Decorated title page, with religious scenes framing the title and imprint.

and Monuments

of these latter and perillous dayes,
touching matters of the Church, wherein
ar comprehended and described the great persecutions
& horrible troubles, that have bene wrought
and practised by the Romishe Prelates, speciallye
in this Realme of England and Scotlande,
from the yeare of our Lorde 1000a
, unto the tyme
nowe present.

Gathered and collected according to the
true copies & wrytinges certificatorie as wel
of the parties them selves that suffered, as
also out of the Bishops Registers,
which wer the-doers therof,
by John Foxe.

Imprinted at London by John Day,
dwellyng over Aldersgate.

Cum privilegio Regie Maiestatis.
excerptpages 1-668 OO5r 669 excerpt31 lines

Here next foloweth the same yeare the true
examinations of Anne Askew, which here thou
shalt have gentle reder according as she wrote
thēem with her own hande, at the instante desire
of certaine faithfull men and women, by the
which (if thou marke dilligently) the communications
bothe of her, and of her examiners
thou maist easelly perceive the tre by the frute
and the man by his worke.

The two examinations of the
worthy servant of God, Maistris An Askew,
doughter of sir William Askew
knight of Lincolneshire, martred
in Smithfield for the Constante
and faithfull testimonye of
the truthe.

The first examination

of An askew
To satisfy your expectatiōon, good
people (saithe shee) this was my
first examination in the yeare of
our Lorde 1545-03M.D.xlv. and in the
moneth of March,
first Christofer
examined me at Sadlers Hal, beyng
one of the quest, and asked if I did not beleve
that the sacrament hanginge over the aultar
was the very body of Christ really. Then I
demaunded this question of him.

Wherefore S. Steven was stoned to death
And he sayde, he coulde not tell. Then I aunswered,
that no more would I assoyle his vain
question. Secondly he saide that theire was a INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that cb is unmatched.
woman, which did testify, that I should reade,
how god was not in temples made with hāands
Then I shewed him the, vii. and the .xvii. Cha
of the actes of the Apostles, what Steven and
Paule had saide therein. Wherupon he asked
me, how I tooke those sentences? I aunswered
that I woulde not throwe pearles amonge
swine, for accornes were good inough.

Thirdelye he asked me, wherefore I saide,
that I had rather to reade five lines in the bible,
than to heare five masses in the temple, I
confessed, that I said no lesse. Not for the dyspraise
of either the Epistle or Gospell, but bycause
the one did greatly edify me, & the other
nothinge at all. As saint Paule doth witnesse
in the .xiiii. Chapiter of his first Epistle to the
Corinthians, where as he doth say. If the trūumpet
geveth an uncertaine sounde, who wil prepare
him selfe to the battaile.

Fourthly he layed unto my charge, that I
shuld say. If an il priest ministred, it was the
devill and not God. My aunswere was, that
I never spake such thinge. But this was my
sainge: That what soever he were which ministred
unto me, his ill condicions could not
hurt my faith but in spirite I received never
the lesse, the body and bloude of christ.

He asked me, what I saide concerning confession?
I aunswered him my meaninge, which
was as sainte James saieth, that every man
ought to knowledg his fautes to other, and the
one to praye for the other. Sixtly he asked me
what I said to the kinges boke? And I answered
him, that I coulde saye nothinge to it, by
cause I never saw it. Seventhly he asked me
if I had the sprite of God in me? I aunswered
if I had not, I was but reprobate or cast away
Then he said, he had sent for a priest, to examine
me, which was there at hand. The priest
asked me, what I saide to the sacrament of the
aulter? And required much to knowe therein
my meaninge. But I desired him againe, to
holde me excused concerninge that matter.
None other aunswere would I make him bycause
I perceived him a papist. Eightly he asked
me, if I did not think that private masses
did helpe soules departed: And saide, it was
greate Idolatry to beleve more in them, than
in the death which Christ died for us. Thēen they
had me thence unto my Lorde Maire and hee
examined me, as they had before, and I aunswered
him directly in al things as I answered
the quest afore. Besides this my lord mair
laide one thinge unto my charge which was
never spoken of me but of thēem. And that was whether
a mouse eatinge the hoste, received God
or no? This question did I never aske, but in
dede they asked it of me, whereunto I made
them no aunswere but smiled. Then the bishops
chaunceller rebuked me, and sayde, that I
was much to blame for uttring the scripturs. For OO5v 670
For S. Paul (he said) forbode women to speak
or to talke of the worde of God, I answered hīim
that I knew Paules meaninge as well as he,
whiche is INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched..i. Corinthians. xiiii. that a woman
ought not to speake in the cōongregatiōon by the way
of teaching. And then I asked him, how many
women he had sene, go into the pulpit & preach?
He saide he never saw none. Then I sayde, he
ought to finde no faute in poore womēen, except
they had offended the lawe. Then my Lorde
maior cōommaūunded me to warde. I asked him if
suerties wold not serve me, & he made me short
āanswer, that he wold take nōone. Thēen was I had to
the coūunter, & ther remained xi. daies no frēend admitted
to speake with me. But in the meane time
ther was a priest sēent to me which saide that he
was commaūunded of the bishop to examine me, &
to geve me good coūuncell, which he did not, but
first he asked me for what cause I was put in
the coūunter? And I told him I could not tel. Thēen
he said, it was greate pity that I shuld be there
without cause, & cōoncluded that he was very sory for
me. Secōondly he sayd, it was told him, that I
should deny the sacrament of the alter. And I āanswered
him agayne that, that I had said, I had said
Thirdly he asked me, if I were shrivēen, I tolde
him so that I might have one of these .iii. that
is to say, doctor Crome, sir Gillam, or Hūuntington,
I was contented, bycause I knew them
to be men of wisdome. As for you or any other
I will not dispraise, bycause I knowe ye not,
Then hee saide I would not have you thinke
but that I or another that shalbe brought you
shalbe as honest as they. For if we were not,
ye may be sure, the kinge would not suffer us
to preach. then I answered by the sayng of Salomon.
By communing with the wise. I may
lerne wisdom: But by talking with a fole, I
shal take skathe, INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Prover. i. Fourthly he asked
me, if the host should fall, and a beast did eate it
whether the beast did receive God or no? I annswered,
Seinge ye have taken the paines to
aske this question I desire you also to assoile
it your selfe. For I wil not do it, bycause I perceive
ye come to tempt me. And he said, it was
against the order of scoles that he which asked
the question should aunswere it. I told him I
was but a woman and knew not the course
of scoles. Fifthly he asked me if I intended to
receive the sacrament at Easter or no? I aunswered
that els I were no Christen woman &
there I did rejoise, that the time was so nere at
hāand. And thāan he departed thence with many faire
wordes. And the 1545-03-23.xxiii. day of March my cosine
Britaigne came into the Coūunter to me, and asked
ther whether I might be put to baile or
no. Thēen went he immediatly unto my Lord
mayor, desiring of him to be so good unto me
that I might be bailed. My Lorde aunswered
him, and said, that he would be glad to do the best
that in him lay. Howe be it he could not baile INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that cb is unmatched.
me with out the consent of a spirituall officer
So requiringe him to go and speake with the
chauncellour of London. For he saide, like as
he could not commit me to pryson without the
consent of a spirituall officer, no more could he
baile me with out consent of the same. So upon
that, he wēent to the chauncelour, requiring
of him as he did a fore of my lorde maiore. He
aunswered him, that the matter was so haynouse,
that he durst not of him selfe do it. with
out my Lord of Londōon were made privy there
unto. But hee said he would speake unto my
Lord in it. And bad him repair unto him the
next morowe and he shoulde well knowe my
lordes pleasure and upon the morow after, he
came thither, and spake both with the chauncellor,
and with my Lord Bishopp of London
my Lorde declared unto him, that he was very
well cōontented that I should come forth to a
communication. And appointed me to apere
before him the next day after, at .iii. of the clock
at after none More over he said unto him, that
he would ther should be at the examination,
such lerned men, as I was affectioned to, that
they mighte see and allso make reporte that
I was handeled with no rigour. He aunswered
him, that he knew no man that I had mor
affection, to than other. Than said the bishop
Yes as I understand, shee is affectioned to
Doctour Crome, Sir Gilliam Whiteheade, &
Huntington; that they might heare the matter.
For she did knowe them to be lerned, and
of a godly judgement. Also he required my cosine
Britain, that he should ernestly perswad
me to utter, even the verye bottoms of my
harte. And he sware by his fidelitye that no
man should take any advantage of my words
Neither yet would he lay ought to my charge
for any thinge that I should there speake. But
if I said any manner of thinge amis. He with
other more wold be glad to reform me therin,
with moste Godly counsell. On the morowe
after my lord of London sent for me, at one of
the clock, his hour beinge apointed at thre. and
as I came before him, he saide he was very sory
of my trouble and desired to know my opinion
in such matters as were laid against me
He required me also in any wise boldly to utter
the secrets of my hart, biddinge me not to
fear in any point. For what so ever I did say
in his house no man should hurt me for it. I āanswered.
For so much as your Lordship appointed
.iii. of the clocke and my frendes shall
not come in the hour, I desire you to pardon
me of gevinge aunswere til they come. Then
said he, that he thought it mete to sēend for those
iiii. mēen which were afore named and apointed
Then I desired him not to put them to that pain
for it should not nede, bycause that .ii. gentell
men which were my frends were able inough
to testifye that I shuld saie. Anon after he wēent into OO6r 671
into his galery, with maister Spilman, and
willed him in any wise, that he should exhorte
me to utter all that I thought. In the meane
while he commaunded his archdeacon to common
with me, who sayde unto me: maistres
wherefore are ye accused and thus troubled
heare before the Byshoppe? To whome I
aunswered agayne and sayde. Syr, aske I
praye you my accusers, for I knowe not as
yet. Then tooke he my boke out of my hande,
and saide. Suche bookes as this, hathe broughte
you to the trouble ye are in. Beware
(saith he) beware, for he that made thys boke
and was the authour therof, was an heretike
I warrant you, and burnte in Smithfielde.
Then I asked him if he were certain and sure,
that it was true that hee hadde spoken.

And he sayed he knewe well the booke was
of John frethes makinge. Than I asked him,
if he were not ashamed for to judg of the boke
before he saw it within, or yet knew the truth
therof. I said also that such unadvised & hastye
judgment is a token apparent of a very slender
witte. Then I opened the booke and shewed

it him. He sayd he thought it had bene an
other for he could find no fault therin. Then
I desyred him, no more to be so unadvisedlye,
rashe and swift in judgment, till he throughlye
knewe the truthe, and so hee departed from me.

Immediatlye after came my cosen Bryttaine
in with divers other as Maister Haule
of Grayes Inne and such other like. Thēen my
lord of London perswaded my cosen Brittain
as he had done ofte before, which was that I
should utter the bottome of my harte in any
wise. My Lord said after that unto me that he
would I should creadite the counsell of suche
as were my frendes and well wyllers in this
behalfe, whiche was, that I shoulde utter all
thinges that burdened my conscience for he ensured
me that I shoulde not nede to stande in
doubt to say any thing. For like as he promysed
them (he said) he promised me and woulde
performe it. Which was, that neither he nor
any man for him, should take me at advantag
of any word I should speake. And therfore he
had me say my minde without feare. I answered
him, that I had nought to say. For my cōonscience
(I thanked God) was burdned with nothing.

Then brought he fourth this unsavery similitude.
That if a man had a woūund, no wise surgion
would minister help unto it before he had
seene it uncovered. In like case (sayeth he) can
I geve you no good counsell, unlesse I know
where with your conscience is burdened. I answered,
that my conscience was clere in all
thinges. And for to lay a plaister unto the whole
skinne, it might appere much folye. Then ye INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that cb is unmatched.
drive me (saith he) to lay to your charge, your
owne report which is this. Ye did say he that
doth receave the sacrament by the handes of
an ill priest or a sinner, he receiveth the devil
and not God. To that I aunswered, that I never
spake such wordes.

But as I said afore both to the quest and to
my Lord mayer, so say I now againe that the
wickednes of the priest shoulde not hurte me,
but in spirit and faith I received no les, thēen the
body and bloud of Christ. Then saied the bishop
unto me, what saienge is this in Spirit?
I will not take you at that advantage.

Then I aunswered my lord without fayth
and spirite, I cannot receyve him worthelye.
Then he layed unto me, that I shuld say, that
the sacrament remayning in the pixe, was but
bread. I aunswered that I never sayde so, but
in dede the quest asked me such a questiōon, wher
unto I would not aunswere (I sayde) till such
time as they had assoyld me this question of
mine, wherfore Steven was stoned to death?
They said they knew not. Then saide I again
no more would I tell them what it was. Thēen
layde my lord unto me, that I had alleaged a
certaine text of the scripture, I aunswered that
I alleged none other but Saint Paules owne
saying to the Athenianes in the .xvii. chapter
in the Apostles actes that god dwelleth not in
temples made with hands. Then asked he me
what my fayth and beliefe was in that mater?
I aunswered him I beleve as the scriptur doth
teach me. Then inquired he of me, what if, the
scripture do say that it is the body of Christ? I
beleve, said I, as the scripture doth teache me.
Then asked he againe what if the scripture do
say that it is not the body of Christ? My āanswer
was stil, I beleve as the scripture infourmeth
me, And upon this argument he taried a great
while to have driven me to make him an aunswer
to his mind. Howbeit I would not, but
concluded this with him that I beleve therein
and in all other thinges as christ and his holy
Apostles did leave them. Then he asked me,
why I had so few wordes, And I aunswered,
God hath geven me the gift of knowledge, but
not of utterance. And Salomon sayeth that a
woman of few wordes is a gift of God. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Pro.

Thirdlye my Lorde layed unto my charge
that I should say that the masse was superstitious,
wicked, and no better then Idolatry.

I aunswered him no, I sayde not so. Howbeit
I say the quest did aske me whether private
masse did releve soules departed or ne? Unto
whome then I answered.

O Lorde what Idolatry is this? That we
should rather beleve in private masses, than in
the healthsome death of the dere son of god.
Then said my Lord againe: What OO6v 672
What an answere was that? Though it were
but meane (sayed I): Yet it was good enough
for the question. Then I toulde my Lorde
that there was a priest, which did here what I
sayd there, before my Lorde Mayer and them.
With that the Chauncelor answered, which
was the same prieste. So she spake it in verye
dede saith he before my Lorde mayer and me:
then were there certaine priestes, as Doctor
D. Stāandish Standish
& other which tēempēted me much to
know my mind. And I āanswered thēem alwayes
thus. That I said to my lord of Londōon, I have
sayde. And then Doctor Standish desyred my
Lord, to bid me say my mind, concerninge the
same text of Saint Paules lerning, that I being
a woman, should enterprete the scriptures
specialy where so many wise lerned men wer.
Then my lorde of London said he was informed
that one should ask of me if I would receive
the sacramente at Easter, and I made a
mocke of it, then I desired that mine accuser
might come forth, which my Lord would not.
But he said againe unto me I sēent one to geve
you good councell, and at the first word ye called
him papist. That I denied not, for I perceaved
he was no lesse, yet made I him none answere
unto it. Then he rebuked me, and saide
that I should reporte, that there were bente
againste me threscore priestes at Lincolne. In
dede (quod I) I sayd so. For my frendes tolde
me, if I did com to Lincoln, the priests wold assaulte
me and put me to great trouble as ther
of they had made their boast. And whēen I herd
it I went thither in dede, not being afrayed,
because I knew my matter to be good. Moreover,
I remained there .ix. dayes, to se what
would be said unto me. And as I was in the
minster, reading upon the bible, they resorted
unto me by .ii. and by, ii. by .v. and by, vi, minding
to have spoken to me, yet wēent they their
wayes againe with out wordes speaking.

Then my Lord asked, if there were not one
that did speake unto me. I told him yeas, that
there was one of them at the laste, whiche did
speake to me in dede. And my Lord than asked
me what he said? And I told him, his wordes
were of smal effect, that I did not now remembre
them. Then said my Lord there are many
that read and know the scripture, and yet not
follow it nor live therafter. I said againe, my
Lord I would wish that all men knew my cōonversation
and livinge in all poynts, for I am
so sure of my selfe this houre that there are none
able to prove any dishonestie by me. If you
know any that can do it, I pray you bring thēem
furth. Then my lorde went away and said he
would entitle sumwhat of my meaning. And
so he wrote a greate circumstance. But what
it was I have not all in memory For he wuld
not suffer me to have the copy therof. Only do
I remembre this small porcion of it. Be it knowen INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that cb is unmatched.
(sayeth he) of all men that I Anne Askew
doo cōonfesse this to be my faith and beliefe, not
withstanding my reportes made afore to the
contrary. I beleve that they which are houseled
at the handes of a priest whether his cōonversation
be good or not, do receive the body and
bloud of Christ in substance really. Also I do beleve
that after the consecration whether it be
received or reserved, to be no lesse than the very
body and bloud of Christ, in substance. Finally
I doo beleve in this and in all other sacramentes
of holly church in all poynts according
to the old catholike faith of the same.

In witnes wherof I the said An have subscribed
my name. There was sumwhat more in
it, which because I had not the copy I cannot
now remembre. Then he redde it to me and
asked me if I did agre to it. And I said againe
I beleve so much therof as the holy scripture
doth agre unto. wherfore I desire you, that ye

The tenor
of Boners
An Askew
will adde that therunto. Then he aunswered
that I shoulde not teach him what he shoulde
write. With that, he went forth into his great
chamber, and redde the same bill afore the audience,
which enveygled & willed me to set to
my hand saing also, that I had favour shewed
me. Then said the Bishop I might thanke other
and not my selfe, of the favour that I found
at his hande. For he considered (he saide) that
I had good frendes, and also that I was come
of a worshipfull stocke. Then aunswered one
Christofer, a servaunt to maister Dennie, rather
ought ye (my Lord) to have done it in such
case, for goddes sake than for mannes. Then
my Lord sat downe and toke me the writings
to set therto my hand: And I writte after this
maner. I Anne Askew do beleve all manner
thinges connteined in the faith of the Catholike

And for as much as mention here is made of the Writīing
of Boner, which this godly Ann sayd before she had
not in memory, therfore I thought in this place to infer
the same, both with the whol circumstance of Boner, &c
with the title therunto prefixed by the register, & also
with her owne subscription: to the entent the reader seing
the same subscription nether to agre with the time
of the title above prefixed, nor with the subscription
after the writing annexed, he might the better understāand
therby what credit is to be gevēen hereafter to such
bishops and to such regesters. The tenor of Boners wriwriting
procedeth thus.

“The true copy of the confession and beliefe
of Anne Askew otherwise called Anne Kime
made before the bishop of London the 1544-03-20.xx. day
of March in the yere of oure Lorde God after
the computation of the church of Englāand. 1544.

and subscribed with her owne hand in the presēence
of the said B. and other whose name here
after are resited, set forth & published at this present,
to the entent the world may see, what credence
is now to be geven unto the same womāan
who in so short a time hath most dampnably altered
and changed her opinion and beliefe and
therfore rightfully in open court arrayned and
Be PP1r 682 Be it knowen to all faithful people, that as touchinge
the blessed sacrament of the altare, I do firmlye and
undoubtedly beleve, that after the words of consecratyon
be spoken by the priest, accordinge to the common
usuage of this church of England, there is present really
the body and bloud of our saviour Jesu Christ, whether
the minister which doth cōonsecrate, be a good māan or
a bad man, and that also when so ever the saide Sacramente
is received, whether the receiver be a good man
or a bad man he doth receive it really and corporallye.
And moreover I do beleve, that whether the saide sacrament
be then received of the minister or els reserved
to be put into the pixe, or to be brought to anye personne
that is impotent that is sicke, yet there is the very body
and bloud of our said savior, so that whether the minyster
or the receiver be good or bad, yea, whether the sacramente
be received or reserved, alwayes there is the
blessed body of Christ really.
And this thing with al other thinges touching the sacrament
and other sacramentes of the churche; and all
thinges els touchinge the christen belefe. Whyche are
taught and declared in the kinges majesties boke lately
setforth, for the erudition of the christen people. I Anne
, otherwise called Anne Kyme, doo trulye and
perfectly beleve, and so here presently confesse, & knowledge.
And here I do promise that henceforth I shal never
say or do any thing against the premisses, or against
any of them.
In witnesse wherof I the saide Anne have
subscribed my name unto these presentes, wrytten the
1544-03-20xx. day of March in the yeare of our Lord God. 1544.
By me Anne Askew, otherwise called
Anne Kime.
  • Edmund bishop of London.
  • Jhon bishop of Bedford.
  • Owen Ogelthorpe doctor of divinity.
  • Richard Smith doctor of divinity.
  • Jhon Rudde bacheler of divinity.
  • Wylliam Pie bacheler of devinity.
  • Jhon Wymesley Archdeacon of London.
  • Jhon Cooke.
  • Edward Halle.
  • Robert Jhon
  • Alexander Brette.
  • Fraunces Spilman.
  • Edmond Buttes.
Wyth divers other mo being then present.”

Here maist thou note gentle reader in thys
confessyon bothe in the bishop and his regester Boner and
his regester
much as untruth.

a double sleight of false conveyaunce. For although
the cōonfession purporteth the words of the
bishops wryting. Wherunto she did set to her
hand: yet by the title prefixed before maist thou
see that both she was araigned and cōondemned
before this was registred, and also that she is
falsly reported to have put to her hand whyche
in dede by this her owne booke appeareth not
so to be, but after this manner and condition. I
Anne Askew do beleve al manner thinges contained
in the faith of the Catholike church, and
not otherwise.

Then because I did adde unto it, the Catholike
, he flonge into his Chambre in a
great fury. With that my cosen Bryttaine folowed
him: desiring him for Goddes sake to be
good Lord unto me. He answeared that I was
a woman, and that he was nothinge deceived
in me. Then my cosen Bryttaine desired him
to take me as a woman, and not to sette my
weake womans wit, to his Lordshippes verye
greate wisdome. Then went in unto him Doctor INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that cb is unmatched.
, and saide, that the cause whye I
did wryte there, the Catholicke churche, was,
that I understode not the church wryttēen afore.
So with much a do, they perswaded my Lorde
to come out againe, and to take my name with
the names of my sureties, which were my cosen
Brittayne and master Spilman of Graies
. This being doone, we thoughte that I
shuld have bene put to Bayle immediatlye, according
to the order of the lawe. Howe be it he
woulde not suffer it, but committed me from
thence to prison again until the next morowe.
And than he willed me to appeare in the guild
Hall, and so I did. Notwithstāanding they wold
not put me to Bayle there neither, but red the
bishops wryting unto me as before, and so cōommaunded
me again to prison. Then were my
sureties appoynted to come before them on the
next morow in Paules church, which did so indede.
Notwithstanding they would once again
have broken of with them, because they wolde
not be bound also for an other woman at theyr
pleasure, whome they knew not, nor yet what
matter was layed unto her charge. Notwythstanding
at the last, after much a do and reasoning
to and fro, they toke a bond of them of recognisance
for my forthe comming. And thus
I was at the laste delivered.

Wrytten by me
Anne Askewe.

The latter Examination of the
worthy servant of God, mastres Anne Askew,
the yonger doughter of sir williāam Askew knight
of Lincoln shire, lately martired in Smithfeld,
by the wicked sinagoge of Antichrist.

I Do perceive (dere frend in the Lord) that thou
art not yet perswaded throughly in the truth 15461546.
concerning the Lords supper, because Christe
said unto his Apostles. Take eat this is my body
which is geven for you. In geving forth the
bread as an outward signe or token to be received
at the mouth, he minded them in perfect beleve
to receive the body of his whiche should dye
for the people, or to thinke the death therof, the
only health and salvation of their soules.

The bread and the wine were left us, for a sacramental
cōommunion, or a mutual participation,
of the inestimable benefites of hys mooste
precious death and bloud sheding, and that we
should in the end therof be thanckfull together
for that most necessary grace of our redemptiōon.
For in the closing up therof, he said thus, “thys
do ye, in remembraunce of me. Yea, so oft as ye
shal eat it or drinke it.”
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Luk .xi. & INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched..i. Corinth .xi.
Els shuld we have bene forgetfull of that we
oughte to have in dailye remembraunce, and
also bene altogether unthankful for it. Therfore
it is mete, that in our prayers we cal unto
god to graft in our forheads, the true mening
of the holy ghost concerninge this cōommunyon. PP.i. For PP1v 683
For Sainct Paule doth say that the letter sleieth:
“The sprite is it onely that geveth life” INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched..ii.
Corinthians .iii.
Marke well the sixt chapiter
of Jhon, wherall is applied unto fayth. Note
also the fourth chapiter of Saint Paules fyrste
Epistle to the Corinthians, and in the ende
therof ye shall find that the thinges which are
sene are temporal, but they that are not sene
are everlastyng. Yea looke in the thirde chapter
to the Hebrues, and ye shal find that Christ
as a sonne and no servaunte, ruleth over hys
house (whose house are we, and not the deade
temple) if we hold fast the confidence and rejoysing
of that hope to that end. Wherfore as saithe
the holy Ghost. To day if you shall heare hys
voyce, harden not your hartes .&c. Psal .cxiiii.

☞ The summe of my examination, before the
kinges counsel at Grenewich.

Your request, as concerning my prison fellowes,
I am not able to satisfy: Because I
hard not their examinations: But the effect of
mine, was this. I beinge before the Councell,
was asked of master Kyme. I answeared, that
my Lord Chauncellor knew already my mind
in that matter. They with that answer were
not contented: but said, it was the kings pleasure,
that I should open the matter to them. I
answered them plainly that I wold not so do.
But if it were the kings pleasure to hear me,
I would shew him the truth. Then they sayed
it was not mete for the kinge with me to be
troubled. I answered, that Salomon was reckened
the wisest king, that ever lived: yet misliked
he not to heare two poore comon women:
much more his grace a simple woman, and his
faithful subject. So in conclusion I made them
none other aunswer in that matter. Thēen my
Lord chauncelour asked me of my opinion in
the sacrament. My answer was this: I beleve,
that so oft as I in a christian congregation, do
receive the bread in remembraunce of Christes
death, and with thankes geving accordinge to
his holye institution, I receive there with the
frutes also of his moste glorious passyon. The
bishop of Winchester bad me make a direct answer.
I said, I wold not sing a newe songe to
the Lord in a straunge land. Than the byshop
said, I spake in parables, I answeared it was
best for him. For if I shewe the open truthe
(quoth I) ye wil not accept it. Then he sayd I
was a Parate I told him again, I was ready
to suffer all thinges at his hands not only hys
rebukes, but all that shoulde folowe besydes,
yea and all that gladly. Then had I dyvers rebukes
of the councel, because I would not expresse
my minde in al thinges as they woulde
have me. But they wer not in the mean time
unanswered for all that, which now to rehers
were to muche. For I was with them there about
v. hours. Then the clarke of the counsell
conveyed me from thence to my lady Garnish. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that cb is unmatched.
The next day I was brought again before the
councel. Then would they nedes know of me,
what I saide to the sacrament. I answeared, that
I already had said that I could say. Then after
divers wordes, they bad me go by. Then came
my Lord Lisle, my Lord of Essex, and the Bishop
of Winchester, requiringe me earnestlye
that I should confesse the sacrament to be flesh
bloud and bone. Then said I to my lord Parr
and my Lorde Lisle, that it was greate shame
for them to councell contrarye to theyr knowledge.
Wherunto in few words they did saye,
that they would gladly all thinges were well.
Then the bishop said, he wold speake with me
familierly. I sayde, so did Judas whan he unfrendly
betrayed Christ. Then desyred the byshop
to speake with me alone. But that I refused.
He asked me why? I said: that in the mouthe
of two or thre witnesses, every matter shoulde
stand, after Christes and Paules doctryne.

INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Mathew xviii. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.ii. Corinth .xiii. Then my Lord
Chauncelor began to examine me again of the
Sacrament. Then I asked him how longe he
would hault on bothe sides? Then woulde he
neades know where I found that, I said in the
scripture INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched..iii. Regum .xviii. Then he went hys
way. Then the Bishop said I should be brent:
I answered that I had searched all the scryptures,
yet coulde I never finde, that eyther
Christe or his Apostles putte anye creature to
death. Well well said I, God will laugh your
threatninges to skorne. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Psalme .ii. Then was
I commaunded to stande aside. Then came to
me Doctor Cox, and Doctor Robinson. In conclusion
we coulde not agree. Then they made
me a bil of the sacrament: willing me to set my
hand therunto but I would not. Then on the
sonday I was sore sicke, thinkinge no les then
to die. Therfore I desired to speake with Latimer,
it wold not be. Then was I sent to Newgate
in my extremity of sicknes. For in al my
life afore was I never in such pain. Thus the
lord strēengthen you in the truth, pray, pray, pray.

☞The confession of me Anne Askew for the
time I was in Newgate concerning my beliefe.

I Find in the scriptures (sayth she) that christe
toke the breade and gave it to his disciples,
saing, take, eate, this is my body which shal be
broken for you, meaning in substance his own
very body, the bread being therof an only sign
or sacrament. For after like manner of speaking
he said, he wold breake down the temple,
and in iii. dayes build it up againe signifieng
his owne body by the temple as Sainct Jhon
declareth it INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched..Jhon .ii. and not the stony temple
it selfe. So that the breade is but a remēembraūunce
of his death or a sacrament of thankes geving
for it, whereby we are knit unto him by a communion
of christen love. Although ther be many
that cāannot perceive the true meanīing therof, for the
vale that Moses put over his face befor the childrēen of PP2r 675
children of Israel, that they shoulde not see the
clerenesse therof. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Exo .xxiiii. and INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched..ii. Corin .iii.
I perceive the same vail remaineth to this day.
But whan God shall take it away, then shall
these blinde men see. For it is plainlye expressed
in the hystory of Bel in the bible, that God
dwelleth in no thinge materyall. “O kynge
(saith Daniel) be not deceived.”
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Daniel .xiiii. for
God wil be in nothing that is made with handes
of men. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Act .vii. Oh, what stifnecked people
are these, that wil alwaies resist the holye
ghost? But as their fathers have done: so doo
they, because they have stony harts. Wrytten
by me Anne Askew that neither wishe death,
nor yet fear his might: and as wweary, as one that
is bound towardes heaven. Truth is laide in
prison. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Luk .xxi. The law is turned to Wormwood.
INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Amos .vi. And there can no right judgement
go forth. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Esay. lix. Oh forgeve us al our
sinnes, and receive us gratiouslye. As for the
works of our hands, we wil no more cal upon
them. For it is thou Lord that art our God.

Thou shewest ever mercy unto the fatherles.
Oh if they would doo this (saithe the Lorde) I
shoulde heale their sores, yea withal my harte
woulde I love them. O Ephraim, what have
I to do with Idols any more? who so is wyse,
shal understāand this. And he that is rightly enstructed,
wil regard it. For the wais of the Lord
are righteous. Such as are godly, wil walk in
them. And as for the wicked, they wil stomble
at them. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Ose .xiiii. Salomon (saith S. Steven)
builded an house for the God of Jacob. Howbe
it, the hiest of al, dwelleth not in temples made
with hands: As saith the prophet Esaye .lxvi.
Heaven is my seat, and the earth is my fotestole
What house wil ye build for me? saith the lord,
or what place is it that I shal rest in? hath not
my hand made al things? INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Act .vii. Woman beleve
me (saith Christe to the Samaritane) the
time is at hand, that ye shall neither in thys
moūuntain nor yet at Jerusalēem worship the father.
Ye worship ye wot not what, but we know
what we worship. for salvation commeth of
the Jewes. But the hour cometh, and is now,
when the true worshippers shal worship the
father in sprite & verity INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Jhon iii. Laboure not
(saith Christ) for the meat that pearisheth, but
for that that endureth into the life everlasting
which the sonne of manne shal geve you. For
him God the father hath sealed. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Jhon vii.

The summe of the condemnation of me Anne
at the Guild Hal.

They said to me ther
that I was an hereticke, and condempned by
the law, if I would stande in mine opinyon. I
answeared that I was no hereticke, neyther
yet deserved I any death by the lawe of God.
But as concerning the faith whiche I uttered
and wrote to the counsel I would not (I said)
deny it, because I knew it true. Then woulde
they neades know if I wold deny the Sacrament INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that cb is unmatched.
to be Christes body and bloude of Christ:
yea. For the same sonne of God, that was borne
of the virgin Mary, is now glorious in heavēen,
and wil come againe from thence at the latter
day like as he went up. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Act .i. And as for that
ye cal youre God, it is a peace of breade. for a
more profe therof (marke it whan ye list.) Let
it lie in the boxe but iii. moneths, and it wil be
mouldy, and so turn to nothinge that is good.
Wherupon I am perswaded, that it cāan not be
god. After that they willed me to have a priest:
And then I smiled.
The belefs
of Anne Askew
Then they asked me, if it
were not good? I saide, I woulde confesse my
fautes unto god. For I was sure that he wold
heare me with favor. And so we were condēempned
with a quest. My belefe whiche I wrote to
the councel was this. That the Sacramentall
bread was left us to be received with thankes
geving, in remembraunce of Christes deathe,
the onlye remeady of oure soules to recover.
And that therby we also receive the whole benefytes
and frutes of his most glorious passion.
Then woulde they neades know whether
the bread in the boxe were God or no. I sayd:
god is a spirit, and will be worshipped in spirit
and truthe. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Jhon iiii. Then they demaunded.
Wil you plainly deny Christ to be in the Sacrament?
I answeared that I beleve faythfully
the eternal sonne of God not to dwell there.
In witnesse wherof I recited again the history
of Bel, and the xix. chapiter of Daniell, the
vii and xvii. of the Actes, and the xxiiii. of Mathew,
concluding thus. I neither wish deathe,
nor yet feare his might, God hathe the prayse
therof wyth thanckes.

My letter sent to the Lord Chaunceler.

The Lord God, by whom al creatures have
theyr beinge, blesse you with the lighte of
his knowledge. Amen. My duty to your lordship
remembred &c. It might please you to accept
this my bold sute, as the sute of one, which
upon due considerations is moved to the same
and hopeth to obtain. My request to your lordship
is only, that it may please the same to be a
meane for me to the kinges maiestye, that hys
grace may be certefied of these few lines whiche
I have wrytten concerninge my belefe.
Which whan it shalbe truly conferred with the
hard judgement gevēen me for the same, I think
his grace shall wel perceive me to be wayed in
an uneven pair of balaunces. But I remit my
matter and cause to almightye God, whyche
rightlye judgeth all seacreates. And thus I cōommend
your Lordshippe to the governaunce of
hym and felowship of al saintes. Amen.

By your handmaid Annne Askew.

My faith briefly wrytten to the kings grace.

I Anne Askew of good memorye, althoughe
God hathe geven me the breade of adversytye
and the water of trouble, yet not so muche
as my sinnes have deserved, desire thys to be PP.ii. knowen PP2v 676
known to your grace. that forasmuch as I am
by the law condempned for an evil doer: Here
I take heaven and earth to record, that I shall
die in my innocency. And accordinge to that I
have said first, and wil say last, I utterly abhor
and detest al heresies. And as concerninge the
supper of the Lord, I beleve so much as Christ
hath said therin. Which he confirmed with his
most blessed bloud. I beleve also so much as he
willed me to follow and beleve, and so muche
as the catholike church of him doth teach. For
I wil not forsake the commaundement of hys
holy lippes. But loke what God hath charged
me with his mouth, that have I shut up in my

and thus briefly I ende, for lacke of learning
Anne Askew.

The effect of my examination and handling,
sence my deqparture frōom Newgate.

On Tuesdaye I was sente from Newgate
to the signe of the crown, wheras Master
& the bishop of London withal their power
and flattering words, went about to perswade
me frōom God. But I did not esteme their
glosing pretences. Thēen came there to me Nicolas
, & councelled me to recante as he
had done. Then I said to him, that it had bene
good for him, never to have ben born with many
other like words. Then master Riche sent me
to the tower, where I remained til iii. a clock.
Then came Rich and one of the counsell, charging
me upon my obedience, to shew unto thēem,
if I knew man or woman of my sect. My aunswer
was, that I knew non. Then they asked
me of my lady of Suffolk, my lady Sussex, my
Lady of Hertford, my Lady Denny & my lady
. I said, if I should pronoūunce any
thing against them, that I were not able to prove
it. Then said they unto me, that the king was
infourmed, that I could name, if I would a great
nombre of my sect. Then I answered, that the
king was as wel deceived in that behalf, as disembled
within other matters. Then cōommaunded
they me to shew howe I was maintained
in the counter, and who willed me to sticke by
my opinion. I sayd that there was no creatũre
that therin did strēenghthen me. And as for the
helpe that I had in the counter, it was by the
meanes of my maid. For as she wēent abrode in
the streates, she made mone to the prentises, &
they by her did send me monye. But who they
were I never knew. Then they said, that ther
wer divers gentle womēen, that gave me mony.
But I knew not their names. Then they said
that there were divers Ladies, which had sent
me mony. I answeared, that there was a man
in a blew cote, which delivered me x. shillings,
& said that my lady of Hertford sent it me. And
another in a violet coat did geve me viii. shyllings,
and said that my lady Denny sent it me.
Whether it were true or no, I cannot tel. For
I am not sure who sent it me, but as the maid INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that cb is unmatched.
did say. Then they said, there were of the coūuncel
that did maintain me. And I said, no. Thēen
they did put me on the racks, because I cōonfessed
no ladies or Gentle women to be of my opinion,
and theron they kept me a longe time. And
because I lay stil & did not cry, my Lord chaūuncellour
& master Rich, toke paines to racke me
Wrisley &
Rich racking

with their owne handes, till I was nigh dead.
Then the liefetenante caused me to be loused
from the rack. Incontinently I swounded, and
then they recovered me again. After that I sate
ii. long hours reasoning with my Lord chāancellor
upon the bare flour, wheras he with many
flattering wordes, perswaded me to leave my
opinion. But my lord God (I thanke his everlasting
goodnesse) gave me grace to persever &
wil doo (I hope) to the very end. Then was I
brought to an house, and laid in a bed with as
weary and painfull bones, as ever had pacient
Job I thanke my Lord God therof. Then my
Lord Chancellor sent me word if I wold leave
my opinion, I shuld want nothing. If I wold
not, I shuld forth to Newgate, & so be burned,
I sent him again word, that I wold rather die,
than to breake my faith. Thus the Lord open
the eies of their blinde hartes, that the truthe
may take place. Farewel dere frend, and pray
pray, pray.

Anne Askewes answer unto Jhon

Oh frend most dearly beloved in God I mervell
not a little, what shoulde move you to
judge in me so slender a faith, as to feare death,
which is the end of al misery. In the Lord I desyre
you, not to beleve of suche wickednes. For
I doubt it not, but God wil perform his work
in me, like as he hath begon: I understand the
councel is not a little displeased: that it should
be reported abrode, that I was racked in the
towre. They say nowe that they did there, was
but to feare me, wherby I perceived, they are ashamed
of their uncomelye doinges, and feare
much least the kinges majesty shuld have information
there of. wherof they would no man to
noyse it. wel, their crueltye God forgeve them.
Your hart in Christ Jesu. Farewel and praie.

I have red the processe, which is reported of
them that know not the truth, to be my recantation.
But as sure as the Lorde lyveth. I never
ment thing les than to recant. Not withstāanding
this I confesse, that in my first troubles.
I was examined of the bishoppe of London about
the sacrament, yet had they no graunt of
my mouth, but this: that I beleved there in, as
the word of God did binde me to beleve. More
had they never of me. Then he made a copye
which is now in print, and required me to set
therunto my hand. But I refused it. Then my
ii. sureties did wil me in no wise to sticke therat.
For it was no great matter, they sayde.

Then wyth much a doo, at the laste I wrote
thus: I Anne Askewe do beleve thys, if Gods
word do agre to the same, and the true catholiquelique PP3r 680
. Then the byshop, beyng in great
displeasure with me, because I made doubtes
in my writing, cōommaunded me to pryson, wher
I was a whyle. But afterwardes by the meanes
of frendes, I came out againe. Here is the
truth of that matter. And as concernynge the
thyng that ye covet moste to knowe, resorte to
the vi. of John, and be ruled alwayes therby.
Thus fare ye well.

Quod Anne Askewe.

The confession of the faith whiche Anne Askewe
made in Newgate, before she suffred.

I Anne Askewe, of good memory, although
my mercifull father hath gevēen me the bread
of adversytie, and the water of trouble: yet not
so muche as my synnes have deserved: confesse
my selfe here a synner before the throne of hys
heavenly majestie, desyryng his forgevenes &
mercy. And for so muche as I am by the lawe
unrightuously condēempned for an evyl doer, cōoncerning
opinions, I take the same moste mercifull
God of myne, whiche hathe made bothe
heaven and earth, to recorde, that I holde no opynions
contrarie to his mooste holye worde.
And I trust in my mercyfull Lorde, whiche is
the gever of all grace, that he wyll graciously
assiste me against all evyll opinions, whiche
are contrary to his blessed veritie. For I take
hym to wytnesse, that I have done and wyll
doo unto my lyves ende, utterly abhorre them,
to the uttermoste of my power.
The matter
and cause
Anne Askewe
But this is the
heresye whiche they reporte me to holde, that
after the priest hath spoken the wordes of consecration,
there remayneth bread styll.

But they both saye, and also teache it for a
necessarye artycle of faythe, that after those
wordes be once spoken, there remayneth noo
bread, but even the selfe same body, that hong
upōon the crosse on good fryday, both flesh, bloud
and bone. To this belefe of theirs saye I naye:
For then were our cōommon Crede false, which
sayeth that he sytteth on the ryghte hande of
God the father almyghtie: And from thence
shall come to judge the quicke and dead. Lo,
this is the heresie that I holde. And for it must
suffer the death. But as touchyng the holy and
blessed supper of the Lorde, I beleve it to be a
moste necessary remembraūunce of his glorious
sufferynges and death. Moreover, I beleve as
muche therin, as my eternall and onely redemer,
Jesus Christe would I should beleve. Finally
I beleve all those scriptures to be true,
whome he hath confyrmed with his moste precious
bloud. Yea, and as S. Paule sayth, those
scriptures are sufficient for our learning and
sufficient to
our salvatiōon

salvation, that Christe hath left here with us.
So that I beleve, we nede no unwrytten verities
to rule his churche with. Therfore looke
what he hathe sayde unto me with his owne
mouthe, in his holy Gospell, that have I with
Gods grace closed up in my harte. And my full
trust is (as David sayth) that it shalbe a lanterne INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that cb is unmatched.
to my footesteppes. INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that regMe is unmatched.Psalm .xxviii. Ther
be some do saye, that I denie the Euchariste or
sacrament of thankes geving. But those people
do untruely reporte of me. For I both saye
and beleve it, that if it were ordered, lyke as
Christe instituted it, and lefte it, a moste syngular
comfort it were unto us all. But as concerning
your masse, as it is nowe used in our
dayes, I do saye and beleve it, to be the mooste
abhominable ydoll that is in the worlde.
The masse
my God wyll not bee eaten with teeth, neither
yet dyeth he agayne. And upon these wordes,
that I have nowe spoken, wyll I suffer
death. O Lorde, I have mo enemies nowe
then there be heares on my head.
The praier
of Anne Askewe.
Yet Lorde,
let thēem never overcome me with vayn words,
but fyght thou Lorde in my stede, for on the
cast I my care with all the spight they can imagine,
they fall upon me, whiche am thy poore
creature. Yet swete Lorde, lett me not sett by
them whiche are against thee. For in thee is
my whole delyght. And Lord I hartely desyre
of thee, that thou wylt of thy moste mercifull
goodnes forgeve them that violence, whiche
they doo and have done unto me. Open also
thou ther blynde hartes, that they may hereafter
do that thyng in thy syght, whiche is only
acceptable before thee. And to set fourth thy
veritie aryght, without al vayne phantasies of
synfull men. So be it. O Lorde so be it.

By me Anne Askewe.

Hetherto we have intreated of this good womāan,
now it remaineth that we touch somwhat

as touching her end & martyrdom. She beyng
borne of such stock & kynred, that she might have
lyved in great wealth & prosperitie, if she wold
rather have folowed the world thēen Christ, but
now she was so tormented, that she could neither
live long in so great distres, neither yet by the
adversaries be suffred to die in secret. Wherfor
the daie of her execution was appointed, & she
brought into Smithfielde in a chayre, because
she could not go on her feete, by meanes of her
great tormentes, when she was brought unto Anne Askewe
the kinges

the stake, she was tied by the middle with a chaine,
that helde up her body, when all thinges were
thus prepared to the fire, the kinges letters of
pardon were brought, wherby to offer her safe
garde of her life if she would recant, which she
would neither receave, neither yet vouchsafe
once to loke upōon. Shaxton also was there present
who openly that day recanting his opiniōons,
went about with a long oration to cause her
also to turne, against whome she stoutly resisted.
Thus she being troubled so many maner
of waies, & having passed through so many tormēents,
having now ended the lōong course of her
agonies, being cōompassed in with flames of fire,
as a blessed sacrifice unto God, she slept in the
Lorde, in 1546An.anno Domini 1546. leaving behind her a singular
example of Christen constancie for all
men to folowe.

The PP.iii. PP3v 666

The description of Smythfielde with the order and maner

of certayne of the Councell, sytting there at the
burnyng of Anne Askewe and Lacels with the others.

Woodcut of the scene of execution, showing the martyrs at the stake, surrounded by crowds of spectators, while others bring wood and pile it around them. In the background is a large building also full of spectators, including a group of larger figures under a canopy.

John Lasselles, John Adams,
and Nicolas Belenian.

There was at the same tyme also
burnt together with her one Nicolas
priest of Shropshyre,
John Adams a tayler, and
John Lasselles Gentlemāan of the
Courte and housholde of kynge
. There is a certaine appologetical, or
defensive Epistle extant, whiche this man
briefly wrote, beyng in pryson, touchyng the
Sacrament of the body and bloud, wherein it
doth bothe confute the errour of them whiche
not beyng contented with the spyritual receavyng
of the Sacrament wyll leave no substaunce
of bread therein, and also doth put of
the synister interpretation of many thereupōon.
It happened well for them, that they died together
with Anne Askewe. Foralbeit that of thēemselves
they were strong and stout menne, yet
through the exāample & praier of her, thei being the INTERNAL ERROR. Please report to wwp@neu.edu that cb is unmatched.
more boldned, receyved occasion of more greater
comforte, in that so painfull and doolefull
kynde of death, not only beholdyng her invincible
constancie, but also oftentimes stirred up
through her perswasions, they did set apart all
kynde of feare. Thus they confyrming one another
with mutuall exhortations, taried lookyng
for the tormenter and fyre, whiche at the
last flamyng round about them, cōonsumed their
blessed bodies in happie martyrdome, in the
yeare of our salvatiōon 1546-061546. about the moneth
of June