
man to have communion in family prayer, or in
an oath, with such as they judge unregenerate;
therefore he refused the oath of fidelity, and taught
others to follow his example; that it is not lawful
for an unregenerate man to pray; that the
magistrate has nothing to do in matters of the first
table; that there should be general and unlimited G4r 55
16311631. toleration of all religions, and that to punish
a man for following the dictates of his conscience
was persecution; that the patent which was granted
by King Charles was invalid, and an instrument
of injustice which they ought to renounce,
being injurious to the natives; the king of England
having no power to dispose of their lands to
his own subjects.”
On account of these sentiments,
and for refusing to join in communion with
the Massachusetts churches, he was, at length,
16311636.banished the colony, as a disturber of the peace of
the church and commonwealth. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 37. Neal’s History of New-England,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 158.

Whilst Mr. Williams resided at Plymouth and
Salem, he cultivated an acquaintance with the Indians
in those towns, and learned their language.
Previously to his leaving the colony, he presented
a variety of gifts to Canonicus and Osamaquin, two
Narraganset sachems, and privately treated with
them for land, with which they assured him he
should be supplied, provided he would settle in
their country. This encouraged him, after his
banishment, to remove with four companions to
Narraganset-Bay. He first came to Seconk, now
Rehoboth, and obtained a grant of the land from
Osamaquin, the chief sachem at Mount-Hope. As
this grant was within the limits of Plymouth patent,
Mr. Winslow, the governor, in a friendly
manner, advised him to remove. He then crossed
Seconk river, and landed among the Indians, by G4v 56
16311636.whom he was most hospitably received. He named
the place of his residence Providence, “in a
sense of God’s merciful providence to him in his
distress.”
Strongly impressed with the importance
of religious liberty, the grand object, which he
asserts he had in view, was, “to provide a refuge
for persons destitute for conscience sake.”
Williams’ second deed to the settlers, 16611661. Plea to the
Court of Commissioners
, 16771677.

This small company was soon augmented by
parties from Massachusetts. The new emigrants
greatly suffered through fatigue and want. They
supported their affliction with heroic fortitude, and
effected a settlement, the government of which was
founded on the broad basis of universal toleration.

Mr. Williams embraced the sentiments of the
Baptists a few years after his arrival in Providence,
16391639.and was instrumental in forming a church of that
denomination, which was the first Baptist church
in New-England. He soon after relinquished
their opinions, and became a Seeker. But, though
his strong feelings, and deep researches in the
mazes of speculation, led him to be wavering and
undecided in his religious sentiments, yet his conduct
exhibited the goodness of his heart, and purity
of his intentions. He exerted himself to the
utmost that others might enjoy that freedom of
opinion which he himself exercised; and uniformly
condemned every kind and degree of persecution
on account of religion.See letter from Roger Williams to Major Mason, published in
Collections of the Historical Society for 17921792.

H1r57

16361636. “He justly claims the honor of being the first
legislator in the world, in its latter ages, who effectually
provided for and established a free, full
and absolute liberty of conscience.”

Mr. Williams generously made twelve of his
companions equal proprietors with himself, both
in the lands given by the sachem, and those he
purchased of him. The next settlers of Providence
were admitted to be equal sharers in the
greater part of his lands for thirty pounds, until
the whole number of proprietors amounted, at
length, to an hundred. Governor Hopkins’ Gazette.

The first form of government established by
Mr. Williams and the people of Providence appears
to have been a voluntary agreement, that
each individual should submit to, and be governed
by, the resolutions of the whole body. All public
matters were transacted in their town-meetings,
and there all private disputes and controversies
were heard, adjudged and finished. Ibid.

Mr. Williams lived in Providence almost half
a century,Roger Williams died 16831683, aged 84. part of which period he enjoyed the
authority of chief magistrate. He employed himself
continually in acts of kindness to those who
had endeavoured to deprive him of the sacred
rights of conscience; in affording relief to the distressed,
and offering an asylum to the persecuted. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 38. Chalmers, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 270.

Soon after the settlement was begun in Providence,
the commonwealth of Massachusetts was H H1v 58
16361636.disturbed by intestine divisions. The male members
of the church in Boston had been accustomed
to convene, in order to repeat and debate on the
discourses which were delivered on Sundays. Mrs.
Anne Hutchinson
, a very extraordinary woman,
established a similar meeting for her own sex, founding
her practice on INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Titus ii. 4. Her custom was to
repeat passages of Mr. Cotton’s sermons, and make
her remarks and expositions. These lectures for
some time were received with general approbation,
and were attended by a numerous audience. At
length it appeared, that she distinguished the ministers,
and members of churches through the country,
a small part of whom she allowed to be under
a covenant of grace, and the others under a covenant
of works. The whole colony was soon divided
into two parties, differing in sentiment, and
still more alienated in affection. They stiled each
other Antinomians and Legalists. Mrs. Hutchinson
was charged with maintaining, that “the Holy-Ghost
dwells personally in a justified person;
and that the sanctification is not an evidence to believers
of their justification.” Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 482.

16371637.The Antinomians exerted themselves to keep
in office Sir Henry Vane, who adopted their sentiments,
and protected their preachers. On the
other hand, the opposite party used every effort to
discontinue him, and substitute John Winthrop,
Esq. After some difficulty, they succeeded in the
election of this gentleman. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 67.

H2r59

16371637.The disputes which divided the country were,
according to Dr. Mather, “about the order of
things in our union to our Lord Jesus-Christ; the
influence of our faith in the application of his
righteousness; the use of our sanctification in evidencing
our justification; and the consideration of
our Lord Jesus-Christ by men yet under the covenant
of works; briefly, they were about the points
whereupon depend the grounds of our assuredness
of blessedness in a better world.” Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.B. VII. p. 18.

Those religious tenets were disputed with so
much warmth, that it was judged advisable to call
a synod to give their opinion upon the controverted
points. A council was accordingly called to
meet at Newtown the 1637-08-3030th of August. This was
the first synod appointed in New-England. Ministers,
delegates, and also magistrates, under pretence
of keeping the peace, were present on this
occasion; and as many of the people as chose were
permitted to attend the debates. After disputing
for three weeks, the synod condemned eighty erroneous
opinions, said to have been maintained in
the colony. The result was signed by all the
members except Mr. Cotton, who, though he declined
censuring the whole, expressed his disapprobation
of the greater part of these opinions. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 67.

The general court, at their session the 1637-10-022d of
October
, cited the principals of the Antinomian
party to appear before them. The court was held
in Newtown, since Cambridge, from an apprehension H2v 60
16371637. that the Antinomians had a large number
of partisans in Boston. The Rev. John Wheelright,
brother to Mrs. Hutchinson, was first convoked
before this assembly. He had been a preacher
at Braintree, which was then part of Boston,
and was a gentleman of learning, piety and zeal. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 36.
He had warmly advocated the new doctrines, and
in a late discourse severely censured the magistrates
and ministers in the colony. Upon his refusal either
to acknowledge his offence, or to go into voluntary
exile, the court sentenced him to be disfranchised,
and banished the jurisdiction.

Mrs. Hutchinson was next cited to her trial before
the court, and a large number of the clergy.
Her sentence upon record is as follows: “Mrs.
Hutchinson
, the wife of Mr. William Hutchinson,
being convented for traducing the clergymen and
their ministry in the country, she declared voluntarily
her revelations, and that she should be delivered
and the court ruined with their posterity; and
thereupon was banished, and in the mean time
was committed to Mr. Joseph Weld, of Roxbury,
until the court should dispose of her.”
Having
received her sentence from the court, she was
obliged to undergo a further trial in the church.
She was first admonished, and presented to the
church a recantation of the errors with which she
was charged; yet at the same time professed she
never maintained any other sentiments than what
were there exhibited. Upon this she was excommunicated H3r 61
16371637. as a lyar by the church of Boston, to
which she belonged. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 70. See Mrs. Hutchinson’s trial in
Appendix to Hutchinson’s History.

Mrs. Hutchinson, with a large number of the
Antinomian party, some of whom had been banished,
and other disfranchised, removed from the
jurisdiction of the Massachusetts colony. Mr.
Roger Williams
received and entertained them
with the most friendly attention at Providence.
His benevolence was ever active, and with the
assistance of Sir Henry Vane, he procured for
them Aquednock, now Rhode-Island, of the Indian
16381638. sachems. On the 1638-03-2424th of March they signed
a deed, conveying this island to the English.
Though Mr. Williams, and a number of his
friends, with the permission of the Narraganset sachems,
had been settled at Providence almost two
years, the first deed of the place, now extant, is
dated the same day with that of Rhode-Island. Records in the Secretary’s office in Providence.

The exiles from Massachusetts found a comfortable
asylum in that country, and soon effected
a settlement. They formed themselves into a body
politic, and entered into a voluntary association
for government.

Mr. William Coddington was chosen to be
their judge and chief magistrate. This gentleman
was one of the most distinguished characters among
the exiles. He came over to America in 16301630,
settled at Boston, and was one of the principal
merchants in that town. After his removal to H3v 62
16381638.Rhode-Island, he embraced the sentiments of the
Friends. He appears to have been a warm advocate
for liberty of conscience.See Coddington’s Letter to the Governor of New-England,
written in 16741674, in Bessee’s Sufferings of the Quakers.

Mr. John Clark was another leading character
among the settlers of Rhode-Island. In order to
enjoy peace and liberty of conscience, he voluntarily
abandoned the colony of Massachusetts. He
was chosen agent for the newly established plantation,
and, after the restoration of King Charles II.
was instrumental in procuring a charter.

The settlement of this island was commenced
on the north-easterly side, opposite to Mount-
Hope
, and was named Portsmouth, from the narrow
entrance of the harbor. The same year considerable
numbers arrived from Massachusetts. At
16391639.the opening of the next year they moved towards
the south-western part of the island. There they
began a settlement, and, having found another
fine harbor, they named the place Newport. The
fertility of its lands, its beautiful situation, the
convenience of its harbor, and the affluent circumstances
of its first inhabitants, conspired to
render it more pleasant than the other settlement.
It became in a few years the metropolis of the colony.
Mr. John Clark, and some others, in 16441644,
formed a church in this town, on the principles of
the Baptists.

The government established in Rhode-Island was
said to be similar to that of Providence. For,
though the people chose one chief magistrate, or H4r 63
16391639.governor, and four assistants, yet these appear,
like the deputies in Providence, to have been vested
only with some of the executive powers. The
chief of the legislative, executive and judiciary
powers were exercised by the body of the people
in their town-meetings. Hopkins’ Gazette.

16401640.Four years after Massachusetts settled Providence,
the inhabitants of that colony began a plantation
at Patuxet, a place adjoining, and comprehended
within their grant.

The settlements of Providence and Rhode-Island
at different periods received large accessions
from the denominations of Baptists and Friends,
who were persecuted in the other colonies.

The settlers of this country emigrated from
England with the same views as the other Puritans,
and they left Massachusetts to pursue the objects
of their removal to America. Callender, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 90.

Dr. Belknap observes, that “the distinguishing
trait in this colony is, that it was settled on a plan
of entire religious liberty; men of every denomination
being equally protected and countenanced,
and enjoying the honors and office of government.The”
Belknap. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 89.

16381638. intolerance of Massachusetts, which gave
rise to the settlement of Rhode-Island and Providence
Plantations
, proved the occasion of enlarging
New-Hampshire. The Rev. John Wheelright,
after his banishment, sought an asylum in that colony.
He had previously purchased lands of the H4v 64
16381638.Indians at Squamscot falls; and with a number of
his adherents he now began a plantation, which,
according to the agreement made with Mason’s
agents, was called Exeter. Having obtained a
dismission from the church in Boston, they formed
themselves into a church, and judging themselves
without the jurisdiction of Massachusetts,
they associated under a separate government, and
chose rulers and assistants, who were sworn to the
due discharge of their office, and whom the people
were sworn to obey.

About the same time a number of persons,
chiefly from Norfolk, in England, made a settlement
in a place which they called Hampton.
They began by laying out a township in one hundred
and forty-seven shares; and, having formed
a church, chose one Stephen Bachelor for their
minister, with whom Stephen Dalton was soon
after associated. The number of the first inhabitants
was fifty-six. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 37, 39.

Religious tenets similar to those which caused
dissensions in Massachusetts, were, in nearly the
same period, taught in Plymouth by one Samuel
Gorton
, who arrived in Boston in 16361636, and from
thence removed to Plymouth, where he treated
their pastor, Mr. Smith, in such a manner that
the authority required him to give bonds for his
good behavior. This occasioned his departure to
Rhode-Island; where his disrespectful behavior to
the court involved him in recent difficulties. From I1r 65
16411641.Rhode-Island he removed to Providence; and
was received by Roger Williams, with that humanity,
which distinguished his character. Gorton,
and a number of his friends, then settled at Patuxet,
which excited great uneasiness in some of
the inhabitants, who complained to the government
of Massachusetts of his conduct, and solicited
the protection of that colony. Upon this, he
and his associates were cited to appear at the court
in Boston. They refused to obey; and alledged
that they were out of the jurisdiction, both of
Plymouth and Massachusetts. The next step taken
by Gorton, and his friends, was the purchasing
of Miantinomo, a Narraganset sachem, a tract
16421642.of land called Shawomet, and removing to that
place. This land was claimed by the government
of Plymouth. Two of the Narraganset sachems,
who dwelt there, and at Patuxet, came to Boston
to complain of Gorton for infringing on their property;
and submitted themselves, and their country,
to the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. This
caused him to be again cited to court; and, upon
his peremptory refusal to obey the summons, he,
and a number of his adherents, were apprehended,
16431643.conveyed to Boston, and imprisoned. They were
charged with being virulent enemies to religion
and civil government. The writings of Gorton
and his party were produced as evidence against
them. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 118, 119, 120, 121.

II1v66

16431643.Gorton was ordered to be confined to hard
labor at Charlestown; and to wear such bolts and
irons as might prevent his escape. If he broke
his confinement, or endeavoured to make proselytes
to his religious sentiments; if he should reproach
the churches, or civil government in the
colonies, after conviction thereof, upon by trial by
jury, it was ordained, that he should suffer death.

The associates of Gorton were confined in different
towns, upon similar conditions.

A message was sent to Miantinomo, the Narraganset
sachem, of whom Gorton and his party
had purchased Shawomet, to repair to Boston.
He obeyed, but the court refused to admit the
justice of his claim to the Indian country. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 122.

16441644.After a severe confinement during the winter,
Gorton and his friends were banished from the jurisdiction
of Massachusetts, and from the lands
they had purchased of the Indian sachem. Gorton’s
next resource was to repair to England, and,
having obtained an order from the British government
that he should be suffered to possess the lands
he had purchased in Narraganset-Bay, returned
and there effected a settlement. The chief town
was named Warwick, in honor of his patron the
Earl of Warwick. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 23. Callender,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 43, 44.

16431643.The inhabitants of Narraganset-Bay being destitute
of a patent or any legal authority, Mr.
Williams
went to England as their agent, and, I2r 67
16431643.by the assistance of Sir Henry Vane, jun. obtained
of the Earl of Warwick (then governor and
admiral of all the plantations) and his council, a
free and absolute charter of civil incorporation of
Providence Plantations, in Narraganset-Bay.
They were empowered to form their own government,
and enact laws agreeable to the laws and
statutes of England. Hazard’s Historical Collections, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 540.

I2v68

Chapter V.

Of the war with the Pequod Indians. Cambridge college
founded. Of the union of New-Hampshire
with Massachusetts. The Province of Maine submits
to Massachusetts’ jurisdiction. Settlement of Martha’s
Vineyard
. The confederation of four of the
New-England colonies. The civil war in England
puts a stop for the present to the further increase
of the plantations. Noble speech of Governor
Winthrop
.

When our ancestors had, with
unconquered perseverance, surmounted the obstacles
to their first settlement, they had still an arduous
task to secure themselves from the malevolence
and jealousy of the natives. They had taken every
precaution to avoid a war; and the interposition
of Divine Providence was visible in restraining
the savages from destroying their infant settlements.In

the spring of 16301630, a great conspiracy was
entered into by the Indians from the Narragansetts
to the eastward, to extirpate the English. The
colony of Plymouth was the principal object of
this conspiracy. They well knew that if they
could effect the destruction of Plymouth, the infant
settlement at Massachusetts would fall an easy
sacrifice. They laid their plan with much art. I3r 69
Under color of having some diversion at Plymouth,
they intended to fall upon the inhabitants, and
thus to effect their design. But their plot was disclosed
to the people of Charlestown by John Sagamore,
an Indian, who had always been a great
friend to the English. The preparations made to
prevent any such fatal surprize in future, and the
firing of the great guns, so terrified the Indians
that they dispersed, relinquished their design, and
declared themselves the friends of the English. Morse, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 322.

16371637.At length, when the colonies had acquired
some degree of strength, they were involved in
a war with the Pequods, a powerful Indian tribe,
who inhabited the south-east part of Connecticut,
and were governed by Sassacus, a prince of an
haughty, independent spirit. They had the sagacity
to see their own destruction in the progress of
the English. Both the English and Indians courted
the friendship of the Narragansets with the
greatest assiduity. The Pequods urged them to
forget their former animosity; and represented
that one magnanimous effort would, with facility,
and without danger, oblige the strangers to abandon
the lands, which they had seized with such
avidity. They expressed their apprehensions, that
without their friendly assistance both tribes would
be destroyed. These cogent reasons had such an
effect on the Narraganset Indians, that they began
to waver. But as they had recently been engaged
in war with the Pequods, the love of revenge, so I3v 70
16371637.congenial to the savage mind, overpowered all
interested motives, and induced them to join the
English. Hubbard’s Narrative of the Indian Wars, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 21. Chalmers,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 290.
Trumbull, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 65.

Actuated by the most inveterate hatred to
the colonists, the Pequods surprized and killed several
of the settlers on Connecticut river. Alarmed
at these hostile proceedings, the colonies of
Massachusetts, Plymouth and Connecticut united
their forces, in order to carry the war into their
country, and attempt the entire destruction of the
whole tribe. Troops were accordingly raised in
all the colonies, but those of Connecticut, on account
of their vicinity to the enemy, were first in
motion. Captain Mason, with ninety Englishmen
and seventy Indians from Connecticut river, proceeded
by water to the Narraganset country, where
he was joined by two hundred of that tribe. During
the summer of this year the war was conducted
with great energy. The Pequods were entrenched
in two strong forts, one of which was
situated on the banks of the river Mystic. The
other, eight miles further, was the head quarters
of Sassacus, their sachem. It was determined first
to assault Mystic fort. One of the Pequods, who
resided with the Narragansets, conducted the army
in their march to the destruction of his countrymen.
The attack commenced on the morning
of the 1637-05-2222d of May. The Indians after a midnight
revel were buried in a deep sleep. The barking
of a dog discovered the approach of their enemies. I4r 71
16371637. The battle was warm and bloody; and
though the Pequods defended themselves with the
spirit of a people contending for their country and
existence, yet the English gained a complete victory.
The fort was taken; about seventy wigwams
were burnt, and five or six hundred Indians
perished. Of all who belonged to the fort, seven
only escaped, and seven were made prisoners. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 58, 60, 76, 77, 78. Trumbull,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 78.

Sassacus and his warriors at Pequod were filled
with consternation at the news of this defeat.
They demolished their principal fort, burnt their
wigwams, and fled with precipitation to the westward.
Captain Stoughton, from Massachusetts,
arrived at Saybrook the latter part of June. He
with his forces joined Captain Mason, and surrounded
a large body of Indians in a swamp near
Fairfield. A sachem, with a company of two
hundred old men, women and children, came voluntarily
and surrendered to the English. Terms
of peace were offered to the rest. The Pequod
warriors rejected them with disdain, and, upon
the renewal of hostilities, fought with obstinate
bravery. They were, however, overpowered by
the English. Part escaped by the darkness of the
night; the rest were killed or taken captive. Sassacus
fled to the Mohawks, by whom he was
murdered. Many of the Indian captives were sent
to Bermudas, and sold as slaves. About seven
hundred of the Pequods were destroyed. This
successful expedition terrified the remaining Indians I4v 72
16371637.
to such a degree, as restrained them from
open hostilities nearly forty years. Hubbard, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 41.

The Pequod war was the most formidable attempt
ever made by the Indians to extirpate the
English, considering the infant state of the colonies.
On this occasion Mr. Roger Williams did
New-England essential service. By his great application
he made himself master of the Indian language;
and his exertions prevented the Narraganset
sachems from joining the Pequods. Hopkins’ Gazette.

16381638.Though surrounded with dangers, and embarrassed
with a variety of difficulties, yet our ancestors
paid great attention to the interests of learning.
“They were,” Adams on the Feudal and Canon Law, Boston Gazette,
17651765.
says an eminent author,
“convinced by their knowledge of human nature,
derived from history and their own experience,
that nothing could preserve their posterity from
the encroachments of tyranny but knowledge diffused
generally through the whole body of the people.
Their civil and religious principles, therefore,
conspired to prompt them to use every measure,
and take every precaution in their power to
propagate and perpetuate knowledge. They made
an early provision by law, that every town consisting
of so many families, should be always furnished
with a grammar school. They made it a
crime for such a town to be destitute of a grammar
schoolmaster for a few months, and subjected
it to a heavy penalty.”

K1r73

In the year 16361636, the general court of Massachusetts
contemplated a public school at Newtown;
and appropriated four hundred pounds for that object.
But Mr. John Harvard, minister of Charlestown,
dying two years after, increased this sum by
the addition of a great part of his state, valued at
seven or eight hundred pounds. Thus endowed,
this school was exalted to a college. Like those
of Europe it took the name of its founder; and
Newtown was changed to Cambridge, in compliment
to the college, and in memory of the place
where many of our fathers received their education.After
Clark’s Letters to a Student in the University of Cambridge,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 13.

16391639. the college was erected, a foundation
was laid for a public library; the first furniture of
which was the works of Dr. William Ames, the
famous professor of divinity at Franequar, whose
widow and children, after the Doctor’s death,
transported themselves and their effects to New-
England
. Several English gentlemen made valuable
presents, both of books and mathematical instruments,
to this new university. Before the
close of the century, the number of books it contained
amounted to between three and four thousand
volumes. Neal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 202.

16401640.This year the general court granted the income
of Charlestown ferry as a perpetual revenue
to the college; and the same year the Rev. Henry
Dunster
was appointed president, there having K K1v 74
been before that time only a preceptor or professor,
and an assistant.

16421642.About two years after, the first class finished
their literary course, and the degree of Bachelor
of Arts was conferred on them. The general
court passed an act constituting a board of overseers,
“for the well ordering and managing of the
said college, consisting of the governor and deputy-governor
for the time being, and all the magistrates
of the jurisdiction, together with the teaching
elders of Cambridge, Watertown, Charlestown,
Boston, Roxbury, and Dorchester, and
this president of the college for the time being.”

In 16501650, the college received its first charter
from the court, appointing a corporation consisting
of seven persons, viz. a president, five fellows
and a treasurer, to have perpetual succession by
election to their offices. Their style is, The President
and Fellows of Harvard College.
To this
body were committed all the affairs of the college,
and they have the care of all donations and
bequests to the institution. After this charter was
granted, the board of overseers continued a distinct
branch of the government; and these two
bodies form the legislature of the college. Morse, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 416.

In the mean time the colony of Massachusetts
was increasing; and a number of new townships
were formed. In 16371637, Dedham was incorporated
into a township, and in 16381638 a church was
there gathered. In 16501650, Medfield was made a K2r 75
township. Dexter’s Century Sermon, 17881788. The other colonies were also increasing
in riches and population.

In 16441644, South-Hampton, on Long-Island, was,
by the advice of the commissioners, taken under
the jurisdiction of Connecticut. This town was
settled in 16401640. The inhabitants of Lynn, in Massachusetts,
became so much straitened at home, that,
about the year 16391639, they contracted with the
agent of Lord Sterling, for a tract of land on
the west side of Long-Island. They also made a
treaty with the Indians, and commenced a settlement;
but the Dutch gave them so much trouble,
that they were obliged to desert it and remove
farther eastward. They collected nearly an
hundred families, and effected a permanent settlement
at South-Hampton. By the advice of the
general court of Massachusetts, they entered into a
combination among themselves to maintain civil
government. A number of them regularly formed
themselves into a church state, before they removed
to the island, and called Mr. Abraham
Pierson
to be their pastor. Trumbull, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 149.

16401640.Four distinct governments (including one at
Kittery, on the north side of the river) were formed
on the several branches of Piscataqua. These
being only voluntary associations, and liable to be
broken, or subdivided, on the first popular discontent,
there could be no safety in their continuance.
The most considerate amongst them advised
to apply to Massachusetts, and solicit their K2v 76
16401640.protection. The subsequent year the settlements
voluntarily submitted themselves to the jurisdiction
of that government, upon condition that they
might enjoy all the privileges with the inhabitants
of Massachusetts, and have a court of justice erected
amongst them. An union having been formed
between the settlements on the Piscataqua, and the
colony of Massachusetts, their history, for the succeeding
forty years, is in a great measure blended. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 54.

16411641.At this period, Sir Ferdinando Gorges incorporated
the plantation of Gorgiana into a city,
to be governed by a mayor and eight aldermen;
his cousin, Thomas Gorges, was appointed mayor
of the city, but had no successor in the office. Sullivan, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 238.

The civil dissensions in England, with the subsequent
events, obliged Sir Ferdinando Gorges to
relinquish the idea of obtaining a general government
over the colonies. He had ever been a firm
royalist, and engaged personally in the service of
the crown, till his own ruin was involved in that
of the royal cause which he espoused. From the
commencement of the civil wars, Gorges neglected
the concerns of his plantation. The towns in
the Province of Maine fell into a state of confusion.
Most of the commissioners, who had been
appointed to govern the province, deserted it;
and the remaining inhabitants were, in 16491649,
obliged to combine for their own security. The
Massachusetts embraced this opportunity to encourage
the disposition which prevailed in many of the K3r 77
16411641.inhabitants, to submit to their jurisdiction. As a
powerful motive to induce them to take this step,
they granted them greater privileges, than their
own colonists enjoyed, admitting them to be freemen
upon taking the oath of allegiance only, and
not requiring them to be of the communion of
any church. After this province had submitted to
Massachusetts, in 16521652, it was made a county by
the name of Yorkshire, and the towns sent representatives
to the general court at Boston. Though
the majority were persuaded to consent, yet great
opposition was made by some principal persons,
who severely reproached Massachusetts for the
measures they had taken to reduce the province.
The people, however, in general, were contented,
and experienced the benefit of the regulation. Belknap’s American Biography, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 390. Gordon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 40.

16421642.So great was the diligence and industry of the
New-England settlers, that they had already settled
fifty towns and villages, erected between
thirty and forty churches, and a larger number of
parsonage houses. They had built a castle, forts,
prisons,&c. and had founded a college, all at
their own expence. They had furnished themselves
with comfortable dwelling-houses, had laid
out gardens, orchards, corn-fields, pastures and
meadows, and lived under the regular administration
of their own government and laws.

The population of the country increased with
such rapidity, that it was time to take possession of
the islands upon the coast. Mr. Mayhew having K3v 78
16421642.obtained a grant of Martha’s Vineyard, Nantucket
and Elizabeth’s Isles, settled his son in the former
of these islands, with a small number of planters. Neal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 218, 219.

16431643.The New-England colonies were sensible of the
advantages of an union, at a very early period.
The commissioners from Massachusetts, Plymouth,
Connecticut and New-Haven, held both stated
and occasional meetings, and kept regular journals
of their proceedings, which have acquired the
name of the records of the United Colonies of
New-England
. Rhode-Island was desirous of joining
in the confederacy, but Massachusetts, for particular
reasons, refused to admit their commissioners.The
Hazard’s Hist.Historical Collections.

16441644. civil wars, which raged in England at
this period, retarded for a time the further increase
of the colonies. Though the settlers of
New-England were on the parliament side, their
situation precluded them from taking an active
part. As distant spectators, they beheld their native
country involved in the horrors of civil war,
while they enjoyed the blessings of peace and
plenty in their American asylum. Neal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 238.

16441645.The affairs of New-England were at this period
in so flourishing a situation, that the people
were intoxicated with prosperity, and the liberty
they enjoyed threatened their ruin. The inhabitants
of Hingham, in Suffolk county, having broken
the peace, Mr. Winthrop, the deputy-governor
of Massachusetts, committed the rioters to prison K4r 79
16441645.for refusing to give bond to appear at the quarter
sessions, and to answer for words spoken in defamation
of the general court of Massachusetts. This
produced a petition from the inhabitants of the
town, signed by seven of them, of whom six, being
cited to the court, appealed to the English parliament,
and offered bail for standing to its award.
The members of the general court were sensible
that this was a dangerous precedent, and fined and
imprisoned the petitioners, whose chief complaints
were leveled against the deputy-governor Winthrop.
The general court, however, with a true
republican spirit, commanded Winthrop to descend
from his dignity on the bench, to clear his conduct
at the bar. He complied, and made the following
speech, which the authors of the Universal
History
observe, “is equal to any thing of antiquity,
whether we consider it as coming from a
philosopher or a magistrate.”

“Gentlemen,

16441645.I will not look back to the past proceedings
of this court, nor to the persons therein concerned;
I am satisfied that I was publicly accused, and
that I am now publicly acquitted; but give me
leave to say something on the occasion, that may
rectify the opinion of the people, from whom these
distempers of the state have arisen. The questions,
that have troubled the country of late have been
about the authority of the magistrate, and the liberty
of the people. Magistracy is certainly an appointment
of God, and I entreat you to consider K4v 80
Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIX. p. 292, 293. Mather,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book II. p. 12, 13.
that you chuse your rulers from among yourselves,
and that we take an oath to govern you according
to God’s laws and the laws of our country, to the
best of our skill; if we commit errors, not willingly,
but for want of ability, you ought to bear with
us. Nor would I have you mistake your own liberty.
There is a liberty in doing what we list,
without regard to law or justice; this liberty is indeed
inconsistent with authority; but civil, moral,
federal liberty consists in every one’s enjoying his
property, and having the benefit of the laws of his
country; this is what you ought to contend for
with the hazard of your lives; but this is very consistent
with a due subjection to the civil magistrate,
and paying him that respect which his character
requires.”

This noble speech was of equal benefit to the
reputation of Mr. Winthrop, and the peace of the
colony. It settled him firmly in the esteem and
the affections of the people, and the general court.
A severer fine was added to the punishment of the
offenders; and, by his well timed condescension,
the governor became more powerful than ever.
New-England was at this period in a state of perfect
tranquility, which was improved for the conversion
of the Indians, an account of which will be
given in the subsequent chapter.

L1r81

Chapter VI.

Of the natives of New-England, and their conversion
to Christianity by the Rev. Mr. Eliot. A society
is established for propagating the gospel in New-
England
. The town of Natick built. An Indian
church formed. Conversion of the Indians at Martha’s
Vineyard
, and at Plymouth. Number of Indian
churches. Of the synod held at Cambridge,
and their platform of church discipline. The colonies
of Massachusetts, Connecticut, New-Haven
and Rhode-Island, establish a code of laws.

When the European adventurers
first settled in New-England, the natives were
a wild and savage people. Their mental powers
were wholly uncultivated; their passions strong,
impetuous and ungoverned; and they were immersed
in the thickest gloom of ignorance and superstition.Their

religious ideas were extremely weak
and confused. They admitted, however, the existence
of one Supreme Being, whom they denominated
the Great Spirit, the Great Man above, and
appeared to have some general, but very obscure
ideas of his government, providence, universal
power and dominion.

The immortality of the soul was universally believed
among the Indian tribes. Hence it was L L1v 82
their general custom to bury with the dead their
bows, arrows, spears, and some venison, which
they supposed would be beneficial to them in a future
state. Williams’ History of Vermont, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 174.

They believed in a number of subordinate deities.
Their priests began and dictated their religious
worship, and the people joined alternately in
a laborious exercise, till they were extremely fatigued,
and the priests exhausted even to fainting. Roger Williams’ Key to the Language of the Indians of New-
England
. See Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society
for 17941794
.

They had neither temples, altars, nor any fixed
seasons for devotional exercises.

16461646.The planters of New-England were assiduously
engaged in endeavouring their conversion to
Christianity. This was one of the obligations of
their patent, and one of the professed designs of
their settlement. Among those, who exerted themselves
with the greatest energy in this work, the
Rev. John Eliot, of Roxbury, claims a distinguished
rank; and he was stiled the apostle of the
American Indians.

In order to prosecute this benevolent design,
he applied himself with persevering diligence to
studying the Indian language, and became so complete
a master of it, as to publish an Indian grammar.
Thus prepared, he began, on the 1646-10-2828th of
October
, to instruct the natives in the Christian
religion at Nonantum, which, at present, is included
in the town of Newton. His reception L2r 83
16461646.among them encouraged him to hope for success.
The Indians welcomed his arrival, heard him with
attention, and asked a variety of questions respecting
the important subjects of his discourse.

Actuated by a disinterested concern for the
salvation of the natives, Mr. Eliot continued indefatigably
to labor for their conversion. He frequently
preached to the different tribes, and, in
order to facilitate his design, endeavoured to civilize
their manners, and teach them a more regular
method of living. He procured the establishment
of schools to instruct them in reading and
writing, and supplied them with suitable school
books, which he translated into their language. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book III. p. 196.

In his ministerial capacity he travelled through
all parts of Plymouth and Massachusetts, as far as
Cape-Cod. In these fatiguing excursions his life was
in continual danger, from the inveterate enmity of
the Indian princes and priests, who were bent upon
his destruction, and would certainly have subjected
him to the most tormenting death, if they
had not been awed by the power and strength of
the English colonies. However, he received innumerable
insults and affronts from the Indian sachems
and priests, who had conspired to retard
the progress of Christianity.

Notwithstanding various discouragements,
the Christian religion spread both in Massachusetts
and Plymouth. The new converts were distinguished
by the name of the praying Indians. After L2v 84
16461646.they removed paganism, they abandoned their
savage way of living, and imitated the habits and
manners of their civilized neighbors.Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 197. See Gookins’ Historical Collection, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 170.

16491649.In order to encourage the design of converting
the Indians, the parliament of England this year
passed an act, incorporating a number of persons,
by the name of the President and Society for propagating
the Gospel in New-England
. The affairs
of this society were conducted by a president, a
treasurer, and fourteen assistants. By authority of
this act of Parliament, a collection was made in
all the parishes in England, which produced such
a sum of money, as enabled the society to purchase
an estate in land of between five and six
hundred pounds
a year. Their first president was
Judge Steele, and first treasurer Mr. Henry Ashhurst.Upon

the restoration of King Charles II. they
solicited and obtained a new charter, which ordained,
“that there be forever hereafter, within
the kingdom of England, a society or company
for propagating the gospel in New-England, and
the parts adjacent in America.”See this chapter in the appendix to Birche’s Life of Boyle, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p.
319, 335
.
The members
of this society were not to exceed forty-five. They
were made a body corporate, and empowered to
appoint commissioners residing in New-England
to transact affairs relating to the benevolent design
of converting the natives. The new charter
substituted a governor for a president, and the L3r 85
16491649.Honorable Robert Boyle was elected to that
office. Neal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 280.

In 16501650, the corporation were at the expence
of erecting another building near the former college,
in order to give the Indians a liberal education.
But though a few of them were there educated,
yet it was found impracticable to persuade
the Indian youth to a love of literature.

16511651.This year a number of Mr. Eliot’s converts
united and built a town, which they called Natick.
Having formed a settlement, they established a
civil government upon the scripture plan. The
new converts continued several years under the
character of catechumens, during which time Mr.
Eliot
, and some other divines, were indefatigable
in instructing them in the principles of Christianity.
At length, upon their repeated desires, after
a strict examination, they were formed into a regular
church. Mr. Eliot was held in the highest
veneration by the new converts; they loved him
with ardent affection, exerted themselves to serve
him, and consulted him as an oracle in all difficult
cases.Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 196. See Letters from Mr. Eliot to Mr. Boyle.
See Collections of the Historical Society for 17941794.

Mr. Eliot labored with persevering industry to
translate the Bible into the Indian language. In
the year 16641664, he accomplished this arduous work,
which does immortal honor to his memory. Gookins’ Historical Collection.

16461646.Whilst Mr. Eliot was employed in converting
the Indians within the Massachusetts jurisdiction, L3v 86
16461646.Mr. Leverich was promoting the same benevolent
design in Plymouth, and Mr. Mayhew in Martha’s
Vineyard
, Nantucket and Elizabeth’s Isles.
The first convert to Christianity in Martha’s Vineyard
was one Hiaccomes, a man of about thirty
years of age. His religion exposed him to
the contempt of his countrymen, till, in the year
16451645, a general sickness prevailed in the island,
from which Hiaccomes and his family were exempted.
This event induced the Indians to entertain
a favorable opinion of the Christian religion.
A number of them desired to receive instructions
from Hiaccomes. Some time after, the
sachem sent for Mr. Mayhew, and requested
him, in his own and in his people’s names, to
teach them the principles of Christianity, in the
Indian language. Mr. Mayhew readily complied,
and his labors were crowned with great success.
He informs us, that numbers of Indian families
resorted to him, “desiring that they and their
houses might serve the Lord; that eight priests
and two hundred and eighty adult persons had embraced
the Christian faith.” Mayhew’s Letter to the Corporation, 16511651, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 31.

Mr. Mayhew’s method of instructing the natives
was similar to Mr. Eliot’s. He catechised
their children, prayed, preached and sung psalms
in their public meetings, and then answered their
questions. He pursued his design with unwearied
application for ten or fourteen years; till at length
intending a short voyage to England, he sailed in L4r 87
16571657; but the ship and passengers were both lost.
The death of Mr. Mayhew was exceedingly lamented
by his Indian converts. Neal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 266.

Mr. Mayhew’s father, though no clergyman,
assisted his son in the execution of his mission. By
his influence, within a few years a civil government
was established among the new converts.
16501650.The princes, with their nobles, submitted to the
king of England, reserving, as subordinate princes,
the privilege of governing their people, according
to the laws of God and the king.

In 16661666, three Indian churches were established.
One at Plymouth, another at Nantucket, and
one at Martha’s Vineyard, under the pastoral care
of Hiaccomes. Ibid.

The light of the gospel was introduced into
Nantucket, and an Indian church established in
that island, under the pastoral care of Mr. John
Gibbs
. Gookins’ Hist. Collection.

The Rev. Abraham Pierson, and the Rev.
James Fitch
, preached the gospel to the Connecticut
Indians
. But neither of these gentlemen met
with great success.

Mr. Roger Williams was highly venerated and
beloved by the Indians, and endeavoured to convert
the natives of Providence and Rhode-Island to
the Christian religion; but his exertions were,
in general, unsuccessful.

Mr. Richard Bourne preached the gospel to
the Indians at Plymouth, and converted large L4v 88
numbers. In the year 16851685, the praying Indians
in that plantation amounted to fourteen hundred
and thirty-nine, besides children under twelve
years of age, who were supposed to have been
more than three times the number. Gookins’ Historical Collection, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 201.

Mr. Eliot, in a letter to the Hon. Mr. Boyle,
dated 16841684, asserts, that the Indians had four
stated places for worship in Massachusetts, six in
Nantucket, ten in Plymouth, and ten in Martha’s
Vineyard
.

A letter of Dr. Increase Mather, to Dr.
Leusden
, of Utrecht, dated 16871687, gives an idea
of the progress of the gospel among the Indians
for twenty years. In this letter he says, that
“there are six churches of baptised Indians in
New-England, and twelve assemblies of catechumens.
There are twenty-four Indian preachers,
and four English ministers, who preach in the Indian
language.”

Dr. Cotton Mather asserts, that in the year
16951695, there were three thousand adult Indian converts
in the islands of Martha’s Vineyard and
Nantucket. That there were three churches in
Nantucket, and five constant assemblies. That in
Massachusetts alone there were above thirty Indian
congregations, and more than three thousand converts;
and that their numbers were very considerable
in other parts of the country. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 294.

It does not appear that the Christian Indians
returned to paganism, but that they gradually M1r 89
wasted away, till at length they became almost
extinct.

The religious character of the inhabitants of
New-England was also exhibited, by their solicitude
to establish their churches on what they supposed
to be the scripture foundation. In 16481648,
a synod was convened at Cambridge, for the
formation, or rather declaration of their churches’
faith, order and discipline. This synod adopted
the confession of faith published by the assembly of
divines at Westminster, and recommended it to
the consideration and acceptance of the New-England
churches.

The principal object of the synod was, to agree
upon a model of church discipline. To accomplish
this design, they chose the Rev. John Cotton,
Richard Mather and Ralph Partridge, three
celebrated divines, to form separately a scriptural
plan of church government. All these performances
were presented to the synod for their revision
and correction; and from them the New-
England
platform of church discipline was collected;
and being approved of by the majority of
the synod, was recommended to the general court
and to the churches. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book V. p. 22.

The fundamental article in the platform of
church discipline, is, that each particular church
has authority from Christ, for exercising government,
and enjoying all the ordinances of worship
within itself. Ecclesiastical councils were to be M M1v 90
convoked for advice, on emergent occasions. The
platform maintained, that the offices of pastors,
teachers and ruling elders were distinct. Pastors
were to attend to exhortations, and teachers to
doctrine; yet both were to administer ordinances
and church censures. Ruling elders were, in a
special manner, to assist the pastors and teachers
in the discipline of the church.See the platform of church government, in Mather’s Magnalia,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book V. p. 23.
See an abridgment of the platform in
Neal’s History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. Appendix, p. 294.

In the next general council in New-England,
ten years after, the ministers and churches of Connecticut
and New-Haven were present, and united
in the form of church government, which it recommended.
The churches of New-England, in
general, acceded to this platform of church discipline
for more than thirty years. This, with the
ecclesiastical laws, formed the religious constitution
of the colonies.

Whilst the colonies were increasing in numbers
and settlements, regular codes of laws were
necessary for the advancement, order and happiness
of their respective jurisdictions.

In the year 16421642, the capital laws of Connecticut
were nearly completed, and put upon record.
TheThe several passages of scripture on which they
were founded were particularly noticed in the
statute.

At a general court in New-Haven, the 1643-04-055th of
April, 1643
, a considerable progress was made in
the laws of that colony. Deputies were sent to M2r 91
the general court, and an addition was made to
the number of magistrates. Trumbull, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 121, 182.

16471647.At this period, the general assembly of the
province of Rhode-Island established a code of laws
agreeable to the English statute books, and erected
a form of civil government, for the administration
of these laws, and for enacting such others as
should be found necessary. The supreme power
was vested in the people assembled; a court of
commissioners, consisting of six persons, chosen
by the four towns of Providence, Portsmouth,
Newport and Warwick, had a legislative authority.
Their acts were to be in force, unless repealed
within a limited period, by the vote of the major
part of the freemen of the province, to be collected
at their respective town-meetings, appointed
for that purpose.

A president and four assistants were annually
chosen, to be preservers of the peace, with all civil
power. By a special commission, they were
judges of the court of trials, assisted by the two
wardens or justices of the particular town, in which
the court from time to time was convened.

Each town chose a council of six persons, to
conduct their affairs, and their town court had
the trial of small cases; but with an appeal to the
court of the president and assistants. Callender, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 42, 45.

16481648.This year the colony of Massachusetts first published
their code of laws. At the request of the
general court, the Rev. John Cotton had compiled M2v 92
16481648. a system, founded chiefly on the laws of Moses,
which was published in London, 16451645. This
abstract was considered by the legislative body as
the general standard, though they never formally
adopted it, and even varied from it in many instances.
They professed to follow Moses’ plan,
so far only as it was of a moral nature, and obligatory
on all mankind.See Hutchinson’s Collection of Papers, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 161.

16491649.At the session of the general court of Connecticut,
a code of laws was established, and this colony
had the appearance of a well regulated commonwealth.
Until this time punishments, in many
instances, had been left wholly to the discretion
of the court. But from this period, the laws,
in general, became fixed, and the punishment of
particular crimes was specified, so that delinquents
might know what to expect, when they had the
temerity to transgress. Trumbull, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 82.

The celebrated John Winthrop, Esq. died the
beginning of this year, aged sixty-three. His death
was greatly lamented in Massachusetts, and he was
stiled, the Father of the colony. He was educated
in the profession of the law, in which he was eminent
for his abilities and integrity. The high
place he held in the public esteem was evinced by
his being appointed justice of peace at the early
age of eighteen. When a number of influential
characters formed the design of removing to New-
England
, he put himself at the head of the undertaking,
and devoted his estate and strength to the M3r 93
public service. The inhabitants of Massachusetts
manifested their high sense of his worth, by chusing
him eleven times to be their governor.
Prudence and justice marked his conduct in
that station. He was distinguished for temperance,
frugality and economy, and ever exhibited
a supreme regard for religion. The only
error which has been charged upon his administration
resulted from his maintaining the necessity
of using coercive measures in religion. However,
he finally rose superior to the prejudices of the age
in which he lived, and, in his dying moments,
feelingly regretted that his conduct had been tinged
by the spirit of religious intolerance. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 151. Neal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 294.

The fatal effects, which were produced by enforcing
uniformity in religious worship, will be
related in the subsequent chapter.

M3v94

Chapter VII.

Of the intolerant principles of the settlers of New-
England
. Of the separation of the Baptists, and
the persecution they suffered. The Quakers began
to resort to Massachusetts colony. Severe laws
enacted against them. Four Quakers put to death
in Boston. Conduct of the other colonies towards
them. King Charles II. puts a stop to the further
execution of the sanguinary laws.

In the preceding chapter we had the
satisfaction of seeing our pious ancestors assiduously
engaged in converting the Indians to the Christian
religion; in forming a model of church discipline,
and establishing a regular code of laws, on
what they supposed to be the scripture foundation.
We must, at present, contemplate them in a light
which strongly exhibits the imperfection of human
nature, and the influence of error and prejudice
upon the mind.

Actuated by the mistaken idea, that it was
their duty to use coercive measures to suppress erroneous
opinions, the colony of Massachusetts had
already manifested a determined resolution to enforce
uniformity in religion. They had already
proceeded a step farther than the hierarchy in their
native country had ever attempted. No test law
had as yet taken place in England; but they had
at one blow cut off all but those of their own communion M4r 95
from the privileges of civil offices, however
otherwise qualified. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 80. They had banished from
their jurisdiction those who were charged with
maintaining Antinomian tenets. We shall now see
their intolerant sentiments produce farther extremes
in conduct.

Notwithstanding all their precaution to
maintain colonial uniformity, they found a number
who took the liberty to dissent from their religious
16501650. opinions. This year some of the inhabitants
of Rehoboth adopted the sentiments of the
Baptists, withdrew from the established worship,
and set up a separate meeting. Upon this Mr.
Obadiah Holmes
, one of the principal dissenters,
was first admonished, and afterwards excommunicated
by the Rev. Mr. Newman, minister of
Rehoboth. Immediately after, he and two of his
associates were cited to appear before the court at
Plymouth, where four petitions were lodged against
them. One from their native town, signed by
thirty-five persons; one from the church at Taunton;
another from all the clergymen but two in
Plymouth colony; and a fourth from the court
at Boston, under their secretary’s hand, urging
the Plymouth rulers speedily to suppress this growing
schism. Backus’ History of the Baptists, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 213.

16511651.With these stimulations to severity, the court
of Plymouth charged Holmes and his friends to
desist from their separation; and neither to ordain
officers, administer the sacraments, or assemble M4v 96
16511651.for public worship. They viewed these restrictions
as arbitrary violations of their Christian liberty,
and alledged, that they were actuated by the
conviction of their own consciences, and that it
was better to obey God than man.

Some time after Mr. Clark (who had founded
a Baptist church in Rhode-Island) with Mr. Holmes
and Mr. Cranfield, travelled into the jurisdiction
of Massachusetts. They were all apprehended
when assembled for public worship on the Lord’s
day. The constable took them into custody, and
in the afternoon carried them, by compulsion, to
the congregational meeting. Mr. Clark had previously
assured him, that, if forced to a meeting,
which he disapproved, he should be obliged publicly
to declare the reasons of his dissent. He pulled
off his hat when he entered the assembly, but,
after he was seated, he put it on again, and employed
himself in reading while the minister was
praying. The officers took off his hat, but he
positively refused to join in the service. After sermon,
he addressed the congregation, and assigned
the reasons of his conduct. Neal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 299. Clark’s Narrative of the New-England
Persecution
.

About a fortnight after, the court of assistants
passed the following sentences, viz. that Mr. Clark
should pay a fine of twenty pounds, Mr. Holmes
of thirty, and Mr. Cranfield of five pounds, or be
publicly whipped upon their refusal to pay their
fines. The prisoners agreed to refuse, and to receive
corporeal punishment. Some of Mr. Clark’s N1r 97
16511651.friends paid his fine without his consent, and Cranfield
was released upon his promise to appear again
at the next court; but the sentence of the law
was executed on Holmes. Several of his friends
were spectators; among others John Spurr and
John Hazell, who, as they were attending him
back to prison, took him by the hand in the market
place, and praised God for his courage and
constancy. For this offence they were cited before
the general court the next day, and each of
them sentenced to pay a fine of forty shillings, or
be publicly whipped. They refused to pay the
money; but it was paid by their friends. They
were then dismissed, and returned to Rhode-
Island
. Neal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 33. Backus, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 231.

The following law was enacted against the Baptists,
on this occasion, by the general court of
Massachusetts:

“It is ordered by the court and authority
thereof, that if any person or persons within this
jurisdiction shall either openly condemn or oppose
the baptising of infants, or go about secretly to seduce
others from the approbation or use thereof,
or shall purposely depart the congregation at the
administration of the ordinance, or shall deny the
ordinance of magistracy, or their lawful right or
authority to make war, or punish the outward
breaches of the first table, and shall appear to
the court wilfully and obstinately to continue
therein after due means of conviction, every N N1v 98
16511651.such person or persons shall be sentenced to banishment.”
Clark’s Narrative of the New-England Persecution, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 35.

Neither this, nor other severe penal laws
made against sectaries, could prevent the increase
of the Baptist denomination.

After the settlers of New-England had exerted
themselves to suppress the Baptists, they exhibited
similar intolerant principles in their behavior
to the Quakers. The first of this society who came
into Massachusetts were Mary Fisher and Anna
Austin
, who arrived from Barbados the beginning
16561656.of 1656-07July. The books, which these women brought
over, were burnt by the hangman, and they were
committed to prison by the deputy-governor. It
is asserted, that they gave rude and contemptuous
answers to the questions put to them by the court
of assistants; and this is the reason assigned, by
the opposite party, for their imprisonment. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 169.

On the other hand, an historian of their own
denomination affirms, that “the deputy-governor
committed them to prison, upon no other proof
of their being Quakers, than that one of them said
thee to him; and that their confinement was so
rigorous, that no person was permitted to converse
with them even through the window.” 5-9 wordsflawed-reproduction
After
about five weeks confinement, one William Chichester,
master of a vessel, was bound in a bond of
one hundred pounds, to carry them back to Barbados;
and the jailer kept their beds and their bible
for his fees.

N2r99

A few days after the departure of these women,
eight others of the same profession arrived at
Boston. After some examination, the were sentenced
to banishment, and to be detained in prison
till they could be conveyed out of the colony.
They were imprisoned about eleven weeks, the
jailer being empowered to search their boxes for
pen, ink and paper as often as he thought proper,
and take them away. When they were in prison,
a law was enacted to punish them, which was the
first general law against the Quakers.16561656.

By this law it was enacted, that if any master
or commander of any ship, bark,&c. should
thenceforth bring into any harbor within their jurisdiction
any Quakers, he should pay the sum of
one hundred pounds to the treasurer of the county,
or be imprisoned till the payment should be
made or secured. That any Quaker coming into
the country, should be committed to the house of
correction, severely whipped, constantly kept to
hard labor, and debarred of all intercourse with
any person whatever. GouthGough, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched. Vol. I. p. 347.

16571657.This act, and the banishment of the Quakers,
proving insufficient, other sanguinary laws were
enacted, as cutting off the ears, and boring the
tongue with an hot iron. Through a mistaken
zeal to extirpate heresy, these cruel laws were, in
various instances, put in execution. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 372.

The severity, with which this denomination was
treated, appeared rather to invite than to deter N2v 100
16571657.them from flocking to the colony. The persecution
exercised against them had a direct tendency
to increase their numbers. People first compassionated
their sufferings, admired the fortitude
with which they endured them; and, from these
causes, were induced to examine and embrace
their sentiments.

16581658.Large numbers in Boston, Salem and other
places, joined this society. Their rapid increase
induced the magistrates to resort to the last extremity,
and to enact a law to banish them upon pain
of death. Great opposition, however, was made
to this law, and it was finally passed by a majority
of only one person. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 198. Bishop’s New-England judged
by the Spirit of the Lord
.

16591659.Four Quakers were put to death in Boston, by
this unjust and impolitic law. They died with the
utmost fortitude, professing the satisfaction and
joy they felt in suffering for the cause of truth.
They protested, in the most solemn manner, that
their return from banishment was by divine direction,
to warn the magistrates of their errors, and
entreat them to repeal their unjust laws. They
denounced the judgment of God upon them for
shedding innocent blood, and foretold that others
would rise up in their room. Mary Dyer, one of
the prisoners, was reprieved at the gallows by the
intercession of her son, and conveyed to Rhode-
Island
. But, to use the words of Gouth, “finding
herself under a necessity laid on her from
the requirings of the spirit of the Lord to go N3r 101
GouthGough, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 402. Sewall’s History of the Quakers. back to Boston, she returned and was executed.The”
16601660.

colony of Plymouth copied after Massachusetts
in their treatment of the Quakers, but
did not carry their severity to such an extent as
to put any of them to death.

The general court of Connecticut, in 1656-10October,
1656
, passed an act, which prohibited the towns
in their jurisdiction from entertaining any Quakers,
Ranters, or other heretics, or suffering them to
continue in any town above fourteen days, upon
the penalty of five pounds per week. Those towns
were empowered to imprison such persons till they
could conveniently be sent out of their jurisdiction.
All masters of vessels were forbidden to land this
denomination; and after landing them, were obliged
to transport them out of the colony, upon penalty
of twenty pounds.

The court at New-Haven passed a similar law.
In 16581658, both courts made an addition to this law,
increasing the penalties, and prohibiting all conversation
of the common people with any of those
heretics, and all persons from giving them any entertainment
upon the penalty of five pounds. The
law, however, was of short continuance, and nothing
of importance appears to have been transacted
upon it in either of the colonies. Trumbull, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 314.

When the colony of Rhode-Island was applied
to, by the four united colonies, in 16561656, “to
join them in taking effectual methods to suppress N3v 102
the Quakers, and prevent their pernicious doctrines
being spread in the country,”
the assembly
returned for answer, “we shall strictly adhere to
the foundation principle on which this colony
was first settled.” Gordon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 37.

16611661.These unhappy disturbances continued till the
friends of the Quakers in England interposed,
and obtained an order from King Charles II. requiring
that a stop should be put to all capital or
corporeal punishment of his subjects, called Quakers.
This occasioned a repeal of the cruel laws
which had been enacted against them. Neal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 374.

To us, who live in an enlightened age, where
the principles of religious toleration are clearly understood,
the conduct of the early settlers of New-
England
must appear truly astonishing; and we
may be led to asperse them with unmerited censure.
In reviewing the conduct of those, who have
appeared on the theatre of life before us, we ought
ever to consider the influence which the prevailing
prejudices of the age, in which they lived, must
naturally have had upon their minds. It was late
before the true grounds of liberty of conscience
were known by any party of Christians. The
bloody persecutions in the annals of Popery, fill
the mind with horror; and we find traits of the
same intolerant spirit in the conduct of the reformers.
The church of England, by enforcing uniformity
in religion, had driven the Puritans to
seek an asylum in the new world, where, after N4r 103
suffering various hardships, they had established a
religious system, to which they were warmly attached.
Influenced by the prejudices of education,
they considered it as a duty to suppress those religious
tenets, which they supposed diametrically opposite
to Christianity, and subversive of the peace
and happiness of the newly established colonies.
The principles they had imbibed appeared to them
in a light so important, that they took every precaution
to transmit them pure and uncorrupted to
the latest posterity.

The inhabitants of New-England were not,
however, distinguished by their intolerance from
other American settlers. “Several acts of the
Virginia assembly of 16591659, 16621662, and 16631663, had
made it penal in the parents to refuse to have
their children baptised; had prohibited the unlawful
assembling of Quakers; had made it penal for
any master of a vessel to bring a Quaker into the
state; had ordered those already there, and such
as should come thereafter, to be imprisoned till
they should abjure the country; provided a milder
punishment for their first and second return,
but death for the third; had inhibited all persons
from suffering their meetings in or near their
houses, entertaining them individually, or disposing
of books which supported their tenets. If no
capital punishment took place here as in New-
England
, it was not owing to the moderation of
the church, or spirit of the legislature, as may be
inferred from the law itself; but to historical circumstances N4v 104
which have not been handed down to
us.” Morse’s Geography, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 625.
A review of the distressing scenes, which
persecution has occasioned, both in Europe and
America, ought to inspire our minds with the most
lively gratitude to Divine Providence, for the entire
liberty of conscience, which is at present enjoyed
by each individual state; and which constitutes
a distinguished excellence in the federal constitution.
As Judge Minot observes, in his ingenious
continuation of Hutchinson, “The intellect
of men, in its progress in this country, first
discovered the absurdity of religious tests, and
wiped away this blot upon human reason, whilst
the mother country remains, in this respect, in
her ancient absurdity.” Minot, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 30.

O1r105

Chapter VIII.

The colonies congratulate King Charles II. on his
restoration. Of the second synod in New-England.
Act of uniformity takes place in England. A number
of Dissenters seek an asylum in the colonies.
Two of the judges of Charles I. take refuge in
New-Haven. Connecticut and New-Haven are
united by a charter. Of the charter granted to
Rhode-Island. Four commissioners sent to New-
England
by the King. Persecution of the Baptists
revived. The dissenting clergy in England
intercede in favor of the Baptists and Quakers.

16611661.During the frequent changes
in the government of England, for the last twenty
years, the colonies acted with great caution and
prudence. They acknowledged subjection to parliament,
and afterwards to Cromwell, only so far
as was necessary to escape their resentment. After
Cromwell’s death, they avoided joining with
any of the prevailing parties, and waited till a permanent
settlement could be established. Upon the
restoration of King Charles II. the general court
of Massachusetts dispatched Simon Bradstreet, Esq.
and the Rev. John Norton with a loyal address of
congratulation to his majesty, in which they endeavoured
to justify the conduct of the colony, O O1v 106
16611661.and petitioned for the continuance of their civil
and religious liberties. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 219.

16621662.The reception of the agents was favorable, and
they returned next autumn with the king’s answer
to the address. His majesty confirmed the charter,
and promised to renew it under the great seal.
He granted pardon to all his subjects for treasons
committed during the late troubles, those only excepted,
who were attainted by act of parliament.
But he required the general court to review its ordinances,
and to repeal such laws, as were repugnant
to the royal authority. He also ordered, that
the oath of allegiance should be duly administered;
that the administration of justice should be
performed in his name; that liberty should be
granted to all who desired it, to perform their devotions
after the manner of the church of England;
that all persons of honest lives and conversation
should be admitted to the sacrament of the
Lord’s supper, according to the book of common
prayer, and their children to baptism; that in the
office of governor and assistants the only influential
consideration should be the wisdom, virtue and
integrity of the persons, without any reference to
their distinguishing religious tenets; that all freeholders,
not vicious, and of competent estates,
should be allowed to vote in the election of officers,
civil and military, though of different persuasions
respecting church government; and, finally,
that this letter should be published. Ibid. Chalmers, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 255.

O2r107

16621662.Many of the requisitions contained in the king’s
letter were exceedingly disagreeable to our ancestors.
The favors obtained by the agents were depreciated,
and their merits were soon obliterated.
It was supposed that they had neglected the interest
of their country, and made unnecessary concessions.
Mr. Norton was so much affected with this treatment,
that it occasioned a melancholy habit, which
is supposed to have hastened his death. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book III. p. 38.

At this session of the general court, the only
compliance with the king’s orders, except publishing
his letter, was giving directions that all
writs, processes,&c. should be in his majesty’s
name. A committee was afterwards appointed to
consider the propriety of conforming to the other
particulars, and liberty was given to the clergy
and the other inhabitants to transmit their opinions.Whilst

the colonies were alarmed with apprehensions
for their civil liberties, their churches
were agitated by religious controversies. Great
debates arose among the clergy, concerning the
right of the grand-children of church members to
the sacrament of baptism, whose immediate parents
had not entered into the communion. This
dispute commenced in the colony of Connecticut,
and spread with rapidity through New-England. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 223.

In order to settle the controverted points, the
general court in Massachusetts convoked a synod,
or general council of all the churches, to be assembled O2v 108
16621662. at Boston. The two leading questions referred
to their decision were as follows:

  • 1st. Who are the subjects of baptism?

  • 2d. Whether, according to the word of God,
    there ought to be a consociation of churches; and
    in what manner should such an union be formed?

In answer to the first question, the majority
of the synod agreed, that the children of good
moral parents, who solemnly owned the covenant
before the church, though not in full communion,
might be admitted to baptism. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 223.

However, the council were not unanimous;
several learned and pious clergymen protested
against the determination relative to baptism. The
Rev. Charles Chauncey, president of Harvard college,
Mr. Increase Mather, Mr. Mather, of North-
Hampton
, and others, were warmly in the opposition.
President Chauncey wrote a tract against
the resolutions respecting baptism, entitled, Anti-
Synodalia
. Mr. Increase Mather also wrote in opposition
to the council. Mr. Davenport, and all
the ministers in the colony of New-Haven, and
numbers in Connecticut, were against the resolutions.
Mr. Davenport wrote against them. The
churches were more generally opposed to them
than the clergy.

The general court of Connecticut took no notice
of the synod, nor of the dispute, but left
the elders and churches at liberty to act their own
sentiments. They were attempting to form an O3r 109
16621662.union with New-Haven, and as the ministers and
churches of that colony were unanimous in their
opposition to the synod, they, probably, judged it
impolitic, at that time, to decide any thing relative
to these ecclesiastical points. Trumbull, Vol. I p.235

The churches, at this period, professed to maintain
communion with each other in the following
particulars.

  • 1st, In affectionate care, and fervent
    prayer for each other.
  • 2dly, In affording reilief,
    by communicating their gifts in temporal and spiritual
    necessities.
  • 3dly, In maintaining unity and
    peace, by mutually recounting their public actions
    when requested, in order to strengthen one
    another in their regular administrations, in particular,
    by a concurrent testimony against persons
    justly censured.
  • 4thly, To seek and accept help
    from, and afford assistance to each other in divisions
    and contentions, and in their most important
    concerns; such as ordaining, installing, removing
    and deposing pastors and teachers; in rectifying
    mal-administration, healing error and scandal, and
    deciding difficult questions, both doctrinal and
    practical.
  • 5thly, In charitably noticing the errors
    and difficulties of another church, and, when the
    case manifestly requires it, to administer help,
    even though they should so far neglect their duty
    as not to seek assistance.
  • 6thly, In admonishing
    one another when there is sufficient cause, and after
    a due course of means patiently to withdraw
    from a church, or peccant party therein, obstinately
    persisting in error or scandal.

Mather, Book V, p.75

O3v110

16621662.At this time the persecution was renewed in
England against the Puritans. By an act of uniformity
which took place on St. Bartholomew’s
day
, about two thousand clergymen were turned
out of their benefices, destitute of the smallest provision
for themselves and families. Soon after
they were banished at five miles distance from every
corporation in England. A number were imprisoned
for exercising their ministry contrary to
law; several died in confinement, and others
sought asylum in New-England. The learned
divine, Dr. John Owen, was shipping his effects
for that country, where he was invited to be president
of Harvard college. He was, however,
prohibited from leaving England by an express order
from King Charles II.

Many of the clergymen who received this ignominious
treatment were distinguished by their
abilities and zeal, and had labored indefatigably
for his majesty’s restoration. Calamy’s Abridgement.

Just before the restoration of Charles II. generals
Whaley and Goffe, two of the judges of Charles
I.
took refuge in New-England. They were gentlemen
of distinguished abilities, and had moved
in an exalted sphere. They arrived at Boston in
1660-07July, 1660, and came to New-Haven the following
year, and retired and concealed themselves behind
West Mountain, three miles from New-Haven.
They soon after removed to Milford, where
they lived concealed until 1664-10October, 1664, when O4r 111
they returned to New-Haven, and immediately
proceeded to Hadley, where they remained concealed
for about ten years, in which time Whaley
died, and Goffe soon after fled. In 16651665, John
Dixwell
, Esq. another of the king’s judges, visited
them while at Hadley, and afterwards proceeded
to New-Haven, where he lived many years, and
was known by the name of John Davids. Here
he died, and was interred in the public burying-
place, where his grave-stone is standing to this
day.See the late President Stiles’ History of the Judges, and
Morse’s Geography, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 458.

Connecticut and New-Haven had continued
two distinct governments for many years. At
length the general court of Connecticut determined
to prefer an address and petition to Charles II.
professing their submission and loyalty, and soliciting
a royal charter. John Winthrop, Esq. who
had been elected governor, was appointed to negociate
the affair with the king. He succeeded,
16621662.and obtained a charter, which constituted the two
colonies one united commonwealth, by the name
of the Governor and Company of Connecticut.
New-Haven for some time declined the union; but
16651665.at length all difficulties were amicably settled. At
this period, the united colonies consisted of eighteen
towns. Gaordon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 24..

By the royal charter every power, legislative,
judicial and executive, was vested in the freemen
of the corporation, or their delegates, and the colony O4v 112
was under no obligation to communicate the
acts of their local legislature to the king. The
government, which they had previously exercised,
was established, and when the other New-England
states renovated their politics, the charter of Connecticut
was continued as the basis of their unchanging
policy, and remains so to the present
day.See an account of the Constitution of Connecticut, in Constitutions
of the United States
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 46.
An account of the charter in
Trumbull, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 259.

16631663.The royal charter which was granted to Rhode-
Island and Providence Plantations
the subsequent
year, was similar to that of Connecticut. They
differed, however, in one respect; the charter of
Connecticut was silent with regard to religion;
by that of Rhode-Island liberty of conscience was
granted in its fullest extent.See Charter of Rhode Island.

By the charter of Rhode-Island, the supreme
legislative power was vested in an assembly, the
constituent members of which were to consist of the
governor, the assistants, and such of the freemen
as should be chosen by the people. This assembly
was empowered to enact laws, and forms of
government and magistracy, provided they were
not repugnant to the laws of England. They
were to erect such courts of justice as they should
see fit, to determine matters within the colony.
To regulate the manner of election to places of
trust, and of freemen to the assembly. To impose
lawful punishments, and grant pardon to
such criminals as they should think proper. Chalmers, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 252.

P1r113

16631663.At this period an act was passed, declaring the
privileges of the inhabitants of Rhode-Island. “No
freeman shall be imprisoned, judged or condemned
but by the judgment of his peers or laws of the
colony. And no tax shall be levied on any of
his majesty’s subjects within the plantation, or upon
their estates, or any pretence whatever, but
by the act or assent of the general assembly.”Providence Court Records.

16651665.From the commencement of the reign of
Charles II. the general court of Massachusetts entertained
alarming apprehensions of being deprived
of their privileges. Their enemies in England
gave exaggerated accounts of every interesting occurrence,
and the king was prejudiced by their representations.
Notwithstanding all his fair pretensions,
the world was convinced, soon after his
restoration, that he designed to reign upon the
same principles, which had brought his father to
the scaffold. His intention with regard to the colonies
was, to reduce them to the plan of twelve
royal provinces, according to the ideas adopted by
his father in 16351635, and to have a viceroy over the
whole. Agreeably to this design he dispatched
commissioners this year, with authority to reduce
the Dutch settlements on the Hudson, to settle
peace, and to establish good government in the
colonies. Colonel Richard Nevils, who was afterwards
governor of New-York, was joined with
Sir Robert Carr, George Cartwright, and Samuel
Marverick
in the commission.

PP1v114

16651665.The authority of these commissioners was highly
disrelished by the colonies, who entertained
a strong aversion to arbitrary power. The inhabitants
of New-England may emphatically be said
to be born free. They were settled originally upon
the principle expressed at this day in all their
forms of government, that “all men are born
free, equal and independent.” Sullivan, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 285.

When the commissioners arrived in Massachusetts,
their proceedings excited the irritability natural
to a people jealous for their liberty; and they
supposed the powers granted them an infringement
of their charter. The general court, however,
altered the law that all freemen should be church
members; and having resolved to bear true allegiance
to their sovereign, and adhere to their patent,
they agreed upon an address to the king, Minot, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 44.
in which they professed their loyalty and subjection
to his majesty, described the difficulties they
had encountered in settling the country; and appealed
to Heaven that they were not actuated by
interested motives. They asserted that they had
done all to satisfy his majesty, that they supposed
consistent with their duty towards God, and the
just liberties and privileges of their patent. They
expressed a determined resolution to struggle for
their privileges, which they declared were “far
dearer to them than life.”
They exhibited the
same firmness of mind and resolution in their
conduct to the commissioners, who, after much P2r 115
16651665.altercation, left the colony dissatisfied and enraged.The
Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 229, 230, 231.

commission was also exceedingly disagreeable
to the inhabitants of New-Hampshire, at that
time under the government of Massachusetts.
When the commissioners arrived in that colony,
they flattered a party who were dissatisfied with
Massachusetts’ government, with being freed from
their jurisdiction; and prevailed on them to sign a
petition to the king for that purpose. But as the
majority of the people exhibited a determined opposition
to a separation, the design proved abortive.The
Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I.
p. 106, 107, 108
.

commissioners were as unsuccessful in Connecticut
as in Massachusetts. They were more favorably
received at Plymouth and Rhode-Island.
They sat as a court at Providence and Warwick,
and spent some time in the colony, examining the
purchases and titles of lands from the Indians;
hearing the allegations of Gorton and his party
against Massachusetts; enquiring into the proceedings
of the executive powers of the plantation,
and receiving complaints from disaffected persons. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 229.

When the commissioners arrived in New-England,
the former claim under Gorges began to
revive. They came into the Province of Maine,
and attempted to erect a government. They appointed
courts, and commissioned magistrates under
the Duke of York, and in the name of the
king. This kind of government continued till P2v 116
the year 16681668, when some of the principal inhabitants,
being greatly oppressed with the tyranny
of the commissioners in their support of Gorges’
claim, made application to the general court of
Massachusetts to take the country again under their
protection and jurisdiction. Sullivan, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 374.

16681668.When the commissioners had concluded their
business, they were recalled by an order from the
king. His majesty was highly displeased with the
treatment they received from the government of
Massachusetts. By a letter to the colony, he ordered
them to send over four or five agents, promising
to hear all the allegations, that could be
made in their behalf, and intimating that he was
far from desiring to invade their charter. He
commanded that all things should remain, as the
commissioners had settled them, till his further orders;
and that those persons who had been imprisoned
for petitioning or applying to the commissioners,
should be released. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 547.

Neither the gloomy aspect of their civil affairs,
nor their experience of the pernicious tendency
of intolerant measures, could deter the colony
of Massachusetts from reviving the persecution
against the Baptists. This denomination had gathered
one church at Swansey, and another at Boston.
The general court was very severe in executing
the penal laws, in consequence of which
many worthy characters were ruined by fines, imprisonment
and banishment. Complaints of this P3r 117
16681668.severity were transmitted to England, which induced
the dissenting clergy in London to appear,
at length, in their favor. A letter was accordingly
sent to the governor of Massachusetts, subscribed
by Dr. Owen, Mr. Nye, Mr. Caryl, and nine
other celebrated Puritan ministers. They earnestly
requested, that those, who were imprisoned
on account of their religious tenets, might be restored
to liberty, and that the severe laws might
not in future be executed. This excellent letter
produced no salutary effect. The prisoners were
not released, nor the execution of the penal laws
suspended. Neal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched. Vol. I. p. 373.

16691669.The Quakers, also, about this time made heavy
complaints of the sufferings of their friends in
New-England. Though since the king’s letter in
16611661, none of the penal laws had been executed
against them; yet the government treated their
itinerant preachers as vagabonds. The chief of
the London Quakers obtained a letter, signed by
eleven of the most eminent dissenting clergymen,
in favor of their brethren. But intolerant principles
were so deeply implanted in the inhabitants of
New-England, that all efforts to eradicate them
at this period proved ineffectual. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 377.

P3v118

Chapter IX.

Rise and progress of the war with Philip, king of
the Wampanoags. The death of Philip puts a period
to hostilities. His character. Of the war
with the Eastern Indians. Peace ratified with
all the Indian tribes. Flourishing state of New-
England
. Of the third synod in Massachusetts.

Since the contest with the Pequod
Indians
, the terror of the English arms had
restrained the natives from hostilities. In the
mean time, Providence had smiled upon the New-
England
settlements, and multiplied their churches.
The season was now arrived, in which the
colonies were alarmed with the gloomy prospect
of being again involved in an Indian war.

16741674.It was the prevailing opinion of the English at
this period, that Philip, sachem of the Wampanoags,
an artful and aspiring man, partly by intrigue,
and partly by example, excited his countrymen
to a general combination against them.
There is, however, a constant tradition among the
posterity of those people, who lived near, and
were familiarly conversant with him, and with
those of his Indians who survived the war, that he
was impelled to hostile measures by his young
men, entirely against his own judgment and that
of his chief counsellors. Though he had penetration P4r 119
16741674. enough to foresee that the English would, in
time, establish themselves, and extirpate the Indians,
yet he thought making war upon them
would only hasten the destruction of his own people.
When he found it impossible to resist any
longer the importunity of his warriors, he used
every exertion to render their enterprize effectual;
especially by his early endeavours to persuade the
other Indians to unite their forces against the colonies.
It is said, he dissembled his hostile purposes,
and was ready, upon every suspicion of his
infidelity, to renew his submission, and testify it
even by the delivery of his arms, till he had secretly
infused a cruel jealousy into many of the
neighbouring Indians, which excited them to attempt
recovering their country by extirpating the
new possessors. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 129. Callender, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 73, 74.

16751675.The war was precipitated by the revenge which
Philip caused to be taken upon John Sausaman, a
praying Indian. He had been educated in the
profession of the Christian religion, was some
time at college, and employed as a schoolmaster at
Natick. At length, upon some misconduct, he
fled to Philip, who made him secretary, chief
counsellor and confidant. He remained several
years with this Indian prince, till Mr. Eliot, who
had been his spiritual father, prevailed upon him
to return to the Christian Indians at Natick.
There he manifested public repentance for his
apostacy, became a preacher, and was dispatched P4v 120
16751675.upon the Wampanoag mission. Having discovered
the Indian conspiracy, he revealed it to the
English governor. Not long after, he was murdered
by some of Philip’s counsellors, while travelling
the country. An Indian, who was accidentally
on a hill at some distance, saw the
murder committed. The murderers were apprehended,
and, being tried upon the Indian’s testimony,
and other circumstances, were convicted
and executed. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 285.

This event excited the keenest resentment in
King Philip, and he determined to be revenged.
The Indians resorted to him from various parts,
which animated him with fresh courage, and stimulated
him to commence hostilities. He first
threatened the English at Swansey, then killed
some of their cattle, and at length rifled their
houses. Irritated by this insult, one of the English
discharged his gun, and wounded an Indian.
When the governor of Plymouth received intelligence
that the war was begun, he dispatched a
party for the defence of those parts; and proclaimed
a general fast throughout the colony. As
the inhabitants of Swansey were returning from
public worship, a number of Indians, who lay in
ambuscade, fired upon them, killed one of their
company, and wounded another. They next intercepted
and killed two men, who were sent for
a surgeon. The same night they entered the town
of Swansey, and murdered six men.

Q1r121

16751675.As the war was now inevitable, the governor
of Plymouth demanded assistance from the confederated
colonies. Massachusetts detached Capt.
Prentice
, with a troop of horse, and Capt. Henchman,
with a company of foot. They were followed
by a number of volunteers, under Capt. Moseley.
They marched to Swansey, and joined the
Plymouth forces, who were commanded by Capt.
Cudworth
. The Indians, who seldom could be
induced to engage the Europeans in their own
manner, soon retreated with precipitation; while
the English took possession of Mount Hope, and
ravaged the adjacent country.

The Massachusetts forces marched into the Narraganset
country, and compelled the inhabitants to
renounce their alliance with King Philip, and sign
a treaty of peace and amity with the English.
They engaged to exert themselves to destroy Philip
and his adherents, and deliver up his subjects,
who should enter their territories. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 289.

As a reward, they were promised two coats for
every living, and one for every dead Wampanoag,
and twenty valuable coats for Philip’s head.

In the mean time Capt. Cudworth, with the
Plymouth forces, was detached to deter the Pocasset
Indians
from joining with Philip; but upon
his arrival, he found they had already taken an
active part. Capt. Church, of Plymouth colony,
who published an account of his exploits,See Church’s History of Philip’s War. with
Capt. Fuller, and two small detachments, ranged Q Q1v 122
16751675.the woods, in order to engage the enemy. They
were overpowered by an army of twenty times
their number. Capt. Fuller and his men fled to
an house by the water side, which they endeavoured
to defend till a sloop from Rhode-Island relieved
them from that dangerous situation. Capt.
Church
, with fifteen men, was surrounded in a
pease-field by two hundred Indians. Notwithstanding
the inequality of numbers, he fought
with invincible courage and resolution. At length
he arrived at the water side, and defended himself
behind a barricado of stones, till he was removed
in a sloop to Rhode-Island, without the
loss of one of his men. When he had refreshed
his men a few days in the island, he passed over
to the continent, and borrowing three files of men
from the Massachusetts forces, again engaged the
Pocasset Indians, and killed thirteen or fourteen
upon the spot. This event terrified them to such a
degree, that the remainder retired into the woods,
and appeared no more in a body in the open
country. Neal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 67. Church’s History of Philip’s War, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p.
18, 19, 20
.

The detachment, which was sent against the Pocassets,
joined the army as soon as the treaty with
the Narragansets was completed. At that period,
information being given by some deserters, that
Philip and his men were in a swamp at Pocasset,
it was determined to besiege him. The English
army resolutely entered the thicket, but when they
had advanced a few paces, the Indians fired upon Q2r 123
16751675.them from behind the bushes, and at one discharge
killed five, and mortally wounded six or seven of
their number. This induced them to turn their
attack into a blockade, which they formed with an
hundred men, hoping that famine would in that
case oblige the Indian prince to surrender.

Philip had the address to baffle this attempt.
There was a large river, which ran by the side of
the thicket, which a party of English, posted on the
other side, were to observe. Philip and his men,
having cut down some rafts of timber, took advantage
of a low tide, and in the night crossed the
river without being observed, and escaped into
the Nipmuck country.—One hundred of his warriors,
however, were made prisoners. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched. Book VII. p. 47.

The Nipmuck Indians inhabited the inland
parts between the sea coasts and Connecticut river,
within the jurisdiction of the colony of Massachusetts.
The English had in vain endeavoured to
detach them from Philip’s interest. After they
heard of that prince’s arrival in their country, they
fired upon Capt. Hutchinson, one of the officers
sent to negociate with them. He was mortally
wounded, eight of his men killed on the spot,
and the rest obliged precipitately to retreat. Philip,
who was reinforced, pursued and drove about
seventy of them into an house, where they must
probably have been taken or burnt, had they not
fortunately been relieved by Major Willard, who
engaged the Indians with a small party, killed
eighty of them, and obliged Philip and his army
to retreat. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 48.

Q2v124

16751675.During the remainder of the year, this bloody
war spread over New-England. The Indians in
the several colonies were roused to arms, and their
progress through the country was marked with terror
and desolation. Philip and his allies conducted
the war with energy, in this, and part of the
following year. In 1675-09September, they burnt and destroyed
the plantation of Deerfield. Encouraged
by this success, they soon after burnt thirty-two
houses at Springfield, and, had not their design
been discovered, would have massacred all the inhabitants.
They also laid the town of Mendon in
16761676.ashes. On the 1676-02-1010th of February, they plundered
the town of Lancaster, burnt several houses, and
killed and captured forty-two persons.

Soon after they did great mischief in Marlborough,
Sudbury and Chelmsford. On the 1676-02-2121st of
February
, two or three hundred Indians surprized
Medfield, burnt half the town, and killed twenty of
the inhabitants. Four days after, they burnt seven
or eight houses in Weymouth. In the beginning
of 1676-03March they burnt the whole town of Groton.
The same month they burnt five houses, and killed
five persons in Northampton; surprized part of the
town of Plymouth, and murdered two families in
the night. They laid the town of Warwick in
ashes, burnt forty houses in Rehoboth, and thirty
in Providence. Hubbard, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 17.

On the other hand, large numbers of Indians
were destroyed by the colonists. Particularly in Q3r 125
16751675, when Philip and his army retreated into
the Narraganset country, the English pursued
them, and attacked a fort, which the Indians
deemed impregnable. The fort was burnt down,
and the fortifications levelled; seven hundred Indian
warriors perished in the action, among whom
were above twenty of their chief captains. There
were also three hundred who died of their wounds,
besides a vast number of defenceless old men, women
and children, who had repaired to the fort
for refuge. The English had six captains and
eighty-five men killed; and an hundred and fifty
men wounded. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book VII. p. 50. Modern Universal History,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIX. p. 305.

In 16761676, the affairs of the colonists were a less
gloomy aspect. In 1676-05May and 1675-06June, the Indians
appeared in arms in various parts of the country,
but their energy abated, and their distresses for
want of provisions increased. At the same period a
war with the Mohawks deranged all their measures.
It is reported, that after Philip had in vain urged
every motive to induce this nation to commence
hostilities with the colonies, he killed a party of
their men, and informed their prince, that the
English had invaded his lands, and were murdering
his subjects. He expected by this artifice to
irritate them against the colonies; but one of the
Indians, who was left for dead, revived, and escaped
to his countrymen, and informed them of
the truth. This event exasperated them to the
highest degree against Philip, and stimulated them Q3v 126
16761676.to revenge. They immediately formed an alliance
with the English, which was of essential service to
their affairs.

After this event the arms of the Connecticut,
Massachusetts and Plymouth forces, were, in various
instances, crowned with success. No commander
performed greater exploits in this war, than Capt.
Church
, of Plymouth colony. But Philip was
the soul of the Indian confederacy. Upon his life
or death war or peace depended. The colonies
received intelligence, that, after a year’s absence,
he had returned to Mount Hope, and that large
numbers of Indians were repairing to him, with
intent to assault the neighboring towns. Massachusetts
and Plymouth ordered their forces to pursue
Philip. The former returned to Boston, without
accomplishing the most important purpose of their
expedition; but they had killed and captured an
hundred and fifty men, and the Indians were so dispirited,
that they were continually arriving and
surrendering themselves, upon promise of mercy.
Philip was at this time in an extremely melancholy
situation. He was obliged to flee for safety from
one swamp to another. He had lost his chief counsellors,
his uncle and sister, and, at length, his wife
and son were taken prisoners. One of his allies,
the queen of Pocasset, on being surprized by the
English, magnanimously animated her men to hold
out to the last extremity; but they meanly deserted
her, and she was drowned in endeavouring to
escape. Hubbard. Church.

Q4r127

16761676.Soon after this event, Philip himself was betrayed
by one of his friends and counsellors, whom
he had exasperated by killing an Indian, who presumed
to mention to him an expedient for making
peace with the colonies. He effected his escape
to Rhode-Island, and discovered where Philip
was concealed, and the means by which he might
be surprized. Capt. Church, on receiving this
intelligence, went with a small party, and found
him in a swamp near Mount Hope. He attempted
in vain to escape; one of his men whom he
had offended, and who had deserted to the English,
shot him through the heart. Hubbard, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 71.

Thus died Philip, sachem of the Wampanoags,
an implacable enemy to the English nation.
He has been represented as “a bold and daring
prince, having all the pride, fierceness and cruelty
of a savage in his disposition, with a mixture of deep
cunning and design.” Neal.
But that undaunted courage,
energy of mind, and love of country which
adorned his character, and which have immortalized
monarchs in the civilized world, have been little
celebrated in this Indian prince; and we have been
led to contemplate only his vices, which, destitute
of the colorings of polished life, appear in their
native deformity.

About the same period in which Philip began
hostilities in Plymouth colony, the eastern Indians
were insulting the inhabitants of New-Hampshire
and the Province of Maine. The fraudulent Q4v 128
16751675.methods of trading with the natives, and some
other injuries, were alledged as the grounds of
this war. The Indians for some time dissembled
their resentment, but the insurrection at Plymouth
inspired them with courage, and they spread distress
and desolation in their extensive ravages. To
describe the effects of the war in the words of an
elegant author, “All the plantations at Piscataqua,
with the whole eastern country, were now
filled with fear and confusion; business was suspended,
and every man was obliged to provide
for his own and his family’s safety. The only
way was to desert their habitations, and retire
together within the larger and more convenient
houses, which they fortified with a timber
wall and flankarts, placing a sentry-box on the
roof. Thus the labor of the field was exchanged
for the duty of the garrison, and they, who had
long lived in peace and security, were upon their
guard night and day, subject to continual alarms,
and the most fearful apprehensions.” Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 137.

The narrow limits of this work will not admit
of giving particular accounts of the Indian
wars. The autumn of this year was spent in small
but irritating assaults and skirmishes, till the end
of 1675-11November, when the number of people killed
and taken from Kennebec and Piscataqua amounted
to upwards of fifty.

16761676.The subsequent winter, the severity of the season,
and the scarcity of their provisions, reduced R1r 129
16761676.the Indians to the necessity of suing for peace.
By the mediation of Major Waldron, to whom
they applied, a peace was concluded with the
whole body of eastern Indians, which continued
till the next 1677-08August.

The renewal of hostilities, induced the Massachusetts
government to send a body of troops to
the eastward in the beginning of autumn. They
surprized four hundred Indians, at the house of
Major Waldron, with whom they had made the
peace, and whom they considered as their friend
and father. They were seized and disarmed without
the loss of a man on either side. A separation
was made, and those Indians who had previously
joined in concluding a peace were peaceably
dismissed. Two hundred of those who had
fled from the southward, and taken refuge among
them, were made prisoners; and being sent to
Boston, seven or eight of them, who were known
to have killed several Englishmen, were condemned
and executed; the rest were transported and
sold for slaves in foreign parts. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched. Vol. I. p. 143.

16771677.The war was continued the remainder of this,
and the subsequent year; in which period the Indians
ravaged the country, and greatly reduced
the eastern settlements. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 154—156.

16781678.In the spring of this year, commissioners were
appointed to settle a formal treaty of peace with
the Indian chiefs, which was done at Cafco, whither
they had brought the remainder of the captives.R R1v 130
16781678. It was stipulated in the treaty, that the
inhabitants should return to their deserted settlements,
on condition of paying one peck of corn,
annually, for each family, by way of acknowledgment
to the Indians for the possession of their lands,
and one bushel to Major Pendleton, who was a
great proprietor. Thus an end was put to a tedious
and distressing war, which had subsisted three
years. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 158.

After the ratification of peace, commerce began
to flourish, and the population of the country
rapidly increased. Several new towns were settled
in New-Hampshire and the Province of Maine.
Rhode-Island also greatly increased, and the townships
of Kingstown,16741674. East-Greenwich16771677. and Jamestown,
16781678.
were incorporated in that colony.Providence Colony Records.

16771677.Whilst the New-England forces were in the
field, the churches frequently observed days of
fasting and prayer, for the success of their arms.
After peace was established, a licentiousness of
manners prevailed, which was highly alarming
to serious and devout people. The general court
of Massachusetts convened a synod to examine the
state of religion, and prevent the increase of profaneness
and impiety. The synod agreed, that
there was a general decay of piety, and a prevalence
of pride, intemperance, profaneness and
other vices. They advised, that in order to promote
a reformation, the clergy should be exhorted
to bear the strongest testimony against the vices R2r 131
16771677.of the age, in their public discourses, and that the
magistrates should be vigilant in putting the laws
in execution. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book. V. p. 85—91.

In the same synod the platform of church discipline,
prepared in the year 16581658, was recognized
and confirmed by the following vote. “A
synod of the churches of the colony of Massachusetts
being called to meet at Boston, 1679-09September,
1679
, having read and considered a platform of
church discipline agreed upon by the synod assembled
at Cambridge, 16581658, do unanimously approve
of the same platform as to the substance of it, desiring
that the churches may continue stedfast in
the order of the gospel, according to what is therein
declared from the word of God.” Result of the Massachusetts Synod, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 6.

This year, the agents of Massachusetts being
in England, the general court presented several
addresses to the king, and made several laws to remove
some of the exceptions which were taken
against them by the British government.

R2v132

Chapter X.

The government of New-Hampshire separated from
Massachusetts, and made a royal province. Of
Cranfield’s oppressive government. The colonies
are deprived of their charters. Colonel Dudley
appointed president of New-England. He is superseded
by Sir Edmund Andros, who is appointed
governor. His arbitrary proceedings. The revolution
in England puts a period to the oppression of
the colonies.

Whilst the Indian tribes
were endeavouring to extirpate the English, enemies
of another kind were using every effort to deprive
them of their privileges, by artful and exaggerated
accounts of their conduct to the government
of England.

16791679.New-Hampshire had long subsisted under the
government of Massachusetts, and the union was,
in general, satisfactory to both colonies. This
year a separation took place, by means of one Mr.
Mason
, who claimed a right to the country, from
his grandfather, Capt. John Mason, who had obtained
grants of New-Hampshire from the council
of New-England. Mason was assisted in his claim
by Edward Randolph, his kinsman, a man of great
address and penetration, who was resolute and indefatigable
in business. This gentleman, by severe
invectives, inflamed the prejudices which had R3r 133
16791679.been conceived in England against the colony;
and though agents were dispatched to obviate the
effects of his misrepresentations, yet his artful and
malevolent attempts were crowned with success. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 165—168.

On the 1679-09-1818th of September, a commission passed
the great seal for the government of New-Hampshire,
which separated this colony from the jurisdiction
of Massachusetts. A president and council
were appointed by the king for the government
of the province. The said president and every
succeeding one to appoint a deputy to preside in
his absence; the president or his deputy, with any
five, to be a quorum. They were to meet at
Portsmouth in twenty days after the arrival of the
commission, and publish it. They were constituted
a court of record for the administration of justice,
according to the laws of England, so far as
circumstances would permit; reserving a right of
appeal to the king in council for actions of fifty
pounds
value. They were empowered to appoint
military officers, and take all needful measures for
defence against enemies. Liberty of conscience
was allowed to all Protestants, those of the church
of England
to be particularly encouraged. For
the support of government they were to continue
the present taxes, till an assembly could be convoked,
to which end they were, within three
months, to issue writs under the province seal,
for calling an assembly, to whom the president
should recommend passing such laws as should establish R3v 134
16791679. their allegiance, order and defence, and
raising taxes in such a manner as they should see
fit. All laws to be approved by the president and
council, and to remain in force till the king’s pleasure
should be known, for which purpose they
should be transmitted to England by the first ships.
In case of the president’s death, his deputy to succeed,
and on the death of a counsellor, the remainder
to elect another, and send over his name,
with the names of two other suitable persons, that
the king might appoint one of the three. The
king engaged, for himself and successors, to continue
the privilege of an assembly, in the same
manner and form, unless by inconveniences arising
therefrom, he or his heirs should think proper to
make an alteration. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 170—172.

The ingenious author of the History of New-
Hampshire
observes, that “the form of government
described in this commission, considered abstractedly
from the immediate intentions, characters,
and connexions of the persons concerned,
appears to be of as simple a kind as the nature of
a subordinate government and the liberty of the
subject can admit. The people, who are the natural
and original source of power, had a representation
in a body chosen by themselves; and the
king was represented by a president and council of
his own appointment; each had the right of instructing
their representatives, and the king had
the superior prerogative of disannulling the acts of R4r 135
16791679.the whole at his pleasure. The principal blemish
in the commission was the right claimed by the
king of discontinuing the representation of the people,
whenever he should find it inconvenient, after
he had solemnly engaged to continue this privilege.”

16801680.The commission was brought to Portsmouth
on the 1680-01-011st of January, by Edward Randolph,
whose known enmity to the privileges of the people
rendered him a most unwelcome messenger.
In order to conciliate the minds of the people to
this government, the king nominated for the first
council gentlemen of the most distinguished characters,
who had sustained the principal offices, civil
and military, under the colonial government.
These gentlemen received the commission with
great reluctance; but the unavoidable necessity of
submitting to changes, and the apprehension that
upon their refusal to accept the appointment,
others would be substituted who were inimical to
their country, induced them to qualify themselves
to act in their new capacity. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 176.

This change of government gratified the discontented
few, but was greatly disrelished by the
people in general, as they saw themselves deprived
of the privilege of chusing their own rulers, which
was still enjoyed by the other colonies of New-
England
, and as they expected an invasion of
their property soon to follow.

A general assembly was convoked in 1680-02February,
who at their first meeting, on the 1680-03-1616th of R4v 136
16801680.March
, wrote to the general court at Boston,
gratefully acknowledging their obligations to Massachusetts,
and their entire satisfaction in their past
connexion, asserting, that submission to Divine
Providence, and his majesty’s commands, alone
induced them to comply with the present separation,
and desiring that a mutual correspondence
might be settled.

Their next care was to frame a code of laws,
of which the first, conceived in the style becoming
freemen, was, “That no act, imposition, law
or ordinance, should be made or imposed upon
them, but such as should be made by the assembly,
and approved by the president and council.” Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 177.

During this administration, affairs were conducted
as nearly as possible in the same manner as
before the separation. The people kept a jealous
watch over their privileges, and every encroachment
was withstood to the utmost. Hence the
arbitrary proceedings of Randolph, who was appointed
collector, surveyor and searcher of the
customs throughout New-England, excited universal
distrust. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 181.

16821682.After Mason was convinced that the new government
would not be administered in a manner
favorable to his views, on his return to England,
he made it his business to solicit a change. He
succeeded, and Edward Cranfield, Esq. was appointed
lieutenant-governor and commander in
chief of New-Hampshire.

S1r137

16801680.In this commission, which bears date the 1680-05-099th
of May
, the governor was empowered to call, adjourn,
prorogue and dissolve general courts; to
have a negative voice in all acts of government;
to suspend any of the council, when he should see
just cause; (and every counsellor so suspended was
declared incapable of being elected into the general
assembly;) to appoint a deputy-governor, judges,
justices, and other officers, by his sole authority,
and to execute the powers of vice-admiral.

Cranfield arrived and published his commission
on the 1680-10-044th of October. He soon exhibited
his arbitrary principles, by removing several influential
popular characters from the council, and
appointed such as he could render subservient to
his purposes.

16821682.After this, he convoked an assembly, and dissolved
them upon their refusing to accede to his
measures. Some time after, he called another assembly,
and dissolved them in the same manner.
He with his council assumed the whole legislative
power. He even ventured to tax the people without
their consent. Those, who opposed his arbitrary
government, were imprisoned, and treated
with rigorous severity. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 193—197.

16841684.After Cranfield had infringed upon the civil
rights of the people, he determined to suppress
their ecclesiastical privileges. He had attempted
to impose the 1684-01-1313th of January as a fast, and restrain
them from manual labor at Christmas; but S S1v 138
16841684.his capital stroke was to issue an order in council,
“that after the 1684-01-011st of January, the clergy should
admit all persons of suitable years, and not vicious,
to the Lord’s supper, and their children to baptism;
and that if any person should desire baptism
or the other sacrament to be administered according
to the liturgy of the church of England,
it should be done, in pursuance of the king’s command
to the colony of Massachusetts; and any
minister refusing so to do, should suffer the penalty
of the statutes of non-conformity.”

Mr. Moody, minister of Portsmouth, was marked
out by the governor, as an object of peculiar
vengeance. He had for some time rendered himself
obnoxious by the freedom and plainness of his
pulpit discourses, and his strictness in administering
the discipline of the church.

An instance of church discipline, by which Mr.
Moody
irritated Cranfield in the highest degree,
is thus related by Dr. Belknap. “Randolph having
seized a vessel, she was in the night carried
out of the harbor. The owner, who was a member
of the church, swore that he knew nothing
of it; but upon trial, there appeared strong suspicion
that he had perjured himself. He found
means to make up the matter with the governor
and collector; but Moody, being concerned for
the purity of his church, requested of the governor
copies of the evidence, that the offender might
be called to account in the way of ecclesiastical
discipline. Cranfield sternly refused, saying, that S2r 139
16841684.he himself had forgiven him, and that neither the
church nor minister should meddle with him; and
even threatened Moody in case he should. Not
intimidated, Moody consulted the church, and
preached a sermon against false swearing. Then
the offender, being called to account, was censured,
and, at length, brought to a public confession.” Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 205.

The act, which had lately passed, afforded Cranfield
an opportunity to gratify his resentment.
He signified to Mr. Moody, that himself, with Mason
and Hinckes, intended to partake of the Lord’s
supper the next Sunday; requiring him to administer
it to them according to the liturgy. Agreeably
to their expectation, he refused a compliance.
Mr. Moody was then prosecuted, and imprisoned
for thirteen weeks. At length he obtained
a release, though under a strict charge to preach
no more within the province, upon penalty of farther
imprisonment. He then accepted an invitation
from the first church in Boston, where he
was highly esteemed, and continued till 16921692.
Upon a change of government, he returned to his
charge in Portsmouth, where he spent the remainder
of his days in usefulness, love and peace. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 209.

16851685.At length, the governor, being disappointed in
his plans of enriching himself, and fearing the issue
of the people’s remonstrances to the court of
Great-Britain, privately embarked for Jamaica,
and thence to England, where he obtained the
collectorship of Barbados. Barefoote, the deputy-
governor, succeeded at his departure.

S2v140

New-Hampshire was not the only colony
which felt the oppression of arbitrary power. The
people of Massachusetts had long been viewed
with a jealous eye. Though the king had repeatedly
assured them of his protection, and solemnly
confirmed their charter privileges, yet their
spirit and principles were so totally dissonant to the
corrupt views of the court, that intriguing men
found easy access to the royal ear, with complaints
against them. Of these, the most inveterate
and indefatigable was Randolph, who made
no less than eight voyages in nine years across
the Atlantic, on this mischievous business. They
were accused of extending their jurisdiction beyond
the bounds of their patent; of invading the
prerogative by coining money; of not allowing
appeals to the king from their courts, and of obstructing
the execution of the navigation and trade
laws. By the king’s command agents were sent
over, to answer these complaints. They found
the prejudice against the colony so strong, that it
was in vain to withstand it; and solicited instructions
whether to submit to the king’s pleasure, or
resist his arbitrary designs. After a solemn consultation,
the last measure was determined upon,
and the agents quitted England. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 229. Hutch. Collec. of Papers, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 377.

16831683.Soon after a writ of quo warranto was issued
against the colony, which Randolph conveyed
across the Atlantic. When arrived in Boston, the
general court once more considered the critical situation S3r 141
16831683. of affairs. The governor and majority of
the assistants, actuated by the caution of age, resolved
to submit to the royal pleasure, and prepared
an address for that purpose. The representatives,
animated by the principles natural to a republican
body, refused their assent. Chalmer, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 414.

16841684.This year a writ of seire facias was presented in
the court of chancery against the governor and
company, and judgment given that the charter
should be annihilated. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 339.

Judge Minot, in his ingenious continuation of
Hutchinson’s History, observes on this occasion,
“thus fell the good old charter, valuable for its
defects so happily supplied, as well as its powers.
But with it fell not the habits it had engendered,
nor the principles which the settlement of the
country had inspired. These were for a time
slightly hidden in its fall, but soon sprung up again
more deeply rooted, and renovated with perennial
strength; nor have they ceased to flourish till,
in their turn, they have overrun, and probably
forever buried, every germ of despotism and royal
authority, in this republican soil.” Minot’s Continuation of Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 52.

The other colonies, though less obnoxious,
16851685.shared the same fate. This year, a writ of quo
warranto
was issued against the colony of Rhode-
Island
, which was brought in 1686-06-26June 26, 1686.
The assembly determined not to stand suit. Their
reasons were, their poverty and inability to bear
the expence of such a lawsuit in England; and S3v 142
16851685.the example of those corporations in England,
which had surrendered their charters. Callender, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 47.

In 1685-07July a quo warranto was issued against the
governor and company of Connecticut. The subsequent
year two writs were served by Mr. Randolph,
and after them a third in 1685-12December.
16861686.The colony received an offer of being annexed to
Massachusetts or New-York. In return, they humbly
petitioned his majesty for the continuance of
their chartered rights; but if this could not be obtained,
they expressed a preference to being annexed
to Massachusetts. This submissive language,
(which, contrary to their intentions, was construed
into a surrender of their charter) probably
prevented the quo warranto’s being prosecuted with
effect. Trumbull, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 390.

King Charles II. died soon after the colony of
Massachusetts was deprived of its charter. Upon
the accession of James II. Col. Joseph Dudley, a
native of the colony, was promoted, because while
agent, he had favored the views of the court.
He was appointed president of New-England, and
new counsellors were nominated by the king.
Their jurisdiction extended over Massachusetts,
New-Hampshire, Maine, and the Narraganset or
King’s country. No house of representatives was
mentioned in this commission. Dudley was received
with less reluctance, from the general apprehension
of Col. Kirk, as governor, who had
been appointed previously to the death of Charles, S4r 143
16861686.and from whom they expected something similar
to the tragedy he had been acting in the west of
England. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 241.

The people suffered little from the loss of their
privileges, during Col. Dudley’s short administration.
Their courts of justice were continued upon
their former plan. Trials were by juries as usual.
In general, the former laws and established customs
were observed, though the government which
formed them was dissolved. The intention of
these proceedings was, to conciliate the minds of
the people to the long meditated introduction of a
governor-general. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 242.

After Col. Dudley had enjoyed his new honors
eight or nine months, Sir Edmund Andros,
who had been governor of New-York, arrived in
Boston, with a large commission, appointing him
captain general and governor in chief of Massachusetts,
Plymouth, Rhode-Island, Connecticut,
&c. The governor, with four of his council,
were empowered to grant lands on such terms,
and subject to such quit-rents as should be appointed
by the king.

Sir Edmund Andros began his administration
with high professions of regard for the public welfate.
He soon, however, exhibited his arbitrary
character, and enriched himself and his followers
by the most daring violations of the rights of the
people. Those of his council, who were backward
in aiding his rapacious intentions, were neglected. S4v 144
Seven being sufficient for a full board, he selected
such only as were devoted to him, and would concur
with whatever he proposed. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 282.

16871687.The assembly of Connecticut met as usual in
1687-10October, and the government continued according
to charter till the last of the month. About
this time Sir Edmund Andros, with this suit, and
more than sixty regular troops, came to Hartford,
where the assembly were sitting, demanded the
charter, and declared the government under it to
be dissolved. The assembly were extremely unwilling
to surrender the charter, and found expedients
to protract the time for bringing it forth.
The tradition is, that governor Treat strongly represented
the great expence and hardships of the
colonists in planting the country; the blood and
treasure which they had expended in defending it;
the difficulties and dangers he himself had been
exposed to for that purpose; and that it was like
giving up his life to surrender the patent and privileges
so dearly purchased, and long enjoyed. The
important affair was debated and kept in suspence
till the evening, when the charter was brought
and laid upon the table, where the assembly were
sitting. By this time great numbers of people
were assembled, and men sufficiently bold to execute
whatever might be necessary or expedient.
The lights were instantly extinguished, and one
Capt. Wadsworth, of Hartford, in the most silent
and secret manner, carried off the charter, and T1r 145
16871687.secreted it in a large hollow tree, fronting the
house of the hon. Samuel Wyllis, then one of the
magistrates of the colony. The people appeared
peaceable and orderly. The candles were officiously
relighted, but the patent was gone, and no
discovery could be made of it, or of the person
who had conveyed it away.

Sir Edmund, however, assumed the government,
and appointed officers, civil and military,
through the colony, according to his pleasure. Trumbull, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 390.

16881688.Numerous were the oppressions which the
country suffered, during Andros’ government.
The press was restrained; liberty of conscience
infringed; exorbitant fees and taxes were demanded,
without the voice or consent of the people,
who had no privilege of representation. Those
who refused to assist, in collecting illegal taxes,
were threatened and imprisoned. The charter being
vacated, it was pretended, that all titles to
land were annulled. Landholders were obliged
to take out patents for their estates, which they
had possessed forty or fifty years; and for these
patents extravagant fees were extorted, and those
who would not submit to this imposition, had
writs of intrusion brought against them, and their
lands patented to others. To deter the people
from consulting about the redress of their grievances,
town-meetings were prohibited, except one
in the month of May, for the choice of town-officers.
The people were told by the judges in open T T1v 146
16881688.court, that they had no more privileges left them,
than not to be sold for slaves; and that the benefit
of the laws of England did not follow them to
the end of the earth. To prevent complaints being
transmitted to England, no person was permitted
to go out of the country, without express
leave from the governor. But, notwithstanding
all the vigilance of the governor, his emissaries and
guards, the resolute and indefatigable Dr. Increase
Mather
, minister of the second church in Boston,
and president of the college, sailed to England
with complaints in the name of the people, against
the governor, which he delivered with his own
hand to the king; but finding no hope of redress,
he waited the event of the revolution, which was
then expected. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 234. Revolution in New-England justified.

16891689.The country suffered under the oppressive government
of Sir Edmund Andros about three years.
At length, the report of the prince of Orange’s
expedition into England reached Boston, and diffused
universal joy. The governor took every
precaution to conceal the change of affairs from
the people. He imprisoned the man who brought
a copy of the prince’s declaration, and published
a proclamation, commanding all persons to be prepared
to oppose any invasion from Holland. The
former magistrates and influential characters secretly
wished , and fervently prayed for the success of
the glorious undertaking, and determined quietly
to wait the event. The body of the people, however, T2r 147
16891689. were too impatient to be restrained by prudential
considerations. A rumor was spread of an
intended massacre in Boston, by the governor’s
guards, which exasperated them in the highest degree.
On the morning of the 1689-04-1818th of April, the
town was in arms, and the country flocking in to
their assistance. Andros and a number of his accomplices,
who had fled for refuge to a fort, were
obliged to surrender, and were imprisoned till
they could be conveyed to England, to be disposed
of according to the king’s pleasure. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 373, 374. Modern Universal History,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XX. p. 314
Under
pretence of the charges exhibited against them before
the king and council not being signed by
the colonial agents, both parties were dismissed,
and this tyrant of New-England was afterwards
appointed governor of Virginia. Minot, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 55

The gentlemen who had been magistrates under
the charter, with Bradstreet, the late governor,
at their head, affirmed the name of the council
of safety, and kept up a form of government,
in the exigency of affairs, till orders arrived from
England.

The revolution at Boston, though extremely
pleasing to the people of New-Hampshire, left
them in an unsettled state. After waiting in vain
for orders from England, they chose deputies, in
order to resolve upon some method of government.
They, at length, concluded to return to their ancient
union with Massachusetts. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 238.

T2v148

16891689.This union, however, was of short continuance.
In 16921692, Samuel Allein, a London merchant,
obtained a commission for the government
of New-Hampshire; and John Usher, his son-in-
law, was appointed lieutenant-governor. Mr. Allein
had, previously, purchased of Mason’s heirs
a title to the New-Hampshire lands. This event
produced new controversies, concerning the property
of the lands, which embroiled the province
several years.See a particular account of these controversies in Belknap’s
History of New-Hampshire.

The intelligence of King William and Queen
Mary’s
accession to the throne, occasioned great
rejoicing in New-England. The people entertained
sanguine expectations, that under their government,
they should obtain the restoration of their
former invaluable privileges.

A sun, a moon, and unidentified object between them.
T3r149

Chapter XI.

Of the war with the eastern Indians. Treaty concluded
with them at fort Pemaquid. The New-
England
agents solicit the restoration of their charter.
A new charter is granted. Connecticut
and Rhode-Island resume their former charters.
The king compliments the agents with the nomination
of their governor. They elect Sir William
Phips
. Thanksgiving appointed after his arrival
in Boston.

Previously to the revolution
in government, which was related in the foregoing
chapter, a fresh Indian war broke out in the
frontiers of New-England, in 16881688. As a pretence
for commencing hostilities, the Indians charged
the English with neglecting to pay the tribute
of corn, which had been stipulated by the treaty
of 16781678
; with obstructing the fish in Saco river
with seines; with defrauding them in trade, and
with granting their lands without their consent. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 242.

The French used every effort to inflame their
resentment, in order to revenge the recent injuries
they had received from the English.

By the treaty of Breda, the territory from Penobscot
to Nova-Scotia was ceded to the French,
in exchange for the island of St. Christophers. On T3v 150
these lands the baron de St. Castine had long resided,
as an influential sachem among the Indians,
with whom he was intimately connected. The
grant which had been made to the duke of York,
who at the time of the above mentioned treaty
was called James II. comprehended all the land
between Kennebec and St. Croix. Hutchinson’s Collections, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 546.

16881688.Upon a dispute arising respecting the landing
of a cargo of wine, which the owners supposed to
be landed within the French government, a new
line was run, which took Castine’s plantation into
the duke’s territory. Upon this pretext, Sir Edmund
Andros
went in the Rose frigate, and plundered
Castine’s house and fort of all his goods
and implements of war. This insult provoked the
French sachem to use all his influence with the
Indians to excite them to ravage the frontiers of
New-England. Sullivan, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 258.

The first acts of hostility commenced at North-
Yarmouth
, by killing cattle, and threatening the
people. Justice Blackman ordered sixteen of the
Indians to be seized, and kept under guard at
Falmouth; but others continued robbing and captivating
the inhabitants. Upon this, Andros,
finding milder measures ineffectual, meant to intimidate
them with an army of seven hundred
men, which he led into the eastern country in the
month of 1688-11November. The rigor of the season
proved fatal to some of his troops, but he never
saw an Indian in his whole march, the enemy remaining
quiet during the winter.

T4r151

16891689.After the revolution, the gentlemen who assumed
the government took some precaution to
prevent the renewal of hostilities. They sent messengers
and presents to several tribes of Indians,
who answered them with fair promises; but their
prejudices against the English were too inveterate
to be allayed by these measures. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 244.

Thirteen years had almost elapsed since the
seizure of the four hundred Indians at Cocheco,
by Major Waldron, during which time they
had cherished an inextinguishable thirst for revenge.
Some of those Indians, who were then seized and
sold into slavery abroad, had found their way
home, and could not rest till they had gratified
their resentment.

A confederacy, for this purpose, was formed
between several Indian tribes; and it was determined
to surprize the Major and his neighbors,
among whom they had all this time been peaceably
conversant. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 245.

There were five garrisoned houses in the town
of Dover. That in which Major Waldron was
lodged was surprized by the treachery of Mesandoit,
a sagamore, whom he had that night entertained
in a friendly manner at his house. During
the night the Indians lay in ambush in the neighboring
woods. When all was quiet the gates
were opened, and the signal given. They entered,
surprized the secure garrison, and barbarously
murdered the Major. Twenty-three people were T4v 152
16891689.killed in this surprizal, and twenty-nine were captured;
five or six houses, with their mills, were
burned, and before the people could be collected
from the other parts of the town to oppose
them, they fled with their prisoners and plunder.
The majority of the prisoners were carried to
Canada, and sold to the French. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 245.

The necessity of rigorous measures, impelled
the colonies to raise forces to check the depredations
of their savage enemies. The Massachusetts
and Plymouth forces proceeded to the eastward,
settled garrisons at convenient places, and
had some skirmishes with the natives at Casco-
Bay
and Blue-Point. The Indians did much mischief
by their flying parties, but no important
actions were performed on either side during the
remainder of the year.

16901690.The greatest danger was at this time apprehended
from encouragement given to the Indians
by the French, which nation was then at war with
England. The inhabitants of New-England were
thence induced to plan an enterprize against Canada,
where the French had formed extensive settlements.
They exerted themselves to the utmost,
and equipped an armament in some degree equal
to the service. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 248.

The command of the forces employed in this
expedition was committed to Sir William Phips.
Unavoidable accidents retarded the arrival of the
fleet at Quebec till the season was too far advanced U1r 153
16901690. to prosecute their designs. The troops were
sickly and discouraged, and, after some ineffectual
parade, the enterprize was abandoned. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 400, 401.

The inhabitants of New-England were greatly
dispirited by this disappointment. The equipment
of the fleet and army had occasioned a great expence,
which they were little able to support; and
a thousand men perished in the expedition. In this
melancholy state of the country, it was an happy
circumstance that the Indians voluntarily came in
with a flag of truce, and desired a cessation of hostilities.
A conference being held at Sagadahok,
they brought in ten captives, and settled a truce
16911691.till the 1691-05-011st of May, which they observed till the
1691-06-099th of June; then, they again commenced, and
continued their destructive ravages, during this and
the subsequent year. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p.
263
.

16921692.In 1692-01January, the Indians entirely destroyed the
town of York, killed fifty of the people, and carried
one hundred into captivity. To review the
cruel treatment they inflicted on their unfortunate
prisoners, must deeply wound the feelings of every
person of sensibility; and they must turn with
horror from a scene, which so strongly exhibits the
savage ferocity of which human nature is capable.

16931693.This year a peace was concluded with the Indians
at the fort of Pemaquid. They acknowledged
subjection to the crown of England; engaged
to abandon the French interest; to forbear private
revenge; to restore all captives; and even went U U1v 154
so far as to deliver hostages for the due performance
of their engagements. Sullivan, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 241.

16911691.After the revolution in England, the general
court of Massachusetts dispatched two of their members,
to join with Sir Henry Ashhurst and Mr.
Mather
, in soliciting the restoration of their ancient
charter; and endeavouring to obtain such
additional privileges, as might be beneficial to the
colony.

Whilst the colony was involved in the Indian
war, which has been briefly related, their enemies
in England took advantage of their difficulties,
by imputing them to the imprudent administration
of government, and argued thence against the restoration
of their charter. The agents, however,
pursued their business with indefatigable application,
and used all their interest in court and city to
accomplish it; but found all their endeavours to
obtain a restoration of their ancient charter ineffectual.The
Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 405.

king, from the first application, exhibited
a determined resolution to have the nomination of
the governor, and other officers, reserved to the
crown. He ordered his attorney-general to form
the draught of a new charter, according to his
pleasure expressed in council. This the attorney-
general presented to the council board 1691-06-08June 8.
It was rejected, and a new draught ordered to be
made, by which the people of New-England were
deprived of several essential privileges contained in
their former charter. Mather,
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book II. p. 56.

U2r155

16911691.Mr. Mather protested against it, but was informed,
“that the agents of New-England were
not plenipotentiaries from a sovereign state.”
Notwithstanding
this reprimand, the agents drew up
their objections, and transmitted them to the king,
earnestly requesting that certain clauses might be
altered. The queen herself interceded with him
in behalf of the colony; but nothing could alter
his majesty’s determined purpose. The agents succeeded
only in procuring a few articles to be added,
which they supposed would promote the welfare
of their country. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book II. p. 56.

The colony of Massachusetts was made a province,
which contained the whole of the old colony.
To this were added the colony of New-Plymouth,
the Province of Maine, the Province of Nova-Scotia,
and all the country between the Province of
Maine
and Nova-Scotia, as far northward as the
river St. Lawrence; also Elizabeth Islands, and
the islands of Nantucket and Martha’s Vineyard.

The colonies of Rhode-Island and Connecticut
were allowed to resume their former charters. As
no judgment had been entered against them, the
king recognized their policy as regular and legal. Gordon, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 93.

The colony of Massachusetts was greatly disappointed
by the new charter, and it was considered
as a singular hardship, that the effects of the late
despotism should be felt by them alone. However,
the majority were induced to accept it, from
an apprehension of the ill consequences, which
might result from their refusal. Neal.

U2v156

16921692.When the charter had passed the seals, the
king was pleased to compliment the New-England
agents, for the first time, with the nomination of
their governor. After mature consultation, they
agreed to elect Sir William Phips, who, with the
Rev. Increase Mather, arrived in Boston the 1692-05-1515th
of May
. The general court appointed a day of
solemn thanksgiving for their safe arrival; and for
the settlement of the province. Mather.

The civil government of New-England sustained
a considerable alteration by their new charter.
Previously to their obtaining it, all their magistrates
and officers of state were chosen annually by
their general assembly. In the new charter, the
appointment of the governor, lieutenant-governor,
secretary, and all the officers of the admiralty,
was vested in the crown; the power of the militia
was wholly in the hands of his majesty’s governor,
as captain general. All judges, justices and
sheriffs, were to be nominated by the governor,
with the advice of the council. The governor
had a negative upon the choice of counsellors;
and upon all laws and elections made by the council
and house of representatives. The laws, even
when thus sanctioned, were subject to rejection by
the king, within the term of three years from
their passing. The difference between the old
charter
and new also consisted in an express authority
for exercising powers, which had been in constant
use, from supposed necessary implication. U3r 157
16921692.These were the privilege of a house of representatives
as a branch of the legislature, the levying of
taxes, and erecting courts for the trial of capital
crimes, and the probate of wills, and granting of
administrations on intestate estates, which were expressly
given to the governor and council.See Charter of William and Mary, in Appendix to Neal’s History.
Minot’s Continuation of Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 57.

Liberty of conscience, which was not mentioned
in the first charter, was expressly granted
in the second. All the various denominations of
Christians were tolerated in the colonies after the
revolution took place in England. And the people
were informed by the best civilians, that their
religious liberties were unalterably secured.

The first act of the Massachusetts legislature,
after the arrival of the charter, was a kind of magna
charta, asserting and setting forth their general
privileges, and contained the following clause:
“No aid, tax, tollage, assessment, custom, loan,
benevolence, or imposition whatsoever, shall be laid,
assessed, imposed, or leveled on any of his majesty’s
subjects, or their estates, on any pretence whatever,
but by the act and consent of the governor,
council and representatives of the people, assembled
in general court.” Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 63.

Other acts favorable to liberty, were passed
by the general court, at this session.

At the time when the colony of Massachusetts
received the new charter, seventy-two years had
elapsed since the first settlement at Plymouth. U3v 158
16921692.During this period the colonies enjoyed the privilege
of chusing their own rulers, and enacting
their own laws. They had established excellent
regulations for the promotion of learning and religion.
They had exhibited great courage in the
Indian wars, and their efforts to repel their savage
enemies were crowned with success. “After
forty years from the first settlement, the greatest
part of the early emigrants had terminated their
earthly existence.” Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 258.
They had, however, the satisfaction
of surviving till they beheld the fruits of
their assiduous labors in the increase of the settlements
and multiplication of the churches. “In
16431643, the first twenty thousand souls, who came
over from England, had settled thirty-six churches.
In 16501650, there were forty churches in New-
England
, which contained seven thousand seven
hundred and fifty communicants.” Late President Stiles’ Manuscript
Lectures on Ecclesiastical History
.
Many of the
clergymen, who came from England at the first
settlement, were not only distinguished for their
piety, but for their abilities and learning. Among
whom we view a Cotton, Hooker, Davenport, Eliot,
and others, who illuminated the churches of New-
England
. And though many have depreciated the
merit of our ancestors, yet a modern British author
has observed, that, “The victories they obtained
over the complicated obstructions which
they met with upon their arrival in America, have
raised their character to a level with that of the U4r 159
bravest people recorded in history, in the estimation
of the few, who can consider facts divested of
that splendor which time, place and circumstances
are apt to bestow upon them, and from which they
derive their lustre with the generality of mankind.Chapter”
Andrews’ History of the War with America.

U4v160

XII.

Of the supposed witchcrafts in New-England. Sir
William Phips
recalled. His death and character.
War with the Indians renewed. The
French project an invasion of New-England.
Peace concluded with the Indians. The Earl
of Bellamont
appointed governor of the plantations
of New-York, Massachusetts and New-Hampshire.

New-England from its first settlement
never experienced such complicated difficulties
as at the commencement of Sir William
Phips’
government. The country was involved
in the war with the eastern Indians, which has been
briefly mentioned in the preceding chapter. In
16921692.the same period a new species of distress filled the
minds of the people with gloom and horror, which
in some respects appeared more replete with calamity,
than even the devastations of war.

Previously to the tragic scene at Salem, about
to be related, several persons, in different parts
of New-England, had been executed for the supposed
crime of witchcraft. Those, who think the
whole to be an imposture, account for it by the
prevailing credulity of the age; the strength of
prejudice; the force of imagination, operating on
minds not sufficiently enlightened by reason and
philosophy, which all conspired to produce this
fatal delusion.

W1r161

In the year 16921692, a daughter and niece of Mr.
Parris
, minister of Salem, girls of ten or eleven
years of age, and two other girls in the neighborhood,
were seized, with uncommon and unaccountable
complaints. A consultation of physicians
was called, one of whom was of opinion
that they were bewitched. An Indian woman,
who was brought from New-Spain, and then resided
with Mr. Parris, had recourse to some experiments,
which she pretended were used in her own
country, in order to discover the witch. The
children, being informed of this circumstance,
accused the Indian woman of pinching, pricking
and tormenting them in various ways. She acknowledged
that she had learnt how to discover a
witch, but denied herself to be one. This first instance
was the occasion of several private fasts at
Mr. Parris’ house, of several others, which were
observed by the whole village, and of a general fast
through the colony. The attention, paid to the
children, with the compassion, expressed by their
visitors, it is supposed, induced them, and allured
others to continue their imposture. Hence the
number of complainants, who pretended to be
seized with similar disorders, increased, and they
accused certain persons of being the authors of
their sufferings. From these small beginnings, the
distemper spread through several parts of the province,
till the prisons were scarcely capable of containing
the number of the accused. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 25—29. Hale’s Modest Inquiry Into
the Nature of Witchcraft
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 19.

WW1v162

16921692.The most effectual method to prevent an accusation
was, to become an accuser; hence the
number of the afflicted continually augmented,
and the number of the accused increased in the
same proportion.

The accused in general persisted in asserting
their innocence. Some, however, were induced
to confess their guilt, being warmly importuned
by their friends to embrace this expedient, as the
only possible way to save their lives. The confession
of witchcraft increased the number of the
suspected; for associates were always pretended
by the party confessing. These pretended associates
were immediately sent for and examined.
By these means, more than an hundred women,
many of them of fair characters, and of the most
respectable families in Salem, Beverly, Andover,
Billerica, and in other towns, were apprehended,
examined, and generally committed to prison. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 30. Hale, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 26.

Though the number of prisoners had been
augmenting, from 1692-02February to 1692-06June, yet none of
them had as yet been brought to trial. Soon after
the arrival of the charter, commissioners of oyer
and terminer were appointed for this purpose. At
the first trial, there was no colony, nor provincial
law, in force against witchcraft. The statute of
James I. must therefore have been considered
as in force, in the province, witchcraft not being
an offence at common law. Before the adjournment
of the general court, the old colony law, W2r 163
16921692.which makes witchcraft a capital offence, was
received and adopted by the whole province.

In this distressing period, nineteen persons were
executed, one prest to death, and eight more condemned;
the whole number amounted to twenty-
eight, of whom above a third part were members
of some of the churches in New-England, and
more than half sustained excellent characters.
Among those, who were executed, was Mr. Burroughs,
formerly minister at Salem, who left his
people upon some difference in religious sentiments.
All who suffered death asserted their innocence
in the strongest terms. Yet this circumstance
was insufficient to open the eyes of the people;
and their fury augmented in proportion as
the gloom of imagination increased.See Dr. Cotton Mather’s Wonders of the Invisible World.

Instead of acting with that deliberate coolness
and caution, which the importance of the
affair demanded, and suspecting and cross examining
the witnesses, by whose evidence the pretended
witches were condemned; the authority made
use of leading questions, which helped them to
answers. Most of the examinations, though in
the presence of one or more of the magistrates,
were taken by Mr. Parris. The court allowed
the witnesses to relate accidents, which had befallen
them twenty or thirty years past, upon some
difference with the accused.Neal, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 129; and Calef’s More Wonders of the Invisible
World
, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 185.

W2v164

16921692.The affairs of Massachusetts were now in such a
wretched situation, that no man was sure of his
life and fortune for an hour. An universal consternation
prevailed. Some charged themselves
with witchcraft, in order to prevent accusation,
and escape death; some abandoned the province,
and others were preparing to follow their example.In
Hale, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 33. Calef.

this scene of perplexity and distress, those,
who were accused of witchcraft, were generally of
the lowest order in society. A number, however,
of respectable women still remained in prison: at
length the pretended sufferers had the audacity to
accuse several persons of superior rank and character.
The authority then began to be less
credulous. The prisoners were liberated; those,
who had received sentence of death, were reprieved,
and afterwards pardoned. The whole country
became by degrees sensible of their mistake;
and the majority of actors in this tragedy declared
their repentance for their conduct.

16931693.Whilst a review of the conduct of the inhabitants
of New-England in this distressing period induces
us to accuse them of credulity and superstition,
we ought to soften the asperity of our censure
by remembering, that, supposing the whole to
have been an imposture, they were led into this
delusion by the opinion of the greatest civilians and
divines in Europe. A similar opinion respecting
witchcraft was at the same time prevalent in Great- W3r 165
16931693.Britain
; the law, by which witches were condemned,
was copied from the English statutes, and the
practice of courts in New-England, was regulated
by precedents established in the parent country.
These statutes continued in force in England some
time in the reign of George II., when it was enacted,
“That no prosecution should in future be carried
on against any person for conjuration, witchcraft,
sorcery, or enchantment.” Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. Calef, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 133.

No public notice was taken of the authors of
this calamity; some of the supposed sufferers became
profligate characters; others passed their
days in obscurity and contempt. Mr. Parris, in
whose house the pretended witchcraft began, felt
the effects of popular resentment. Though he
made a public and private penitent acknowledgment
of his error, his congregation insisted upon
his dismission, declaring that they never would sit
under the ministry of a man, who had been the instrument
of such complicated distress. Blackstone, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. IV. p. 61.

Thus, in about fifteen months, ended an affair,
which not only confounded the minds of the people
of New-England, but filled Europe with astonishment
and horror.

16941694.The treaty, which was concluded with the Indians
at fort Pemaquid, had, for almost a twelve-
month, relieved the frontiers from the calamities of
war. Whilst the peace continued, Sir William
Phips
exerted himself to the utmost to detach
them from the French interest. For this purpose W3v 166
16941694.he took a journey to the eastward; presented gifts
to their sachems; opened free trade with them;
and offered to leave a preacher, acquainted with
the Indian language, to instruct them in the Protestant
religion.

On the other hand, the French labored more successfully
to prejudice their minds against the English.
This year the Sieur de Villien was in command
at Penobscot, and with the assistance of Thury,
the religious missionary, persuaded the eastern
sachems to break their treaty, and to prepare for
hostilities. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book II. p. 66.

Whilst the war with the Indians was impending,
the people became dissatisfied with
Sir William Phips’ government, and ascribed
the calamities they suffered to his misconduct.
The uneasiness arose to such a degree, that
his enemies drew up articles of impeachment
against him, which they transmitted to the king
and council. His Majesty declared he would himself
hear his cause; and cited Sir William and his
accusers to repair to Whitchall. He embarked
for England, 1694-11-17November 17, having obtained a
recommendation from the general assembly.
Previously to the hearing of his cause, he was suddenly
seized with a malignant fever, which put a
period to his life, in the fifty-fourth year of his
age. Ibid, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 71.

Sir William Phips was born of poor and obscure
parents in the eastern parts of New-England. W4r 167
16941694.His education furnished him with few advantages
for improvement. His first employment was keeping
sheep; he was afterwards a ship carpenter;
but he gave up his trade, and followed the seas.
After several small adventures, he amassed a considerable
fortune, by finding a Spanish wreck near
Port de la Plata. This event introduced him to
men of rank and fortune; and he had the dignity
of knighthood conferred upon him by king James
II
. Notwithstanding this, he uniformly opposed
the arbitrary measures of that monarch; and was
an ardent friend to the revolution. Though unversed
in the arts of government, and destitute of
deep penetration, yet he was a man of great industry,
enterprize and firmness. He constantly attended
the exercises of devotion; and was studious
to promote piety and virtue in others. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book II. p. 68. Life of Sir William Phips.

After Sir William Phips left the province,
the authority devolved upon lieutenant-governor
Stoughton
. Previously to his entering on his
administration, the country was again involved in
the calamities of war. The French had recently
supplied the Indians with a variety of warlike
stores. At length, the necessary preparations being
made, Villien, with a body of two hundred
and fifty Indians, collected from the tribes of St.
John
, Penobscot and Norridgwog, marched against
the people on Oyster River, in New-Hampshire.
Here they killed and captured between ninety W4v 168
16941694.and an hundred persons, and burned above twenty
houses, of which five were garrisons. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 82. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 275.

During the remainder of this, and the subsequent
winter, the Indians continued to ravage the
frontiers. In 16961696, they, in conjunction with
the French, took and demolished Pemaquid fort;
and, exulting in their success, threatened to involve
the country in ruin and desolation.See Modern Universal History, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. XIX. p. 325 .

16971697.This year an invasion of the country was projected
by the French. A fleet was to sail from
France to Newfoundland, and thence to Penobscot,
where, being joined by an army from Canada,
an attempt was to be made on Bston, and the
sea coast ravaged from there to Piscataqua. The
fleet proceeded no further than Newfoundland,
when the advanced season, and scantiness of provision,
obliged them to relinquish the design. The
people of New-England were apprized of the danger,
and made the best possible preparations to
avert the impending evil. They strengthened their
fortifications on the coast, and raised a body of
men to defend the frontiers against the Indians,
who were expected to co-operate with the French. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 281.

16981698.After the peace at Ryswick, between England
and France, Count Frontenac, governor of Canada,
informed the Indians, that he was no longer at
liberty to support them in their wars against the
English, with whom his nation was now at peace.
He therefore advised them to bury the hatchet, X1r 169
16981698.and restore their captives. Having suffered much
by famine, and being divided in their opinion
respecting the prosecution of the war, they were
16991699.at length brought to a treaty at Casco, where they
ratified their former engagements; and acknowledged
subjection to the crown of England. Mather, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Book VII. p. 92. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 281.

When the war in Europe was terminated, the
king appointed the earl of Bellamont governor of
New-York, Massachusetts and New-Hampshire,
and the earl made New-York the place of his residence.
Mr. Stoughton, the lieutenant-governor,
conducted the affairs of New-England.

Thus, after a long and expensive war, attended
with the most alarming internal divisions, the affairs
of the country were settled on a solid basis.
Trade began to flourish, and peace and plenty
again blessed the New-England settlements.

XX1v170

Chapter XIII.

Lord Bellamont’s arrival in Boston. His character
and behavior. His death at New-York. Mr.
Dudley
appointed governor. War with the French
and Indians renewed. The reduction of Port-
Royal
. Unsuccessful expedition against Canada.
Peace concluded with the French and their Indian
allies. New townships incorporated in Massachusetts.
Flourishing state of the colonies.

Lord Bellamont arrived in Boston,
16991699.from New-York, 1699-05-26May 26; to see a nobleman at
the head of government was a novelty to the inhabitants
of New-England. He was a firm friend to
the revolution, and a favorite of king William.
His religious sentiments were liberal; and though
a member of the church of England, he attended
the congregational lectures with great respect.
The politeness of his manners, and affability of
his behavior, conciliated the minds of the people,
who treated him with the utmost deference. There
was a perfect harmony in the general court whilst
he presided. By avoiding offence to particular
persons, and conforming to the prevailing disposition
and opinion, he obtained a larger salary
than either of his predecessors, or any of the subsequent
governors of the province.

X2r171

16991699.He visited and published his commission in New-
Hampshire
, to the great joy of the inhabitants. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 112. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 304.

Lord Bellamont this year held two sessions of
the general court. The first was on the anniversary
for the election of counsellors. The second
was occasioned by the prevailing report, that there
was a general confederacy of the Indians, for the
total extirpation of the English. Such was the
consternation in Massachusetts, that several acts
passed the general court, viz. for levying soldiers;
for punishing mutiny and desertion; for having all
the militia prepared for the war; and for enabling
the governor to march them out of the province,
from which by charter he was restrained without
an act of the assembly. The general terror soon
after subsided, which prevented the execution of
those laws.

17001700.Soon after the session of the general court in
1700-05May, Lord Bellamont took his leave of Massachusetts,
and went to New-York, where he died on
the 1701-03-055th of March the subsequent year. His death
was greatly regretted by the people in his several
governments, among whom he had rendered
himself very popular. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 121.

17021702.After the intelligence of Lord Bellamont’s
death reached England, Queen Anne, who succeeded
upon the death of king William, appointed
Joseph Dudley, Esq. formerly president of New-
England
, to be governor of Massachusetts and
New-Hampshire. He was received in Massachusetts X2v 172
17021702.
with ceremony and respect, even by those who
had been his greatest opposers in the reign of
James II.

Upon the accession of governor Dudley, he produced
instructions, among other things, that the salaries
of the governor and lieutenant-governor, for
the time being, should be settled and fixed; but
the consequence of this measure, as tending to establish
the control of the crown over the proceedings
of the legislature, was too well understood to be
adopted; and it was opposed both by the council
and the house of representatives. Minot, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 59.

The conduct of Lewis XIV. in proclaiming the
Pretender king of England, rendered a war with
France inevitable. There was the greatest probability
that the Indians would join. The governor
of Canada, who assumed the character of their father
and protector, instigated them to prevent the
settlement of the English on the east of Kennebec.
A French mission was established, and a
chapel erected at Norridgwog, on the upper part
of Kennebec, which served to extend the influence
of the French among the Indians. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 134.

17031703.The savage tribes were preparing for hostilities
when Dudley entered on his government. The
first summer after his arrival, he visited all the
eastern frontiers as far as Pemaquid, accompanied
with a number of gentlemen from both his provinces.
He held a conference at Casco with delegates
from a number of the Indian tribes. They gave X3r 173
17031703.him the strongest assurances of their pacific intentions,
and declared, that though the French emissaries
had endeavoured to dissolve the union, yet it
was “firm as a mountain, and should continue as
long as the sun and moon.”
Notwithstanding
these fair appearances, in the space of six weeks,
five hundred of the French and Indians attacked
all the settlements from Casco to Wells, and killed
and took nearly one hundred and thirty people.
They burnt and destroyed the places before them
in their destructive ravages. Belknap.

The country at this period was in terror and
confusion. The women and children retired to
their garrisons. The men went armed to their
work, and posted centinels in the fields. Troops
of horse were quartered at Portsmouth, and in
the province of Maine. Alarms were frequent;
the whole frontier country, from Deerfield on the
west, to Casco on the east, was kept in continual
terror by small parties of the enemy. Penballow’s History of the Wars of New-England.
Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 332.

It was principally against Massachusetts-Bay and
New-Hampshire that the Indians, during a ten
years war, exerted all their strength. Rhode-
Island
, from its local situation, has ever been less
exposed to the excursions of the French and Indians
than those colonies. In the wars of Philip,
of king William, and queen Anne, Connecticut
lost only the buildings and part of the effects of
one town. In the present war, not a single town X3v 174
17031703.in that colony was lost, nor had any considerable
number of the inhabitants fallen by the hands of
the enemy. Trumbull, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 474.

Before the close of the year, the Indians made
a descent upon Deerfield, a remote settlement on
Connecticut river. After putting forty of the inhabitants
to death, and capturing an hundred,
they departed, leaving a considerable number of
the buildings in flames. They conducted the
prisoners to Canada, and murdered about twenty
of those unfortunate captives, who were unable
to travel with the expedition they required. Vaudreuil,
the French governor of Canada, treated
the prisoners with great humanity. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 138.

17041704.The depredations of the Indians stimulated the
colonies to raise forces, to repel their savage attacks.
The chief command was given to Col.
Church
, who had rendered himself famous by
his exploits in the Philipic war. By governor
Dudley’s
order, he conducted his army in an expedition
to the eastern shores. At Piscataqua, he
was joined by a body of men under Major Hilton,
who did him eminent service. The English army
destroyed the towns of Minas and Chiegnecto,
and did considerable damage to the French and
Indians at Penobscot and Passamaquody. Belknap. Church’s History of the Indian War, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.p. 168.

17051705.The governor, at this period, deputed several
gentlemen to take a journey to Canada for the exchange
of prisoners. They returned with a number
of the inhabitants of Deerfield, and other X4r 175
17051705.captives. Vaudreuil, the French governor, dispatched
a commissioner to Boston, with proposals
of neutrality, which were communicated to the
general court. As their favorite object was the
reduction of Canada, they did not discover any
disposition to accede to his plan. Dudley protracted
the negociation, under pretence of consulting
with the other governments; and thus the
frontiers were preserved tolerably quiet during the
remainder of the year. Hutchinson, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. II. p. 158.

17061706.In 1706-04April, the Indians killed eight, and wounded
two people in an house at Oyster-River, in
New-Hampshire. The garrison was near, but not
a man in it. The women, however, seeing nothing
but death before them, fired an alarm, and
then putting on hats and loosening their hair, that
they might not appear like men, they fired so
briskly, that the enemy, apprehending the people
were alarmed, fled without burning, or even plundering
the house they had attacked. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 339.

17071707.When Col. Church went to Nova-Scotia, he
very earnestly desired leave to make an attempt on
Port-Royal; but Dudley would not consent, and
the reason he gave was, that he had written to the
ministry in England, and expected orders and naval
assistance to reduce the place. His enemies,
however, assigned another reason for his refusal;
which was, that a clandestine trade was carried
on by his connivance, and to his emolument, with
the French in Port-Royal,. This report gained X4v 176
17071707.credit, and occasioned a vehement demand for justice.
See Dr. Increase and Cotton Mather’s letters to governor Dudley,
in Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 17041704.
Those who were directly concerned in the
illegal traffic were prosecuted and fined; and
the governor suffered much in his reputation. To
remove these aspersions, he determined to make
an attempt upon Port-Royal, even though he
should not receive any assistance from England.

Early in the spring, the governor applied to
the assemblies of both his provinces, and to the
colonies of Rhode-Island and Connecticut, requesting
them to raise one thousand men for the expedition.
Connecticut declined; but the other three
raised the whole number. The chief command of
this army was given to Col. March. A jealousy
and disagreement among the officers, and a misapprehension
of the state of the fort and garrison,
rendered this expedition abortive. Belknap, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that citedRange is unmatched.Vol. I. p. 341.

The war continued the two following years,
during which period the colonies were greatly distressed
by the devastations of the French and their
Indian allies. In 17101710, the territory of Acadie
was subdued by the capture of Port-Royal. England,
at length, assisted the colonies, to raise a force
sufficient for the reduction of that place. The chief
command of this combined army was given to
Francis Nicolson, Esq. who had been lieutenant-
governor of Virginia. After the surrender of Port-
Royal
, it was called Annapolis, in honor of the Y1r 177