A1r A1v
A woman, presumably Margaret Newcastle, sitting in an armchair.

Margaret. Duchess of Newcastle
flawed-reproductionone line


of a New
The Blazing-World.

Written By the Thrice Noble, Illustrious, and Excellent
Duchess of Newcastle.

Printed by A. Maxwell, in the Year 1668M.DC.LX.VIII.

A2v A3r

To The
On Her
New Blazing-World.

Our Elder World, with all their Skill and Arts,

Could but divide the World into three Parts:

Columbus, then for Navigation fam’d,

Found a new World, America ’tis nam’d;

Now this new World was found, it was not made,

Onely discovered, lying in Time’s shade.

Then what are You, having no Chaos found

To make a World, or any such least ground?

But your Creating Fancy, thought it fit

To make your World of Nothing, but pure Wit.

Your Blazing-World, beyond the Stars mounts higher,

Enlightens all with a Cœlestial Fier.

William Newcastle.

A3v A4r

To all Noble and Worthy

This present Description of a New World,
was made as an Appendix to my Observations
upon Experimental Philosophy
; and, having
some Sympathy and Coherence with each other, were joyned
together as Two several Worlds, at their Two Poles.
But, by reason most Ladies take no delight in Philosophical
, I separated some from the mentioned
Observations, and caused them to go out by themselves,
that I might express my Respects, in presenting to Them
such Fancies as my Contemplations did afford. The First
Part is Romancical; the Second, Philosophical; and
the Third is meerly Fancy; or (as I may call it) Fantastical.
And if (Noble Ladies) you should chance to
take pleasure in reading these Fancies, I shall account my
self a Happy Creatoress: If not, I must be content to
live a Melancholly Life in my own World; which I cannot
call a Poor World, if Poverty be only want of Gold A4v
Gold, and Jewels: for, there is more Gold in it, than all
the Chymists ever made; or, (as I verily believe) will
ever be able to make. As for the Rocks of Diamonds, I
wish, with all my Soul, they might be shared amongst my
Noble Female Friends; upon which condition, I would
willingly quit my Part: And of the Gold, I should desire only
so much as might suffice to repair my Noble Lord and Husband’s
Losses: for, I am not Covetous, but as Ambitious as
ever any of my Sex was, is, or can be; which is the cause,
That though I cannot be Henry the Fifth, or Charles the
; yet, I will endeavour to be, Margaret the First:
and, though I have neither Power, Time nor Occasion, to
be a great Conqueror, like Alexander, or Cesar; yet, rather
than not be Mistress of a World, since Fortune and the
Fates would give me none, I have made One of my own.
And thus, believing, or, at least, hoping, that no Creature
can, or will, Envy me for this World of mine, I

Noble Ladies,
Your Humble Servant,

M. Newcastle.

B1r 1

of a New
The Blazing-World.

A Merchant travelling into a foreign
Country, fell extreamly in Love
with a young Lady; but being
a stranger in that Nation, and
beneath her, both in Birth and
Wealth, he could have but little
hopes of obtaining his desire; however his Love growing
more and more vehement upon him, even to the
slighting of all difficulties, he resolved at last to Steal
her away; which he had the better opportunity to do,
because her Father’s house was not far from the Sea, B and B1v 2
and she often using to gather shells upon the shore accompanied
not with above two to three of her servants
it encouraged him the more to execute his design.
Thus coming one time with a little leight Vessel, not
unlike a Packet-boat, mann’d with some few Sea-men,
and well victualled, for fear of some accidents, which
might perhaps retard their journey, to the place where
she used to repair; he forced her away: But when he fancied
himself the happiest man of the World, he proved
to be the most unfortunate; for Heaven frowning at his
Theft, raised such a Tempest, as they knew not what
to do, or whither to steer their course; so that the Vessel,
both by its own leightness, and the violent motion
of the Wind, was carried as swift as an Arrow out of
a Bow, towards the North-pole, and in a short time
reached the Icy Sea, where the wind forced it amongst
huge pieces of Ice; but being little, and leight, it did
by the assistance and favour of the gods to this virtuous
Lady, so turn and wind through those precipices, as if
it had been guided by some experienced Pilot, and
skilful Mariner: But alas! Those few men which
were in it, not knowing whither they went, nor what
was to be done in so strange an Adventure, and not
being provided for so cold a Voyage, were all frozen to
death; the young Lady onely, by the light of her
Beauty, the heat of her Youth, and Protection of the
Gods, remaining alive: Neither was it a wonder that
the men did freeze to death; for they were not onely driven B2r 3
driven to the very end or point of the Pole of that
World, but even to another Pole of another World,
which joined close to it; so that the cold having a double
strength at the conjunction of those two Poles, was
insupportable: At last, the Boat still passing on, was
forced into another World; for it is impossible to
round this Worlds Globe from Pole to Pole, so as we
do from East to West; because the Poles of the other
World, joining to the Poles of this, do not allow any
further passage to surround the World that way; but
if any one arrives to either of these Poles, he is either
forced to return, or to enter into another World: and
lest you should scruple at it, and think, if it were thus,
those that live at the Poles would either see two Suns at
one time, or else they would never want the Sun’s light
for six months together, as it is commonly believed:
You must know, that each of these Worlds having
its own Sun to enlighten it, they move each one in
their peculiar Circles; which motion is so just and exact,
that neither can hinder or obstruct the other; for
they do not exceed their Tropicks: and although they
should meet, yet we in this World cannot so well perceive
them, by reason of the brightness of our Sun,
which being nearer to us, obstructs the splendor of the
Sun of the other World, they being too far off to be
discerned by our optick perception, except we use very
good Telescopes; by which, skilful Astronomers have
often observed two or three Suns at once.

B2 But B2v 4

But to return to the wandering Boat, and the distresed
Lady; she seeing all the Men dead, found small
comfort in life; their Bodies which were preserved all
that while from putrefaction and stench, by the extremity
of cold, began now to thaw, and corrupt;
whereupon she having not strength enough to fling
them over-board, was forced to remove out of her
small Cabine, upon the deck, to avoid the nauseous
smell; and finding the Boat swim between two plains
of Ice, as a stream that runs betwixt two shores, at last
perceived land, but covered all with Snow: from
which came, walking upon the Ice, strange Creatures,
in shape like Bears, only they went upright as men;
those Creatures coming near the Boat, catched hold of
it with their Paws, that served them instead of hands;
some two or three of them entred first; and when they
came out, the rest went in one after another; at last
having viewed and observed all that was in the Boat,
they spake to each other in a language which the Lady
did not understand; and having carried her out of the
Boat, sunk it, together with the dead men.

The Lady now finding her self in so strange a place,
and amongst such wonderful kind of Creatures, was
extreamly strucken with fear, and could entertain no
other Thoughts, but that every moment her life was to
be a sacrifice to their cruelty; but those Bear-like
Creatures, how terrible soever they appear’d to her
sight, yet were they so far from exercising any cruelty upon B3r 5
upon her, that rather they shewed her all civility and
kindness imaginable; for she being not able to go upon
the Ice, by reason of its slipperiness, they took her
up in their rough arms, and carried her into their
City, where instead of Houses, they had Caves under
ground; and as soon as they enter’d the City, both
Males and Females, young and old, flockt together
to see this Lady, holding up their Paws in admiration;
at last having brought her into a certain large and spacious
Cave, which they intended for her reception,
they left her to the custody of the Females, who entertained
her with all kindness and respect, and gave
her such victuals as they used to eat; but seeing
her Constitution neither agreed with the temper of that
Climate, nor their Diet, they were resolved to carry
her into another Island of a warmer temper; in which
were men like Foxes, onely walking in an upright
shape, who received their neighbours the Bear-men
with great civility and Courtship, very much admiring
this beauteous Lady; and having discoursed some
while together, agreed at last to make her a Present
to the Emperor of their World; to which end, after
she had made some short stay in the same place, they
brought her cross that Island to a large River, whose
stream run smooth and clear, like Chrystal; in which
were numerous Boats, much like our Fox-traps; in
one whereof she was carried, some of the Bear-
and Fox-men waiting on her; and as soon as they had B3 crossed B3v 6
crossed the River, they came into an Island where
there were Men which had heads, beaks and feathers,
like wild-Geese, onely they went in an upright shape,
like the Bear-men and Fox-men: their rumps they
carried between their legs, their wings were of the same
length with their Bodies, and their tails of an indifferent
size, trailing after them like a Ladie’s Garment;
and after the Bear- and Fox-men had declared
their intention and design to their Neighbours, the
Geese- or Bird-men, some of them joined to the
rest, and attended the Lady through that Island, till
they came to another great and large River, where
there was a preparation made of many Boats, much like
Birds nests, onely of a bigger size; and having crost
that River, they arrived into another Island, which
was of a pleasant and mild temper, full of Woods and
the Inhabitants thereof were Satyrs, who received
both the Bear- Fox- and Bird men, with all respect
and civility; and after some conferences (for they all
understood each others language) some chief of the
Satyrs joining to them, accompanied the Lady out
of that Island to another River, wherein were many
handsome and commodious Barges; and having crost
that River, they entered into a large and spacious
Kingdom, the men whereof were of a Grass-Green
Complexion, who entertained them very kindly, and
provided all conveniences for their further voyage:
hitherto they had onely crost Rivers, but now they could B4r 7
could not avoid the open Seas any longer; wherefore
they made their Ships and tacklings ready to sail over
into the Island, where the Emperor of the Blazing-
(for so it was call’d) kept his residence. Very
good Navigators they were; and though they had
no knowledg of the Load-stone, or Needle or pendulous
Watches, yet (which was as serviceable to them) they
had subtile observations, and great practice; in so much
that they could not onely tell the depth of the Sea in
every place, but where there were shelves of Sand,
Rocks, and other obstructions to be avoided by skilful
and experienced Sea-men: Besides, they were excellent
Augurers, which skill they counted more necessary
and beneficial then the use of Compasses, Cards,
Watches, and the like; but, above the rest, they had
an extraordinary Art, much to be taken notice of by
Experimental Philosophers, and that was a certain Engin,
which would draw in a great quantity of Air, and
shoot forth Wind with a great force; this Engine in a
calm, they placed behind their Ships, and in a storm,
before; for it served against the raging waves, like
Cannons against an hostile Army, or besieged Town;
it would batter and beat the waves in pieces, were they
as high as Steeples; and as soon as a breach was made,
they forced their passage through, in spight even of the
most furious wind, using two of those Engins at every
Ship, one before, to beat off the waves, and another
behind to drive it on; so that the artificial wind had the better B4v 8
better of the natural; for, it had a greater advantage of
the waves, then the natural of the Ships: the natural being
above the face of the Water, could not without a
down right motion enter or press into the Ships; whereas
the artificial with a sideward-motion, did pierce into
the bowels of the Waves: Moreover, it is to be observed,
that in a great Tempest they would join their Ships
in battel-aray: and when they feared Wind and Waves
would be too strong for them, if they divided their
Ships; they joined as many together as the compass or
advantage of the places of the Liquid Element would
give them leave. For, their Ships were so ingeniously
contrived, that they could fasten them together as close
as a Honey-comb, without waste of place; and being
thus united, no Wind nor Waves were able to separate
them. The Emperor’s Ships, were all of Gold; but the
Merchants and Skippers, of Leather; the Golden Ships
were not much heavier then ours of Wood, by reason
they were neatly made, and required not such thickness,
neither were they troubled with Pitch, Tar, Pumps,
Guns, and the like, which make our Woodden-Ships
very heavy; for though they were not all of a piece,
yet they were so well sodder’d, that there was no fear of
Leaks, Chinks, or Clefts; and as for Guns, there was
no use of them, because they had no other enemies but
the Winds: But the Leather Ships were not altogether
so sure, although much leighter; besides, they were
pitched to keep out Water.

Having C1r 9

Having thus prepar’d, and order’d their Navy, they
went on in despight of Calm or Storm: And though
the Lady at first fancied her self in a very sad condition,
and her mind was much tormented with doubts and
fears, not knowing whether this strange Adventure
would tend to her safety or destruction; yet she being
withal of a generous spirit, and ready wit, considering
what dangers she had past, and finding those sorts of
men civil and diligent attendants to her, took courage,
and endeavoured to learn their language; which after
she had obtained so far, that partly by some words and
signs she was able to apprehend their meaning, she was
so far from being afraid of them, that she thought her
self not onely safe, but very happy in their company:
By which we may see, that Novelty discomposes the
mind, but acquaintance settles it in peace and tranquillity.
At last, having passed by several rich Islands and
Kingdoms, they went towards Paradise, which was
the seat of the Emperor; and coming in sight of it, rejoiced
very much; the Lady at first could perceive nothing
but high Rocks, which seemed to touch the
Skies; and although they appear’d not of an equal
heigth, yet they seemed to be all one piece, without
partitions: but at last drawing nearer, she perceived a
clift, which was a part of those Rocks, out of which
she spied coming forth a great number of Boats, which
afar off shewed like a company of Ants, marching one
after another; the Boats appeared like the holes or C partitions C1v 10
partitions in a Honey-comb, and when joined together,
stood as close; the men were of several Complexions,
but none like any of our World; and when both the
Boats and Ships met, they saluted and spake to each other
very courteously; for there was but one language
in all that World: nor no more but one Emperor, to
whom they all submitted with the greatest duty and obedience,
which made them live in a continued Peace
and Happiness; not acquainted with Foreign
Wars or Home-bred Insurrections. The Lady now
being arrived at this place, was carried out of her Ship
into one of those Boats, and conveighed through the
same passage (for there was no other) into that part of
the World where the Emperor did reside; which part
was very pleasant, and of a mild temper: Within it self
it was divided by a great number of vast and large Rivers,
all ebbing and flowing, into several Islands of unequal
distance from each other, which in most parts
were as pleasant, healthful, rich, and fruitful, as Nature
could make them; and, as I mentioned before,
secure from all Foreign Invasions, by reason there was
but one way to enter, and that like a Labyrinth, so
winding and turning among the Rocks, that no other
Vessels but small Boats, could pass, carrying not above
three passengers at a time: On each side all along the
narrow and winding River, there were several Cities,
some of Marble, some of Alabaster, some of Agat,
some of Amber, some of Coral, and some of other precious C2r 11
precious materials not known in our world; all which
after the Lady had passed, she came to the Imperial
City, named Paradise, which appeared in form like
several Islands; for, Rivers did run betwixt every street,
which together with the Bridges, whereof there was
a great number, were all paved. The City it self was
built of Gold; and their Architectures were noble,
stately, and magnificent, not like our Modern, but like
those in the Romans time; for, our Modern Buildings
are like those Houses which Children use to make of
Cards, one story above another, fitter for Birds, then
Men; but theirs were more Large, and Broad, then
high; the highest of them did not exceed two stories,
besides those rooms that were under-ground, as Cellars,
and other Offices. The Emperor’s Palace stood
upon an indifferent ascent from the Imperial City; at
the top of which ascent was a broad Arch, supported
by several Pillars, which went round the Palace, and
contained four of our English miles in compass: within
the Arch stood the Emperor’s Guard, which consisted
of several sorts of Men; at every half mile, was
a Gate to enter, and every Gate was of a different
fashion; the first, which allowed a passage from the
Imperial City into the Palace, had on either hand a
Cloyster, the outward part whereof stood upon Arches
sustained by Pillars, but the inner part was close:
Being entred through the Gate, the Palace it self appear’d
in its middle like the Isle of a Church, a mile and C2 a C2v 12
a half long, and half a mile broad; the roof of it was all
Arched, and rested upon Pillars, so artificially placed
that a stranger would lose himself therein without a
Guide; at the extream sides, that is, between the outward
and inward part of the Cloyster, were Lodgings for
Attendants; and in the midst of the Palace, the Emperor’s
own Rooms; whose Lights were placed at the
top of every one, because of the heat of the Sun: the
Emperor’s appartment for State was no more inclosed
then the rest; onely an Imperial Throne was in every
appartment, of which the several adornments could
not be perceived until one entered, because the Pillars
were so just opposite to one another, that all the adornments
could not be seen at one. The first part of the
Palace was, as the Imperial City, all of Gold; and
when it came to the Emperors appartment, it was so rich
with Diamonds, Pearls, Rubies, and the like precious
Stones, that it surpasses my skill to enumerate them all.
Amongst the rest, the Imperial Room of State appear’d
most magnificent; it was paved with green Diamonds
(for there are in that World Diamonds of all
Colours) so artificially, as it seemed but of one piece; the
Pillars were set with Diamonds so close, and in such a
manner, that they appear’d most Glorious to the sight;
between every Pillar was a Bow or Arch of a certain
sort of Diamonds, the like whereof our World does
not afford; which being placed in every one of the Arches
in several rows, seemed just like so many Rainbowsbows C3r 13
of several different colours. The roof of the
Arches was of blew Diamonds, and in the midst thereof
was a Carbuncle, which represented the Sun; and the
Rising and Setting-Sun at the East and West-side of
the Room were made of Rubies. Out of this Room
there was a passage into the Emperor’s Bed-Chamber,
the Walls whereof were of Jet, and the Floor of
black Marble; the Roof was of Mother of Pearl,
where the Moon and Blazing-Stars were represented
by white Diamonds, and his Bed was made of Diamonds
and Carbuncles.

No sooner was the Lady brought before the Emperor,
but he conceived her to be some Goddess, and
offered to worship her; which she refused, telling him,
(for by that time she had pretty well learned their Language)
that although she came out of another world,
yet was she but a mortal. At which the Emperor rejoycing,
made her his Wife, and gave her an absolute
power to rule and govern all that World as she pleased.
But her subjects, who could hardly be perswaded
to believe her mortal, tender’d her all the Veneration
and Worship due to a Deity.

Her Accoustrement after she was made Empress,
was as followeth: On her head she wore a Cap of
Pearl, and a Half-moon of Diamonds just before it;
on the top of her Crown came spreading over a broad
Carbuncle, cut in the form of the Sun; her Coat
was of Pearl, mixt with blew Diamonds, and frindged C3 with C3v 14
with red ones; her Buskins and Sandals were of green
Diamonds; In her left hand she held a Buckler, to signifie
the Defence of her Dominions; which Buckler was
made of that sort of Diamond as has several different
Colours; and being cut and made in the form of an
Arch, shewed like a Rain-bow; In her right hand she
carried a Spear made of white Diamond, cut like the
tail of a Blazing Star, which signified that she was ready
to assault those that proved her Enemies.

None was allowed to use or wear Gold but those
of the Imperial Race, which were the onely Nobles of
the State; nor durst any one wear Jewels but the Emperor,
the Emrppress and their Eldest Son; notwithstanding
that they had an infinite quantity both of
Gold and precious Stones in that World; for they
had larger extents of Gold, then our Arabian Sands;
their precious Stones were Rocks, and their Diamonds
of several Colours; they used no Coyn, but all their
Traffick was by exchange of several Commodities.

Their Priests and Governors were Princes of the
Imperial Blood, and made Eunuches for that purpose;
and as for the ordinary sort of men in that part
of the World where the Emperor resided, they were
of several Complexions; not white, black, tawny, oliveor
ash-coloured; but some appear’d of an Azure, some
of a deep Purple, some of a Grass-green, some of a
Scarlet, some of an Orange-colour, &c. Which Colours
and Complexions, whether they were made by the C4r 15
the bare reflection of light, without the assistance of
small particles; or by the help of well-ranged and order’d
Atoms; or by a continual agitation of little Globules; or
by some pressing and re-acting motion, I am not able to
determine. The rest of the Inhabitants of that World,
were men of several different sorts, shapes, figures, dispositions,
and humors, as I have already made mention,
heretofore; some were Bear-men, some Worm-men,
some Fish- or Mear-men, otherwise called Syrens;
some Bird-men, some Fly-men, some Ant-men, some
Geese-men, some Spider-men, some Lice-men, some
Fox-men, some Ape-men, some Jack daw-men, some
Magpie-men, some Parrot-men, some Satyrs, some
Gyants, and many more, which I cannot all remember;
and of these several sorts of men, each followed such a
profession as was most proper for the nature of their
Species, which the Empress encouraged them in, especially
those that had applied themselves to the study of
several Arts and Sciences; for they were as ingenious
and witty in the invention of profitable and useful Arts,
as we are in our world, nay, more; and to that end
she erected Schools, and founded several Societies.
The Bear-men were to be her Experimental Philosophers,
the Bird-men her Astronomers, the Fly-
Worm- and Fish-men her Natural Philosophers, the
Ape-men her Chymists, the Satyrs her Galenick Physicians,
the Fox-men her Politicians, the Spider- and
Lice-men her Mathematicians, the Jackdaw- Magpie- and C4v 16
and Parrot-men her Orators and Logicians, the Gyants
her Architects, &c. But before all things, she
having got a Soveraign power from the Emperor over
all the World, desired to be informed both of the manner
of their Religion and Government; and to that end
she called the Priests and States men, to give her an
account of either. Of the States men she enquired,
first, Why they had so few Laws? To which they
answered, That many Laws made many Divisions,
which most commonly did breed Factions, and at last
brake out into open Wars. Next, she asked, Why
they preferred the Monarchical form of Government
before any other? They answered, That as it was
natural for one Body to have but one Head, so it was
also natural for a Politick body to have but one Governor;
and that a Common-wealth, which had many
Governors was like a Monster with many Heads. Besides,
said they, a Monarchy is a divine form of Government,
and agrees most with our Religion: For as
there is but one God, whom we all unanimously worship
and adore with one Faith; so we are resolved to have
but one Emperor, to whom we all submit with one

Then the Empress seeing that the several sorts of her
Subjects had each their Churches apart, asked the
Priests, whether they were of several Religions? They
answered her Majesty, That there was no more but
one Religion in all that World, nor no diversity of opinions D1r 17
opinions in that same Religion for though there were
several sorts
of men, yet had they all but one opinion
concerning the Worship and Adoration of God. The
Empress asked them, Whether they were Jews, Turks,
or Christians? We do not know, said they, what Religions
those are; but we do all unanimously acknowledg,
worship and adore the Onely, Omnipotent, and
Eternal God, with all reverence, submission, and duty.
Again, the Empress enquired, Whether they
had several Forms of Worship? They answered,
No: For our Devotion and Worship consists onely
in Prayers, which we frame according to our several
Necessities, in Petitions, Humiliations, Thanksgiving,
&c. Truly, replied the Empress, I thought
you had been either Jews, or Turks, because I never
perceived any Women in your Congregations: But
what is the reason, you bar them from your religious
Assemblies? It is not fit, said they, that Men and
Women should be promiscuously together in time of
Religious Worship; for their company hinders Devotion,
and makes many, instead of praying to God,
direct their Devotion to their Mistresses. But, asked
the Empress, Have they no Congregation of their
own, to perform the duties of Divine Worship, as
well as Men? No, answered they: but they stay at
home, and say their Prayers by themselves in their
Closets. Then the Empress desir’d to know the reason
why the Priests and Governors of their World D were D1v 18
were made Eunuchs? They answer’d, To keep them
from Marriage: For Women and Children most
commonly make disturbance both in Church and
State. But, said she, Women and Children have no
Employment in Church or State. ’Tis true, answer’d
they; but, although they are not admitted to publick
Employments, yet are they so prevalent with their
Husbands and Parents, that many times by their importunate
perswasions, they cause as much, nay, more
mischief secretly, then if they had the management
of publick Affairs.

The Empress having received an information of
what concerned both Church and State, passed some
time in viewing the Imperial Palace, where she admired
much the skil and ingenuity of the Architects, and
enquired of them, first, Why they built their Houses
no higher then two stories from the Ground? They
answered her Majesty, That the lower their Buildings
were, the less were they subject either to the heat of the
Sun, or Wind, Tempest, Decay, &c. Then she desired
to know the reason, why they made them so thick?
They answered, That, the thicker the Walls were, the
warmer they were in Winter, the cooler in Summer;
for their thickness kept out both the Cold and Heat. Lastly,
she asked, Why they Arched their Roofs, and made so
many Pillars? They replied, That Arches and Pillars,
did not onely grace a Building very much, and caused
it to appear Magnificent, but made it also firm and

The D2r 19

The Empress was very well satisfied with their answers;
and after some time, when she thought that
her new founded societies of the Vertuoso’s had made
a good progress in the several Employments she had
put them upon, she caused a Convocation first of the
Bird-men, and commanded them to give her a true
relation of the two Cœlestial Bodies, viz. the Sun and
Moon, which they did with all the obedience and faithfulness
befitting their duty.

The Sun, as much as they could observe,
they related to be a firm or solid Stone, of a vast
bigness; of colour yellowish, and of an extraordinary
splendor: But the Moon, they said, was of a
whitish colour; and although she looked dim in the
presence of the Sun, yet had she her own light, and
was a shining body of her self, as might be perceived
by her vigorous appearance in Moon-shiny-nights; the
difference onely betwixt her own and the Sun’s light
was, that the Sun did strike his beams in a direct line; but
the Moon never respected the Centre of their World
in a right line, but her Centre was always excentrical.
The Spots both in the Sun and Moon, as far as they
were able to perceive, they affirmed to be nothing else
but flaws and stains of their stony Bodies. Concerning
the heat of the Sun, they were not of one opinion; some
would have the Sun hot in it self, alledging an old
Tradition, that it should at some time break asunder,
and burn the Heavens, and consume this world into D2 hot D2v 20
hot Embers, which, said they, could not be done, if
the Sun were not fiery of it self. Others again said, This
opinion could not stand with reason; for Fire being a
destroyer of all things, the Sun-stone after this manner
would burn up all the near adjoining Bodies: Besides,
said they, Fire cannot subsist without fuel; and the Sunstone
having nothing to feed on, would in a short
time consume it self; wherefore they thought it more
probable that the Sun was not actually hot, but onely
by the reflection of its light; so that its heat was an effect
of its light, both being immaterial. But this opinion
again was laught at by others, and rejected as ridiculous,
who thought it impossible that one immaterial
should produce another; and believed that both
the light and heat of the Sun proceeded from a swift
Circular motion of the Æthereal Globules, which by
their striking upon the Optick nerve, caused light, and
their motion produced heat: But neither would this
opinion hold; for, said some, then it would follow,
that the sight of Animals is the cause of light; and
that, were there no eyes, there would be no light;
which was against all sense and reason. Thus they argued
concerning the heat and light of the Sun; but,
which is remarkable, none did say, that the Sun was
a Globous fluid body, and had a swift Circular
motion; but all agreed, It was fixt and firm like a
Center, and therefore they generally called it the

Then D3r 21

Then the Empress asked them the reason, Why the
Sun and Moon did often appear in different postures
or shapes, as sometimes magnified, sometimes diminished;
sometimes elevated, otherwhiles depressed; now
thrown to the right, and then to the left? To which
some of the Bird-men answered, That it proceeded
from the various degrees of heat and cold, which are
found in the Air, from whence did follow a differing
density and rarity; and likewise from the vapours that
are interposed, whereof those that ascend are higher
and less dense then the ambient air, but those which descend
are heavier and more dense. But others did with
more probability affirm, that it was nothing else but the
various patterns of the Air; for like as Painters do not
copy out one and the same original just alike at all times;
so, said they, do several parts of the Air make different
patterns of the luminous Bodies of the Sun and
Moon: which patterns, as several copies, the sensitive
motions do figure out in the substance of our eyes.

This answer the Empress liked much better then the
former, and enquired further, What opinion they had
of those Creatures that are called the motes of the Sun?
To which they answered, That they were nothing
else but streams of very small, rare and transparent particles,
through which the Sun was represented as
through a glass: for if they were not transparent, said
they, they would eclipse the light of the Sun; and if
not rare and of an airy substance, they would hinder D3 Flyes D3v 22
Flies from flying in the Air, at least retard their flying
motion: Nevertheless, although they were thinner
then the thinnest vapour, yet were they not so thin as
the body of air, or else they would not be perceptible
by animal sight. Then the Empress asked, Whether
they were living Creatures? They answered, Yes:
Because they did encrease and decrease, and were nourished
by the presence, and starved by the absence of
the Sun.

Having thus finished their discourse of the Sun and
Moon, the Empress desired to know what Stars there
were besides? But they answer’d, that they could perceive
in that World none other but Blazing Stars, and
from thence it had the name that it was called the Blazing-World;
and these Blazing-Stars, said they, were
such solid, firm and shining bodies as the Sun and
Moon, not of a Globular, but of several sorts of
figures: some had tails; and some, other kinds of

After this, The Empress asked them, What kind of
substance or creature the Air was? The Bird-men answered,
That they could have no other perception of
the Air, but by their own Respiration: For, said they,
some bodies are onely subject to touch, others onely to
sight, and others onely to smell; but some are subject
to none of our exterior Senses: For Nature is so full of
variety, that our weak Senses cannot perceive all the
various sorts of her Creatures; neither is there any one object D4r 23
object perceptible by all our Senses, no more then several
objects are by one sense. I believe you, replied
the Empress; but if you can give no account of the Air,
said she, you will hardly be able to inform me how
Wind is made; for they say, that Wind is nothing but
motion of the Air. The Bird-men answer’d, That
they observed Wind to be more dense then Air, and
therefore subject to the sense of Touch; but what properly
Wind was, and the manner how it was made,
they could not exactly tell; some said, it was caused
by the Clouds falling on each other; and others,
that it was produced of a hot and dry exhalation: which
ascending, was driven down again by the coldness of
the Air that is in the middle Region, and by reason of
its leightness, could not go directly to the bottom, but
was carried by the Air up and down: Some would
have it a flowing Water of the Air; and others again,
a flowing Air moved by the blaz of the Stars.

But the Empress, seeing they could not agree concerning
the cause of Wind, asked, Whether they could
tell how Snow was made? To which they answered
That according to their observation, Snow was made
by a commixture of Water, and some certain extract
of the Element of Fire that is under the Moon; a small
portion of which extract, being mixed with Water, and
beaten by Air or Wind, made a white Froth called
Snow; which being after some while dissolved by the
heat of the same spirit, turned to Water again. This observation D4v 24
observation amazed the Empress very much; for she
had hitherto believed, That Snow was made by cold
motions, and not by such an agitation or beating of a
fiery extract upon water: Nor could she be perswaded
to believe it until the Fish- or Mear-men had delivered
their observation upon the making of Ice, which, they
said, was not produced, as some hitherto conceived,
by the motion of the Air, raking the Superficies
of the Earth, but by some strong saline vapour
arising out of the Seas, which condensed Water into
Ice; and the more quantity there was of that vapour,
the greater were the Mountains of Precipices of Ice;
but the reason that it did not so much freeze in the Torrid
Zone, or under the Ecliptick, as near or under the
Poles, was, that this vapour in those places being drawn
up by the Sun-beams into the middle Region of the
Air, was onely condensed into Water, and fell down
in showres of Rain; when as, under the Poles, the
heat of the Sun being not so vehement, the same vapour
had no force or power to rise so high, and therefore
caused so much Ice, by ascending and acting onely
upon the surface of water.

This Relation confirmed partly the observation of
the Bird-men concerning the cause of Snow; but since
they had made mention that that same extract, which by
its commixture with Water made Snow, proceeded
from the Element of Fire, that is under the Moon:
The Emperess asked them, of what nature that Elementarytary E1r 25
Fire was; whether it was like ordinary Fire here
upon Earth, or such a Fire as is within the bowels of the
Earth, and as the famous Mountains Vesuvius and
Ætna do burn withal; or whether it was such a sort of
fire, as is found in flints, &c. They answered, That
the Elementary Fire, which is underneath the Sun,
was not so solid as any of those mentioned fires; because
it had no solid fuel to feed on; but yet it was
much like the flame of ordinary fire, onely somewhat
more thin and fluid; for Flame, said they, is nothing
else but the airy part of a fired Body.

Lastly, the Empress asked the Bird-men of the nature
of Thunder and Lightning? and whether it was
not caused by roves of Ice falling upon each other? To
which they answered, That it was not made that way,
but by an encounter of cold and heat; so that an exhalation
being kindled in the Clouds, did dash forth
Lightning, and that there were so many rentings of
Clouds as there were Sounds and Cracking noises:
But this opinion was contradicted by others, who affirmed
that Thunder was a sudden and monstrous
Blaz, stirred up in the Air, and did not always require
a Cloud; but the Empress not knowing what
they meant by Blaz (for even they themselves were not
able to explain the sennse of this word) liked the former
better; and, to avoid hereafter tedious disputes, and
have the truth of the Phænomena’s of Cœlestial Bodies
more exactly known, commanded the Bear-men, E which E1v 26
which were her Experimental Philosophers, to observe
them through such Instruments as are called Telescopes,
which they did according to her Majesties Command;
but these Telescopes caused more differences
and divisions amongst them, then ever they had before;
for some said, they perceived that the Sun stood still, and
the Earth did move about it; others were of opinion, that
they both did move; and others said again, that the
Earth stood still, and Sun did move; some counted
more Stars then others; some discovered new Stars
never seen before; some fell into a great dispute with
others concerning the bigness of the Stars; some said,
The Moon was another World like their Terrestrial
Globe, and the spots therein were Hills and Vallies;
but others would have the spots to be the Terrestrial
parts, and the smooth and glossie parts, the Sea: At
last, the Empress commanded them to go with their
Telescopes to the very end of the Pole that was joined
to the World she came from, and try whether they could
perceive any Stars in it: which they did; and, being
returned to her Majesty, reported that they had seen
three Blazing-Stars appear there, one after another in
a short time, whereof two were bright, and one dim;
but they could not agree neither in this observation: for
some said, It was but one Star which appeared at three
several times, in several places; and others would have
them to be three several Stars; for they thought it
impossible, that those three several appearances should have E2r 27
have been but one Star, because every Star did rise at a
certain time, and appear’d in a certain place, and did
disappear in the same place: Next, It is altogether improbable,
said they, That one Star should fly from
place to place, especially at such a vast distance, without
a visible motion; in so short a time, and appear in such
different places, whereof two were quite opposite, and
the third side-ways: Lastly, If it had been hbut one
Star, said they, it would always have kept the same
splendor, which it did not; for, as above mentioned,
two were bright, and one was dim. After they had
thus argued, the Empress began to grow angry at
their Telescopes, that they could give no better Intelligence;
for, said she, now I do plainly perceive, that
your Glasses are false Informers, and instead of discovering
the Truth, delude your Senses; Wherefore I
Command you to break them, and let the Bird-men
trust onely to their natural eyes, and examine Cœlestial
Objects by the motions of their own Sense and Reason.
The Bear-men replied, That it was not the fault of their
Glasses, which caused such differences in their Opinions,
but the sensitive motions in their Optick organs
did not move alike, nor were their rational judgments
always regular: To which the Empress answered,
That if their Glasses were true Informers, they would
rectifie their irregular Sense and Reason; But, said she,
Nature has made your Sense and Reason more regular
then Art has your Glasses; for they are meer deluders, E2 and E2v 28
and will never lead you to the knowledg of Truth;
Wherefore I command you again to break them; for
you may observe the progressive motions of Cœlestial
Bodies with your natural eyes better then through Artificial
Glasses. The Bear-men being exceedingly
troubled at her Majesties displeasure concerning their
Telescopes, kneel’d down, and in the humblest manner
petitioned, that they might not be broken; for, said
they, we take more delight in Artificial delusions, then
in Natural truths. Besides, we shall want Imployments
for our Senses, and Subjects for Arguments; for, were
there nothing but truth, and no falshood, there would
be no occasion to dispute, and by this means we
should want the aim and pleasure of our endeavors in
confuting and contradicting each other; neither would
one man be thought wiser then another, but all would
either be alike knowing and wise, or all would be fools;
wherefore we most humbly beseech your Imperial Majesty
to spare our Glasses, which are our onely delight,
and as dear to us as our lives. The Empress at last
consented to their request, but upon condition, that
their disputes and quarrels should remain within their
Schools, and cause no factions or disturbances in State,
or Government. The Bear-men, full of joy, returned
their most humble thanks to the Empress; and
to make her amends for the displeasure which their Telescopes
had occasioned, told her Majesty, that they
had several other artificial Optick-Glasses, which they were E3r 29
were sure would give her Majesty a great deal more
satisfaction. Amongst the rest, they brought forth
several Microscopes, by the means of which they
could enlarge the shapes of little bodies, and make a
Lowse appear as big as an Elephant, and a Mite as
big as a Whale. First of all they shewed the Empress a
gray Drone-flye, wherein they observed that the greatest
part of her face, nay, of her head, consisted of two
large bunches all cover’d over with a multitude of small
Pearls or Hemispheres in a Trigonal order: Which
Pearls were of two degrees, smaller and bigger; the
smaller degree was lowermost, and looked towards
the ground; the other was upward, and looked sideward,
forward and backward: They were all so
smooth and polished, that they were able to represent
the image of any object, the number of them was in
all 14000. After the view of this strange and miraculous
Creature, and their several observations upon it,
the Empress asked them, What they judged those little
Hemispheres might be? They answered, That each
of them was a perfect Eye, by reason they perceived
that each was covered with a Transparent Cornea,
containing a liquor within them, which resembled the
watery or glassie humor of the Eye. To which the Emperess
replied, That they might be glassie Pearls, and
yet not Eyes; and that perhaps their Microscopes did
not truly inform them. But they smilingly answered
her Majesty, That she did not know the vertue of E3 those E3v 30
those Microscopes: for they never delude, but rectifie
and inform the Senses; nay, the World, said
they, would be but blind without them, as it has
been in former ages before those Microscopes were

After this, they took a Charcoal, and viewing it
with one of their best Microscopes, discovered in it an
infinite multitude of pores, some bigger, some less; so
close and thick, that they left but very little space betwixt
them to be filled with a solid body; and to give
her Imperial Majesty a better assurance thereof, they
counted in a line of them an inch long, no less then
2700 pores; from which Observation they drew this
following Conclusion, to wit, That this multitude of
pores was the cause of the blackness of the Coal; for,
said they, a body that has so many pores, from each
of which no light is reflected, must necessarily look
black, since black is nothing else but a privation of light,
or a want of reflection. But the Empress replied,
That if all Colours were made by reflection of light, and
that Black was as much a colour as any other colour;
then certainly they contradicted themselves in saying
that black was made by want of reflection. However,
not to interrupt your Microscopical Inspections, said
she, let us see how Vegetables appear through your
Glasses; whereupon they took a Nettle, and by the
vertue of the Microscope, discovered that underneath
the points of the Nettle there were certain little bags or bladders, E4r 31
bladders, containing a poysonous liquor, and when
the points had made way into the interior parts of the
skin, they like Syringe-pipes served to conveigh that
same liquor into them. To which Observation the
Empress replied, That if there were such poyson in
Nettles, then certainly in eating of them, they
would hurt us inwardly, as much as they do outwardly?
But they answered, That it belonged to Physicians
more then to Experimental Philosophers, to give Reasons
hereof; for they only made Microscopical inspections,
and related the Figures of the Natural parts of
Creatures acording to the representation of their glasses.

Lastly, They shewed the Empress a Flea, and a
Lowse; which Creatures through the Microscope
appear’d so terrible to her sight, that they had almost
put her into a swoon; the description of all their parts
would be very tedious to relate, and therefore I’le forbear
it at this present. The Empress, after the view
of those strangely-shaped Creatures, pitied much those
that are molested with them, especially poor Beggars,
which although rthey have nothing to live on themselves,
are yet necessitated to maintain and feed of their
own flesh and blood, a company of such terrible Creatures
called Lice; who, instead of thanks, do reward
them with pains, and torment them for giving them
nourishment and food. But after the Empress had
seen the shapes of these monstrous Creatures, she
desir’d to know, Whether their Microscopes could hinder E4v 32
hinder their biting, or at least shew some means how to
avoid them? To which they answered, That such
Arts were mechanical and below the noble study of
Microscopical observations. Then the Empress asked
them, Whether they had not such sorts of Glasses
that could enlarge and magnifie the shapes of great Bodies
as well as they had done of little ones? Whereupon
they took one of their best and largest Microscopes,
and endeavoured to view a Whale thorow it; but alas!
the shape of the Whale was so big, that its Circumference
went beyond the magnifying quality of the Glass;
whether the error proceeded from the Glass, or from a
wrong position of the Whale against the reflection of
light, I cannot certainly tell. The Empress seeing
the insufficiency of those Magnifying-Glasses, that they
were not able to enlarge all sorts of Objects, asked the
Bear-men, whether they could not make Glasses of a
contrary nature to those they had shewed her, to wit,
such as instead of enlarging or magnifying the shape or
figure of an Object, could contract it beneath its natural
proportion: Which, in obedience to her Majesties
Commands, they did; and viewing through one
of the best of them, a huge and mighty Whale appear’d
no bigger then a Sprat; nay, through some no
bigger then a Vinegar-Eele; and through their ordinary
ones, an Elephant seemed no bigger then a Flea; a
Camel no bigger then a Lowse; and an Ostrich no
bigger then a Mite. To relate all their Optick observationsvations F1r 33
through the several sorts of their Glasses, would
be a tedious work, and tire even the most patient Reader,
wherefore I’le pass them by; onely this was very
remarkable and worthy to be taken notice of, that notwithstanding
their great skil, industry and ingenuity in
Experimental Philosophy, they could yet by no means
contrive such Glasses, by the help of which they could
spy out a Vacuum, with all its dimensions, nor Immaterial
substances, Non-beings, and Mixt-beings, or
such as are between something and nothing; which
they were very much troubled at, hoping that yet, in
time, by long study and practice, they might perhaps
attain to it.

The Bird- and Bear-men being dismissed, the Empress
called both the Syrens- or Fish-men, and the
Worm-men, to deliver their Observations which they
had made, both within the Seas, and the Earth. First,
she enquired of the Fish-men whence the saltness of the
Sea did proceed? To which they answered, That
there was a volatile salt in those parts of the Earth,
which as a bosom contain the Waters of the Sea,
which Salt being imbibed by the Sea, became fixt; and
this imbibing motion was that they call’d the Ebbing
and Flowing of the Sea; for, said they, the rising and swelling
of the Water, is caused by those parts of the volatile
Salt as are not so easily imbibed, which striving to ascend
above the Water, bear it up with such a motion, as
Man, or some other Animal Creature, in a violent F exercise F1v 34
exercise uses to take breath. This they affirmed to be
the true cause both of the saltness, and the ebbing and
flowing-motion of the Sea, and not the jogging of the
Earth, or the secret influence of the Moon, as some others
had made the World believe.

After this, the Empress enquired, Whether they
had observed, that all Animal Creatures within the Seas
and other waters, had blood? They answered, That
some had blood, more or less, but some had none. In
Crea-fishes and Lobsters, said they, we perceive but
little blood; but in Crabs, Oysters, Cockles, &c. none
at all. Then the Empress asked them, in what part of
their Bodies that little blood did reside? They answered,
in a small vein, which in Lobsters went through
the middle of their tails, but in Crea-fishes was found
in their backs: as for other sorts of Fishes, some, said
they, had onely blood about their Gills, and others in
some other places of their Bodies; but they had not as
yet observed any whose veins did spread all over their
Bodies. The Empress wondring that there could be
living Animals without Blood, to be better satisfied,
desired the Worm-men to inform her, whether they
had observed Blood in all sorts of Worms? They
answered, That, as much as they could perceive, some
had Blood, and some not; a Moth, said they, had no
Blood at all, and a Lowse had, but like a Lobster, a little
Vein along her back: Also Nits, Snails, and Maggots,
as well as those that are generated out of Cheese and F2r 35
and Fruits, as those that are produced out of Flesh, had
no blood: But, replied the Empress, If those mentioned
creatures have no blood, how is it possible they
can live? for it is commonly said, That the life of an
Animal consists in the blood, which is the seat of the
Animal spirits. They answered, That blood was not
a necessary propriety to the life of an Animal; and that
that which was commonly called Animal spirits, was
nothing else but corporeal motions proper to the nature
and figure of an Animal. Then she asked both the
Fish- and Worm-men, whether all those Creatures
that have blood, had a circulation of blood in their
veins and arteries? But they answered, That it was
impossible to give her Majesty an exact account thereof,
by reason the circulation of blood was an interior
motion, which their senses, neither of themselves, nor
by the help of any Optick Instrument could perceive;
but as soon as they had dissected an Animal Creature, to
find out the truth thereof, the interior corporeal motions
proper to that particular figure or creature, were altered.
Then said the Empress, If all Animal Creatures have
not blood, it is certain, they all have neither Muscles,
tendons, nerves, &c. But, said she, Have you ever
observed Animal Creatures that are neither flesh, nor
Fish, but of an intermediate degree between both?
Truly, answered both the Fish- and Worm-men, We
have observed several Animal Creatures that live both
in Water, and on the Earth, indifferently, and if any, F2 certainly F2v 36
certainly those may be said to be of such a mixt nature,
that is, partly Flesh, and partly Fish: But how is it
possible, replied the Empress, that they should live
both in Water, and on the Earth, since those Animals
that live by the respiration of Air, cannot live within
Water; and those that live in Water, cannot live by the
respiration of Air, as Experience doth sufficiently witness.
They answered her Majesty, That as there were
different sorts of Creatures, so they had also different
ways of Respirations; for Respiration, said they, is
nothing else but a composition and division of parts,
and the motions of nature being infinitely various, it is
impossible that all Creatures should have the like motions;
wherefore it was not necessary, that all Animal
Creatures should be bound to live either by the Air, or
by Water onely, but according as Nature had ordered
it convenient to their Species. The Empress seem’d very
well satisfied with their answer, and desired to be further
informed, Whether all Animal Creatures did continue
their Species by a successive propogation of particulars,
and whether in every Species the off-springs did
always resemble their Generator or Producer, both in
their interior and exterior Figures? They answered,
her Majesty, That some Species or sorts of Creatures,
were kept up by a successive propagation of an offspring
that was like the producer, but some were not.
Of the first rank, said they, are all those Animals that
are of different sexes, besides several others; but of the second F3r 37
second rank are for the most part those we call Insects,
whose production proceds from such causes as have no
conformity or likeness with their produced Effects; as
for example, Maggots bred out of Cheese, and several
others generated out of Earth, Water, and the
like. But said the Empress, there is some likeness
between Maggots and Cheese; for Cheese has no
blood, nor Maggots neither; besides, they have
almost the same taste which Cheese has. This
proves nothing, answered they; for Maggots have a
visible, local., progressive motion, which Cheese hath
not. The Empress replied, That when all the
Cheese was turned into Maggots, it might be said to
have local, progressive motion. They answered, That
when the Cheese by its own figurative motions was
changed into Maggots, it was no more Cheese. The
Empress confessed that she observed Nature was infinitely
various in her works, and that though the species
of Creatures did continue, yet their particulars
were subject to infinite changes. But since you have
informed me, said she, of the various sorts and productions
of Animal Creatures, I desire you to tell me
what you have observed of their sensitive perceptions?
Truly, answered they, Your Majesty puts a very
hard question to us, and we shall hardly be able to give
a satisfactory answer to it; for there are many different
sorts of Creatures, which as they have all different
perceptions, so they have also different organs, which F3 our F3v 38
our senses are not able to discover, onely in an Oystershell
we have with admiration observed, that the common
sensorium of the Oyster lies just as the closing of the
shells, where the pressure and reaction may be perceived
by the opening and shutting of the shells every tide.

After all this, the Empress desired the Worm men
to give her a true Relation how frost was made upon
the Earth? To which they answered, That it was
made much after the manner and description of the
Fish- and Bird-men, concerning the Congelation of
Water into Ice and Snow, by a commixture of saline
and acid particles; which relation added a great light to
the Ape-men, who were the Chymists, concerning their
Chymical principles, Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury. But,
said the Empress, if it be so, it will require an infinite
multitude of saline particles to produce such a great
quantity of Ice, Frost and Snow: besides, said she,
when Snow, Ice and Frost, turn again into their former
principle, I would fain know what becomes of those
saline particles? But neither the Worm-men, nor the
Fish- and Bird-men, could give her an answer to it.

Then the Empress enquired of them the reason,
Why Springs were not as salt as the Sea is? also, why
some did ebb and flow? To which it was answered,
That the ebbing and flowing of some Springs, was caused
by hollow Caverns within the Earth, where the Seawater
crowding thorow, did thrust forward, and drew
backward the Spring-water, according to its own way of ebbing F4r 39
ebbing and flowing; but others said, That it proceeded
from a small proportion of saline and acid particles,
which the Spring-water imbibed from the Earth; and
although it was not so much as to be perceived by
the sense of Taste; yet it was enough to cause an ebbing
and flowing-motion. And as for the Spring-
water being fresh, they gave, according to their Observation,
this following reason: There is, said they, a certain
heat within the Bowels of the Earth, proceeding
from its swift circular motion, upon its own axe, which
heat distills the rarest parts of the Earth into a fresh and
insipid water, which water being through the pores of
the Earth, conveighed into a place where it may break
forth without resistance or obstruction, causes Springs
and Fountains; and these distilled Waters within the
Earth, do nourish and refresh the grosser and drier parts
thereof. This Relation confirmed the Empress in the
opinion concerning the motion of the Earth, and the
fixedness of the Sun, as the Bird-men had informed
her; and then she asked the Worm-men, whether
Minerals and Vegetables were generated by the same
heat that is within the Bowels of the Earth? To
which they could give her no positive answer; onely
this they affirmed, That heat and cold were not the
primary producing causes of either Vegetables or Minerals,
or other sorts of Creatures, but onely effects;
and to prove this our assertion, said they, we have observed,
that by change of some sorts of Corporeal motions,tions, F4v 40
that which is now hot, will become cold; and
what is now cold, will grow hot; but the hottest place
of all, we find to be the Center of the Earth: Neither
do we observe, that the Torrid Zone does contain
so much Gold and Silver as the Temperate; nor is there
great store of Iron and Lead wheresoever there is Gold;
for these Metals are most found in colder Climates
towards either of the Poles. This Observation, the
Empress commanded them to confer with her Chymists,
the Ape-men; to let them know that Gold was
not produced by a violent, but a temperate degree of
heat. She asked further, Whether Gold could not
be made by Art? They answered, That they could
not certainly tell her Majesty, but if it was possible to
be done, they thought Tin, Lead, Brass, Iron and
Silver, to be the fittest Metals for such an Artificial
Transmutation. Then she asked them, Whether Art
could produce Iron, Tin, Lead, or Silver? They
answered, Not, in their opinion. Then I perceive, replyed
the Empress, that your judgments are very irregular,
since you believe that Gold, which is so fixt a
Metal, that nothing has been found as yet which could
occasion a dissolution of its interior figure, may be made
by Art, and not Tin, Lead, Iron, Copper or Silver,
which yet are so far weaker, and meaner Metals
then Gold is. But the Worm-men excused themselves,
that they were ignorant in that Art,
and that such questions belonged more properly to the G1r 41
the Ape-men, which were Her Majesties Chymists.

Then the Empress asked them, Whether by their
Sensitive perceptions they could observe the interior
corporeal, figurative Motions both of Vegetables and
Minerals? They answer’d, That their Senses could
perceive them after they were produced, but not before;
Nevertheless, said they, although the interior,
figurative motions of Natural Creatures are not subject
to the exterior, animal, sensitive perceptions, yet by
their Rational perception they may judg of them, and
of their productions if they be regular: Whereupon
the Empress commanded the Bear-men to lend them
some of their best Microscopes. At which the Bear-
men smilingly answered her Majesty, that their Glasses
would do them but little service in the bowels of the
Earth, because there was no light; for, said they, our
Glasses do onely represent exterior objects, according
to the various reflections and positions of light; and
wheresoever light is wanting, the glasses wil do no good.
To which the Worm-men replied, that although
they could not say much of refractions, reflections, inflections,
and the like; yet were they not blind, even in
the bowels of the Earth: for they could see the several
sorts of Minerals, as also minute Animals, that lived
there; which minute Animal Creatures were not blind
neither, but had some kind of sensitive perception that
was as serviceable to them, as sight, taste, smell, touch, G hear- G1v 42
hearing, &c. was to other Animal Creatures: By which
it is evident, That Nature has been as bountiful to those
Creatures that live underground, or in the bowels of
the Earth, as to those that live upon the surface of the
Earth, or in the Air, or in Water. But howsoever,
proceeded the Worm-men, although there is light in
the bowels of the Earth, yet your Microscopes will do
but little good there, by reason those Creatures that
live under ground have not such an optick sense as those
that live on the surface of the Earth: wherefore, unless
you had such Glasses as are proper for their perception,
your Microscopes will not be any ways advantagious
to them. The Empress seem’d well pleased with this
answer of the Worm-men; and asked them further,
Whether Minerals and all other Creatures within the
Earth were colourless? At which question they could
not forbear laughing; and when the Empress asked
the reason why they laught? We most humbly
beg your Majesties pardon, replied they; for we
could not chuse but laugh, when we heard of a colourless
Body. Why, said the Empress, Colour is onely
an accident, which is an immaterial thing, and has no
being of it self, but in another body. Those, replied
they, that informed your Majesty thus, surely
their rational motions were very irregular; For how
is it possible, that a Natural nothing can have a being in
Nature? If it be no substance, it cannot have a being,
and if no being, it is nothing; Wherefore the distinctionction G2r 43
between subsisting of it self, and subsisting in another
body, is a meer nicety, and non-sense, for there
is nothing in Nature that can subsist of, or by it self, (I
mean singly) by reason all parts of Nature are composed
in one body, and though they may be infinitely
divided, commixed, and changed in their particular,
yet in general, parts cannot be separated from parts as
long as Nature lasts; nay, we might as probably affirm,
that Infinite Nature would be as soon destroyed,
as that one Atom could perish; and therefore your
Majesty may firmly believe, that there is no Body
without colour, nor no Colour without body; for
colour, figure, place, magnitude, and body, are all
but one thing, without any separation or abstraction
from each other.

The Empress was so wonderfully taken with this
Discourse of the Worm-men, that she not only pardoned
the rudeness they committed in laughing at first
at her question, but yielded a full assent to their opinion,
which she thought the most rational that ever she
had heard yet; and then proceeding in her questions, enquired
further, whether they had observed any seminal
principles within the Earth free from all dimensions
and qualities, which produced Vegetables, Minerals,
and the like? To which they answered, That concerning
the seeds of Minerals, their sensitive perceptions
had never observed any; but Vegetables had certain
seeds out of which they were produced. Then G2 she G2v 44
she asked, whether those seeds of Vegetables lost their
Species, that is, were annihilated in the production of
their off-spring? To which they answered, That by
an Annihilation, nothing could be produced, and that
the seeds of Vegetables were so far from being annihilated
in their productions, that they did rather numerously
increase and multiply; for the division of one
seed, said they, does produce numbers of seeds out of it
self. But repli’d the Empress, A particular part cannot increase
of it self. ’Tis true, answer’d they: but they increase
not barely of themselves, but by joining and commixing
with other parts, which do assist them in their productions,
and by way of imitation form or figure
their own parts into such or such particulars. Then, I
pray inform me, said the Empress, what disguise those
seeds put on, and how they do conceal themselves in
their Transmutations? They answered, That seeds
did no ways disguise or conceal, but rather divulge
themselves in the multiplication of their off-spring;
onely they did hide and conceal themselves from their
sensitive perceptions so, that their figurative and productive
motions were not perceptible by Animal Creatures.
Again, the Empress asked them, whether there
were any Non-beings within the Earth? To which
they answered, That they never heard of any such
thing; and that, if her Majesty would know the truth
thereof, she must ask those Creatures that are called Immaterial
spirits, which had a great affinity with Nonbeings,beings G3r 45
and perhaps could give her a satisfactory answer
to this question. Then she desired to be informed,
What opinion they had of the beginning of Forms?
They told her Majesty, That they did not understand
what she meant by this expression; For, said they, there
is no beginning in Nature, no not of Particulars; by
reason Nature is Eternal and Infinite, and her particulars
are subject to infinite changes and transmutations
by vertue of their own Corporeal, figurative self-motions;
so that there’s nothing new in Nature, not properly
a beginning of any thing. The Empress seem’d
well satisfied with all those answers, and enquired further,
Whether there was no Art used by those Creatures
that live within the Earth? Yes, answered they:
for the several parts of the Earth do join and assist each
other in composition or framing of such or such particulars;
and many times, there are factions and divisions;
which cause productions of mixt Species; as, for
example, weeds, instead of sweet flowres and useful
fruits; but Gardeners and Husbandmen use often to
decide their quarrels, and cause them to agree; which
though it shews a kindness to the differing parties, yet
’tis a great prejudice to the Worms, and other Animal-
Creatures that live under ground; for it most commonly
causes their dissolution and ruine, at best they
are driven out of their habitations. What, said the
Empress, are not Worms produced out of the Earth?
Their production in general, answered they, is like G3 the G3v 46
the production of all other Natural Creatures, proceeding
from the corporeal figurative motions of Nature;
but as for their particular productions, they
are according to the nature of their Species; some are
produced out of flowers, some out of roots, some out
of fruits, some out of ordinary Earth. Then they are
very ungrateful Children, replied the Empress, that
they feed on their own Parents which gave them life.
Their life, answered they, is their own, and not their
Parents; for no part or creature of Nature can either
give or take away life; but parts do onely assist and
join with parts, either in dissolution or production
of other Parts and Creatures.

After this, and several other Conferences, which
the Empress held with the Worm-men, she dismissed
them; and having taken much satisfaction in several
of their Answers, encouraged them in their Studies and
Observations. Then she made a Convocation of her
Chymists, the Ape-men; and commanded them to give
her an account of the several Transmutations which
their Art was able to produce. They begun first with
a long and tedious Discourse concerning the Primitive
Ingredients of Natural bodies; and how, by their Art,
they had found out the principles out of which they
consist. But they did not all agree in their opinions;
for some said, That the Principles of all Natural Bodies
were the four Elements, Fire, Air, Water, Earth,
out of which they were composed: Others rejected this G4r 47
this Elementary commixture, and said, There were
many Bodies out of which none of the four Elements
could be extracted by any degree of Fire whatsoever;
and that, on the other side, there were divers Bodies,
whose resolution by Fire reduced them into more
then four different Ingredients; and these affirmed,
That the only principles of Natural Bodies were Salt,
Sulphur, and Mercury: Others again declared, That
none of the forementioned could be called the True
Principles of Natural Bodies; but that by their industry
and pains which they had taken in the Art of Chymistry,
they had discovered, that all Natural Bodies were
produced but from one Principle, which was Water;
for all Vegetables, Minerals, and Animals, said they,
are nothing else, but simple Water distinguished into
various figures by the vertue of their Seeds. But after
a great many debates and contentions about this Subject,
the Empress being so much tired that she was not
able to hear them any longer, imposed a general silence
upon them, and then declared her self in this following

I am too sensible of the pains you have taken in
the Art of Chymistry, to discover the Principles of
Natural Bodies, and wish they had been more profitably
bestowed upon some other, then such experiments;
for both by my own Contemplation, and the
Observations which I have made by my rational & sensitive
perception upon Nature, and her works, I find, that G4v 48
that Nature is but one Infinite Self-moving Body,
which by the vertue of its self-motion, is divided into
Infinite parts, which parts being restless, undergo
perpetual changes and transmutations by their infinite
compositions and divisions. Now, if this be so, as
surely, according to regular Sense and Reason, it appears
no otherwise; it is in vain to look for primary
Ingredients, or constitutive principles of Natural Bodies,
since there is no more but one Universal Principle
of Nature, to wit, self-moving Matter, which
is the onely cause of all natural effects. Next, I desire
you to consider, that Fire is but a particular Creature,
or effect of Nature, and occasions not onely
different effects in several Bodies, but on some Bodies
has no power at all; witness Gold, which never
could be brought yet to change its interior figure by
the art of Fire; and if this be so, Why should you be
so simple as to believe that Fire can shew you the Principles
of Nature? and that either the Four Elements,
or Water onely, or Salt Sulphur and Mercury,
all which are no more but particular effects and Creatures
of Nature, should be the Primitive Ingredients
or Principles of all Natural Bodies? Wherefore, I
will not have you to take more pains, and waste your
time in such fruitless attempts, but be wiser hereafter,
and busie your selves with such Experiments as may be
beneficial to the publick.

The H1r 49

The Empress having thus declared her mind to
the Ape-men, and given them better Instructions
then perhaps they expected, not knowing that her
Majesty had such great and able judgment in Natural
Philosophy, had several conferences with them concerning
Chymical Preperations, which for brevities
sake, I’le forbear to reherse: Amongst the rest, she asked,
how it came that the Imperial Race appear’d so young,
and yet was reported to have lived so long; some of
them two, some three, and some four hundred years?
and whether it was by Nature, or a special Divine
blessing? To which they answered, That there was
a certain Rock in the parts of that World, which contained
the Golden Sands, which Rock was hallow
within, and did produce a Gum that was a hundred
years before it came to its full strength and perfection;
this Gum, said they, if it be held in a warm hand, will
dissolve into an Oyl, the effects whereof are following:
It being given every day for some certain time, to
an old decayed man, in the bigness of a little Pea, will
first make him spit for a week, or more; after this, it will
cause Vomits of Flegm; and after that it will bring forth
by vomits, humors of several colours; first of a pale
yellow, then of a deep yellow, then of a green, and
lastly of a black colour; and each of these humours have
a several taste, some are fresh, some salt, some sower,
some bitter, and so forth; neither do all these Vomits
make them sick, but they come out on a sudden, and H unawares, H1v 50
unawares, without any pain or trouble to the patient:
And after it hath done all these mentioned effects, and
clear’d both the Stomack and several other parts of the
body, then it works upon the Brain, and brings forth
of the Nose such kinds of humors as it did out of the
Mouth, and much after the same manner; then it will
purge by stool, then by urine, then by sweat, and
lastly by bleeding at the Nose, and the Emeroids; all
which effects it will perform within the space of six
weeks, or a little more; for it does not work very strongly,
but gently, and by degrees: Lastly, when it has
done all this, it will make the body break out into a
thick Scab, and cause both Hair, Teeth, and Nails to
come off; which scab being arrived to its full maturity,
opens first along the back, and comes off all in a piece
like armour, and all this is done within the space of
four months. After this the Patient is wrapt into a Cere-
cloth, prepared of certain Gums and Juices, wherein
he continues until the time of nine Months be expired
from the first beginning of the cure, which is the time
of a Childs formation in the Womb. In the mean
while, his diet is nothing else but Eagles-eggs, and
Hinds-milk; and after the Cere-cloth is taken away, he
will appear of the age of Twenty, both in shape, and
strength. The weaker sort of this Gum is soveraign
in healing of wounds, and curing of slight distempers.
But this is also to be observed, that none of the Imperial
race does use any other drink but Lime-water, or water H2r 51
water in which Lime-stone is immerged; their meat is
nothing else but Fowl of several sorts, their recreations
are many, but chiefly Hunting.

This Relation amazed the Empress very much; for
though in the World she came from, she had heard
great reports of the Philosophers-stone, yet had she
not heard of any that had ever found it out, which
made her believe that it was but a Chymera; she called
also to mind, that there had been in the same World
a Man who had a little Stone which cured all kinds of
Diseases outward and inward, according it was applied;
and that a famous Chymist had found out a
certain Liquor called Alkahest, which by the vertue of
its own fire, consumed all Diseases; but she had never
heard of a Medicine that could renew old Age, and
render it beautiful, vigorous and strong: Nor would
she have so easily believed it, had it been a medicine
prepared by Art; for she knew that Art, being Natures
Changeling, was not able to produce such a powerful
effect; but being that the Gum did grow naturally,
she did not so much scruple at it; for she knew
that Nature’s Works are so various and wonderful,
that no particular Creature is able to trace her ways.

The Conferences of the Chymists being finished,
the Empress made an Assembly of her Galenical Physicians,
her Herbalists and Anatomists; and first she
enquired of her Herbalists the particular effects of several
Herbs and Drugs, and whence they proceeded? H2 To H2v 52
To which they answered, that they could, for the most
part, tell her Majesty the vertues and operations of
them, but the particular causes of their effects were unknown;
onely thus much they could say, that their operations
and vertues were generally caused by their
proper inherent, corporeal, figurative motions, which
being infinitely various in Infinite Nature, did produce
infinite several effects. And it is observed, said they,
that Herbs and Drugs are as wise in their operations, as
Men in their words and actions; nay, wiser; and their
effects are more certain then Men in their opinions; for
though they cannot discourse like Men, yet have they
Sense and Reason, as well as Men; for the discursive faculty
is but a particular effect of Sense and Reason in
some particular Creatures, to wit, Men, and not a principle
of Nature, and argues often more folly then wisdom.
The Empress asked, Whether they could
not by a composition and commixture of other Drugs
make them work other effects then they did, used
by themselves? They answered, That they could
make them produce artificial effects, but not alter their
inherent, proper and particular natures.

Then the Empress commanded her Anatomists to
dissect such kinds of Creatures as are called Monsters.
But they answered her Majesty, That it would be but
an unprofitable and useless work, and hinder their better
imployments; for when we dissect dead Animals,
said they, it is for no other end, but to observe what defects H3r 53
defects and distempers they had, that we may cure the
like in living ones, so that all our care and industry
concerns onely the preservation of Mankind; but we
hope your Majesty will not preserve Monsters, which
are most commonly destroyed, except it be for novelty:
Neither will the dissection of Monsters prevent
the errors of Nature’s irregular actions; for by dissecting
some, we cannot prevent the production of others;
so that our pains and labour will be to no purpose,
unless to satisfie the vain curiosities of inquisitive
men. The Empress replied, That such dissections
would be very beneficial to Experimental Philosophers.
If Experimental Philosophers, answer’d they,
do spend their time in such useless Inspections, they
waste it in vain, and have nothing but their labour for
their pains.

Lastly, her Majesty had some Conferences with
the Galenick Physicians about several Diseases, and
amongst the rest, desired to know the cause and nature
of Apoplexies, and the spotted Plague. They answered,
That a deadly Apoplexy was a dead palsie of
the Brain, and the spotted Plague was a Gangrene of
the Vital parts: and as the Gangrene of outward parts
did strike inwardly; so the Gangrene of inward parts,
did break forth outwardly: which is the cause, said
they, that as soon as the spots appear, death follows;
for then it is an infallible sign, that the body is throughout
infected with a Gangrene, which is a spreading H3 evil; H3v 54
evil; but some Gangrenes do spread more suddenly
than others, and of all sorts of Gangrenes, the Plaguy-
Gangrene is the most infectious; for other Gangrenes
infect but the next adjoining parts of one particular body,
and having killed that same Creature, go no further,
but cease; when as, the Gangrene of the Plague, infects
not onely the adjoining parts of one particular
Creature, but also those that are distant; that is, one
particular body infects another, and so breeds a Universal
Contagion. But the Empress being very desirous
to know in what manner the Plague was propagated,
and became so contagious, asked, Whether it
went actually out of one body into another? To
which they answered, That it was a great dispute amongst
the Learned of their Profession, Whether it
came by a division and composition of parts; that is,
by expiration and inspiration; or whether it was caused
by imitation: some Experimental Philosophers,
said they, will make us believe, that by the help of their
Microscopes, they have observed the Plague to be a
body of little Flies like Atoms, which go out of one
body into another, through the sensitive passages; but
the most experienced and wisest of our society, have
rejected this opinion as a ridiculous fancy, and do, for
the most part, believe, that it is caused by an imitation
of Parts; so that the motions of some parts which are
sound, do imitate the motions of those that are infected
and that by this means, the Plague becomes contagions,
and spreading.

The H4r 55

The Empress having hitherto spent her time in the
Examination of the Bird- Fish- Worm- and Ape-
men, &c. and received several Intelligences from their
several imployments; at last had a mind to divert her
self after her serious Discourses, and therefore she sent
for the Spider-men, which were her Mathematicians,
the Lice-men which were here Geometricians, and the
Magpie- Parrot- and Jackdaw-men, which were her
Orators and Logicians. The Spider-men came first,
and presented her Majesty with a table full of Mathematical
points, lines, and figures of all sorts, of squares,
circles, triangles, and the like; which the Empress,
notwithstanding that she had a very ready wit, and
quick apprehension, could not understand; but the
more she endeavoured to learn, the more was she confounded:
Whether they did ever square the Circle, I
cannot exactly tell, nor whether they could make
imaginary points and lines; but this I dare say, That
their points and lines were so slender, small and thin,
that they seem’d next to Imaginary. The Mathematicians
were in great esteem with the Empress, as beiung
not onely the chief Tutors and Instructors in many
Arts, but some of them excellent Magicians and Informers
of spirits, which was the reason their Characters
were so abstruse and intricate, that the Emperess
knew not what to make of them. There is so
much to learn in your Art, said she, that I can neither
spare time from other affairs to busie my self in your profession, H4v 56
profession; nor, if I could, do I think I should ever be
able to understand your Imaginary points, lines and figures,
because they are Non-beings.

Then came the Lice-men, and endeavoured to
measure all things to a hairs-breadth, and weigh them
to an Atom; but their weights would seldom agree,
especially in the weighing of Air, which they found
a task impossible to be done; at which the FEmpress began
to be displeased, and told them, that there was
neither Truth nor Justice in their Profession; and so
dissolved their society.

After this, the Empress was resolved to hear the
Magpie- Parrot- and Jackdaw-men, which were her
professed Orators and Logicians; whereupon one of
the Parrot-men rose with great formality, and endeavoured
to make an Eloquent Speech before her Majesty;
but before he had half ended, his arguments and
divisions being so many, that they caused a great confusion
in his brain, he could not go forward, but was
forced to retire backward, with great disgrace
both to himself, and the whole society; and although
one of his brethren endeavoured to second him by another
speech, yet was he as far to seek, as the former. At
which the Empress appear’d not a little troubled, and
told them, That they followed too much the Rules of
Art, and confounded themselves with too nice formalities
and distinctions; but since I know, said she, that
you are a people who have naturally voluble tongues, and I1r 57
and good memories; I desire you to consider more the
subject you speak of, then your artificial periods, connexions
and parts of speech, and leave the rest to your
natural Eloquence; which they did, and so became very
eminent Orators.

Lastly, her Imperial Majesty being desirous to know
what progress her Logicians had made in the Art of
disputing, Commanded them to argue upon several
Themes or Subjects; which they did; and having made a
very nice discourse of Logistical terms and propositions,
entred into a dispute by way of Syllogistical Arguments,
through all the Figures and Modes: One began
with an Argument of the first Mode of the first
Figure, thus:
“Every Politician is wise:
Every Knave is a Politician,
Therefore every Knave is wise.”

Another contradicted him with a Syllogism of the
second Mode of the same Figure, thus:
“No Politician is wise:
Every Knave is a Politician,
Therefore no Knave is wise.”

The third made an Argument in the third Mode
of the same Figure, after this manner:
“Every Politician is wise:
some Knaves are Politicians,
Therefore some Knaves are wise.”

I The I1v 58

The Fourth concluded with a Syllogism in the
fourth Mode of the same Figure, thus;
“No Politician is wise:
some Knaves are Politicians,
Therefore some Knaves are not wise.”

After this they took another subject, and one propounded
this Syllogism:
“Every Philosopher is wise:
Every Beast is wise,
Therefore every Beast is a Philosopher.”

But another said that this Argument was false,
therefore he contradicted him with a Syllogism of the
second Figure of the fourth Mode, thus:
“Every Philosopher is wise:
some Beasts are not wise,
Therefore some Beasts are not Philosophers.”

Thus they argued, and intended to go on, but the
Empress interrupted them: I have enough, said she,
of your chopt Logick, and will hear no more of your
Syllogisms; for it disorders my Reason, and puts my
Brain on the rack; your formal argumentations are able
to spoil all natural wit; and I’le have you to consider,
that Art does not make Reason, but Reason makes
Art; and therefore as much as Reason is above Art,
so much is a natural rational discourse to be preferred before
an artificial: for Art is, for the most part irregular,
and disorders Men’s understandings more then it rectifiesfies I2r 59
them, and leads them into a Labyrinth where
they’l never get out, and makes them dull and unfit
for useful employments; especially your Art of Logick,
which consists onely in contradicting each other,
in making sophismes, and obscuring Truth, instead of
clearing it.

But they replied to her Majesty, That the knowledg
of Nature, that is, Natural Philosophy, would be imperfect
without the Art of Logick; and that there was an
improbable Truth which could no otherwise be found
out then by the Art of disputing. Truly, said the
Empress, I do believe that it is with Natural Philosophy,
as it is with all other effects of Nature; for no
particular knowledg can be perfect, by reason knowledg
is dividable, as well as composable; nay, to speak
properly, Nature her self cannot boast of any perfection,
but God himself; because there are so many irregular
motions in Nature, and ’tis but a folly to think that
Art should be able to regulate them, since Art it self is,
for the most part, irregular. But as for Improbable Truth
I know not what your meaning is; for Truth is more
then Improbability: nay, there is so much difference
between Truth and Improbability, that I cannot
conceive it possible how they can be joined together.
In short, said she, I do no ways approve of your
Profession; and though I will not dissolve your society,
yet I shall never take delight in hearing you any more;
wherefore confine your disputations to your Schools, I2 lest I2v 60
lest besides the Commonwealth of Learning, they disturb
also Divinity and Policy, Religion and Laws,
and by that means draw an utter ruine and destruction
both upon Church and State.

After the Empress had thus finish’d the Discourses
and Conferences with the mentioned societies of her Vertuoso’s, she considered by her self the manner of
their Religion, and finding it very defective, was
troubled, that so wise and knowing a people should
have no more knowledg of the Divine Truth; Wherefore
she consulted with her own thoughts, whether it
was possible to convert them all to her own Religion,
and to that end she resolved to build Churches, and
make also up a Congregation of Women, whereof she
intended to be the head her self, and to instruct them in
the several points of her Religion. This she had no sooner
begun, but the Women, which generally had quick
wits, subtile conceptions, clear understandings, and
solid judgments, became, in a short time, very devout
and zealous Sisters; for the Empress had an excellent
gift of Preaching, and instructing them in the Articles
of Faith; and by that means, she converted them not
onely soon, but gained an extraordinary love of all her
Subjects throughout that World. But at last, pondering
with her self the inconstant nature of Mankind,
and fearing that in time they would grow weary, and
desert the divine Truth, following their own fancies,
and living according to their own desires; she began to be I3r 61
be troubled that her labours and pains should prove
of so little effect, and therefore studied all manner of
ways to prevent it. Amongst the rest, she call’d to
mind a Relation which the Bird-men made her once, of
a Mountain that did burn in flames of fire; and thereupon
did immediately send for the wisest and subtilest
of her Worm-men, commanding them to discover the
cause of the Eruption of that same fire; which they
did; and having dived to the very bottom of the
Mountain, informed her Majesty, That there was a
certain sort of Stone, whose nature was such, that being
wetted, it would grow excessively hot, and break
forth into a flaming-fire, until it became dry, and then
it ceased from burning. The Empress was glad to
hear this news, and forthwith desired the Worm men
to bring her some of that Stone, but be sure to keep it
secret: she sent also for the Bird-men, and asked them
whether they could not get her a piece of the Sun-
stone? They answered, That it was impossible, unless
they did spoil or lessen the light of the World: but,
said they, if it please your Majesty, we can demolish
one of the numerous Stars of the Sky, which the
World will never miss.

The Empress was very well satisfied with this proposal,
and having thus imployed these two sorts of men,
in the mean while builded two Chappels one above
another; the one she lined throughout with Diamonds,
both Roof, Walls and Pillars; but the other I3 she I3v 62
she resolved to line with the Star-stone; the Fire-
stone she placed upon the Diamond-lining, by reason
Fire has no power on Diamonds; and when she
would have that Chappel where the Fire-stone was,
appear all in flame, she had by the means of Artificial
pipes, water conveighed into it, which by turning
the Cock, did, as out of a Fountain, spring over all
the room, and as long as the Fire-stone was wet, the
Chappel seemed to be all in a flaming-fire.

The other Chappel, which was lined with the Star-
stone, did onely cast a splendorous and comfortable
light; both the Chappels stood upon Pillars, just in
the middle of a round Cloyster, which was dark as
night; neither was there any other light within them,
but what came from the Fire- and Star-stone; and being
every where open, allowed to all that were within
the compass of the Cloyster, a free prospect into them;
besides, they were so artificially contrived, that they
did both move in a Circle about their own Centres,
without intermission, contrary ways. In the Chappel
which was lined with the Fire-stone, the Empress
preached Sermons of Terror to the wicked, and told
them of the punishments for their sins, to wit, That
after this life they should be tormented in an everlasting
Fire. But in the other Chappel lined with the Star-
stone, she preached Sermons of Comfort to those that
repented of their sins, and were troubled at their own
wickedness: Neither did the heat of the flame in the least I4r 63
least hinder her; for the Fire-stone did not cast so
great a heat but the Empress was able to endure it, by
reason the water which was poured on the Stone, by its
own self-motion turned into a flaming-fire, occasioned
by the natural motions of the Stone, which made the
flame weaker then if it had been fed by some other kind
of fuel; the other Chappel where the Star-Stone was,
although it did cast a great light, yet was it without all
heat, and the Empress appear’d like an Angel in it;
and as that Chappel was an embleme of Hell, so
this was an embleme of Heaven. And thus the Empress,
by Art, and her own Ingenuity, did not onely
convert the Blazing-World to her own Religion, but
kept them in a constant belief, without inforcement or
blood-shed; for she knew well, that belief was a thing
not to be forced or pressed upon the people, but to be
instilled into their minds by gentle perswasions; and
after this manner she encouraged them also in all
other duties and employments: for Fear, though it makes
people obey, yet does it not last so long, nor is it so sure
a means to keep them to their duties, as Love.

Last of all, when she saw that both Church and State
now in a well-ordered and setled condition, her
thoughts reflected upon the World she came from; and
though she had a great desire to know the condition
of the same, yet could she advise no manner of way how
to gain any knowledg thereof; at last, after many serious
considerations, she conceived that it was impossible to be I4v 64
be done by any other means, then by the help of Immaterial
Spirits; wherefore she made a Convocation
of the most learned, witty and ingenious of all the
forementioned sorts of Men, and desired to know of
them, whether there were any Immaterial Spirits in their
World. First, she enquired of the Worm-men, whether
they had perceived some within the Earth? They
answered her Majesty, That they never knew of any
such Creatures; for whatsoever did dwell within the
Earth, said they, was imbodied and material. Then
she asked the Fly-men, whether they had observed
any in the Air? for you having numerous Eyes, said
she, will be more able to perceive them, than any other
Creatures. To which they answered her Majesty,
That although Spirits, being immaterial, could not be
perceived by the Worm-men in the Earth, yet they
perceived that such Creatures did lodg in the Vehicles
of the Air. Then the Empress asked, Whether they
could speak to them, and whether they did understand
each other? The Fly-men answered, That those Spirits
were always cloth’d in some sort or other of Material
Garments; which Garments were their Bodies,
made, for the most part, of Air; and when occasion
served, they could put on any other sort of substances;
but yet they could not put these substances into any
form or shape, as they pleased. The Empress asked
the Fly-men, whether it was possible that she could be
acquainted, and have some conferences with them? They K1r 65
They answered, They did verily believe she might.
Hereupon the Empress commanded the Fly-men to
ask some of the Spirits, Whether they would be pleased
to give her a Visit? This they did; and after the
Spirits had presented themselves to the Empress, (in
what shapes and forms, I cannot exactly tell) after some
few Complements that passed between them, the Empress
told the Spirits that she questioned not, but they
did know how she was a stranger in that World, and
by what miraculous means she was arrived there; and
since she had a great desire to know the condition of the
World she came from, her request to the Spirits was,
To give her some Information thereof, especially of
those parts of the World where she was born, bred, and
educated; as also of her particular friends and acquaintance:
all which, the Spirits did according to her desire.
At last, after a great many conferences and particular
intelligences, which the Spirits gave the Empress,
to her great satisfaction and content; she enquired
after the most famous Students, Writers, and Experimental
Philosophers in that World, which they
gave her full relation of: amongst the rest she enquired,
Whether there were none that had found out yet the
Jews Cabbala? Several have endeavoured it, answered
the Spirits, but those that came nearest (although themselves
denied it) were one Dr. Dee, and one Edward
, the one representing Moses, and the other Aaron;
for Kelly was to Dr. Dee, as Aaron to Moses; K but K1v 66
but yet they proved at last but meer Cheats; and were
described by one of their own Country-men, a famous
Poet, named Ben. Johnson, in a Play call’d, The Alchymist,
where he expressed Kelly by Capt. Face, and
Dee by Dr. Subtle, and their two Wives by Doll Common,
and the Widow; by the Spaniard the Play,
he meant the Spanish Ambassador, and by Sir Epicure
, a Polish Lord. The Empress remembred
that she had seen the Play, and asked the Spirits, whom
he meant by the name of Ananias? some Zealous
Brethren, answered they, in Holland, Germany, and
several other places. Then she asked them, Who
was meant by the Druggist? Truly, answered the
Spirits, We have forgot, it being so long since it was
made and acted. What, replied the Empress, Can
Spirits forget? Yes, said the Spirits; for what is past,
is onely kept in memory, if it be not recorded. I did
believe, said the Empress, That Spirits had no need
of Memory, or Remembrance, and could not be subject
to Forgetfulness. How can we, answered they,
give an account of things present, if we had no Memory,
but especially of things past, unrecorded, if we
had no Remembrance? said the Empress, By present
Knowledg and Understanding. The Spirits answered,
That present Knowledg and Understanding
was of actions or things present, not of past. But, said the
Empress, you know what is to come, without Memory
or Remembrance; and therefore you may know what K2r 67
what is past without memory and remembrance. They
answered, That their foreknowledg was onely a prudent
and subtile Observation made by comparing of
things or actions past, with those that are present; and
that Remembrance was nothing else but a Repetition
of things or actions past.

Then the Empress asked the Spirits, Whether there
was a threefold Cabbala? They answered, Dee and Kelly made but a two-fold Cabbala, to wit, of the Old
and New Testament, but others might not onely make
two or three, but threescore Cabbala’s, if they pleased.
The Empress asked, Whether it was a Traditional,
or meerly a Scriptural, or whether it was a Literal,
Philosophical, or Moral Cabbala some, answered
they, did believe it meerly Traditional, others
Scriptural, some Literal, and some Metaphorical: but
the truth is, said they, ’twas partly one, and partly the
other; as partly a Traditional, partly a Scriptural,
partly Literal, partly Metaphorical. The Empress
asked further, Whether the Cabbala was a work
onely of Natural Reason, or of Divine Inspiration?
Many, said the Spirits, that write Cabbala’s pretend to
Divine Inspirations; but whether it be so, or not, it
does not belong to us to judg; onely this we must needs
confess, that it is a work which requires a good wit, and
a strong Faith, but not Natural Reason; for though
Natural Reason is most perswasive, yet Faith is the chief
that is required in Cabbalists. But, said the Empress, K2 Is K2v 68
Is there not Divine Reason, as well as there is Natural?
No, answered they: for there is but a Divine
Faith, and as for Reason it is onely Natural; but you
Mortals are so puzled about this Divine Faith, and Natural
Reason, that you do not know well how to distinguish
them, but confound them both, which is
the cause you have so many divine Philosophers who
make a Gallimafry both of Reason and Faith. Then
she asked, Whether pure Natural Philosophers were
Cabbalists? They answered, No; but onely your
Mystical or Divine Philosophers, such as study beyond
Sense and Reason. she enquired further, Whether
there was any Cabbala in God, or whether God
was full of Idea’s? They answered, There could be
nothing in God, nor could God be full of any thing,
either forms or figures, but of himself; for God is the
Perfection of all things, and an Unexpressible Being,
beyond the conception of any Creature, either Natural
or Supernatural. Then I pray inform me, said the
Empress, Whether the Jews Cabbala or any other,
consist in Numbers? The Spirits answered, No: for
Numbers are odd, and different, and would make a
disagreement in the Cabbala. But, said she again, Is
it a sin then not to know or understand the Cabbala?
God is so merciful, answered they, and so just, that
he will never damn the ignorant, and save onely those
that pretend to know him and his secret Counsels by
their Cabbala’s; but he loves those that adore and worship K3r 69
worship him with fear and reverence, and with a pure
heart. she asked further, which of these two Cabbala’s
was most approved, the Natural, or Theological?
The Theological, answered they, is mystical,
and belongs onely to Faith; but the Natural belongs
to Reason. Then she asked them, Whether Divine
Faith was made out of Reason? No answered they,
for Faith proceeds onely from a Divine saving Grace,
which is a peculiar Gift of God. How comes it then,
replied she, that Men, even those that are of several
opinions, have Faith more or less? A Natural Belief,
answered they, is not a Divine Faith. But, proceeded
the Empress, How are you sure that God cannot
be known? The several Opinions you Mortals
have of God, answered they, are sufficient witnesses
thereof. Well then, replied the Empress, leaving
this inquisitive knowledg of God, I pray inform me,
whether you Spirits give motion to Natural Bodies?
No, answered they; but, on the contrary, Natural
material bodies give Spirits motion; for we Spirits,
being incorporeal, have no motion but from our
Corporeal Vehicles, so that we move by the help of our
Bodies, and not the Bodies by our help; for pure
Spirits are immovable. If this be so, replied the Empress,
How comes it then that you can move so suddenly
at a vast distance? They answered, That some
sorts of matter were more pure, rare, and consequently
more light and agil then others; and this was the reasonK3 son K3v 70
for their quick and sudden motions. Then the Empress
asked them, Whether they could speak without
a body, or bodily organs? No, said they; nor could
we have any bodily sense, but onely knowledg. she
asked, Whether they could have Knowledg without
Body? Not a Natural, answered they, but a Supernatural
Knowledg, which is a far better Knowledg then a
Natural. Then she asked them, Whether they had a
General or Universal Knowledg? They answered,
Single or particular created Spirits, have not; for not
any Creature, but God Himself, can have an absolute
and perfect knowledg of all things. The Empress asked
them further, Whether Spirits had inward and outward
parts? No, answered they; for parts onely belong
to bodies, not to Spirits. Again, she asked them,
Whether their Vehicles were living Bodies? They are
Self-moving Bodies, answered they, and therefore
they must needs be living; for nothing can move it
self, without it hath life. Then, said she, it must necessarily
follow, that this living, Self-moving Body gives
motion to the Spirit, and not the Spirit motion to the
Body, as its Vehicle. You say very true, answered they,
and we told you this before. Then the Empress asked
them, Of what forms of Matter those Vehicles were?
They said they were of several different forms; some
gross and dense, and others more pure, rare, and subtil.
If you be not Material, said the Empress, how can
you be Generators of all Creatures? We are no more, K4r 71
more, answered they, the Generators of material Creatures,
then they are the Generators of us Spirits. Then
she asked, Whether they did leave their Vehicles? No,
answered they; for we being incorporeal, cannot leave
or quit them: but our Vehicles do change into several
forms and figures, according as occasion requires. Then
the Empress desired the Spirits to tell her, Whether
Man was a little World? They answered, That if a
Fly or Worm was a little World, then Man was so
too. she asked again, Whether our Fore-fathers had
been as wise, as Men were at present, and had understood
sense and reason, as well as they did now? They
answered, That in former Ages they had been as wise
as they are in this present, nay, wiser; for, said they,
many in this age do think their Fore-fathers have been
Fools, by which they prove themselves to be such.
The Empress asked further, Whether there was any
Plastick power in Nature? Truly, said the Spirits, Plastick
power is a hard word, & signifies no more then the
power of the corporeal, figurative motions of Nature.
After this, the Empress desired the Spirits to inform
her where the Paradise was, Whether it was in the
midst of the World as a Centre of pleasure? or, Whether
it was the whole World; or a peculiar World by it
self, as a World of Life, and not of Matter; or whether
it was mixt, as a world of living animal Creatures? They
answered, That Paradise was not in the world she came
from, but in that world she lived in at present; and that K4v 72
that it was the very same place where she kept her
Court, and where her Palace stood, in the midst of
the Imperial City. The Empress asked further, Whether
in the beginning and Creation of the World, all Beasts
could speak? They answered, That no Beasts could
speak, but onely those sorts of Creatures which were
Fish-men, Bear-men, Worm-men, and the like,
which could speak in the first Age, as well as they do
now. she asked again, Whether they were none of
those Spirits that frighted Adam out of the Paradise,
at least caused him not to return thither again? They answered
they were not. Then she desired to be informed,
whither Adam fled when he was driven out of the Paradise?
Out of this World, said they, you are now
Empress of, into the World you came from. If this
be so, replied the Empress, then surely those Cabbalists
are much out of their story, who believe the Paradise
to be a world of Life onely, without Matter, for this
world, though it be most pleasant and fruitful, yet it
is not a world of meer Immaterial life, but a world of
living, Material Creatures. Without question, they
are, answered the Spirits; for not all Cabbala’s are true.
Then the Empress asked, That since it is mentioned
in the story of the Creation of the World, that Eve
was tempted by the Serpent, Whether the Devil was
within the Serpent, or, Whether the Serpent tempted
her without the Devil? They answered, That the
Devil was within the Serpent. But how came it then, replied L1r 73
replied she, that the Serpent was cursed? They answered,
because the Devil was in him; for are not those
men in danger of damnation which have the Devil
within them, who perswades them to believe and act
wickedly? The Empress asked further, Whether
Light and the Heavens were all one? They answered,
That that Region which contains the Lucid natural
Orbs, was by Mortals named Heaven; but the Beatifical
Heaven, which is the Habitation of the Blessed
Angels and Souls, was so far beyond it, that it could
not be compared to any Natural Creature. Then the
Empress asked them, Whether all Matter was fluid at
first? They answered, That Matter was always as it is,
and that some parts of Matter were rare, some dense, some
fluid, some solid, &c. Neither was God bound to make
all Matter fluid at first. she asked further, Whether
Matter was immovable in it self? We have answered
you before, said they, That there is no
motion but in Matter; and were it not for the motion
of Matter, we Spirits, could not move, nor give you
any answer to your several questions. After this, the
Empress asked the Spirits, Whether the Universe was
made within the space of six days, or, Whether by those
six days, were meant so many Decrees or Commands of
God? They answered her, That the World was
made by the All-powerful Decree and Command of
God; but whether there were six Decrees or Commands,
or fewer, or more, no Creature was able to tell. L Then L1v 74
Then she inquired, Whether there was no mystery in
Numbers? No other mystery, answered the Spirits,
but reckoning or counting; for Numbers are onely
marks of remembrance. But what do you think of the
Number of Four, said she, which Cabbalists make such
ado withal, and of the Number of Ten, when they say
that Ten is all, and that all Numbers are virtually comprehended
in Four? We think, answered they, that Cabbalists have nothing else to do but to trouble their
heads with such useless Fancies; for naturally there is
no such thing as prime or all in Numbers; nor is there
any other mystery in Numbers, but what Man’s fancy
makes; but what Men call Prime, or All, we do not
know, because they do not agree in the number of their
opinion. Then the Empress asked, Whether the
number of six was a symbole of Matrimony, as being
made up of Male and Femal, for two into three is six.
If any number can be a symbole of Matrimony, answered
the Spirits, it is not Six, but Two; if two may
be allowed to be a Number: for the act of Matrimony
is made up of two joined in one. she asked again,
What they said to the number of Seven? whether
it was not an Embleme of God, because Cabbalists
say, That it is neither begotten, nor begets any other
Number? There can be no Embleme of God, answered
the Spirits; for if we do not know what God is, how
can we make an Embleme of him? Nor is there any
Number in God, for God is the perfection Himself; but numbers L2r 75
Numbers are imperfect; and as for the begetting of
numbers, it is done by Multiplication and Addition;
but Substraction is as a kind of death to Numbers. If
there be no mystery in Numbers, replied the Empress
then it is in vain to refer to the Creation of the World to
certain Numbers, as Cabbalists do. The onely mystery
of Numbers, answered they, concerning the Creation
of the World, is, that as Numbers do multiply, so
does the World. The Empress asked, how far Numbers
did multiply? The Spirits answered, to Infinite.
Why, said she, Infinite cannot be reckoned, nor numbred.
No more, answered they, can the parts of the
Universe; for God’s Creation, being an Infinite action,
as proceeding from an Infinite Power, could not rest
upon a finite Number of Creatures, were it never
so great. But leaving the mystery of Numbers, proceeded
the Empress, Let me now desire you to inform
me, Whether the Suns and Planets were generated
by the Heavens, or Æthereal Matter? The Spirits
answered, That the Stars and Planets were of the
same matter which the Heavens, the Æther, and all
other Natural Creatures did consist of; but whether
they were generated by the Heavens or Æther, they
could not tell: if they be, said they, they are not like
their Parents; for the Sun, Stars, and Planets, are
more splendorous then the Æther, as also more solid
and constant in their motions: But put the case, the
Stars and Planets were generated by the Heavens, and L2 the L2v 76
the Æthereal Matter; the question then would be,
Out of what these are generated or produced? If these
be created out of nothing, and not generated out of
something, then it is probable the Sun, Stars and Planets
are so too; nay, it is more probable of the Stars,
and Planets, then of the Heavens, or the fluid Æther,
by reason the Stars and Planets seem to be further off
from Mortality, then the particular parts of the Æther;
for no doubt but the parts of the Æthereal Matter,
alter into several forms, which we do not perceive of
the Stars and Planets. The Empress asked further,
Whether they could give her information of the three
principles of Man, according to the doctrine of the
Platonists; as first of the Intellect, Spirit, or Divine
Light. 2. Of the Soul of Man her self: and 3. Of
the Image of the Soul, that is, her vital operation on
the body? The Spirits answered, That they did not
understand these three distinctions, but that they
seem’d to corporeal sense and reason, as if they were three
several bodies, or three several corporeal actions;
however, said they, they are intricate conceptions
of irregular Fancies. If you do not understand
them, replied the Empress, how shall human
Creatures do then? Many, both of your modern
and ancient Philosophers, answered the Spirits,
endeavour to go beyond Sense and Reason, which
makes them commit absurdities; for no corporeal
Creature can go beyond Sense and Reason; no not we Spirits, L3r 77
Spirits, as long as we are in our corporeal Vehicles.
Then the Empress asked them, Whether there were
any Atheists in the World? The Spirits answered,
That there were no more Atheists then what Cabbalists
make. she asked them further, Whether Spirits
were of a globous or round Figure? They answered,
That Figure belonged to body, but they
being immaterial, had no Figure. she asked again,
Whether Spirits were not like Water or Fire? They
answered, that Water and Fire was material, were it
the purest and most refined that ever could be; nay,
were it above the Heavens: But we are no more like
Water or Fire, said they, then we are like Earth; but
our Vehicles are of several forms, figures and degrees
of substances. Then she desired to know, Whether their
Vehicles were made of Air? Yes, answered the
Spirits, some of our Vehicles are of thin Air. Then
I suppose, replied the Empress, That those airy Vehicles,
are your corporeal Summer-suits. she asked
further, Whether the Spirits had not ascending and descending-motions,
as well as other Creatures? They
answered, That properly there was no ascension or
descension in Infinite Nature, but onely in relation to
particular parts; and as for us Spirits, said they, We
can neither ascend nor descend without corporeal Vehicles;
nor can our Vehicles ascend or descend, but according
to their several shapes and figures, for there
can be no motion without body. The Empress asked L3 them L3v 78
them further, Whether there was not a World of Spirits,
as well as there is of Material Creatures? No,
answered they; for the word “World” implies a quantity
or multitude of corporeal Creatures, but we being
Immaterial, can make no World of Spirits. Then she
desired to be informed when Spirits were made? We
do not know, answered they, how and when we were
made, nor are we much inquisitive after it; nay, if
we did, it would be no benefit, neither for us, nor for
you Mortals to know it. The Empress replied, That Cabbalists and Divine Philosophers said, Mens rational
Souls were Immaterial, and stood as much in
need of corporeal Vehicles, as Spirits did. If this be so,
answered the Spirits, then you are Hermaphrodites of
Nature; but your Cabbalists are mistaken, for they
take the purest and subtilest parts of Matter, for Immaterial
Spirits. Then the Empress asked, When the
Souls of Mortals went out of their Bodies, whether
they went to Heaven or Hell; or whether, they remained
in airy Vehicles? God’s Justice and Mercy,
answered they, is perfect, and not imperfect; but if
you Mortals will have Vehicles for your Souls, and a
place that is between Heaven and Hell, it must be Purgatory,
which is a place of Purification, for which action
Fire is more proper then Air; and so the Vehicles of
those Souls that are in Purgatory, cannot be airy, but fiery;
and after this rate there can be but four places for
human Souls to be in, viz. Heaven, Hell, Purgatory, and L4r 79
and this World; but as for Vehicles, they are but fancies,
not real truths. Then the Empress asked them,
Where Heaven and Hell was? Your Saviour Christ,
answered the Spirits, has informed you, that there is
Heaven and Hell, but he did not tell you what, nor
where they are; wherefore it is too great a presumption
for you Mortals to inquire after it: If you do but strive
to get into Heaven, it is enough, though you do not
know where or what it is; for it is beyond your knowledg
and understanding. I am satisfied, replied the
Empress; and asked further, Whether there were any
Figures or Characters in the Soul? They answered,
Where there was no Body, there could be no Figure.
Then she asked them, Whether Spirits could be naked?
and whether they were of a dark, or a light colour?
As for our Nakedness, it is a very odd question, answered
the Spirits; and we do not know what you
mean by a Naked Spirit; for you judg of us as of corporeal
Creatures; and as for Colour, said they, it is
according to our Vehicles; for Colour belongs to
Body, and as there is no Body that is colourless, so
there is no Colour that is bodiless. Then the Empress
desired to be informed, Whether all Souls were
made at the first Creation of the World? We know no
more, answered the Spirits, of the origin of humane
Souls, then we know of our Selves. she asked further,
Whether humane bodies were not burthensome
to humane Souls? They answered, That Bodies, made L4v 80
made Souls active, as giving them motion; and if
action was troublesome to Souls, then Bodies were so
too. she asked again, Whether Souls did chuse Bodies?
They answered, That Platonicks believed, the
Souls of Lovers lived in the Bodies of their Beloved,
but surely, said they, if there be a multitude of Souls
in a World of Matter, they cannot miss Bodies; for as
soon as a Soul is parted from one Body, it enters into
another; and Souls having no motion of themselves,
must of necessity be clothed or imbodied with the
next parts of Matter. If this be so, replied the Empress,
then I pray inform me, Whether all matter be
soulified? The Spirits answered, They could not
exactly tell that; but if it was true, that Matter had no
other motion but what came from a spiritual power,
and that all matter was moving, then no soul could quit
a Body, but she must, of necessity enter into another
soulified Body, and then there would be two immaterial
substances in one Body. The Empress
asked, Whether it was not possible that there could be
two Souls in one Body? As for Immaterial Souls, answered
the Spirits, it is impossible; for there cannot
be two Immaterials in one Inanimate Body, by reason
they want parts, and place, being bodiless; but there
may be numerous material Souls in one composed Body,
by reason every material part has a material natural
Soul; for Nature is but one Infinite self-moving, living
and self-knowing body, consisting of the three degreesgrees M1r 81
of inanimate, sensitive and rational Matter, so
intermixt together, that no part of Nature, were it an
Atom, can be without any of these three Degrees; the
sensitive is the Life, the rational the Soul, and the inanimate
part, the Body of Infinite Nature. The Empress
was very well satisfied with this answer, and
asked further, Whether souls did not give life to bodies?
No, answered they; but Spirits and Divine
Souls have a life of their own, which is not to be divided,
being purer then a natural life; for Spirits are incorporeal,
and consequently indivisible. But when the
Soul is in its Vehicle, said the Empress, then methinks
she is like the Sun, and the Vehicle like the
Moon. No, answered they; but the Vehicle is like
the Sun, and the Soul like the Moon; for the Soul
hath motion from the Body, as the Moon has light
from the Sun. Then the Empress asked the Spirits,
Whether it was an evil Spirit that tempted Eve, and
brought all the mischiefs upon Mankind: or, Whether
it was the Serpent? They answered, That Spirits
could not commit actual evils. The Empress said,
they might do it by perswasions. They answered, That
Perswasions were actions; But the Empress not being
contented with this answer, asked, Whether there was
not a supernatural Evil? The Spirits answered, That
there was a Supernatural Good, which was God; but
they knew of no Supernatural Evil, that was equal to
God. Then she desired to know, Whether Evil SpiritsM rits M1v 82
were reckoned amongst the Beasts of the Field?
They answer’d, That many Beasts of the field were
harmless Creatures, and very serviceable for Man’s use;
and though some were accounted fierce and cruel, yet
did they exercise their cruelty upon other Creatures,
for the most part, to no other end, but to get themselves
food, and to satisfie their natural appetite; but certainly,
said they, you Men are more cruel to one another,
then evil Spirits are to you; and as for their habitations
in desolate places, we having no communion
with them, can give you no certain account thereof.
But what do you think, said the Empress, of good
Spirits? may not they be compared to the Fowls of the
Air? They answered, There were many cruel and
ravenous Fowls as well in the Air, as there were fierce
and cruel Beasts on Earth; so that the good are always
mixt with the bad. she asked further, Whether
the fiery Vehicles were a Heaven, or a Hell, or at least
a Purgatory to the Souls? They answered, That if
the Souls were immaterial, they could not burn, and
then fire would do them no harm; and though Hell
was believed to be an undecaying and unquenchable
fire, yet Heaven was no fire. The Empress replied,
That Heaven was a Light. Yes, said they, but not a
fiery Light. Then she asked, Whether the different
shapes and sorts of Vehicles, made the Souls and other
Immaterial Spirits, miserable, or blessed? The Vehicles,
answered they, make them neither better, nor worse; M2r 83
worse; for though some Vehicles sometimes may have
power over others, yet these by turns may get some
power again over them, according to the several advantages
and disadvantages of particular Natural parts.
The Empress asked further, Whether Animal life came
out of the spiritual World, and did return thither again?
The Spirits answered, They could not exactly tell; but
if it were so, then certainly Animal lives must leave
their bodies behind them, otherwise the bodies would
make the spiritual World a mixt World, that is, partly
material, and partly immaterial; but the Truth is, said
they, Spirits being immaterial, cannot properly make a
World; for a World belongs to material, not to immaterial
Creatures. If this be so, replied the Empress,
then certainly there can be no world of Lives
and Forms without Matter? No, answered the Spirits;
nor a world of Matter without Lives and Forms;
for Natural Lives and Forms cannot be immaterial, no
more then Matter can be immovable. And therefore
natural lives, forms and matter, are inseparable. Then
the Empress asked, Whether the first Man did feed
on the best sorts of the Fruits of the Earth, and the
Beasts on the worst? The Spirits answered, That
unless the Beasts of the field were barred out of manured
fields and gardens, they would pick and chuse the
best Fruits as well as Men; and you may plainly observe
it, said they, in Squirrels and Monkies, how they
are the best Chusers of Nuts and Apples; and how M2 Birds M2v 84
Birds do pick and feed in the most delicious fruits, and
Worms on the best roots, and most savoury herbs; by
which you may see, that those Creatures live and feed
better then men do, except you will say, that artificial
Cookery is better and more wholsome then the
natural. Again, the Empress asked, Whether the
first Man gave Names to all the several sorts of Fishes
in the Sea, and fresh Waters? No, answered the Spirits,
for he was an Earthly, and not a Watery Creature;
and therefore could not know the several sorts of
Fishes. Why, replied the Empress, he was no more
an Airy Creature then he was a Watery one, and yet he
gave Names to the several sorts of Fowls and Birds of
the Air. Fowls, answered they, are partly Airy, and
partly Earthly Creatures, not onely because they resemble
Beasts and Men in their flesh, but because their
rest and dwelling places are on Earth; for they
build their Nests, lay their Eggs, and hatch their Young,
not in the Air, but on the Earth. Then she asked,
Whether the first Man did give Names to all the various
sorts of Creatures that live on the Earth? Yes,
answered they, to all those that were presented to him,
or he had knowledg of, that is, to all the prime sorts;
but not to every particular: for of Mankind, said they,
there were but two at first; and as they did encrease, so
did their Names. But, said the Empress, who gave
the Names to the several sorts of Fish? The posterity
of Mankind, answered they. Then she enquired, Whe- M3r 85
Whether there were no more kinds of Creatures now,
then at the first Creation? They answered, That
there were no more nor fewer kinds of Creatures then
there are now; but there are, without question, more
particular sorts of Creatures now, then there were then.
she asked again, Whether all those Creatures that
were in Paradise, were also in Noah’s Ark? They
answered, That the principal kinds had been there, but
not all the particulars. Then she would fain know,
how it came, that both Spirits and Men did fall from a
blessed into so miserable a state and condition as they
are now in. The Spirits answered, By disobedience.
The Empress asked, Whence this disobedient sin did
proceed? But the Spirits desired the Empress not to
ask them any such questions, because they went beyond
their knowledg. Then she begg’d the Spirits
to pardon her presumption; for, said she, It is the nature
of Mankind to be inquisitive. Natural desire of
knowledg, answered the Spirits, is not blameable, so
you do not go beyond what your Natural Reason can
comprehend. Then I’le ask no more, said the Empress,
for fear I should commit some error; but one
thing I cannot but acquaint you withal: What is that,
said the Spirits? I have a great desire, answered the
Empress, to make a Cabbala. What kind of Cabbala
asked the Spirits? The Empress answered, The Jews Cabbala. No sooner had the Empress declared
her Mind, but the Spirits immediately disappearedM3 peared M3v 86
out of her sight; which startled the Empress
so much, that she fell into a Trance, wherein she lay
for some while; at last being come to her self again, she
grew very studious, and considering with her self what
might be the cause of this strange dysaster, conceived at
first, that perhaps the Spirits were tired with hearing
and giving answers to her Questions; but thinking by
her self, That Spirits could not be tired, she imagined that
this was not the true cause of their disappearing, till, after
divers debates with her own thoughts, she did
verily believe that the Spirits had committed some fault
in their answers, and that for their punishment they
were condemned to the lowest and darkest Vehicles.
This belief was so fixt in her mind, that it put her into a
very Melancholick humor; and then she sent both for
her Fly-men and Worm-men, and declared to them the
cause of her sadness. ’Tis not so much, said she, the
vanishing of those Spirits that makes me Melancholick,
but that I should be the cause of their miserable condition,
and that those harmless Spirits should, for my
sake, sink down into the black and dark abyss of the
Earth. The Worm-men comforted the Empress, telling
her, That the Earth was not so horrid a Dwelling, as
she did imagine; for, said they, not onely all Minerals
and Vegetables, but several sorts of Animals can
witness, that the Earth is a warm, fruitful, quiet, safe, and
happy habitation; and though they want the light of
the Sun, yet are they not in the dark, but there is light even M4r 87
even within the Earth, by which those Creatures do
see that dwell therein. This relation setled her Majesties
mind a little; but yet she being desirous to know
the Truth, where, and in what condition those Spirits
were, commanded both the Fly- and Worm-men
to use all labour and industry to find them out; whereupon
the Worm-men straight descended into the
Earth, and the Fly-men ascended into the Air. After
some short time, the Worm-men returned, and told the
Empress, that when they went into the Earth, they
inquired of all the Creatures they met withal, Whether
none of them had perceived such or such Spirits; until
at last coming to the very Center of the Earth, they
were truly informed, that those Spirits had stayed some
time there, but at last were gone to the Antipodes on
the other side of the Terrestrial Globe, diametrically
opposite to theirs. The Fly-men seconded the Wormmen,
assuring her Majesty, that their relation was very
true; for, said they, We have rounded the Earth,
and just when we came to the Antipodes, we met those
Spirits in a very good condition, and acquainted them
that your Majesty was very much troubled at their
sudden departure, and fear’d they should be buried in
the darkness of the Earth: whereupon the Spirits answered
us, That they were sorry for having occasioned
such sadness and trouble in your Majesty; and
desired us to tell your Majesty, that they feared no
darkness; for their Vehicles were of such a sort of substance M4v 88
substance as Cats eyes, Glow-worms tails, and rotten
Wood, carrying their light along with them; and that
they were ready to do your Majesty what service they
could, in making your Cabbala. At which Relation
the Empress was exceedingly glad, and rewarded both
her Fly- and Worm-men bountifully.

After some time, when the Spirits had refreshed
themselves in their own Vehicles, they sent one of
their nimblest Spirits, to ask the Empress, Whether
she would have a Scribe, or, whether she would write
the Cabbala her self? The Empress received the
proffer which they made her, with all civility; and
told them, that she desired a Spiritual Scribe. The
Spirits answer’d, That they could dictate, but not write,
except they put on a hand or arm, or else the whole body
of Man. The Empress replied, How can Spirits
arm themselves with gantlets of Flesh? As well, answered
they, as Man can arm himself with a gantlet of
steel. If it be so, said the Empress, then I will have
a Scribe. Then the Spirits asked her, Whether she
would have the Soul of a living or a dead Man? Why,
said the Empress, can the Soul quit a living Body, and
wander or travel abroad? Yes, answered they, for
according to Plato’s Doctrine, there is a Conversation
of Souls, and the Souls of Lovers live in the Bodies of
their Beloved. Then I will have, answered she, the
Soul of some ancient famous Writer, either of Aristotle,
Pythagoras, Plato,
Epicurus, or the like. The Spirits N1r 89
Spirits said, That those famous Men were very learned,
subtile, and ingenious Writers; but they were so
wedded to their own opinions, that they would never
have the patience to be Scribes. Then, said she,
I’le have the Soul of one of the most famous modern
Writers, as either of Galileo, Gassendus, Des Cartes,
Helmont, Hobbes, H. More, &c. The Spirits answered,
That they were fine ingenious Writers, but
yet so self-conceited, that they would scorn to be Scribes
to a Woman. But, said they, there’s a Lady, the
Duchess of Newcastle; which although she is not
one of the most learned, eloquent, witty and ingenious,
yet she is a plain and rational Writer; for the
principle of her Writings, is Sense and Reason, and
she will without question, be ready to do you all the service
she can. That Lady then, said the Empress, will
I chuse for my Scribe, neither will the Emperor have
reason to be jealous, she being one of my own sex. In
truth, said the Spirit, Husbands have reas8on to be jealous
of Platonick Lovers, for they are very dangerous, as
being not onely intimate and close, but subtil and
insinuating. You say well, replied the Empress; wherefore
I pray send me the Duchess of Newcastle’s Soul;
which the Spirit did; and after she came to wait on the
Empress, at her first arrival the Empress imbraced
and saluted her with a Spiritual kiss; then she asked her
whether she could write? Yes, answered the Duchess’s
Soul, but not so intelligibly that any Reader N what- N1v 90
whatsoever may understand it, unless he be taught to
know my Characters; for my Letters are rather like
Characters, then well formed Letters. said the Empress,
you were recommended to me by an honest and
ingenious Spirit. Surely, answered the Duchess, the
Spirit is ignorant of my hand-writing. The truth is, said
the Empress, he did not mention your hand-writing;
but he informed me, that you writ Sense and Reason,
and if you can but write so, that any of my Secretaries
may learn your hand, they shall write it out fair and intelligible.
The Duchess answered, That she questioned
not but it might easily be learned in a short time. But,
said she to the Empress, What is it that your Majesty
would have written? she answered, The Jews
Cabbala. Then your onely way for that is, said the
Duchess, to have the Soul of some famous Jew; nay,
if your Majesty please, I scruple not, but you may
as easily have the Soul of Moses, as of any other. That
cannot be, replied the Empress, for no Mortal knows
where Moses is. But, said the Duchess, humane
Souls are immortal; however, if this be too difficult to
be obtained, you may have the Soul of one of the chief
Rabbies or Sages of the Tribe of Levi, who will truly
instruct you in that mystery; when as, otherwise, your
Majesty will be apt to mistake, and a thousand to one,
will commit gross errors. No, said the Empress, for I
shall be instructed by Spirits. Alas! said the Duchess,
Spirits are as ignorant as Mortals in many cases; for no N2r 91
no created Spirits have a general or absolute knowledg,
nor can they know the Thoughts of Men, much less
the Mysteries of the great Creator, unless he be pleased
to inspire into them the gift of Divine Knowledg.
Then, I pray, said the Empress, let me have your
counsel in this case. The Duchess answered, If your
Majesty will be pleased to hearken to my advice, I
would desire you to let that work alone; for it will be
of no advantage either to you, or your people, unless
you were of the Jews Religion; nay, if you were,
the vulgar interpretation of the holy Scripture would be
more instructive, and more easily believed, then your
mystical way of interpreting it; for had it been better
and more advantagious for the Salvation of the Jews,
surely Moses would have saved after-Ages that labour
by his own Explanation, he being not onely a wise,
but a very honest, zealous and religious Man: Wherefore
the best way, said she, is to believe with the generality
the literal sense of the Scripture, and not to
make interpretations every one according to his own
fancy, but to leave that work for the Learned, or those
that have nothing else to do; Neither do I think, said
she, that God will damn those that are ignorant therein,
or suffer them to be lost for want of a Mystical interpretation
of the Scripture. Then, said the Empress,
I’le leave the Scripture, and make a Philosophical
Cabbala. The Duchess told her, That, Sense and
Reason would instruct her of a Nature as much as N2 could N2v 92
could be known; and as for Numbers, they were infinite;
but to add non-sense to infinite, would breed
a confusion, especially in Humane Understanding.
Then, replied the Empress, I’le make a Moral Cabbala.
The onely thing, answered the Duchess, in
Morality, is but, To fear God, and to love his Neighbour,
and this needs no further interpretation. But
then I’le make a Political Cabbala, said the Empress.
The Duchess answered, That the chief and onely
ground in Government, was but Reward and Punishment,
and required no further Cabbala; But, said she,
If your Majesty were resolved to make a Cabbala, I
would advise you, rather to make a Poetical or Romancical
Cabbala, wherein you may use Metaphors,
Allegories, Similitudes, &c. and interpret them as
you please. With that the Empress thank’d the
Duchess, and embracing her Soul, told her she would
take her Counsel: she made her also her Favourite, and
kept her sometime in that World, and by this means
the Duchess came to know and give this Relation of all
that passed in that rich, populous, and happy World;
and after some time the Empress gave her leave to return
to her Husband and Kindred into her Native
World, but upon condition, that her Soul should visit
her now and then; which she did: and truly their meeting
did produce such an intimate friendship between
them, that they became Platonick Lovers, although
they were both Femals.

One N3r 93

One time, when the Duchess her Soul was with
the Empress, she seem’d to be very sad and melancholy;
at which the Empress was very much troubled,
and asked her the reason of her Melancholick
humour? Truly, said the Duchess to the Empress,
(for between dear friends there’s no concealment, they
being like several parts of one united body) my Melancholy
proceeds from an extream Ambition. The
Empress asked, What the height of her ambition was?
The Duchess answered, That neither she her self, nor
no Creature in the World was able to know either
the height, depth, or breadth of her Ambition; but
said she, my present desire is, that I would be a great
Princess. The Empress replied, so you are; for you
are a Princess of the fourth or fifth Degree, for a Duke
or Duchess is the highest title or honour that a subject
can arrive to, as being the next to a King’s Title; and
as for the name of a Prince of Princess, it belongs to all
that are adopted to the Crown; so that those that can
add a Crown to their Arms, are Princes, and therefore
a Duke is a Title above a Prince; for example, the
Duke of Savoy, the Duke of Florence, the Duke of Lorrain,
as also Kings Brothers, are not called by the name
of Princes, but Dukes, this being the higher Title.
’Tis true, answered the Duchess, unless it be Kings
Eldest sons, and they are created Princes. Yes, replied
the Empress, but no soveraign does make a subject
equal to himself, such as Kings eldest sons partly are: N3 And N3v 94
And although some Dukes be soveraigns, yet I have
heard that a Prince by his Title is soveraign, by reason
the Title of a Prince is more a Title of Honour, then of
soveraignty; for, as I said before, it belongs to all that
are adopted to the Crown. Well, said the Duchess,
setting aside this dispute, my Ambition is, That I would
fain be as you are, that is, an Empress of a World,
and I shall never be at quiet until I be one. I love you
so well, replied the Empress, that I wish with all my
soul, you had the fruition of your ambitious desire, and
I shall not fail to give you my best advice how to accomplish
it; the best informers are the Immaterial Spirits,
and they’l soon tell you, Whether it be possible to
obtain your wish. But, said the Duchess, I have little
acquaintance with them, for I never knew any before
the time you sent for me. They know you, replied the
Empress; for they told me of you, and were the
means and instrument of your coming hither: Wherefore
I’le conferr with them, and enquire whether there
be not another World, whereof you may be Empress
as well as I am of this? No sooner had the Empress
said this, but some Immaterial Spirits came to visit her,
of whom she inquired, Whether there were but three
Worlds in all, to wit, the Blazing World where she
was in, the World which she came from, and the
World where the Duchess lived? The Spirits answered,
That there were more numerous Worlds then the Stars
which appeared in these three mentioned Worlds. Then N4r 95
Then the Empress asked, Whether it was not possible
that her dearest friend the Duchess of Newcastle, might
be Empress of one of them? Although there be numerous,
nay, infinite Worlds, answered the Spirits,
yet none is without Government. But is none of
these Worlds so weak, said she, that it may be surprized
or conquered? The Spirits answered, That Lucian’s
World of Lights, had been for some time in a
snuff, but of late years one Helmont had got it, who
since he was Emperour of it, had so strengthened the
Immortal parts thereof with mortal out-works, as it was
for the present impregnable. said the Empress, If
there be such an Infinite number of Worlds, I am
sure, not onely my friend, the Duchess, but any
other might obtain one. Yes, answered the Spirits,
if those Worlds were uninhabited; but they are as populous
as this your Majesty governs. Why, said
the Empress, it is not possible to conquer a World.
No, answered the Spirits, but, for the most part,
Conquerers seldom enjoy their conquest, for they being
more feared then loved, most commonly come to
an untimely end. If you will but direct me, said the
Duchess to the Spirits, which World is easiest to be
conquered, her Majesty will assist me with Means, and
I will trust to Fate and Fortune; for I had rather die
in the adventure of noble atchievements, then live in
obscure and sluggish security; since the by one, I may
live in a glorious Fame; and by the other I am buried in N4v 96
in oblivion. The Spirits answered, That the lives of
Fame were like other lives; for some lasted long, and
some died soon. ’Tis true, said the Duchess; but yet
the shortest-liv’d Fame lasts longer then the longest
life of Man. But, replied the Spirits, if occasion
does not serve you, you must content your self to live
without such atchievements that may gain you a
Fame: But we wonder, proceeded the Spirits, that
you desire to be Empress of a Terrestrial World,
when as you can create your self a Cœlestial World if
you please. What, said the Empress, can any Mortal
be a Creator? Yes, answered the Spirits; for
every human Creature can create an Immaterial
World fully inhabited by Immaterial Creatures, and
populous of Immaterial subjects, such as we are, and all
this within the compass of the head or scull; nay, not
onely so, but he may create a World of what fashion
and Government he will, and give the Creatures
thereof such motions, figures, forms, colours, perceptions,
&c. as he pleases, and make Whirl-pools,
Lights, Pressures, and Reactions, &c. as he thinks best;
nay, he may make a World full of Veins, Muscles,
and Nerves, and all these to move by one jolt or stroke:
also he may alter that World as often as he pleases, or
change it from a Natural World, to an Artificial; he may
make a World of Ideas, a World of Atoms, a World
of Lights, or whatsoever his Fancy leads him to. And
since it is in your power to create such a World, What need O1r 97
need you to venture life, reputation and tranquility, to
conquer a gross material World? For you can enjoy
no more of a material world then a particular Creature
is able to enjoy, which is but a small part, considering
the compass of such a world; and you may plainly observe
it by your friend the Empress here, which although
she possesses a whole World, yet enjoys she but
a part thereof; neither is she so much acquainted with
it, that she know all the places, Countries, and Dominions
she Governs. The truth is, a soveraign Monarch
has the general trouble; but the Subjects enjoy
all the delights and pleasures in parts, for it is impossible,
that a Kingdom, nay, a Country, should be injoyed
by one person at once, except he take the pains
to travel into every part, and endure the inconveniencies
of going from one place to another? wherefore,
since glory, delight, and pleasure lives but in other mens
opinions, and can neither add tranquility to your mind
nor give ease to your body, Why should you desire to
be Empress of a Material World, and be troubled
with the cares that attend Government? when as
by creating a World within your self, you may enjoy
all both in whole and in parts, without controle
or opposition; and may make what World you please,
and alter it when you please, and enjoy as much
pleasure and delight as a World can afford you? You
have converted me, said the Duchess to the Spirits, from
my ambitious desire; wherefore, I’le take your advice, O reject O1v 98
reject and despise all the Worlds without me, and create
a World of my own. The Empress said, If I do
make such a world, then I shall be Mistress of two
Worlds, one within, and the other without me. That
your Majesty may, said the Spirits; and so left these
two Ladies to create two Worlds within themselves:
who did also part from each other, until such time as
they had brought their Worlds to perfection. The
Duchess of Newcastle was most earnest and industrious
to make her World, because she had none at present;
and first she resolved to frame it according to the
opinion of Thales, but she found her self so much troubled
with Dæmons, that they would not suffer her to
take her own will, but forced her to obey their orders
and commands; which she being unwilling to do, left off
from making a world that way, and began to frame one
according to Pythagoras’s Doctrine; but in the Creation
thereof, she was so puzled with numbers, how to
order and compose the several parts, that she having
no skill in Arithmetick, was forced also to desist from
the making of that World. Then she intended to create
a World according to the opinion of Plato; but she
found more trouble and difficulty in that, then in the
two former; for the numerous Idea’s having no other
motion but what was derived from her mind, whence
they did flow and issue out, made it a far harder business
to her, to impart motion to them, then Puppit-players
have in giving motion to every several Puppit; in so O2r 99
so much, that her patience was not able to endure the
trouble which those Ideas caused her; wherefore she
annihilated also that World, and was resolved to make
one according to the Opinion of Epicurus; which she
had no sooner begun, but the infinite Atoms made such
a mist, that it quite blinded the perception of her mind;
neither was she able to make a Vacuum as a receptacle
for those Atoms, or a place which they might retire
into; so that partly for the want of it, and of a good
order and method, the confusion of those Atoms produced
such strange and monstrous figures, as did more
affright then delight her, and caused such a Chaos in
her mind, as had almost dissolved it. At last, having
with much ado cleansed and cleared her mind of these
dusty and misty particles, she endeavored to create a
World according to Aristotle’s Opinion; but remembring
that her mind, as most of the Learned hold
it, was Immaterial, and that, according to Aristotle’s
Principle, out of Nothing, Nothing could be made;
she was forced also to desist from that work, and then
she fully resolved, not to take any more patterns from
the Ancient Philosophers, but to follow the Opinions of
the Moderns; and to that end, she endeavoured to
make a World according to Des Cartes Opinion; but
when she had made the Æthereal Globules, and set
them a moving by a strong and lively imagination,
her mind became so dizzie with their extraordinary
swift turning round, that it almost put her into a swoon; O2 for O2v 100
for her thoughts, but their constant tottering, did so
stagger, as if they had all been drunk: wherefore she
dissolved that World, and began to make another,
according to Hobbs’s Opinion; but when all the parts
of this Imaginary World came to press and drive each
other, they seemed like a company of Wolves that
worry sheep, or like so many Dogs that hunt after
Hares; and when she found a re-action equal to those
pressures, her mind was so squeezed together, that her
thoughts could neither move forward nor backward,
which caused such an horrible pain in her head, that
although she had dissolved that World, yet she could
not, without much difficulty, settle her mind, and
free it from that pain which those pressures and reactions
had caused in it.

At last, when the Duchess saw that no patterns
would do her any good in the framing of her World;
she was resolved to make a World of her own
Invention, and this World was composed of sensitive
and rational self-moving Matter; indeed, it was
composed onely of the Rational, which is the subtilest
and purest degree of Matter; for as the Sensitive did
move and act both to the perceptions and consistency of
the body, so this degree of Matter at the same point of
time (for though the degrees are mixt, yet the several
parts may move several ways at one time) did move to
the Creation of the Imaginary World; which World
after it was made, appear’d so curious and full of variety,ety, O3r 101
so well order’d and wisely govern’d, that it cannot
possibly be expressed by words, nor the delight
and pleasure which the Duchess took in making this

In the mean time the Empress was also making and
dissolving several Worlds in her own mind, and was so
puzled, that she could not settle in any of them; wherefore
she sent for the Duchess, who being ready to wait
on the Empress, carried her beloved World along with
her, and invited the Empress’s Soul to observe the
Frame, Order and Government of it. Her Majesty
was so ravished with the perception of it, that her Soul
desired to live in the Duchess’s World: But the
Duchess advised her to make such another World in
her own mind; for, said she, your Majesty’s mind is
full of rational corporeal motions; and the rational
motions of my mind shall assist you by the help of
sensitive expressions, with the best Instructions they
are able to give you.

The Empress being thus perswaded by the
Duchess to make an imaginary World of her own, followed
her advice; and after she had quite finished it,
and framed all kinds of Creatures proper and useful for
it, strengthened it with good Laws, and beautified it
with Arts and Sciences; having nothing else to do, unless
she did dissolve her Imaginary World, or made
some alterations in the Blazing-World, she lived in; which
yet she could hardly do, by reason it was so well orderedO3 ed O3v 102
that it could not be mended; for it was governed
without secret and deceiving Policy; neither was there
any ambitious, factions, malicious detractions, civil
dissentions, or home-bred quarrels, divisions in Religion,
Foreign Wars, &c. but all the people lived in a
peaceful society, united Tranquility, and Religious
Conformity. she was desirious to see the World the
Duchess came from, and observe therein the several sovereign
Governments, Laws and Customs of several
Nations. The Duchess used all the means she could,
to divert her from that Journey, telling her, that the
World she came from, was very much disturbed with
Factions, Divisions and Wars; but the Empress would
not be perswaded from her design; and lest the Emperor,
or any of his subjects should know of her travel,
and obstruct her design; she sent for some of the Spirits
she had formerly conversed withal, and inquired whether
none of them could supply the place of her soul in
her body at such a time, when she was gone to travel
into another World? They answered, Yes, they
could; for not onely one, said they, but many Spirits
may enter into your body, if you please. The
Empress replied, she desired but one Spirit to be Vice-
Roy of her body in the absence of her Soul, but it must
be an honest and ingenious Spirit; and if it was possible,
a female Spirit. The Spirits told her, that there
was no difference of Sexes amongst them; but, said
they, we will chuse an honest and ingenious Spirit, and O4r 103
and such a one as shall so resemble your soul, that neither
the Emperor, nor any of his Subjects, although
the most Divine, shall know whether it be your own
soul, or not: which the Empress was very glad at,
and after the Spirits were gone, asked the Duchess,
how her body was supplied in the absence of her soul?
who answered Her Majesty, That her body, in the absence
of her soul, was governed by her sensitive and
rational corporeal motions. Thus those two Female
Souls travelled together as lightly as two thoughts into
the Duchess her native World; and, which is remarkable,
in a moment viewed all the parts of it, and all the
actions of all the Creatures therein, especially did the
Empress’s Soul take much notice of the several actions
of humane Creatures in all the several Nations and
parts of that World, and wonder’d that for all there
were so many several Nations, Governments, Laws,
Religions, Opinions, &c. they should all yet so generally
agree in being Ambitious, Proud, Self-conceited,
Vain, Prodigal, Deceitful, Envious, Malicious,
Unjust, Revengeful, Irreligious, Factious, &c.
she did also admire, that not any particular State,
Kingdom or Common-wealth, was contented with
their own shares, but endeavoured to encroach upon
their Neighbours, and that their greatest glory was in
Plunder and Slaughter, and yet their victory’s less then
their expences, and their losses more than their gains;
but their being overcome, in a manner their utter ruine: But O4v 104
But that she wonder’d most at, was, that they should
prize or value dirt more then mens lives, and vanity
more then tranquility: for the Emperor of a world, said
she, injoys but a part, not the whole; so that his pleasure
consists in the Opinions of others. It is strange
to me, answered the Duchess, that you should say
thus, being your self, an Empress of a World; and not
onely of a world, but of a peaceable, quiet, and obedient
world. ’Tis true, replied the Empress: but although it is
a peaceable and obedient world, yet the Government
thereof is rather a trouble, then a pleasure; for order
cannot be without industry, contrivance, and direction:
besides, the Magnificent state, that great Princes keep
or ought to keep, is troublesome. Then by your Majestie’s
discourse, said the Duchess, I perceive that the
greatest happiness in all the Worlds consist in Moderation:
No doubt of it, replied the Empress; and after
these two souls had visited all the several places, Congregations
and Assemblies both in Religion and State,
the several Courts of Judicature and the like, in several
Nations, the Empress said, That of all the Monarchs
of the several parts of the World, she had observed
the Grand-Seignior was the greatest; for his
word was a Law, and his power absolute. But the
Duchess pray’d the Empress to pardon her that she was
of another mind; for, said she, he cannot alter Mahomets
Laws and Religion; so that the Law and
Church do govern the Emperor, and not the Emperorror P1r 105
them. But, replied the Empress, he has power
in some particulars; as for example, To place and displace
Subjects in their particular Governments of
Church and State; and having that, he has the Command
both over Church and State, and none dares
oppose him. ’Tis true, said the Duchess; but if it
pleases your Majesty, we will go into that part of the
World whence I came to wait on your Majesty, and
there you shall see as powerful a Monarch as the
Grand Signior; for though his Dominions are not of
so large extent, yet they are much stronger, his Laws
are easie and safe, and he governs so justly and wisely,
that his Subjects are the happiest people of all the Nations
or parts of that World. This Monarch, said the
Empress, I have a great mind to see. Then they both
went, and in a short time arrived into his Dominions;
but coming into the Metropolitan City, the Empress’s
Soul observed many Gallants go into an House; and
enquiring of the Duchess’s Soul, what House that was?
she told her, It was one of the Theatres where Comedies
and Tragedies were acted. The Empress asked,
Whether they were real? No, said the Duchess,
they are feigned. Then the Empress desired to enter
into the Theatre; and when she had seen the Play
that was asked, the Duchess asked her how she liked
that Recreation? I like it very well, said the Empress;
but I observe that the Actors make a better
show than the Spectators; and the Scenes a better than P the P1v 106
the Actors and the Musick and Dancing is more pleasant
and acceptable than the Play it self; for I see, the
Scenes stand for Wit, the Dancing for Humour, and
the Musick is the Chorus. I am sorry, replied the
Duchess, to hear your Majesty say so; for if the Wits
of this part of the World should hear you, they would
condemn you. What, said the Empress, would
they condemn me for preferring a natural Face before
a Sign-post; or a natural Humour before an artificial
Dance; or Musick before a true and profitable Relation?
As for Relation, replied the Duchess, our Poets
defie and condemn it into a Chimney-corner, fitter
for old Womens Tales, than Theatres. Why, said
the Empress do not your Poets Actions comply with
their Judgments? For their Plays are composed of old
Stories, either of Greek or Roman, or some new-found
World. The Duchess answered Her Majesty, That it
was true, that all or most of their Plays were taken out
of old Stories; but yet they had new Actions, which
being joined to old Stories, together with the addition
of new Prologues, Scenes, Musick and Dancing, made
new Plays.

After this, both the Souls went to the Court, where
all the Royal Family was together, attended by the
chief of the Nobles of their Dominions, which made
a very magnificent Show; and when the Soul of the
Empress viewed the King and Queen, she seemed to
be in a maze, which the Duchess’s Soul perceiving, asked the P2r 107
the Empress how she liked the King, the Queen, and
all the Royal Race? she answered, that in all the
Monarchs she had seen in that World, she had not
found so much Majesty and Affability mixt so exactly
together, that none did overshadow or eclipse the other;
and as for the Queen, she said that Vertue sat Triumphant
in her face, and Piety was dwelling in her
heart; and that all the Royal Family seem’d to be endued
with a Divine splendor: but when she had heard
the King discourse, she believ’d that Mercury and Apollo
had been his Cœlestial Instructors; and, my dear Lord
and Husband, added the Duchess, has been his Earthly
Governor. But after some short stay in the Court,
the Duchess’s soul grew very Melancholy; the Empress
asking the cause of her sadness? she told her, That
she had an extreme desire to converse with the soul of
her Noble Lord and dear Husband, and that she was
inpatient of a longer stay. The Empress desired
the Duchess to have but patience so long, until the
King, the Queen, and the Royal Family were retired,
and then she would bear her Company to her Lord
and Husband’s Soul, who at that time lived in the
Country some 112 miles off; which she did: and thus
these two souls went towards those parts of the Kingdom
where the Duke of Newcastle was.

But one thing I forgot all this while, which is, That
although thoughts are the natural language of Souls;
yet by reason Souls cannot travel without Vehicles, P2 they P2v 108
they use such language as the nature and propriety of
their Vehicles require, and the Vehicles of those two
souls being made of the purest and finest sort of air, and
of a human shape: This purity and fineness was the
cause that they could neither be seen nor heard by any
human Creature; when as, had they been of some
grosser sort of Air, the sound of the Air’s language
would have been as perceptible as the blowing of Zephyrus.

And now to return to my former Story; when the
Empress’s and Duchess’s Soul were travelling into
Nottinghamshire, (for that was the place where the
Duke did reside) passing through the Forrest of sherewood,
the Empress’s Soul was very much delighted
with it, as being a dry, plain and woody place, very
pleasant to travel in, both in Winter and Summer; for
it is neither much dirty nor dusty at no time: At last
they arrived at Welbeck, a House where the Duke
dwell’d, surrounded all with Wood, so close and full,
that the Empress took great pleasure and delight therein,
and told the Duchess she never had observed more
Wood in so little compass in any part of the Kingdom
she had passed through. The truth is, said she, there
seems to be more Wood on the Seas (she meaning the
Ships) than on the Land. The Duchess told her, The
reason was, that there had been a long Civil Warr in
that Kingdom, in which most of the best Timber-trees
and Principal Palaces were ruined and destroyed; and my P3r 109
my dear Lord and Husband, said she, has lost by it
half his Woods, besides many Houses, Land, and
movable Goods; so that all the loss out of his particular
Estate, did amount to above Half a Million of
Pounds. I wish, said the Empress, he had some of
the Gold that is in the Blazing-world, to repair his losses.
The Duchess most humbly thank’d her Imperial
Majesty for her kind wishes; but, said she, Wishes will
not repair his ruins: however, God has given my Noble
Lord and Husband great Patience, by which he bears
all his losses and misfortunes. As last they enter’d into
the Duke’s House, an Habitation not so magnificent as
useful; and when the Empress saw it, Has the Duke,
said she, no other House but this? Yes, answered the
Duchess, some five miles from this place he has a very
fine Castle called Bolesover. That place, then, said
the Empress, I desire to see. Alas, replied the
Duchess, it is but a naked House, and uncloath’d of all
Furniture. However, said the Empress, I may see
the manner of its structure and building. That you may,
replied the Duchess, and as they were thus discoursing,
the Duke came out of the House into the Court, to see
his Horses of Manage; whom when the Duchess’s Soul
perceived, she was so overjoyed, that her Aereal Vehicle
became so splendorous, as if it had been enlightned
by the Sun; by which we may perceive, that the passions
of Souls or Spirits can alter their bodily Vehicles.
Then these two Ladies Spirits went close to him, but he P3 could P3v 110
could not perceive them; and after the Empress had
observed that Art of Mannage, she was much pleased
with it, and commended it as a noble pastime, and an
exercise fit and proper for noble and heroick Persons.
But when the Duke was gone into the house again,
those two Souls followed him; where the Empress
observing, that he went to the exercise of the sword,
and was such an excellent and unparallel’d Master
thereof, she was as much pleased with that exercise, as
she was with the former: But the Duchess’s Soul being
troubled, that her dear Lord and Husband used such
a violent exercise before meat, for fear of overheating
himself, without any consideration of the Empress’s
Soul, left her Æreal Vehicle, and entred into
her Lord. The Empress’s Soul perceiving this, did
the like: And then the Duke had three Souls in one
Body; and had there been some such Souls more,
the Duke would have been like the Grand-Signior in
his Seraglio, onely it would have been a Platonick
Seraglio. But the Duke’s Soul being wise, honest, witty,
complaisant and noble, afforded such delight and pleasure
to the Empress’s Soul by his conversation, that
these two souls became enamoured of each other; which
the Duchess’s soul perceiving, grew jealous at first, but
then considering that no Adultery could be committed
amongst Platonick Lovers, and that Platonism, was
Divine, as being derived from Divine Plato, cast forth
of her mind that Idea of Jealousie. Then the Conversationversation P4r 111
of these three souls was so pleasant, that it cannot
be expressed; for the Duke’s Soul entertained the
Empress’s Soul with Scenes, songs, Musick, witty Discourses,
pleasant Recreations, and all kinds of harmless
sports, so that the time passed away faster than they
expected. At last a Spirit came and told the Empress,
That although neither the Emperor nor any of his
Subjects knew that her Soul was absent; yet the Emperor’s
Soul was so sad and melancholy for want of His
own beloved Soul, that all the Imperial Court took notice
of it. Wherefore he advised the Empress’s Soul
to return into the Blazing-world, into her own Body
she left there; which both the Duke’s and Duchess’s
Soul was very sorry for, and wished that, if it had been
possible, the Empress’s Soul might have stayed a longer
time with them; but seeing it could not be otherwise,
they pacified themselves. But before the Empress returned
into the Blazing-world, the Duchess desired a
Favour of her, to wit, That she would be pleased to
make an Agreement between her Noble Lord, and
Fortune. Why, said the Empress, are they Enemies?
Yes, answered the Duchess, and they have
been so ever since I have been his Wife: nay, I have
heard my Lord say, That she hath crossed him in all
things, ever since he could remember. I am sorry for
that, replied the Empress; but I cannot discourse with
Fortune, without the help of an Immaterial Spirit, and
that cannot be done in this World; for I have no Fly P4v 112
Fly nor Bird-men here, to send into the Region of the
Air, where, for the most part, their Habitations are.
The Duchess said, she would entreat her Lord to send
an Attorney or Lawyer to plead his Cause. Fortune
will bribe them, replied the Empress, and so the
Duke may chance to be cast: Wherefore the best way
will be, for the Duke to chuse a Friend on his side, and
let Fortune chuse another, and try whether by this means
it be possible to compose the Difference. The Duchess
said, They will never come to an agreement, unless
there be a Judg or Umpire to decide the Case. A
Judg, replied the Empress, is easie to be had; but to
get an Impartial Judg, is a thing so difficult, that I
doubt we shall hardly find one; for there is none to
be had, neither in Nature, nor in Hell, but onely
from Heaven; and how to get such a Divine and Celestial
Judg, I cannot tell: Nevertheless, if you will go
along with me into the Blazing-world, I’le try what
may be done. ’Tis my duty, said the Duchess, to
wait on your Majesty, and I shall most willingly do
it, for I have no other interest to consider. Then the
Duchess spake to the Duke concerning the difference
between him and Fortune, and how it was her desire
that they might be friends. The Duke answered, That
for his part he had always with great industry sought
her friendship, but as yet he could never obtain it,
for she had always been his Enemy. However, said
he, I’le try and send my two Friends, Prudence and Honesty Q1r 113
Honesty, to plead my Cause. Then these two Friends
went with the Duchess and the Empress into the Blazing-World;
(for it is to be observed, that they are
somewhat like Spirits, because they are Immaterial, although
their actions are corporeal:) and after their arrival
there, when the Empress had refreshed her self,
and rejoiced with the Emperor, she sent her Fly-men
for some of the Spirits, and desired their assistance, to
compose the difference between Fortune, and the Duke
of Newcastle
. But they told her Majesty, That Fortune
was so inconstant, that although she would perhaps
promise to hear their Cause pleaded, yet it
was a thousand to one, whether she would ever have the
patience to do it: Nevertheless, upon Her Majestie’s
request, they tried their utmost, and at last prevailed
with Fortune so far, that she chose Folly and Rashness,
for her Friends, but they could not agree in chusing a
Judg; until at last, with much ado, they concluded,
that Truth should hear, and decide the cause. Thus
all being prepared, and the time appointed, both the
Empress and Duchess’s Soul went to hear them plead;
and when all the Immaterial Company was met, Fortune
standing upon a Golden-Globe, made this following

“Noble Friends, We are met here to hear a Cause pleaded
concerning the difference between the Duke of Newcastle,
and my self; and though I am willing upon the perswasions
of the Ambassadors of the Empress, the Immaterial Q Spirits, Q1v 114
Spirits, to yield to it, yet it had been fit, the Duke’s Soul
should be present also, to speak for her self; but since
she is not here, I shall declare my self to his Wife, and his
Friends, as also to my Friends, especially the Empress, to
whom I shall chiefly direct my Speech. First, I desire your
Imperial Majesty may know, that this Duke who complains
or exclaims so much against me, hath been always my enemy;
for he has preferred Honesty and Prudence before
me, and slighted all my favours; nay, not onely thus, but
he did fight against me, and preferred his Innocence before
my Power. His Friends Honesty and Prudence, said he
most scornfully, are more to be regarded, than Inconstant
Fortune, who is onely a friend to Fools and Knaves; for
which neglect and scorn, whether I have not just reason to
be his enemy, your Majesty may judg your self. ”

After Fortune had thus ended her Speech, the
Duchess’s Soul rose from her seat, and spake to the Immaterial
Assembly in this manner:

“Noble Friends, I think it fit, by your leave, to answer
Lady Fortune in the behalf of my Noble Lord and
Husband, since he is not here himself; and since you have
heard her complaint concerning the choice my Lord made
of his Friends, and the neglect and disrespect he seemed to
cast upon her; give me leave to answer, that, first concerning
the Choice of his Friends, He has proved himself a wise
man in it; and as for the disrespect and rudeness her Ladiship
accuses him of, I dare say he is so much a Gentleman,
that I am confident he would never slight, scorn or disrespect any Q2r 115
any of the Female Sex in all his life time; but was such a
servant and Champion for them, that he ventured Life
and Estate in their service; but being of an honest, as well
as an honourable Nature, he could not trust Fortune with
that which he preferred above his life, which was his Reputation,
by reason Fortune did not side with those that were
honest and honourable, but renounced them; and since he
could not be of both sides, he chose to be of that which was
agreeable both to his Conscience, Nature and Education;
for which choice Fortune did not onely declare her self his
open Enemy, but fought with him in several Battels; nay,
many times, hand to hand; at last, she being a Powerful
Princess, and as some believe, a Deity, overcame him,
and cast him into a Banishment, where she kept him in
great misery, ruined his Estate, and took away from him
most of his Friends; nay, even when she favoured many
that were against her, she still frowned on him; all which
he endured with the greatest patience, and with that
respect to Lady Fortune, that he did never in the least
endeavour to disoblige any of her Favourites, but was onely
sorry that he, an honest man, could find no favor in
her Court; and since he did never injure any of those she
favoured, he neither was an enemy to her Ladiship, but gave
her always that respect and worship which belonged to her
power and dignity, and is still ready at any time honestly
and prudently to serve her; he onely begs, her Ladiship
would be his friend for the future, as she hath been his enemy
in times past. ”
Q2 As Q2r 116

As soon as the Duchess’s Speech was ended, Folly and
Rashness started up, and both spake so thick and fast at
once, that not onely the Assembly, but themselves
were not able to understand each other: At which
Fortune was somewhat out of countenance; and commanded
them either to speak singly, or be silent: But
Prudence told her Ladiship, she should command them
to speak wisely, as well as singly; otherwise, said she, it
were best for them not to speak at all: Which Fortune
resented very ill, and told Prudence, she was too bold;
and then commanded Folly to declare what she would
have made known: but her Speech was so foolish,
mixt with such Non-sense, that none knew what to
make of it; besides, it was so tedious, that Fortune
bid her to be silent; and commanded Rashness to speak
for her, who began after this manner:

“Great Fortune; The Duchess of Newcastle has proved
her self, according to report, a very Proud and Ambitious
Lady, in presuming to answer you her own self, in
this noble Assembly without your Command, in a Speech
wherein she did not onely contradict you, but preferred Honesty
and Prudence before you; saying, That her Lord
was ready to serve you honestly and prudently; which presumption
is beyond all pardon; and if you allow Honesty
and Prudence to be above you, none will admire, worship,
or serve you; but you’l be forced to serve your self, and
will be despised, neglected and scorned by all; and from
a Deity, become a miserable, dirty, begging mortal in a Church- Q3r 117
Church-yard-Porch, or Noble-man’s Gate: Wherefore
to prevent such disasters, fling as many misfortunes and
neglects on the Duke and Duchess of Newcastle, and
their two friends, as your power is able to do; otherwise
Prudence and Honesty will be the chief and onely Moral
Deities of Mortals. ”

Rashness having thus ended her Speech, Prudence
rose and declared her self in this manner:

“Beautiful Truth, Great Fortune, and you the rest
of my noble Friends;
I am come a great and long journey
in the behalf of my dear Friend the Duke of Newcastle;
not to make more wounds, but, if it be possible, to
heal those that are made already. Neither do I presume to
be a Deity; but my onely request is, that you would be pleased
to accept of my Offering, I being an humble and devout
supplicant; and since no offering is more acceptable to the
Gods, then the offering of Peace; in order to that, I desire
to make an agreement between Fortune, and the Duke of

Thus she spake, and as she was going up, up started
Honesty (for she has not always so much discretion
as she ought to have) and interrupted Prudence.

“I came not here, said she, to hear Fortune flattered, but
to hear the Cause decided between Fortune and the Duke;
neither came I hither to speak Rhetorically and Eloquently,
but to propound the case plainly and truly; and I’le have
you know, that the Duke, whose Cause we argue, was
and is my Foster-son; for I Honesty bred him from his Q3 Child- Q3v 118
Childhood, and made a perpetual friendship betwixt him
and Gratitude, Charity and Generosity; and put him to
School to Prudence, who taught him Wisdom, and informed
him in the Rules of Temperance, Patience, Justice,
and the like; then I put him into the University of Honour,
where he learned all Honourable Qualities, Arts, and
Sciences; afterward I sent him to travel through the World
of Actions, and made Observation his Governor; and in
those his travels, he contracted a friendship with Experience;
all which, made him fit for Heavens Blessings, and Fortunes
Favours: But she hating all those that have merit
and desert, became his inveterate Enemy, doing him all
the mischief she could, until the God of Justice opposed Fortune’s
Malice, and pull’d him out of those ruines she had cast
upon him: For this God’s Favourites were the Dukes
Champions; wherefore to be an Enemy to him, were to be
an Enemy to the God of Justice: In short, the true cause
of Fortunes Malice to this Duke is, that he would never
flatter her; for I Honesty, did command him not to do it, or
else he would be forced to follow all her inconstant ways, and
obey all her unjust commands, which would cause a great
reproach to him: but, on the other side, Prudence advised
him not to despise Fortune’s favours, for that would be
an obstrustion and hinderance to his worth and merit; and
He to obey both our advice and counsels, did neither flatter
nor despise Her; but was always humble and respectful to her
so far as Honour, Honesty and Conscience would permit:
all which I refer to Truth’s Judgment, and expect her final
Sentence. ”
Fortune Q4r 119

Fortune hearing thus Honesty’s plain Speech, thought
it very rude, and would not hearken to Truth’s Judgment,
but went away in a Passion: At which, both the
Empress and Duchess were extreamly troubled, that
their endeavours should have no better effect: but Honesty
chid the Duchess, and said, she was to be punished
for desiring so much Fortune’s favours; for it
appears, said she, that you mistrust the gods blessings:
At which the Duchess wept, answering Honesty, That
she did neither mistrust the gods blessings, nor relye
upon Fortune’s favours; but desired onely that her Lord
might have no potent Enemies. The Empress being
much troubled to see her weep, told Honesty in anger,
she wanted the discretion of Prudence; for though
you are commended, said she, yet you are apt to
commit many indiscreet actions, unless Prudence be
your guide. At which reproof Prudence smiled, and
Honesty was somewhat out of countenance; but they
soon became very good friends: and after the Duchess’s
Soul had stayed some time with the Empress in the
Blazing-World, she begg’d leave of her to return to
her Lord and Husband; which the Empress granted
her, upon condition she should come and visit her as
often as conveniently she could, promising that she
would do the same to the Duchess.

Thus the Duchess’s soul, after she had taken her
leave of the Empress, as also of the Spirits, who
with great civility, promised her, that they would endeavourdeavour Q4v 120
in time to make a Peace and Agreement between
Fortune and the Duke, returned with Prudence
and Honesty, into her own World: But when she was
just upon her departure, the Empress sent to Her, and
desired that she might yet have some little conference
with her before she went; which the Duchess most
willingly granted her Majesty; and when she came
to wait on her, the Empress told the Duchess, That
she being her dear Platonick Friend, of whose just
and Impartial Judgment, she had alwayes a very
great esteem; could not forbear, before she went
from her, to ask her Advice concerning the Government
of the Blazing-world: For, said she, although
this World was very well and wisely ordered and governed
at first, when I came to be Empress thereof;
yet the nature of Women being much delighted with
Change and Variety, after I had received an absolute
Power from the Emperor, did somewhat alter the
Form of Government from what I found it; but now
perceiving that the World is not so quiet as it was at
first, I am much troubled at it; especially there are such
continual Contentions and Divisions between the
Worm- Bear- and Fly-men, the Ape-men, the Satyrs, the
Spider-men, and all others of such sorts, that I fear they’l
break out into an open Rebellion, and cause a great
disorder; and the ruin of the Government; and therefore
I desire your advice and assistance, how I may order
it to the best advantage, that this World may be ren- R1r 121
rendred peaceable, quiet and happy, as it was before.
Whereupon the Duchess answered, That since she
heard by her Imperial Majesty, how well and happily
the World had been governed when she first came to
be Empress thereof, she would advise her Majesty to
introduce the same form of Government again, which
had been before; that is, to have but one soveraign,
one Religion, one Law, and one Language, so that all
the World might be but as one united Family, without
divisions; nay, like God, and his Blessed Saints and
Angels: Otherwise, said she, it may in time prove
as unhappy, nay, as miserable a World as that is from
which I came, wherein are more soveraigns then
Worlds, and more pretended Governours then Government,
more Religions then Gods, and more Opinions
in those Religions then Truths; more Laws
then Rights, and more Bribes then Justices; more
Policies then Necessities, and more Fears then Dangers;
more Covetousness then Riches, more Ambitions then
Merits, more Services then Rewards, more Languages
then Wit, more Controversie then Knowledg, more
Reports then noble Actions, and more Gifts by partiality,
then according to Merit; all which, said she, is
a great misery, nay, a curse, which your blessed Blazing-World
never knew, nor ’tis probable, will never
know of, unless your Imperial Majesty alter the Government
thereof from what it was when you began to
govern it: And since your Majesty complains much of R the R1v 122
the factions of the Bear- Fish- Fly- Ape- and Worm-
, the Satyrs, Spider-men, and the like, and of their
perpetual disputes and quarrels, I would advise your
Majesty to dissolve all their societies; for ’tis better to
be without their intelligences, then to have an unquiet
and disorderly Government. The truth is, said she,
wheresoever Learning is, there is most commonly also
Controversie and quarelling; for there be always
some that will know more, and be wiser then others:
some think their Arguments come nearer to Truth,
and are more rational then others; some are so wedded
to their own opinions, that they’l never yield to Reason;
and others, though they find their Opinions not firmly
grounded upon Reason, yet, for fear of receiving some
disgrace by altering them, will nevertheless maintain
them against all sense and reason, which must needs breed
factions in their Schools, which at last break out into
open Wars, and draw sometimes an utter ruin upon a
State or Government. The Empress told the Duchess,
that she would willingly follow her advice; but she
thought it would be an eternal disgrace to her, to alter
her own Decrees, Acts, and Laws. To which the
Duchess answered, That it was so far from a disgrace,
as it would rather be for her Majesties eternal honour,
to return from a worse to a better, and would express
and declare Her to be more then ordinary wise and
good; so wise, as to perceive her own errors, and so
good, as not to persist in them, which few did: for which R2r 123
which, said she, you will get a glorious fame in this
World, and an Eternal Glory hereafter; and I shall
pray for it so long as I live. Upon which Advice, the
Empress’s Soul embrac’d and kiss’d the Duchess’s Soul
with an Immaterial Kiss, and shed Immaterial Tears,
that she was forced to part from her, finding her not a
flattering Parasite, but a true Friend; and in truth,
such was their Platonick Friendship, as these two loving
Souls did often meet and rejoice in each others

R2 R2v
R3r 125

Second Part
of the
of the
New Blazing-World.

The Empress having now ordered
and setled her Government to the
best advantage and quiet of her
Blazing-World, lived and reigned
most happily and blessedly, and received
oftentimes Visits from the
Immaterial Spirits, who gave her Intelligence of all
such things as she desired to know, and they were able
to inform her of: One time they told her, how the
World she came from, was imbroiled in a great War,
and that most parts or Nations thereof made War against
that Kingdom which was her Native Country, R3 where R3v 126
where all her Friends and Relations did live; at which
the Empress was extreamly troubled; insomuch that
the Emperor perceived her grief by her tears, and examining
the cause thereof, she told him that she had received
Intelligence from the Spirits, that that part of the
World she came from, which was her native Country,
was like to be destroyed by numerous Enemies
that made War against it. The Emperor being very
sensible of this ill news, especially of the Trouble it
caused to the Empress, endeavoured to comfort
her as much as possibly he could; and told her, that she
might have all the assistance which the Blazing-World
was able to afford. she answered, That if there were
any possibility of transporting Forces out of the Blazing-World,
into the World she came from, she would
not fear so much the ruin thereof: but, said she, there being
no probability of effecting anysuch thing, I know not
how to shew my readiness to serve my Native Country.
The Emperor asked, Whether those Spirits that gave
her Intelligence of this War, could not with all their
Power and Forces, assist her against those Enemies? she
answered, That Spirits could not arm themselves, nor
make any use of Artificial Arms or Weapons; for their
Vehicles were Natural Bodies, not Artificial: Besides,
said she, the violent and strong actions of war, will never
agree with Immaterial Spirits; for Immaterial Spirits
cannot fight, nor make Trenches, Fortifications, and
the like. But, said the Emperor, their Vehicles can; especially R4r 127
especially if those Vehicles be mens Bodies, they may be
serviceable in all the actions of War. Alas, replied the
Empress, that will never do; for first, said she, it will
be difficult to get so many dead Bodies for their Vehicles,
as to make up a whole Army, much more to make
many Armies to fight with so many several Nations;
nay, if this could be, yet it is not possible to get so many
dead and undissolved Bodies in one Nation; and for
transporting them out of other Nations, it would be a
thing of great difficulty and improbability: But put
the case, said she, all these difficulties could be overcome;
yet there is one obstruction or hindrance which
can no ways be avoided: For although those dead and
undissolved Bodies did all die in one minute of time;
yet before they could Rendezvouze, and be put into
a posture of War, to make a great and formidable
Army, they would stink and dissolve; and when
they came to a fight, they would moulder into dust
and ashes, and so leave the purer Immaterial Spirits
naked: nay, were it also possible, that those dead bodies
could be preserved from stinking and dissolving, yet
the Souls of such Bodies would not suffer Immaterial
Spirits to rule and order them, but they would enter and
govern them themselves,. as being the right owners
thereof, which would produce a War between those
Immaterial Souls, and the Immaterial Spirits in Material
Bodies; all which would hinder them from doing any
service in the actions of War, against the Enemies of R4v 128
of my Native Countrey. You speak Reason, said
the Emperor, and I wish with all my Soul I could
advise any manner or way, that you might be able
to assist it; but you having told me of your dear
Platonick Friend the Duchess of Newcastle and of
her good and profitable Counsels, I would desire
you to send for her Soul, and conferr with her about
this business.

The Empress was very glad of this motion of
the Emperor, and immediately sent for the Soul of
the said Duchess, which in a minute waited on her
Majesty. Then the Empress declared to her the
grievance and sadness of her mind, and how much
she was troubled and afflicted at the News brought
her by the Immaterial Spirits, desiring the Duchess,
if possible, to assist her with the best Counsels she
could, that she might shew the greatness of her love
and affection which she bore to her Native Countrey.
Whereupon the Duchess promised her Majesty
to do what lay in her power; and since it was a
business of great Importance, she desired some time to
consider of it; for, said she, Great Affairs require
deep Considerations; which the Empress willingly
allowed her. And after the Duchess had considered
some little time, she desired the Empress to send
some of her Syrens or Mear men, to see what passages
they could find out of the Blazing-World, into
the World she came from; for, said she, if there be a pas- S1r 129
a passage for a Ship to come out of that World
into this; then certainly there may also a Ship
pass thorow the same passage out of this World into
that. Hereupon the Mear- or Fish-men were sent
out; who being many in number, employ’d all their
industry, and did swim several ways; at last having
found out the passage, they returned to the Empress,
and told her, That as their Blazing World
had but one Emperor, one Government, one Religion,
and one Language, so there was but one Passage
into that World, which was so little, that no Vessel
bigger than a Packet-Boat could go thorow; neither
was that Passage always open, but sometimes
quite frozen up. At which Relation both the Empress
and Duchess seemed somewhat troubled, fearing
that this would perhaps be an hindrance or obstruction
to their Design.

At last the Duchess desired the Empress to send for
her Ship-wrights, and all her Architects, which were
Giants; who being called, the Duchess told them
how some in her own World had been so ingenious,
as to contrive Ships that could swim under Water,
and asked, Whether they could do the like? The
Giants answered, They had never heard of that
Invention; nevertheless, they would try what might
be done by Art, and spare no labour or industry
to find it out. In the mean time, while both the
Empress and Duchess were in a serious Counsel, S after S1v 130
after many debates, the Duchess desired but a few
Ships to transport some of the Bird- Worm- and Bear-
men: Alas! said the Empress, What can such sorts
of Men do in the other World? especially so few?
They will be soon destroyed, for a Musket will
destroy numbers of Birds in one shot. The Duchess
said, I desire your Majesty will have but a little patience,
and relie upon my advice, and you shall not fail
to save your own Native Country, and in a manner
become a Mistress of all that World you came from. The
Empress, who loved the Duchess as her own Soul, did
so; the Giants returned soon after, and told her Majesty,
that they had found out the Art which the Duchess
had mentioned, to make such Ships as could swim
under water; which the Empress and Duchess were
both very glad at, and when the Ships were made ready,
the Duchess told the Empress, that it was requisite
that her Majesty should go her self in body, as well as in
Soul; but I, said she, can onely wait on your Majesty
after a Spiritual manner, that is, with my Soul.
Your Soul, said the Empress, shall live with my Soul,
in my Body; for I shall onely desire your Counsel and
Advice. Then said the Duchess, Your Majesty must
command a great number of your Fish-men to wait
on your Ships; for you know that your Ships are not
made for Cannons, and therefore are no ways serviceable
in War; for though by the help of your Engines,
they can drive on, and your Fish-men may by the help S2r 131
help of Chains and Ropes, draw them which way
they will, to make them go on, or flye back, yet
not so as to fight: And though your Ships be of
Gold, and cannot be shot thorow, but onely bruised
and battered; yet the Enemy will assault and enter
them, and take them as Prizes; wherefore your Fishmen
must do you Service instead of Cannons.
But how, said the Empress, can the Fish-men do
me service against an Enemy, without Cannons and
all sorts of Arms? That is the reason, answered the
Duchess, that I would have numbers of Fish-men,
for they shall destroy all your Enemies Ships, before
they can come near you. The Empress asked
in what manner that could be? Thus, answered
the Duchess: Your Majesty must send a number
of Worm-men to the Burning-Mountains (for you
have good store of them in the Blazing-World)
which must get a great quantity of the Fire-stone,
whose property, you know, is, that it burns so long
as it is wet; and the Ships in the other World being
all made of Wood, they may by that means
set them all on fire; and if you can but destroy their
Ships, and hinder their Navigation, you will be
Mistress of all that World, by reason most parts
thereof cannot live without Navigation. Besides,
said she, the Fire-stone will serve you instead of Light
or Torches; for you know, that the World you are
going into, is dark at nights (especially if there be no S2 Moon- S2v 132
Moon-shine, or if the Moon be overshadowed by
Clouds) and not so full of Blazing-Stars as this
World is, which make as great a light in the absence
of the Sun, as the Sun doth when it is present;
for that World hath but little blinking Stars,
which make more shadows then light, and are onely
able to draw up Vapours from the Earth, but
not to rarifie or clarifie them, or to convert them
into serene air.

This Advice of the Duchess was very much approved;
and joyfully embraced by the Empress,
who forthwith sent her Worm-men to get a good
quantity of the mentioned Fire-stone. she also commanded
numbers of Fish-men to wait on her under
Water, and Bird-men to wait on her in the Air; and
Bear- and Worm-men to wait on her in Ships, according
to the Duchess’s advice; and indeed the
Bear-men were as serviceable to her, as the North
Star; but the Bird-men would often rest themselves
upon the Deck of the Ships; neither would the Empress,
being of a sweet and noble Nature, suffer that
they should tire or weary themselves by long flights; for
though by Land they did often fly out of one Countrey
into another, yet they did rest in some Woods, or
on some Grounds, especially at night, when it was
their sleeping time: And therefore the Empress was
forced to take a great many Ships along with her,
both for transporting those several sorts of her loyal and S3r 133
and serviceable Subjects, and to carry provisions for
them: Besides, wshe was so wearied with the Petitions
of several others of her Subjects who desired to
wait on her Majesty, that she could not possibly deny
them all; for some would rather chuse to be drowned,
then not tender their duty to her.

Thus after all things were made fit and ready, the
Empress began her Journey; I cannot properly say,
she set Sail, by reasoun in some Part, as in the passage
between the two Worlds (which yet was but short)
the Ships were drawn under water by the Fish-men
with Golden Chains, so that they had no need of
Sails there, nor of any other Arts, but onely to keep
out water from entering into the Ships, and to give
or make so much Air as would serve, for breath or
respiration, those Land-Animals that were in the
Ships; which the Giants had so Artificially contrived,
that they which were therein, found no inconveniency
at all: And after they had passed the Icy
Sea, the Golden Ships appeared above Water, and
so went on until they came near the Kingdom that was
the Empress’s Native Countrey; where the Bear-men
through their Telescopes discovered a great number of
Ships which had beset all that Kingdom, well rigg’d
and mann’d.

The Empress before she came in sight of the Enemy,
sent some of her Fish- and Bird-men to bring
her intelligence of their Fleet; and hearing of their S3 number, S3v 134
number, their station and posture, she gave order that
when it was Night, her Bird-men should carry in their
beeks some of the mentioned Fire-stones, with the
tops thereof wetted; and the Fish-men should carry
them likewise, and hold them out of the Water; for
they were cut in the form of Torches or Candles, and
being many thousands, made a terrible shew; for it
appear’d as if all the Air and Sea had been of a Flaming-Fire;
and all that were upon the Sea, or near it,
did verily believe, the time of Judgment, or the Last
Day was come, which made them all fall down, and

At the break of Day, the Empress commanded
those Lights to be put out, and then the Naval
Forces of the Enemy perceived nothing but a Number
of Ships without Sails, Guns, Arms, and other
Instruments of War; which Ships seemed to swim of
themselves, without any help or assistance: which sight
put them into a great amaze; neither could they perceive
that those Ships were of Gold, by reason the
Empress had caused them all to be coloured black, or
with a dark colour; so that the natural colour of
the Gold could not be perceived through the artificial
colour of the paint, no not by the best Telescopes.
All which put the Enemies Fleet into such a
fright at night, and to such wonder in the morning,
or at day-time, that they know not what to judg
or make of them; for they know neither what Ships S4r 135
Ships they were, nor what Party they belonged to,
insomuch that they had no power to stir.

In the mean while, the Empress knowing the Colours
of her own Country, sent a Letter to their General,
and the rest of the chief Commanders, to let them
know, that she was a great and powerful Princess,
and came to assist them against their Enemies: wherefore
she desired they should declare themselves, when
they would have her help and assistance.

Hereupon a Councel was called, and the business
debated; but there were so many cross and different
Opinions, that they could not suddenly resolve what
answer to send the Empress; at which she grew angry,
insomuch that she resolved to return into her Blazing-
, without giving any assistance to her Countrymen:
but the Duchess of Newcastle intreated her
Majesty to abate her passion; for, said she, Great
Councels are most commonly slow, because many
men have many several Opinions: besides, every
Councellor striving to be the wisest, makes long
speeches, and raise many doubts, which cause retardments.
If I had long-speeched Councellors, replied
the Empress, I would hang them, by reason they give
more Words, then Advice. The Duchess answered,
That her Majesty should not be angry, but consider the
differences of that and her Blazing-World; for, said she,
they are not both alike; but there are grosser and duller
understandings in this, than in the Blazing-World.

At S4v 136

At last a Messenger came out, who returned the
Empress thanks for her kind proffer, but desired withal,
to know from whence she came, and how, and in
what manner her assistance could be serviceable to
them? The Empress answered, That she was not
bound to tell them whence she came; but as for the manner
of her assistance, I will appear, said she, to your
Navy in a splendorous Light, surrounded with
Fire. The Messenger asked at what time they should
expect her coming? I’le be with you, answered the
Empress, about one of the Clock at night. With
this report the Messenger returned; which made both
the poor Councellors and Sea-men much afraid; but
yet they longed for the time to behold this strange

The appointed hour being come, the Empress appear’d
with Garments made of the Star-stone, and was
born or supported above the Water, upon the Fish-
mens heads and backs, so that she seemed to walk upon
the face of the Water, and the Bird- and Fish-men
carried the Fire-stone, lighted both in the Air, and
above the Waters.

Which sight, when her Country-men perceived at
a distance, their hearts began to tremble; but coming
something nearer, she left her Torches, and appeared
onely in her Garments of Light, like an Angel, or
some Deity, and all kneeled down before her, and
worshipped her with all submission and reverence: But the T1r 137
the Empress would not come nearer than at such a
distance where her voice might be generally heard, by
reason she would not have that any of her Accoustrements
should be perceived, but the splendor
thereof; and when she was come so near that her voice
could be heard and understood by all, she made this
following Speech:

“Dear Country-men, for so you are, although you know
me not; I being a Native of this Kingdom, and hearing
that most part of this World had resolved to make
Warr against it, and sought to destroy it, at least to weaken
its Naval Force and Power, have made a Voyage out of
another World, to lend you my assistance against your Enemies.
I come not to make bargains with you, or to regard
my own Interest more than your Safety; but I intend
to make you the most powerful Nation of this World, and
therefore I have chosen rather to quit my own Tranquility,
Riches and Pleasure, than suffer you to be ruined and destroyed.
All the Return I desire, is but your grateful acknowledgment,
and to declare my Power, Love and Loyalty
to my Native Country: for, although I am now a
Great and Absolute Princess, and Empress of a whole
World, yet I acknowledg, that once I was a Subject of this
Kingdom, which is but a small part of this World; and
therefore I will have you undoubtedly believe, that I shall
destroy all your Enemies before this following Night, I
mean those which trouble you by Sea; and if you have any T by T1v 138
by Land, assure your self I shall also give you my assistance
against them, and make you triumph over all that seek your Ruine and Destruction. ”

Upon this Declaration of the Empress, when both
the General, and all the Commanders in their several
Ships, had return’d their humble and hearty Thanks
to Her Majesty for so great a favour to them, she took
her leave, and departed to her own Ships. But, good
Lord! what several Opinions and Judgments did this
produce in the minds of her Country-men! some said
she was an Angel; others, she was a sorceress; some believed
her a Goddess; others said the Devil deluded
them in the shape of a fine Lady.

The morning after, when the Navies were to fight,
the Empress appear’d upon the face of the Waters,
dress’d in her Imperial Robes, which were all of Diamonds
and Carbuncles; in one hand she held a Buckler,
made of one intire Carbuncle; and in the other
hand a Spear of one intire Diamond; on her head she
had a Cap of Diamonds, and just upon the top of the
Crown, was a Starr made of the Starr-stone, mentioned
heretofore; and a Half-Moon made of the same
Stone, was placed on her forehead; all her other Garments
were of several sorts of precious Jewels; and
having given her Fish-men directions how to destroy
the Enemies of her Native Country, she proceeded to
effect her design. The Fish-men were to carry the Fire- T2r 139
Fire-stones in cases of Diamonds (for the Diamonds
in the Blazing-World, are in splendor so far beyond
the Diamonds of this World, as Peble-stones
are to the best sort of this Worlds Diamonds) and
to uncase or uncover those Fire-stones no sooner but
when they were just under the Enemis Ships, or close
at their sides, and then to wet them, and set their Ships
on fire; which was no sooner done, but all the Enemie’s
Fleet was of a Flaming fire; and coming to the
place where the Powder was, it streight blew them up;
so that all the several Navies of the Enemies, were destroyed
in a short time: which when her Countrymen
did see, they all cried out with one voice, That she
was an Angel sent from God to deliver them out of
the hands of their Enemies: Neither would she return
into the Blazing-World, until she had forced all the
rest of the World to submit to that same Nation.

In the mean time, the General of all their Naval Forces,
sent to their soveraign to acquaint him with their
miraculous Delivery and Conquest, and with the
Empress’s design of making him the most powerful
Monarch of all that World. After a short time, the
Empress sent her self, to the soveraign of that Nation
to know in what she could be serviceable to him;
who returning her many thanks, both for her assistance
against his Enemies, and her kind proffer to do him further
service for the good and benefit of his Nations (for
he was King over several Kingdoms) sent her word, T2 that T2v 140
that although she did partly destroy his Enemies by
Sea, yet, they were so powerful, that they did hinder
the Trade and Traffick of his Dominions. To which
the Empress returned this answer, That she would
burn and sink all those Ships that would not pay him
Tribute; and forthwith sent to all the Neighbouring
Nations, who had any Traffick by Sea, desiring them
to pay Tribute to the King and soveraign of that Nation
where she was born; But they denied it with
great scorn. Whereupon, she immediately commanded
her Fish-men, to destroy all strangers Ships that
traffick’d on the Seas; which they did according to
the Empress’s Command; and when the Neighbouring
Nations and Kingdoms perceived her power, they
were so discomposed in their affairs and designs, that
they knew not what to do: At last they sent to the
Empress, and desired to treat with her, but could
get no other conditions then to submit and pay Tribute
to the said King and soveraign of her Native
Country, otherwise, she was resolved to ruin all their
Trade and Traffick by burning their Ships. Long
was this Treaty, but in fine, they could obtain nothing,
so that at last they were inforced to submit; by
which the King of the mentioned Nations became absolute
Master of the Seas, and consequently of that
World; by reason, as I mentioned heretofore, the
several Nations of that World could not well live
without Traffick and Commerce, by Sea, as well as by

But T3r 141

But after a short time, those Neighbouring Nations
finding themselves so much inslaved, that they
were hardly able to peep out of their own Dominions
without a chargeable Tribute, they all agreed
to join again their Forces against the King and soveraign
of the said Dominions; which when the Empress
receiv’d notice of, she sent out her Fish-men
to destroy, as they had done before, the remainder
of all their Naval Power, by which they were soon
forced again to submit, except some Nations which
could live without Foreign Traffick, and some whose
Trade and Traffick was meerly by Land; these would
no ways be Tributary to the mentioned King. The
Empress sent them word, That in case they did
not submit to him, she intended to fire all their
Towns and Cities, and reduce them by force, to
what they would not yield with a good will.
But they rejected and scorned her Majesties Message,
which provoked her anger so much, that she
resolved to send her Bird- and Worm men thither,
with order to begin first with their smaller Towns,
and set them on fire (for she was loath to make more
spoil then she was forced to do) and if they remain’d
still obstinate in their resolutions, to destroy also their
greater Cities. The onely difficulty was, how to
convey the Worm-men conveniently to those places;
but they desired that her Majesty would but set
them upon any part of the Earth of those Nations, T3 and T3v 142
and they could travel within the Earth as easily, and
and as nimbly as men upon the face of the Earth; which
the Empress did according to their desire.

But before both the Bird- and Worm-men began
their journey, the Empress commanded the Bearmen
to view through their Telescopes what Towns
and Cities those were that would not submit; and
having a full information thereof, she instructed the
Bird- and Bear-men what Towns they should begin
withal; in the mean while she sent to all the Princes
and soveraigns of those Nations, to let them
know that she would give them a proof of her
Power, and check their Obstinacies by burning
some of their smaller Towns; and if they continued
still in their Obstinate Resolutions, that she would
convert their smaller Loss into a Total Ruin. she
also commanded her Bird-men to make their flight
at night, lest they be perceived. At last when both
the Bird- and Worm-men came to the designed places,
the Worm-men laid some Fire-stones under the Foundation
of every House, and the Bird-men placed
some at the tops of them, so that both by rain, and
by some other moisture within the Earth, the stones
could not fail of burning. The Bird-men in the
mean time having learned some few words of their
Language, told them, That the next time it did
rain, their Towns would be all on fire; at which
they were amaz’d to hear Men speak in the air; but with- T4r 143
withall they laughed when they heard them say that
rain should fire their Towns; knowing that the effect
of Water was to quench, not produce Fire.

At last a rain came, and upon a sudden all their
Houses appeared of a flaming Fire; and the more
Water there was poured on them, the more they
did flame and burn; which struck such a Fright and
Terror into all the Neighbouring Cities, Nations
and Kingdoms, that for fear the like should happen
to them, they and all the rest of the parts of that
World, granted the Empress’s desire, and submitted
to the Monarch and sovereign of her Native Countrey,
the King of Esfi; save one, which having
seldom or never any rain, but onely dews, which
would soon be spent in a great fire, slighted her Power:
The Empress being desirous to make it stoop
as well as the rest, knew that every year it was watered
by a flowing Tide, which lasted some Weeks;
and although their Houses stood high from the ground,
yet they were built upon Supporters which were fixt
into the ground. Wherefore she commanded
both her Bird- and Worm-men to lay some of
the Fire-stones at the bottom of those Supporters,
and when the Tide came in, all their Houses were
of a Fire, which did so rarifie the Water, that the
Tide was soon turn’d into a Vapour, and this Vapour
again into Air; which caused not onely a destruction
of their Houses, but also a general barrenness over T4v 144
over all their Countrey that year, and forced them
to submit, as well as the rest of the World had done.

Thus the Empress did not onely save her Native
Country, but made it the Absolute Monarchy of
all that World; and both the effects of her Power and
her Beauty, did kindle a great desire in all the greatest
Princes to see her; who hearing that she was resolved
to return into her own Blazing-World, they
all entreated the favour, that they might wait on
her Majesty before she went. The Empress sent
word, That she should be glad to grant their Requests;
but having no other place of Reception
for them, she desired that they would be pleased to come
into the open Seas with their Ships, and make a Circle
of a pretty large compass, and then her own Ships
should meet them, and close up the Circle, and she
would present her self to the view of all those that
came to see her: Which Answer was joyfully received
by all the mentioned Princes, who came,
some sooner, and some later, each according to the
distance of his Countrey, and the length of the voyage.
And being all met in the form and manner aforesaid,
the Empress appeared upon the face of the
Water in her Imperial Robes; in some part of her
hair, near her face, she had placed some of the Starr-
Stone, which added such a luster and glory to it, that
it caused a great admiration in all that were present,
who believed her to be some Celestial Creature, or rather V1r 145
rather an uncreated Goddess, and they all had a desire
to worship her; for surely, said they, no mortal creature
can have such a splendid and transcendent beauty,
nor can any have so great a power as she has, to
walk upon the Waters, and to destroy whatever she
pleases, not onely whole Nations, but a whole

The Empress expressed to her own Countrymen,
who were also her Interpreters to the rest of
the Princes that were present, That she would give
them an Entertainment at the darkest time of
Night: Which being come, the Fire-Stones were lighted,
which made both Air and Seas appear of a bright
shining flame, insomuch that they put all Spectators
into an extream fright, who verily believed they
should all be destroyed; which the Empress perceiving,
caused all the Lights of the Fire-Stones to be
put out, and onely shewed her self in her Garments
of Light. The Bird-men carried her upon their
backs into the Air, and there she appear’d as glorious
as the Sun. Then she was set down upon the Seas
again, and presently there was heard the most melodious
and sweetest Consort of Voices, as ever was
heard out of the Seas, which was made by the Fish-
men; this Consort was answered by another, made
by the Bird-men in the Air, so that it seem’d as
if Sea and Air had spoke, and answered each other
by way of Singing-Dialogues, or after the manner V of V1v 146
of those Playes that are acted by singing-Voices.

But when it was upon break of day, the Empress
ended her Entertainment, and at full day-light all the
Princes perceived that she went into the Ship wherein
the Prince and Monarch of her Native Country was,
the King of Esfi, with whom she had several
Conferences; and having assured Him of the readiness
of her Assistance whensoever he required it, telling
Him withal, That she wanted no Intelligence, she went
forth again upon the Waters, and being in the midst
of the Circle made by those Ships that were present,
she desired them to draw somewhat nearer, that they
might hear her speak; which being done, she declared
her self in this following manner:

“Great, Heroick, and Famous Monarchs, I come
hither to assist the King of Esfi against his Enemies,
He being unjustly assaulted by many several Nations, which
would fain take away His Hereditary Rights, and Prerogatives
of the Narrow Seas; at which Unjustice, Heaven
was much displeased, and for the Injuries He received
from His Enemies, rewarded Him with an Absolute Power,
so that now he is become the Head-Monarch of all
this World; which Power, though you may envy, yet you
can no wayes hinder Him; for all those that endeavour to
resist His Power, shall onely get Loss for their Labour, and
no Victory for their Profit. Wherefore my advice to you
all is, To pay him Tribute justly and truly, that you may live V2r 147
live Peaceably and Happily, and be rewarded with
the Blessings of Heaven: which I wish you from my
Soul. ”

After the Empress had thus finished her Speech to
the Princes of the several Nations of that World, she
desired that in their Ships might fall back; which being
done, her own Fleet came into the Circle, without
any visible assistance of Sails or Tide; and her self being
entred into her own Ship, the whole Fleet sunk immediately
into the bottom of the Seas, and left all the
Spectators in a deep amazement; neither would she
suffer any of her Ships to come above the Waters,
until she arrived into the Blazing-World.

In time of the Voyage, both the Empress’s and
the Duchess’s Soul, were very gay and merry; and sometimes
they would converse very seriously with each
other. Amongst the rest of their discourses, the Duchess
said, she wondred much at one thing, which was, That
since her Majesty had found out a passage out of the
Blazing-World, into the World she came from, she did
not enrich that part of the World where she was born,
at least her own Family, though she had enough
to enrich the whole World. The Empress’s Soul
answered, That she loved her Native Countrey, and
her own Family, as well as any Creature could do; and
that this was the reason why she would not enrich them:
for, said she, not only particular Families or Nations,V2 ons V2v 148
but all the World, their Natures are such, that
much Gold, and great store of Riches, makes them
mad; insomuch as they endeavour to destroy each
other for Gold or Riches sake. The reason thereof is,
said the Duchess, that they have too little Gold and
Riches, which makes them so eager to have it. No,
replied the Empress’s Soul, their particular Covetousness,
is beyond all the wealth of the richest World, and
the more Riches they have, the more Covetous they
are; for their Covetousness is Infinite. But, said
she, I would there could a Passage be found out of the
Blazing-World, into the World whence you came,
and I would willingly give you as much Riches as you
desir’d. The Duchess’s Soul gave her Majesty humble
thanks for her great Favour; and told her, that she was
not covetous, nor desir’d any more wealth than what
her Lord and Husband had before the Civil-Warrs.
Neither, said she, should I desire it for my own, but
my Lord’s Posterities sake. Well, said the Empress,
I’le command my Fish-men to use all their Skill and
Industry to find out a Passage into that World which
your Lord and Husband is in. I do verily believe,
answered the Duchess, that there will be no Passage
found into that World; but if there were any, I should
not Petition your Majesty for Gold and Jewels, but
only for the Elixir that grows in the midst of the
Golden Sands, for to preserve Life and Health; but
without a Passage, it is impossible to carry away any of V3r 149
of it: for, whatsoever is Material, cannot travel like
Immaterial Beings, such as Souls and Spirits are. Neither
do Souls require any such thing that might revive
them, or prolong their Lives, by reason they are unalterable:
for, were Souls like Bodies, then my Soul
might have had the benefit of that Natural Elixir that
grows in your Blazing-World. I wish earnestly, said
the Empress, that a Passage might be found, and then
both your Lord and your self, should neither want
Wealth, nor Long-life: nay, I love you so well, that
I would make you as Great and Powerful a Monarchess,
as I am of the Blazing-World. The Duchess’s
Soul humbly thank’d her Majesty, and told her, That
she acknowledged and esteemed her Love beyond all
things that are in Nature.

After this Discourse, they had many other Conferences,
which for brevity’s sake I’le forbear to rehearse.
At last, after several Questions which the Empress’s
Soul asked the Duchess, she desired to know the reason
why she did take such delight, when she was joyned to
her Body, in being singular both in Accoustrements,
Behaviour, and Discourse? The Duchess’s Soul answered,
she confessed that it was extravagant, and beyond
what was usual and ordinary: but yet her ambition
being such, that she would not be like others in
any thing, if it were possible, I endeavour, said she, to
be as singular as I can: for, it argues but a mean Nature,
to imitate others: and though I do not love to be V3 imita- V3v 150
imitated, if I can possibly avoid it; yet, rather than imitate
others, I should chuse to be imitated by others:
for my Nature is such, that I had rather appear worse
in Singularity, than better in the Mode. If you were
not a great Lady, replied the Empress, you would
never pass in the World for a wise Lady: for, the
World would say, your Singularities are Vanities. The
Duchess’s Soul answered, she did not at all regard the
Censure of this, or any other Age, concerning Vanities:
but, said she, neither this present, nor any of the
future Ages, can or will truly say, that I am not Vertuous
and Chast: for I am confident, all that were, or are
acquainted with me, and all the Servants which ever I
had, will or can upon their oaths declare my actions no
otherwise than Vertuous: and certainly, there’s none
even of the meanest Degree, which have not their Spies
and Witnesses, much more those of the Nobler sort,
which seldom or never are without Attendants; so that
their Faults (if they have any) will easily be known,
and as easily be divulged. Wherefore, happy are those
Natures that are Honest, Vertuous, and Noble; not
only happy to themselves, but happy to their Families.
But, said the Empress, if you glory so much
in your Honesty and Vertue, how comes it that you
plead for Dishonest and Wicked persons, in your
Writings? The Duchess answered, It was only to
shew her Wit, not her Nature.

At V4r 151

At last the Empress arrived into the Blazing-world,
and coming to her Imperial Palace, you may sooner
imagine than expect that I should express the joy
which the Emperor had at her safe return; for he loved
her beyond his Soul; and there was no love
lost, for the Empress equal’d his Affection with no
less love to him. After the time of rejoicing with
each other, the Duchess’s Soul begg’d leave to return
to her Noble Lord: But the Emperor desired, that
before she departed, she would see how he had employed
his time in the Empress’s absence; for he had
built Stables and Riding-Houses, and desired to
have Horses of Manage, such as, according to the
Empress’s Relation, the Duke of Newcastle had:
The Emperor enquired of the Duchess, the Form and
Structure of her Lord and Husband’s Stables and Riding-House.
The Duchess answer’d his Majesty, That
they were but plain and ordinary; but, said she, had
my Lord Wealth, I am sure he would not spare it,
in rendring his Buildings as Noble as could be made.
Hereupon the Emperor shewed the Duchess the Stables
he had built, which were most stately and magnificent;
among the rest, there was one double Stable
that held a Hundred Horses on a side, the main
Building was of Gold, lined with several sorts of
precious Materials; the Roof was Arched with Agats,
the sides of the Walls were lined with Cornelian,
the Floor was paved with Amber, the Mangersgers V4v 152
were Mother of Pearl; the Pillars, as also the middle
Isle or Walk of the Stables, were of Crystal; the
Front and Gate was of Turquois, most neatly cut
and carved. The Riding-House was lined with Saphirs,
Topases, and the like; the Floor was all of
Golden-Sand so finely sifted, that it was extreamly
soft, and not in the least hurtful to the Horses feet, and
the Door and Frontispiece was of Emeralds curiously

After the view of these Glorious and Magnificent
Buildings, which the Duchess’s Soul was much delighted
withall, she resolved to take her leave; but the Emperor
desired her to stay yet some short time more, for
they both loved her company so well, that they were
unwilling to have her depart so soon: several Conferences
and Discourses pass’d between them; amongst
the rest, the Emperor desir’d her advice how to set up a
Theatre for Plays. The Duchess confessed her Ignorance
in this Art, telling his Majesty that she knew nothing
of erecting Theatres or Scenes, but what she had
by an Immaterial Observation, when she was with the
Empress’s Soul in the chief City of E. Entring into
one of their Theatres, whereof the Empress could
give as much account to his Majesty, as her self. But
both the Emperor and the Empress told the Duchess,
That she could give directions how to make Plays. The
Duchess answered, That she had as little skill to form a
Play after the Mode, as she had to paint or make a Scene X1r 153
Scene for shew. But you have made Plays, replied
the Empress: Yes, answered the Duchess, I
intended them for Plays; but the Wits of these
present times condemned them as uncapable of being
represented or acted, because they were not made up
according to the Rules of Art; though I dare say,
That the Descriptions are as good as any they have
writ. The Emperor asked, Whether the Property
of Plays were not to describe the several Humours,
Actions and Fortunes of Mankind? ’Tis so, answered
the Duchess. Why then, replied the Emperor, the
natural Humours, Actions and Fortunes of Mankind,
are not done by the Rules of Art: But, said
the Duchess, it is the Art and Method of our Wits
to despise all Descriptions of Wit, Humour, Actions
and Fortunes that are without such Artificial
Rules. The Emperor asked, Are those good Plays
that are made so Methodically and Artificially? The
Duchess answer’d, They were Good according to
the Judgment of the Age, or Mode of the Nation,
but not according to her Judgment: for truly, said
she, in my Opinion, their Plays will prove a Nursery
of whining Lovers, and not an Academy or
School for Wise, Witty, Noble and well-behaved
men. But I, replied the Emperor, desire such
a Theatre as may make wise Men; and will have
such Descriptions as are Natural, not Artificial. If
your Majesty be of that Opinion, said the Duchess’s X Soul, X1v 154
Soul, then my Playes may be acted in your Blazing-
, when they cannot be acted in the Blinking-World
of Wit; and the next time I come to
visit your Majesty, I shall endeavour to order your
Majesty’s Theatre, to present such Playes as my
Wit is capable to make. Then the Empress told
the Duchess, That she loved a foolish Farse added
to a wise Play. The Duchess answered, That no
World in Nature had fitter Creatures for it than
the Blazing-World: for, said she, the Lowse-
men, the Bird-men, the Spider- and Fox-men, the
Ape-men and Satyrs appear in a Farse extraordinary

Hereupon both the Emperor and Empress intreated
the Duchess’s Soul to stay so long with them,
till she had ordered her Theatre, and made Playes
and Farses fit for them; for they onely wanted that
sort of Recreation: but the Duchess’s Soul begg’d
their Majesties to give her leave to go into her Native
World; for she long’d to be with her dear
Lord and Husband, promising, that after a short
time she would return again. Which being granted,
though with much difficulty, she took her leave
with all Civility and Respect, and so departed from
their Majesties.

After the Duchess’s return into her own body,
she entertained her Lord (when he was pleased to
hear such kind of Discourses) with Foreign Relations;tions; X2r 155
but he was never displeased to hear of the Empress’s
kind Commendations, and of the Characters
she was pleased to give of him to the Emperor.
Amongst other Relations, she told him all what
had past between the Empress, and the several Monarchs
of that World whither she went with the Empress;
and how she had subdued them to pay Tribute
and Homage to the Monarch of that Nation
or Kingdom to which she owed both her Birth
and Education. she also related to her Lord what
Magnificent Stables and Riding-Houses the Emperor
had built, and what fine Horses were in the Blazing-world,
of several shapes and sizes, and how
exact their shapes were in each sort, and of many
various Colours, and fine Marks, as if they had
been painted by Art, with such Coats or Skins, that
they had a far greater gloss and smoothness than Satin;
and were there but a passage out of the Blazingworld
into this, said she, you should not onely
have some of those Horses, but such Materials
as the Emperor has, to build your Stables
and Riding-Houses withall; and so much Gold, that
I should never repine at your Noble and Generous
Gifts. The Duke smilingly answered her, That he
was sorry there was no Passage between those two
Worlds; but, said he, I have always found an Obstruction
to my Good Fortunes.

X2 One X2v 156

One time the Duchess chanced to discourse with
some of her acquaintance, of the Empress of the Blazing-world,
who asked her what Pastimes and Recreations
her Majesty did most delight in? The Duchess
answered, That she spent most of her time in the
study of Natural Causes and Effects, which was her
chief delight and pastime; and that she loved to discourse
sometimes with the most Learned persons of that
World: And to please the Emperor and his Nobles,
who were all of the Royal Race, she went often abroad
to take the air, but seldom in the day-time, always
at night, if it might be called Night; for, said
she, the Nights there, are as light as Days, by reason
of the numerous Blazing-Starrs, which are very splendorous,
onely their Light is whiter than the Sun’s
Light; and as the Sun’s Light is hot, so their Light is
cool; not so cool as our twinkling Starr-light, nor
is their Sun-light so hot as ours, but more
rate: And that part of the Blazing-world where the
Empress resides, is always clear, and never subject to
any Storms, Tempests, Fogs or Mists, but has onely
refreshing-Dews that nourish the Earth: The air of it
is sweet and temperate, and, as I said before, as much
light in the Sun’s absence, as in its presence, which
makes that time we call Night, more pleasant there
than the Day: And sometimes the Empress goes
abroad by Water in Barges, sometimes by Land in
Chariots, and sometimes on Horse-back; her Royal Cha- X3r 157
Chariots are very Glorious, the Body is one intire
green Diamond; the four small Pillars that bear up
the Top-cover, are four white Diamonds, cut in the
form thereof; the top or roof of the Chariot, is one intire
blew Diamond, and at the four corners are great
springs of Rubies; the Seat is made of Cloth of Gold,
stuffed with Ambergreece beaten small: the Chariot
is drawn by Twelve Unicorns, whose Trappings are
all Chains of Pearl; and as for her Barges, they are
onely of Gold. Her Guard of State (for she needs
none for security, there being no Rebels or Enemies)
consists of Giants, but they seldom wait on
their Majesties abroad, because their extraordinary
height and bigness does hinder their prospect. Her Entertainment
when she is upon the Water, is the Musick
of the Fish- and Bird-men; and by Land are Horse
and Foot-matches; for the Empress takes much delight
in making Race-matches with the Emperor, and
the Nobility; some Races are between the Fox- and
Ape-men, which sometimes the Satyrs strive to outrun;
and some are between the Spider-men and Licemen.
Also there are several Flight-matches, between
the several sorts of Bird-men, and the several sorts of
Fly-men; and swimming-matches, between the several
sorts of Fish-men. The Emperor, Empress,
and their Nobles, take also great delight to have Collations;
for in the Blazing-world, there are most delicious
Fruits of all sorts, and some such as in this X3 World X3v 158
World were never seen nor tasted; for there are most
tempting sorts of Fruit: After their Collations are
ended, they Dance; and if they be upon the Water,
they dance upon the Water, there lying so many
Fish-men so close and thick together, as they can
dance very evenly and easily upon their backs, and
need not fear drowning. Their Musick, both Vocal
and Instrumental, is according to their several places:
Upon the Water, it is of Water-Instruments, as shells
filled with Water, and so moved by Art, which is a
very sweet and delightful harmony; and those Dances
which they dance upon the Water, are, for the
most part, such as we in this World call swimming-
, where they do not lift up their feet high: In
Lawns, or upon Plains, they have Wind-Instruments,
but much better than those in our World: And when
they dance in the Woods, they have Horn-Instruments,
which although they are of a sort of Wind-Instruments,
yet they are of another Fashion than the
former: In their Houses they have such Instruments
as are somewhat like our Viols, Violins, Theorboes,
Lutes, Citherins, Gittars, Harpsichords, and the like;
but yet so far beyond them, that the difference cannot
well be exprest; and as their places of Dancing, and
their Musick is different, so is their manner or way of
Dancing. In these and the like Recreations, the
Emperor, Empress, and the Nobility pass their

The X4r 159

to the

By this Poetical Description, you may perceive, that
my ambition is not onely to be Empress, but Authoress
of a whole World; and that the Worlds I have made,
both the Blazing- and the other Philosophical World, mentioned
in the first part of this Description, are framed
and composed of the most pure, that is, the Rational parts of
Matter, which are the parts of my Mind; which Creation
was more easily and suddenly effected, than the Conquests
of the two famous Monarchs of the World. Alexander
and Cesar. Neither have I made such disturbances,
and caused so many dissolutions of particulars, otherwise named
deaths, as they did; for I have destroyed but some few
men in a little Boat, which dyed through the extremity of
cold, and that by the hand of Justice, which was necessitated
to punish their crime of stealing away a young and beauteous
Lady. And in the formation of those Worlds, I take
more delight and glory, then ever Alexander or Cesar did
in conquering this terrestrial world; and though I have made
my Blazing-world a Peaceable World, allowing it but one Religi- X4v 160
Religion, one Language, and one Government; yet could
I make another World, as full of Factions, Divisions and
Warrs, as this is of Peace and Tranquility; and the Rational
figures of my Mind might express as much courage to
fight, as Hector and Achilles had; and be as wise as Nestor,
as; Eloquent as Ulysses, and be as beautiful as Hellen. But I
esteeming Peace before Warr, Wit before Policy, Honesty
before Beauty; instead of the figures of Alexander, Cesar,
Hector, Achilles, Nestor, Ulysses, Hellen, &c. chose
rather the figure of Honest Margaret Newcastle, which
now I would not change for all this Terrestrial World; and
if any should like the World I have made, and be willing to
be my Subjects, they may imagine themselves such, and
they are such, I mean in their Minds, Fancies or Imaginations;
but if they cannot endure to be Subjects, they may
create Worlds of their own, and Govern themselves as they
please. But yet let them have a care, not to prove unjust Usurpers,
and to rob me of mine: for, concerning the Philosophical-world,
I am Empress of it my self; and as for
the Blazing-world, it having an Empress already, who rules
it with great Wisdom and Conduct, which Empress is my
dear Platonick Friend; I shall never prove so unjust, treacherous
and unworthy to her, as to disturb her Government,
much less to depose her from her Imperial Throne, for the
sake of any other, but rather chuse to create another World
for another Friend.