Of the moſt Ancient and Modern

God, Chriſt, and the Creatures, viz.
of Spirit and Matter in general,
whereby may be reſolved all thoſe
Problems or Difficulties, which
neither by the School nor Common
Modern Philoſophy, nor by the
Carteſian, Hobbeſian, or Spinoſian,
could be diſcuſſed.

A little Treatiſe publiſhed ſince the Author’s
Death, tranſlated out of the Engliſh
into Latin, with Annotations taken
from the Ancient Philoſophy of the Hebrews
; and now again made Engliſh.

By J. C. Medicinæ Profeſſor.

Printed in Latin at Amsterdam, by M.
, 16901690. And Reprinted at London
, 16921692.



Having the care of the Publication of this Piece committed to my Charge, I thought, for the Good of the Publick, to give them the knowledge of the following Elixir, &c.

The Elixir Proprietatis (ſo highly commended by the Renowned Paracelſus and Helmont) it reſiſteth all Putrefaction of the Blood, ſtrengtheneth the Digeſtive Faculty. Its Excellent Virtues are prevalent in the Curing of continual Fevers, Quotidian and Tertian Agues, Small Pox, and Meaſles, or Swine Pox, with other Peſtilential Diſtempers; as alſo the Palſy, Apoplexy, Falling-Sickneſs, Aſthma’s, Tabes, or Conſumption of the Lungs. Its Doſe is from 10 to 20, 30, or 40 drops in a Glaſs of Sack. This Noble Elixir is Philoſophically prepared, by John Spire, Chymico Medicus, at four Shillings the Ounce. Who hath, by his Labour and Study in the Chymical Art, attained unto ſeveral ſecret Arcanums, (not vulgarly known) particularly a Soveraign Remedy for the Gout. If any one is deſirous therefore, or the aforeſaid Elixir Proprietatis, Let them apply themſelves to my Friend, Mr. Dorman Newman, at the King’s Arms in the Poultry, and the Author at his Houſe in Horſly-down-Fair- ſtreet, Southwark; or at his Country Houſe, at the upper end of Twitnam, near the Sign of the White-Hart, in Middleſex.


To The Reader.

Courteous Reader.

We have (for thy ſake) publiſhed this little Treatiſe, which was written not many Years ago, by a certain Engliſh Counteſs, a Woman learned beyond her Sex, being very well skill’d in the Latin and Greek Tongues, and excellently well vers’d in all kinds of Philoſophy; who when ſhe had firſt taken in the Principles of Cartes, and ſeeing its defects, afterwards by reading certain Writings of very Ancient Philoſophy, ſhe obſerved ſo many things, that ſhe wrote theſe few Chapters for her own uſe; but A2 in A2v in a very dull and ſmall Character; which being found after her Death is partly tranſcribed (for the reſt could ſcarcely be read) and publiſhed in Latin, that thereby the whole World might be in ſome ſort benefitted, and ſo the ſame become of Publick Good; to the end that whoſoever he be that worthily Eſteems the Author, may acknowledge true Philoſophy, and ſo the more eaſily ſhun thoſe Errors, which are now, alas! too common.

Quibus tu fruere & vale.

The A3r

The Translator to the Reader.

Judicious Reader,

Thou may’ſt (peradventure) no leſs wonder at the ſtrangeneſs of the Paradox, than at the publication hereof in an Engliſh Dialect, and the rather becauſe it is no vulgar Theme, and conſequently above the reach of vulgar Capacities, whom (leſt it ſhould be more apt to diſtract than inſtruct) I ſhould rather adviſe to reſt ſatisfied with what for the preſent they know, than either to covet or condemn more than they do, or are capable to apprehend: Yet, by the way, let me adviſe thee to ſuſpend thy A3v thy cenſures, (which at firſt view, ’tis probable, thou may’ſt be ſubject to entertain,) as ſuppoſing the Doctrine herein aſſerted more eaſily oppugnable than indeed it is) till thou haſt paſſed a ſerious examination on all the particulars herein inſiſted upon: For Aliquando mens cogitat quæ ratio non probat. As to the Tranſlation it ſelf, as I hope none but envious Criticks will be offended thereat, ſo I ſhall endeavour, though briefly, yet fully, to ſatisfie every impartial and unprejudiced Reader, both as to the Circumſtance, and principal Reaſon inducing me hereunto, which is as follows. Being ſome time ſince in Holland, and in Conference with the renowned F. M. B. van Helmont, then reſident at Amſterdam, it ſo hapned that I demanded of the ſaid Helmont, if he had publiſhed, or did intend to publiſh any new Books of his own, or others Works, who preſently directed me where I A4r I might procure certain Books, publiſhed by his Order, which accordingly I did; two whereof were extant in Latin, the other in Nether-Dutch; this being the Works of an Engliſh Counteſs (after a brief perusal) I have endeavoured to render into an Engliſh Stile, as familiar as the Language would conveniently admit, without ſome abuſe to the Author. One Reaſon that led me to it, was the earneſt requeſt of a Friend; the other was, that I did not doubt but this little Treatiſe might happen into the Hands of ſome ingenious and well-diſpoſed Perſons, who (though not furniſhed with thoſe artificial Helps and Advantages that Learning uſually affords; yet nevertheleſs being qualified by a natural pregnancy of parts, by many ſerious Studies and deliberate Thoughts of this or the like Nature) might be competent Judges of ſuch Myſteries; or that it might fortunately light into the Hands of ſuch whoſe eminency of Learning,ing, A4v ing, and maturity of Judgment, might render them either willing to approve it, or able to refute it, and that too with a better Salvo of Divine Attributes than is done in this Treatiſe. Now, wiſhing thee the compleat enjoyment of all Temporal Bleſſings here, and the full fruition and poſſeſſion of Eternal Happineſs hereafter, I conclude this preſent Epiſtle, and ſubſcribe myſelf

Thine, in all real Service,

J. C.


The Principles of the Ancient and Modern Philoſophy: Concerning God, Chriſt, and the Creature; that is, concerning Spirit, and Matter in General.

Chap. 1. Concerning God, and his Attributes.

§. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Of God and his Divine Attributes. §. 6, 7. How a Trinity may be conceived to be in God, according to the Scriptures; and yet without Offence to Turks, Jews, or any other People; though we ſhould omit the Terms of Three diſtinct Perſons, which are neither built upon Scripture or ſound Reaſon.


God is a Spirit, Light, and Life, infinitely Wiſe, Good, Juſt, Mighty, Omniſcient, Omnipreſent, Omnipotent, Creator and Maker of all things viſible and inviſible. See Adumbratio B Kab- B1v 2 Kabbalæ Chriſtianæ, Chap. 2. §. 2---7. Kabbl. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 2. Part 3.

§. 2. In God there is neither Time nor Change, nor Compoſition, nor Diviſion of Parts: He is wholly and univerſally one in himſelf, and of himſelf, without any manner of Variety or Mixture: He hath no manner of Darkneſs, or Corporiety in him, and ſo conſequently no kind of Form or Figure whatſoever. See Philoſoph. Kabbaliſtic. diſſertatio. Ch. 3 in Kabbal. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 1. Part 3.

§. 3. He is alſo in a proper and real ſence, a Subſtance or Eſſence diſtinct from his Creatures, although he is not divided, or ſeparated from them; but moſt ſtrictly and in the higheſt degree intimately preſent in them all; yet ſo as they are not parts of him, nor can be changed into him, nor he into them: He is alſo in a true and proper ſence a Creator of all Things, who doth not only give them their Form and Figure, but alſo Being, Life, Body, and whatſoever elſe of Good they have. See Kabbal. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 1. Part 2. Pag. 30. 332.

§. 4. Seeing then that in him there is no Time, nor any Mutability, hence it is B2r 3 is that in him there can exiſt no new Knowledge or Will, but his Knowledge and Will are Eternal, and without or above time. See Philoſoph. Kabbaliſtic. Diſſertatio 3. Ch. 1. in Kabbal. denudat.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 1. Part 3. & ibid. Ch. 6.

§. 5. Likewise in God there can exiſt no Paſſion, which to ſpeak properly comes from his Creatures: For every Paſſion is ſomething Temporal, and hath its Beginning, and end with Time.

§. 6. In God is an Idea, which is the Image of himſelf, or a Word exiſting within him; which in Subſtance or Eſſence is one and the ſame with him, by which he knows not only himſelf, but all other things, and according to which, yea by which Idea or Word, all things were made and created.

§. 7. By the like Reaſon in God is a Spirit or Will which proceeds from him, and yet as to Subſtance or Eſſence is ſomething one with him, by which Creatures receive their Being and Activity: For Creatures have their Being and Exiſtence ſimply and alone from him, becauſe God would have them to be, whoſe Will is according to Knowledge moſt infinite. B2 And B2v 4 And thus Wiſdom and Will in God, are not a certain Subſtance or Being diſtinct from him; but only diſtinct Manners or Properties of one and the ſame Subſtance; and ſeeing this is that which ſome of the Wiſeſt and moſt Judicious Chriſtians underſtand by the Word Trinity. If now we ſhould neglect that. Phraſe of Three diſtinct Perſons, which is a Stone of Offence to Jews as well as Turks, and other People, and indeed in it ſelf hath no ſound Reaſon, nor can be any where found in Scripture; yet all would eaſily agree in this point: For they cannot deny that God hath Wiſdom, and an Eſſential Idea, and ſuch a Word in himſelf by which he knows all things; and when they grant he giveth all Things their Being, they will be neceſſarily forced to acknowledge that there is a Will in him, by which he can accompliſh and bring that into Act which was hid in the Idea, that is, can produce it, and from thence make a diſtinct Eſſential Subſtance; and this alone is to create, viz. the Eſſence of a Creature: Nevertheleſs the Idea alone doth not give being to the Creature; but the Will join’d with the Idea, as when a Maſter- B3r 5 Maſter-Builder conceives in his Mind the Idea of an Houſe, he doth not build that Houſe by the Idea alone, but the Will is joined with the Idea, and co-operates therewith.

Annotations on this firſt Chapter.

The Ancient Hypotheſis of the Hebrews, as to what pertains to the latter Contents of this Chapter, is this:

1. Seeing God was of all the moſt exceeding great and infinite Light, and yet the chiefeſt Good: For this Reaſon he would make Creatures to whom he might communicate himſelf: But theſe could in no wiſe bear the exceeding greatneſs of his Light: And hereunto belong thoſe Scripture ſayings, God dwelleth in an inapproachable Light. No Man hath ſeen God at any Time, &c.

2. He diminiſhed therefore (for the ſake of his Creatures) the highest Degree of his moſt intenſe Light, that there might be room for his Creatures, from whence Place immediately aroſe, as it were a certain Circular Vacuity or Space of Worlds.

B3 3. This B3v 6

3. This Vacuum was not a mere Privation or Non ens, but a certain real Poſition of Light, diminutively, which was the Soul of the Meſſias, called by the Hebrews, Adam Kadmon, which filled all that whole Space.

4. This Soul of the Meſſias was united with that whole Light of the Divinity, which remained within that Vacuum, in a more mild degree, that could be born, and with it made up one Subject.

5. This Meſſias (called λόɣ, or Word, or Firſt Begotten Son of God,) having made a new Diminution of his Light, for the benefit of his Creatures, framed or made within himſelf the whole Series or Orders of all Creatures.

6. To whom he might farther communicate the Light or Rays of his Divine Nature, as the Objects of Contemplation and Love; which were the unitive Acts of the Creator and Creatures; in which Union the Happineſs of the Creatures did conſiſt.

7. Here therefore occurs the Trinity of Divine Representation: And the firſt Conception is, that God is infinite, to be conſidered without and above Production. Secondly, B4r 7 Secondly, God is the ſame as in the Meſſias. Thirdly, that God is the ſame, as when with the Meſſias in the Creatures fitted by the leaſt degree of Light to the perception of his Creatures. Hitherto belongs that Scripture, ſaying, No Man hath ſeen God at any time: the Son who is in the Boſom of the Father hath revealed him to us.

8. But it is common with the Hebrews to uſe the Term of Perſons, yet ſo as that by it they do not mean a ſingular Suppoſitum, but a Conception only, or kind of Repreſentation, or Method of Conſideration. See Adumbratio Kabbal. ChriſtianAdumbratio Kabbalæ Chriſtianæ. Chap. 23.

B4 Chap. B4v 8

Chap. II.

§. 1. Although Creatures are not Co-eternal with God; yet they had infinite Times from the Beginning. §. 2. So that no Number of Years, no not the greateſt that any created Intellect can conceive, can reach to their Beginning. §. 3. Creatures were in one ſence from Eternity, and in another ſence not from Eternity. §. 4. Infinity of Times is proved from the infinite Goodneſs of God. §. 5. It is an Eſſential Attribute of God to be a Creator. §. 6. What Time is, and how the ſame cannot be in God.

§. 1. Forasmuch as all Creatures are, and do exiſt ſimply, or alone from him; becauſe God willed them to be, whoſe Will is infinitely powerful, and whoſe Commandment, without any Inſtrument or Inſtrumental Cauſe, is the only Efficient to give Being unto his Creatures: Hence is neceſſarily follows, ſeeing the Will of God is Eternal, or from Eternity, that Creation muſt immediately follow B5r 9 follow the ſaid Will, without any Interpoſition of Time: And though it cannot be ſaid, that Creatures conſidered in themſelves, are Co-eternal with God; becauſe after this rate Eternity and Time would be confounded together; yet nevertheleſs the Creatures, and that Will which created then, are ſo mutually preſent, and ſo immediately happen one after another; that nothing can be ſaid to come in between; even as if two Circles ſhould immediately touch each other: Neither can we aſſign any other Beginning to Creatures, but God himſelf, and his Eternal Will, which is according to his Eternal Idea or Wiſdom. Hence it follows by Natural Conſequence, that Times from the Creation are Infinite, and without all Number, which no created Intellect can conceive: How then can this be Finite or Meaſured, which had no other beginning but Eternity it ſelf.

§. 2. But if any one will ſay, Times are Finite, then let us ſuppoſe the Meaſure of them from the Beginning, to be about 6000 Years, (even as ſome do think that the whole Age of this World, from the Beginning, is of no greater Extent,) or B5v 10 or with others (who think that before this World, there was another inviſible World, from whence this viſible World proceeded;) let us ſuppoſe the Duration of this World to be 600000 Years, or any other Number of Years, as great as can be by any Reaſon conceived: Now I demand whether it could be, that the World was created before this time? If they deny it, they limit the Power of God to a certain Number of Years; if they affirm it, they allow Time to be before all time, which is a manifeſt Contradiction.

§. 3. These things being premiſed it will be eaſie to Anſwer to that Queſtion, wherewith Numbers have been ſo exceedingly perplexed: Whether Creation was made or could be made from Eternity, or from Everlaſting? If by Eternity, and Everlaſting, they mean an Infinite Number of Times; in this ſence Creation was made from Everlaſting: But if they mean ſuch an Eternity, as God himſelf hath, ſo as to ſay, Creatures are Equal or Coeternal with God, and to have no beginning of Time, this is falſe: For both Creatures and Times (which are nothing elſe but ſucceſſive Motions and Operations of Created Beings) had a Beginning, which is B6r 11 is God or the Eternal Will of God, and why ſhould it ſeem ſtrange to any one that Times in their whole Collection or Univerſality, may be ſaid to be Infinite, when the leaſt part of Time that can be conceived, contains in it ſelf a kind of Infinity? For as there is no Time ſo great, that a greater cannot be conceived; ſo there is no time ſo ſmall, but there may be a leſs; for the ſixtieth part of a Minute may be divided into ſixty other parts, and theſe again into others, and ſo ad infinitum.

§. 4. But the Infiniteneſs of Times from the beginning of Creation may be likewiſe demonſtrated from the Goodneſs of God; For God is infinitely Good, Loving, and Bountiful; yea, Goodneſs and Charity it ſelf; an infinite Fountain, and Father of Goodneſs, Charity, and Bounty. Now how can it be, that this Fountain ſhall not always plentifully flow, and ſend from it ſelf Living Waters? And ſhall not this Ocean perpetually abound with its own Efflux to the Production of Creatures, and that with a certain continual Stream? For the Goodneſs of God in its own proper Nature is Communicative, and Multiplicative, and ſeeing in him nothingthing B6v 12 thing is wanting, neither can any thing be added unto him, by reaſon of his abſolute fulneſs, and tranſcendent fertility: And alſo ſeeing by the ſame reaſon he cannot multiply himſelf, which would be all one, as if we ſhould imagine there were more Gods than one, which is contradictory: Now it neceſſarily follows, that he did give Being to his Creatures from everlaſting, or Times without Number; or elſe this Communicative Goodneſs of God, which is his Eſſential Attribute, would be ſomething Finite, and its Duration conſiſt of a certain Number of Years, than which nothing is more abſurd.

§. 5. It is an Eſſential Attribute of God, to be a Creator, and ſo by Conſequence God ever was a Creator, and ever will be a Creator, becauſe otherwiſe he would be changed. And therefore Creatures ever were, and ever will be; but the Eternity of Creatures is nothing elſe, but an Infinity of Times, in which they ever were, and ever will be without end: Neither is this Infiniteneſs of Times equal to the Infiniteneſs of God’s Eternity; becauſe the Eternity of God himſelf, hath no Times in it; nothing therein can be ſaid to be paſt B7r 13 paſt, or to come, but the whole is always preſent: He is indeed in Times; but not comprehended of them. Although the Hebrews ſeem to ſpeak ſomewhat different from this (as appears in Kabbal. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 1. Part 2. pag. 29, 30. and Philoſoph. Kabbal. diſſertat. 3. Ch. 6, 7 in Kab. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom 1. Part 3.) yet they do not contradict this Opinion, becauſe they allow an indefinite Duration of Times. Confeſ. Adumbrat. Kabbal. Chriſtian. Ch. 7. §. 4, 5, 7. in Kabbal. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 2. Tract. ult.

§. 6. And the reaſon hereof is manifeſt; becauſe Time is nothing elſe but the ſucceſſive Motion or Operation of Creatures; which Motion or Operation, if it ſhould ceaſe, Time would alſo ceaſe, and the Creatures themſelves would ceaſe with Time: Wherefore ſuch is the Nature of every Creature, that it is in Motion, or hath a certain Motion, by means of which it advances forward, and grows to a farther perfection. And ſeeing in God there is no ſucceſſive Motion or Operation to a farther perfection; becauſe he is moſt abſolutely perfect. Hence there are no Times in God or his Eternity.

And moreover, becauſe there are no Parts in God, there are alſo no Times in him; B7v 14 him, for all Times have their Parts, and are indeed infinitely diviſible, as before was ſaid.

Chap. III.

§. 1. God is the moſt free Agent, and yet of all the moſt neceſſary. §.2. Indifferency of Will, which the School-men imagined to be in God, is a mere Fiction. §. 3. God created the World, not for any external neceſſity, but out of the internal impulſe of his Divine Goodneſs and Wiſdom. §. 4. Creatures were created Infinite, and there are Worlds Infinite. §. 5. The leaſt Creature that we can conceive hath within it Infinite Creatures. §. 6. Yet that doth not make Creatures equal with God. §. 7. A refutation of thoſe imaginary Spaces, which the Schools did imagine to exiſt without the Creatures. §. 8. Succeſſive Motion hath no place in God. §. 9. An Anſwer to the Objection. §. 10. All Creatures are united after a certain manner.

§. 1.Moreover, if the afore-mentioned Attributes of God be duly conſidered, and eſpecially theſe two; B8r 15 two; to wit, his Wiſdom and Goodneſs, that Indifferency of Will, which the Schoolmen, and Philoſophers falſly ſo called, have imagined to be in God, will be utterly refuted, and wholly turned out of Doors; which alſo they have improperly called Free-Will; for although the Will of God be moſt free, ſo that whatſoever he doth in the behalf of his Creatures, he doth freely without any external Violence, Compulſion, or any Cauſe coming from them: Whatſoever he doth, he doth of his own accord: Yet that Indifference of acting, or not acting, can by no means be ſaid to be in God, becauſe this were an Imperfection, and would make God like corruptible Creatures; for this Indifference of Will is the Foundation of all Change, and Corruptibility in Creatures; ſo that there would be no evil in Creatures if they were not changeable. Therefore, if the ſame ſhould be ſuppoſed to be in God, he muſt be ſuppoſed to be changeable, and ſo would be like corruptible Man, who often doth a thing out of his mere pleaſure, not out of a true and ſolid Reaſon, or the guidance of Wiſdom; in which he is like to thoſe Cruel Tyrants which are in the World, who act many things B8v 16 things out of their mere Will or Pleaſure, relying on their Power, ſo that they can render no other Reaſon for what they do, than that it is their mere Pleaſure; whereas any good Man of them that acts, or is about to act can render a ſuitable reaſon for it, and that becauſe he knows and underſtands that true Goodneſs and Wiſdom hath required him to do it, wherefore he Wills that it be effected, becauſe it is juſt, ſo that if he ſhould not do it he would neglect his Duty.

§. 2. For true Juſtice or Goodneſs hath in it ſelf no Latitude or Indifference; but is like up to a certain right line, drawn from one point to another, where it cannot be ſaid two or more Lines can be indifferently drawn between two Points, and yet all right Lines; becauſe there can be but one that is a right Line, and the reſt will be crooked or bending, and that more or leſs as they depart, or are diſtant from that one right Line, above-mentioned: Whence it is manifeſt, this Indifference of Will hath no place in God, by reaſon it is an Imperfection; who though he be the moſt free Agent, yet he is alſo above all the moſt neceſſary Agent; ſo that it is impoſſible that he ſhould not do, whatſoeverſoever C1r 17 ſoever he doth in or for his Creatures; Seeing his Infinite Wiſdom, Goodneſs, and Juſtice, is a Law unto him, which he cannot Tranſgreſs. Philoſoph. Kabbal. diſſertat. 3. Cap. 6, 7. in Kabbal. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 1. Part. 3.

§. 3. Hence therefore it evidently follows, that it was not indifferent to God, whether he would give Being to his Creatures or no; but he made them out of a certain Internal impulſe of his Divine Wiſdom and Goodneſs, and ſo he created the World or Creatures aſſoonaſ ſoon as he could: For this is the Nature of a neceſſary Agent, to do whatſoever it can; therefore ſeeing he could create the World or Creatures in Infinite Times, before 6000 Years, or before 60000 Years, or 600000, &c. Hence it follows he hath done it; For God can entirely do that which implies no contradiction; but this doth not imply a contradiction, if the Worlds or Creatures be ſaid to have been or exiſted in Infinite Times, before this Moment; even as they are Infinite Times after this Moment: If there be no contradiction in the latter, there is alſo no contradiction in the former.

§. 4. These Attributes duly conſidered, it follows, that Creatures were created in C Infinite C1v 18 Infinite Numbers, or that there is an Infinity of Worlds or Creatures made of God: For ſeeing God is infinitely powerful, there can be no Number of Creatures ſo great, that he cannot always make more: And becauſe, as is already proved, he doth whatſoever he can do; certainly his Will, Goodneſs, and Bounty, is as large and extenſive as his Power; whence it manifeſtly follows, that Creatures are Infinite, and created in Infinite Manners; ſo that they cannot be limited or bounded with any Number or Meaſure: For Example; Let us ſuppoſe the whole Univerſality of Creatures to be a Circle, whoſe Semi-diameter ſhall contain ſo many Diameters of the Earth, as there are Grains of Duſt, or Sand, in the whole Globe of the Earth; and if the ſame ſhould be divided into Atomes, ſo ſmall that 100000 of them could be contained in one grain of Poppy-ſeed: Now who can deny, but the Infinite Power of God, could have made this Number greater, and yet ſtill greater, even to an Infinite Multiplication? Seeing it is more eaſie to this Infinite Power, to multiply the real Beings of Creatures, than for a skilful Arithmetician to make any Number greater and greater, which can never be ſo great, but that C2r 19 that it may be (by Addition or Multiplication) encreaſed ad inifinitum: And farther, ſeeing it is already demonſtrated, that God is a neceſſary Agent, and doth whatſoever he can do: It muſt needs be, that he doth multiply, and yet ſtill continues to multiply and augment the Eſſences of Creatures, ad infinitum. Concerning Infinity ſee Philoſoph. Kabbal. Diſſert. 1. Cap. 6. Diſſert. 3. C. 1. in Kabbal. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 1. Part 3. Whence Creatures are rather termed Indefinite than Infinite.

§. 5. Also by the like Reaſon is proved, that not only the whole Body or Syſtem of Creatures conſidered together, is Infinite, or contains in it ſelf a kind of Infinity; but alſo that every Creature, even the leaſt that we can diſcern with our Eyes, or conceive in our Minds, hath therein ſuch an Infinity of Parts, or rather entire Creatures, that they cannot be numbred; even as it cannot be denied, that God can place one Creature within another, ſo he can place two as well as one, and four as well as two, ſo alſo eight as well as four, ſo that he could multiply them without end, always placing the leſs within the greater. And ſeeing no Creature can be ſo ſmall, that there cannot be always a leſs; ſo no C2 Crea- C2v 20 Creature is ſo great that there cannot be always a greater: Now it follows, that in the leaſt Creature there may exiſt, or be comprehended Infinite Creatures, which may be all of them Bodies, and after a ſort, in regard of themſelves, impenetrable one of another. As to thoſe Creatures which are Spirits, and can penetrate each other, in every created Spirit, there may be ſome Infinity of Spirits, all which Spirits may be of equal extenſion, as well with the aforeſaid Spirit, as they are one with another; for in this caſe thoſe Spirits are more Subtile and Æthereal, which penetrate the Groſs and more Corporeal, whence here can be no want of Room, that one muſt be conſtrained to give place to another. Of the Nature of Bodies and Spirits, more ſhall be ſaid in its proper place, this being ſufficient to demonſtrate, that in every Creature, whether the ſame be a Spirit or a Body, there is an Infinity of Creatures, each whereof contains an Infinity, and again each of theſe, and ſo ad infinitum.

§. 6. All theſe do greatly extol and ſet forth the great Power and Goodneſs of God, for that his Eternity is clearly ſeen by the Works of his Hands; yea in every Creature that he hath made: Nor can it be C3r 21 be objected, we make Creatures equal with God; for as one Infinite may be greater than another, ſo God is ſtill Infinitely greater than all his Creatures, and that without any compariſon. And thus indeed the Inviſible Things of God are clearly ſeen, as they are underſtood by, or in thoſe things, which are made; for by how much the greater and more Magnificent the Works are, by ſo much the more is the Greatneſs of the Workman ſeen: Therefore thoſe who teach, that the whole Number of Creatures is Finite, and conſiſts of ſo many Individuals as may be numbred; and that the whole Body of the Univerſe takes up juſt ſo many Acres or Miles, or Diameters of the Earth, according to Longitude, Latitude, and Profundity, conſider ſo great Majeſty with too low and unbeſeeming a Conception; and ſo that God which they fanſie to themſelves, is not the true God, but an Idol of their own Imagination, whom they confine to ſo narrow an Habitation, as a few little Bees ſhut up within the limits of an Hive, containing the meaſure of a few Inches: for what elſe is that World, which they ſuppoſe, in reſpect of that truly great and Univerſal World above deſcribed?

C3 §. 7. C3v 22

§. 7. But if they ſay, they do not ſhut up God within this Finite Univerſe, but do imagine him to exiſt in Infinite imaginary Spaces, as well without as within it. To this may be anſwered, If thoſe Spaces are merely imaginary; certainly then they are nothing but Fooliſh Fictions of the Brain; but if they are real Beings, what can they be but Creatures of God? Beſides, either God Works in thoſe Spaces, or he doth not: if he doth not, then God is not there; for whereſoever he is, there he worketh; ſeeing this is his Nature, that he muſt ſo act, as it is the Nature of Fire to burn, or of the Sun to ſhine: For ſo God perpetually worketh; and his Work is to Create, or give Being to Creatures, according to that Eternal Idea or Wiſdom which is in him. According to the Hebrews, God is Infinite, whom they call Ænſoph; for that he is ſaid to exiſt without the Space of the World, becauſe the Creature could not contain the Immenſity of his Light. See what is ſaid in Annotations on the Firſt Chapter. Neither is he ſaid to exiſt in imaginary Spaces, becauſe no place plainly agrees with God; but he may be ſaid to operate there by his ſimple activity: But whatſoever is wrought in, and by the way of the Creatures, is done C4r 23 done by the Meſſias, who is not ſo Immenſe as Ænſoph himſelf.

§. 8. But this continual Action or Operation of God, as it is in him, or proceeds from him, or hath reſpect unto him, is one only continual Act or Command of his Will, neither hath Time nor Succeſſion in it; nor firſt, nor latter; but is together, and always preſent with God; ſo that nothing of him is either paſt or to come, becauſe he hath not parts: But ſo far as he appears or terminates in Creatures, he hath Time and Succeſſion of parts: And though this may ſeem very difficult to be comprehended, yet it can be ſufficiently evinced by ſound reaſon: And will not this plain and common Example following, a little help our Underſtanding herein? Suppoſe a great Circle or Wheel to be moved by a Centre, whereas the Centre always remains in one place, even as ſome do think the Sun after this manner to be moved about his Centre (by ſome Angel or Spirit remaining in the Centre) within the ſpace of ſo many days. Now albeit the Centre moves the whole Wheel, and cauſes a great and continual Motion in the ſame; yet that always reſteth, neither is it in the leaſt moved: How much more then is the ſame in God, who C4 is C4v 24 is the Firſt Mover in all his Creatures, according to all their true and appointed Motions, yet he is not moved of them? But that in him which hath an Analogy or Agreement with the Motions or Operations of Creatures, is the Government of his Will, which (to ſpeak properly) is not Motion, becauſe every Motion is ſucceſſive, and cannot have place in God, as is above demonſtrated.

§. 9. But againſt what we have delivered (that the leaſt Creature conceivable, hath in it Infinite Creatures; ſo that the leaſt Particle of Body or Matter may be Infinite ways extended, and divided into parts leſs, and yet ſtill leſſer, and leſſer) ſome may frame this following Objection. That which is actually diviſible, ſo far as an actual diviſion can any ways be made, is diviſible into parts indiſcerpible; but Matter or Body (to wit, that Matter that is entire or compound) is actually diviſible ſo far as an actual diviſion can any ways be made, therefore, &c. I Anſwer, this Argument labours under that fallacy which Logicians call Compoſitiones non Componendorum, which is a Conjunction of Words, or Terms, that imply a contradiction or abſurdity, and that appears in this C5r 25 this Term, actually diviſible, which ſignifies one and the ſame thing to be divided, and not to be divided; for Actually denotes Diviſion, and Diviſible not Diviſion, but only a capacity to be divided, which is as abſurd and contradictory, as if one ſhould ſay viſibly blind, or ſenſibly inſenſible, or livingly dead; but if by the Terms Actually Diviſible, they do not mean two, but only one thing, to wit, that it is either really divided, or only diviſible, we ſhall eaſily diſcover the Fallacy: For, Firſt, if by Actually Diviſible, they mean nothing elſe but that which is divided, in this ſence I grant the Major, to wit, that that which is really divided, ſo far as an actual diviſion can any ways be made, is diviſible into parts indiſcerpible; but by the ſame reaſon the Minor is falſe, viz. that Matter is divided ſo far as an Actual Diviſion can poſſibly be made. But, Secondly, if by that which they call Actually Diviſible, they mean a thing only diviſible, or in which there is a power or capacity to be ſo divided: Now I deny the Major, to wit, That that which is diviſible, ſo far as diviſion can be made, is diviſible into parts indiſcerpible; and beſides in this ſence, that propoſition is merely Tautological, and a need- C5v 26 needleſs repetition of the ſame thing, juſt as this would be; whatſoever can be removed out of its place, in as much as it can be removed, maybe be removed to ſome certain diſtance; but London or Rome may be removed out of their place, in as much as they may be removed, Ergo, &c. By the ſame way of Argument may be proved, that the Soul of Man conſiſts of a Finite Number of Years only, in which it doth exiſt, or hath a Being, and conſequently that it is Mortal, and hath an end; to wit, thus, that whoſe Time or Duration is actually diviſible, ſo far as an actual diviſion can poſſibly be made, ſhall have an end, and is diviſible, into a Finite Number of Years; but the Time or Duration of the Soul is actually diviſible, ſo far as an actual diviſion can poſſibly be made, Ergo, & But if it be denied, that the Time of the Soul (if it ſhould come to ſuch a diviſion of Years) ſhall then have an end; but that it is poſſible for it to re-aſſume another Time after this Firſt, and ſo ad infinitum. Now, I ſay the ſame, which is, that Matter if it ſhould come to ſuch a diviſion, may indeed have an end of that diviſion; but yet may admit of another diviſion after this Firſt, and ſo ad infinitum. And here is to be noted, when C6r 27 when I ſay the leaſt Particle of Body, or Matter ſo called, may be always divided into parts, leſs, ad infinitum; ſo that no actual diviſion can be made in any Matter, which is not always farther diviſible, or capable to be divided into leſs parts, and that without end; yet I would not hereby determine, what the Abſolute Power of God will or can do; as ſome do vainly and groſly diſpute; but only hint what the Power of God probably may do, or will do, ſo far as he operates in and with his Creatures, to wit, in as much as in all Productions, and Generations, as alſo in all Reſolutions and Diviſions, in the Nature of Bodies, or the Creature, he never divides nor never can divide any Body into ſuch ſmall parts, that each of theſe is not always capable of a farther diviſion; for the Body of no Creature can ever be reduced into its leaſt parts; yea, into ſuch that it cannot be reduced back again, either by the moſt ſubtile operation of any Creature, or created Power: And this Anſwer may ſuffice to our preſent purpoſe: For God makes no diviſion in any Body or Matter, but ſo far as he co-operates with the Creatures, and therefore he never reduces Creatures into their leaſt parts; becauſe then C6v 28 then all Motion and Operation in Creatures would ceaſe; (for it is the Nature of all Motion to wear and divide a thing into ſubtiler parts;) for to do this would be contrary to the Wiſdom and Goodneſs of God; for if all Motion and Operation ſhould ceaſe in any particular Creature, that Creature would be altogether unprofitable and uſeleſs in the Creation, and ſo would be no better than if it were a mere non ens, or nothing. But as was ſaid before, God cannot do that which is contrary to his Wiſdom and Goodneſs, or any of his Attributes. [Mathematical Diviſion of Things, is never made in Minima; but Things may be Phyſically divided into their leaſt parts; as when Concrete Matter is ſo far divided that it departs into Phyſical Monades, as it was in the firſt State of its Materiality. Concerning the Production of Matter, ſee Kab. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 1. Part 2. pag. 310 following; and Tom. 2. the laſt Tract, pag. 28. Numb. 4, 5. then it is again fit to reſume its Activity, and become a Spirit, as it happens in our Meats.]

§. 10. Moreover the conſideration of this Infinite Diviſibility of every thing, into parts always leſs, is no unneceſſary or C7r 29 or unprofitable Theory, but a thing of very great moment; viz. that thereby may be underſtood the Reaſons and Cauſes of Things; and how all Creatures from the higheſt to the loweſt are inſeparably united one with another, by means of Subtiler Parts interceding or coming in between, which are the Emanations of one Creature into another, by which alſo they act one upon another at the greateſt diſtance; and this is the Foundation of all Sympathy and Antipathy which happens in Creatures: And if theſe things be well underſtood of any one, he may eaſily ſee into the moſt ſecret and hidden Cauſes of Things, which ignorant Men call occult Qualities.

Chap. C7v 30

Chap. IV.

§. 1. Whether God Created all Creatures together, or in Succeſſion of time. §. 2. That in the Man Chriſt all things conſiſt, and have their Being. §. 3. That Chriſt according to his Humanity, is the Firſt Born of all Creatures. §. 4. But no Creature can ever reach ſo far as to be equal with him.

§. 1. From what hath been already ſaid, it is eaſie to Anſwer to that intricate Queſtion, viz. Whether God Created all Creatures together, or one after another? If the Word Create hath reſpect to God himſelf, or the Internal Command of his Will, it is made altogether; but if unto Creatures that is done ſucceſſively; for as it is the Nature, and Eſſential Attribute of God to be unchangeable, and without ſucceſſion; ſo the Nature of Creatures is to be changeable and ſucceſſive: But if the Word Create reſpects the Univerſals, Seeds, and Principles of all Things which (in ſubordination to God, who is the Principal Beginning of all Things) are, as it were Springs and Fountains from whence C8r 31 whence Creatures did flow in the order of their ſucceſſion; ſo it may be ſaid all Creatures were Created together, and eſpecially if regard be had to the Meſſias, or Chriſt, who is the Firſt Begotten of all Creatures, by whom all Things are ſaid to be made; as John declares it, and Paul expreſly affirms, that by Jeſus Chriſt all Things were made, both viſible and inviſible.

§. 2. Jesus Christ alſo ſignifies whole Chriſt, who is God and Man, as he is God, he is called λόɣ flawed-reproductiontwo letters the Eſſential Word of the Father, as he is Man λόɣ πϱοΦοϱικὸς, the Word expreſſed or brought forth, the perfect, and ſubſtantial Image of that Word which is in God, and eternally, or for ever united with him; ſo that this is its Vehicle and Organ, as the Body is in reſpect of the Soul; of which Word brought forth, which is the Wiſdom of God, mention is made in divers places, as well of the New as of the Old Teſtament, as Prov. 8.22.31. and Prov. 3.19. Pſal. 33.6. Pſal. 22.2. Pſal. 110. p. 1. Joh. 11.1, 2, 3, &c. Epheſ. 3.9. Col. 1.15, 16, 17. Which place, viz. of Col. 1.15, 16, 17 contains in it an Explication of the former, to wit, that by Son, by Word or Wiſdom, or by any of his attributes, God is not ſimply and C8v 32 and nakedly underſtood: for how can any of his Attributes be called the inviſible Image of God, ſeeing this is equally as inviſible as himſelf, whence Image denotes ſomething that is brought into viſibility, and which after a peculiar manner reveals and repreſents the inviſible God more than any Creature.

§. 3. And for the ſame reaſon he is called of Paul, in the place above-cited, the Firſt Begotten of all Creatures, wherein is ſignified the relation he hath to Creatures, which were all in their Primitive State, as it were Sons of God; whereas he is the Firſt Begotten of all thoſe Sons, who (as I may ſo ſay) are as it were the Sons of this Firſt Begotten Son of God. And therefore in him all Things are ſaid to conſiſt or have their Exiſtence; for that they did ariſe from him as Branches from the Root, yet ſo as that they ſtill remain in him after a certain manner.

§. 4. Not as though they were equal to him, or of the ſame Nature with him, becauſe then none of them could ever have degenerated, and been changed from Good into Evil; wherefore, they are of a Nature far inferior, in reſpect of the Firſt Begotten; ſo that, to ſpeak properly, they can never be D1r 33 be changed into him, nor he into the Father. The higheſt pitch they can reach unto is this, that is to become more like unto him, as the Scripture declares: Whence our Sonſhip (who are but mere Creatures) is called Adoption.

D Chap. D1v 34

Chap. V.

§. 1. That the Ancient Cabbaliſts acknowledged ſuch a Firſt Begotten Son of God, whom they called the Heavenly Adam, the Firſt Adam, and great Prieſt. §. 2. That Chriſt is a Medium between God, and all Creatures. §. 3. That there is ſuch a middle Being, is as demonſtrable from the Principles of ſound reaſon, as that there is a God. §. 4. That God is immediately preſent, as well in Chriſt, as in all Creatures. §. 5. That Chriſt is unchangeable unto Evil, and changeable unto Good; and ſo partakes both of Divinity and Creaturality, and alſo of Eternity and Time. §. 6. That neither Chriſt, nor thoſe that are perfectly united with him, are Subject to the Laws of Time, inaſmuch as it denotes the Deſtruction of Things. §. 7. In what ſence we are ſaid to depart out of Time, and to climb above it into a higher Region.

Although we have already, in the aforegoing Chapter, ſpoken a few things concerning the Son of God, who is the Firſt Begotten of all Creatures; yet D2r 35 yet more remains to be ſaid of this matter, very neceſſary for the right underſtanding of what follows; to which purpoſe we have here a deſigned a peculiar Chapter.

§. 1. By the Son of God, the Firſt Begotten of all Creatures, whom we Chriſtians do call by the Name of Jeſus Chriſt, according to the Scriptures, as is above declared, not only is meant his Divinity, but alſo his Humanity, in Eternal Union with the Divinity; that is, as his Heavenly Humanity was united with the Divinity before the World was, and ſo by conſequence before he came in the Fleſh. Of whom the Ancient Cabbaliſts have delivered many things, viz. concerning the Son of God, how he was created, and of his Exiſtence in the Order of Nature, before all Creatures; alſo that all receive Benediction and Sanctification in him, and by him, whom alſo in their Writings they call the Heavenly Adam, Adam Kadmon, or Firſt Man, the Great Prieſt, Husband, or Spouſe of the Church as Philo Judæus calls the Firſt Begotten Son of God.

§. 2. This Son of God, the Firſt Begotten of all Creatures, to wit, this Heavenly Adam, and Great Prieſt, as the Jewiſh Doctors call him, is properly a Medium D2 between D2v 36 between God and the Creatures. And that there is ſuch a Middle Being, is as demonſtrable as that there is a God; where is meant such a Being, which in its own Nature is indeed leſs than God, and yet greater and more excellent than all other Creatures; whence alſo for his Excellency he is properly called the Son of God. Concerning this Son of God, who is called by the Jews, Adam Kadmon, more may be ſeen in Kabbal. denudat.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 1. Part. 1. p. 28, 30 Part. 2. p. 33. following, 37 following. Part 3. p. 31. unto the 64. p. 37, -----78, &c. And Kabb. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 2. Part. 2. p. 244. And Tract. ult. p. 6, 7.---26.

§. 3. In order to this Demonſtration we muſt firſt conſider the Nature or Being of God, the chiefeſt Being; and then the Nature and Eſſence of Creatures, which are to be compared one with another, whence this middle Nature will immediately diſcover it ſelf to us. The Nature and Eſſence of God, as is ſhown in the preceeding Chapters, is altogether unchangeable, which not only the Holy Scriptures, but alſo the Strength of Reaſon which God hath indued our Minds with, ſufficiently declares; For if there ſhould be any Mutability in God, it muſt needs tend to ſome higher D3r 37 higher degree or meaſure of Goodneſs, and then he would not be the Chiefeſt Good, which is contradictory; for if any thing advances to a greater degree of Goodneſs, this wholly comes to paſs by reaſon of ſome greater Being, of whoſe Vertue and Influence it doth participate: But there is no greater Being than God, and ſo by conſequence he is no way meliorated, nor can become better than he is, much leſs decreaſe, which would argue an Imperfection; therefore it is manifeſt that God, or the Chiefeſt Being, is altogether unchangeable. Now ſeeing the Nature of Creatures is really diſtinct from the Nature of God, ſo that there are ſome Attributes of God, which are incommunicable Creatures, among which is reckoned Immutability: Hence it neceſſarily follows that Creatures are changeable, or elſe they would be God himſelf: Moreover alſo daily experience teaches us that Creatures are changeable, and do continually vary from one State unto another: But there is a two-fold Mutability, the one whereof hath a Power in it of changing it ſelf either unto Good or Evil; and this is common to all Creatures, but not to the Firſt Begotten of all Creatures; the other is only a Power to D3 pro- D3v 38 proceed from Goodneſs to Goodneſs. Here is therefore a three-fold Claſſis or rank of Beings: The Firſt whoereof is that which is wholly unchangeable: The Second changeable only to Good: ſo that that which in its own Nature is Good, may become yet better: The Third is that which though it was in its own Nature indeed Good; yet could be indifferently changed, as well into Good, as from Good into Evil. The firſt and laſt of theſe are Extreams; and the ſecond is a Natural Medium between them, by which the Extreams are united, and this Medium partakes of both Extreams, and therefore is the moſt convenient and proper Medium; for it partakes of the one Extream, viz. Mutability, to wit, from Good to a greater degree or meaſure of Goodneſs, and of the other Extream, viz. that it is altogether unchangeable from Good into Evil; and ſuch a Medium was neceſſarily required in the very Nature of Things; for otherwiſe there would remain a Chaſm or Gap, and one Extream would be united with another, without a Medium, which is impoſſible, and repugnant to the Nature of Things, as appears in the whole Courſe of the Univerſe. By the Immutability of the Meſſias, here D4r 39 here we muſt underſtand that which is Moral, not that which is Natural. There be ſome who object, Chriſt was tempted in vain, if he was naturally unchangeable. See Matth. 4. 3. 17, 18. Chap. 4. 15. There are alſo more Arguments, merely Philoſophical; of which in Philoſophia Kabbal. (Kabbal. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 1. Part 3. Diſſert. 2. Chap. 1.) 13. are urged to prove that from the Firſt Beginning, there flowed forth only one thing begun and perfected, which is alſo confirmed by the Authority of Ancient and Modern Philoſophers, together with an Anſwer to the Objections made on the contrary.

§. 4. This Middle Being is not to be underſtood in ſo groſs a manner, as if it ſtood in a Middle Place, between two Extreams, as the Trunk of the Body is between the Head and Feet; but is a Medium in reſpect of its Nature, as Silver is between Tinn and Gold, or Water between Air and Earth, which are but groſs Compariſons in regard of the thing it ſelf; neither can any one ſuppoſe the Son to be ſuch a Medium between God and the Creatures, as though God was not immediately preſent in all his Creatures, and immediately filled all things; for he immediately operates in all D4 things D4v 40 things in a proper ſence: But this is to be underſtood of that Union and Communion which Creatures have with God; ſo that although God immediately operates in all things, yet he uſes this Medium as an Inſtrument, by which he co-operates in his Creatures; becauſe it is, in regard of its Nature, more near unto them; and yet becauſe he is more excellent than all other Productions, which we call Creatures, and that too in his own Nature. Hence it is, he is deſervedly called the Firſt Begotten of all Creatures, and the Son of God, rather than a Creature of God; and his Production is rather a Generation, or Emanation from God, than Creation, if the Word be taken in a ſtrict ſence; although, according to the larger ſence and uſe of this Word, he may be ſaid to be created or formed, as the Scripture ſomewhere ſpeaketh of him: But if the thing it ſelf be duly underſtood, ’tis needleſs to contend about Words: Yet nevertheleſs a Man’s Son is rather ſaid to be begotten of him, than made or created by him. Of an Houſe, or a Ship, built or made by a Man, we do not ſay it is his Son, but his Work; becauſe his Son is the Living Image and Similitude of himſelf, which cannot be ſaid of an Houſe or a Ship: So this D5r 41 this firſt Production of God, ad extra, or, to without, is more fitly and properly term’d his Son than a Creature; becauſe this is the Living Image of himſelf, and is greater, and more excellent than all Creatures. Now it follows that the Son himſelf muſt be immediately preſent in all theſe, that he may bleſs and benefit them. And ſeeing he is that true Medium, between God and the Creatures, he muſt needs exiſt within them, that ſo by his Operation he may ſtir them up to a Union with him: And ſeeing he is the moſt excellent Production of God, made ad extra, or, to without, and the moſt perfect and expreſs Image of him, he muſt needs be like unto God in all his Attributes, which without contradiction may be ſaid to be communicated to him; and ſo by conſequence he muſt neceſſarily be Omnipreſent: Beſides, if he were not preſent in all Creatures, there would wholly remain a Chaſma, or wide Gap, between God, and the Creatures where he was not, which is abſurd.

§. 5. Moreover, as he is Partaker of the Immutability of God, and the Mutability of Creatures, and ſo a Medium between that, which is altogether unchangeable, and that which is altogether changeable, as D5v 42 as partaking of both; ſo alſo he may be ſaid to be a Partaker of Eternity (which is proper to God) and Time, (which is proper to Creatures;) and albeit it be ſaid in the precedent Chapters, that nothing interceded between Eternity and Time, or between the Creatures, and the Will of God which created them. Time and Creatures are there to be taken in a larger ſence, viz. with reſpect to all the Productions of God, made ad extra: So that this Middle Being is as well there comprehended as the reſt: Neither can we conceive this Middle Being to be before Creatures in Time, but only in the order of Nature; ſo that indeed nothing of Time ſtrictly taken hapned between the Creatures, and the All-Creating Power and Will of God that created them.

§. 6. But if by Time, according to the common ſignification of the Word, we underſtand a ſuccedaneous increaſe or decreaſe of Things, according to which they grow and increaſe unto a certain pitch or period, and then again fail from it, until they die or are changed into another State or Condition of Life; in this ſence it may be poſitively affirmed, that neither this Middle Being, or any Creature perfectly united with D6r 43 with the ſame, are ſubject to Time, or the Laws thereof; for the Laws of Time reach but unto a certain Period or Age; and when that Period is compleated, then thoſe things which are ſubject to Time decay and are conſumed, and ſo die and are changed into quite another Species of Things, according to that old Saying of the Poet.

Tempus edax rerum, tuque invidioſa vetuſtas Omnia deſtruis.

Which may be thus Engliſhed.

This ſpiteful Age, and Time that eats up Things, All Things conſumes, and to Deſtruction brings.

And for this Reaſon Time is divided into Four Parts, according to the Age of a Man living in this World, which is Infancy, Youth, Manhood, and Old Age, even until Death; ſo that all things which are bounded with Time, are ſubject unto Death and Corruption, or are changed into another Species of things, as we ſee Water changed D6v 44 changed into Stones, Stones into Earth, and Earth into Trees, and Trees into Animals or Living Creatures: But in this moſt excellent Middle Being is neither Decay or Corruption; nor to ſpeak properly hath Death any place in him: He is a moſt powerful and effectual Balſam, which can preſerve all things from Death and Corruption, which are joined to him or united with him; ſo that here all things are perpetually new, ſpringing up freſh and green; here is perpetual Youth without Old Age; and here is the Perfection of Old Age, to wit, great increaſe of Wiſdom and Experience without any imperfection of Age. But when Chriſt came in the Fleſh, and in that Body which he bare with him from Heaven; (for every created Spirit hath a certain Vehicle, either Terreſtrial, Aereal, Æthereal, as this was:) He took upon him ſomewhat of our Nature, and by conſequence the Nature of all Things, (becauſe the Nature of Man hath in it the Nature of all Creatures, whence alſo he is called the Microcoſm;) which Nature having aſſumed in Fleſh and Blood, he ſanctified, that by that he might ſanctifie all Things, and ſo was as that little Leaven that changed the whole Lump. D7r 45 Lump. He deſcended then within Time, and for a certain ſpace or period, of his own accord ſubjected himſelf to the Laws of Time, ſo as to endure great Torments, even Death it ſelf; but Death did not long detain him, for the Third Day he roſe again, and this was the end of all his Sufferings, even of his Death and Burial, viz. that he might Heal, Cure, and Redeem his Creatures from Death and Corruption, which came upon them by the Fall, and ſo at length hereby put an end to Times, and elevate the Creatures above Times to himſelf, where he abideth, who is the ſame yeſterday, today, henceforth, and for ever, without Decay, Death, or Corruption. In like manner, in his Spiritual or Internal Appearance in Man, whereby he purpoſeth to Save, Heal, and Redeem the Soul, he doth as it were, after a certain manner, ſubject himſelf to a kind of Death and Paſſion; and ſo for a certain ſpace ſubmits himſelf to the Laws of Time, that he might elevate the Souls of Men above Time, and Corruptibility to himſelf, wherein they receive Bleſſing, and grow from one degree of Goodneſs and Vertue unto another, in infinitum.

§. 7. By D7v 46

§. 7. By the ſame Reaſon, thoſe who are come unto a perfect Union with Chriſt, are mounted up into a Region or Sphere of perfect Tranquility, where nothing is ſeen or perceived to move or compel; for although there exiſt the moſt ſwift and vehement Motions; yet nevertheleſs becauſe the ſame do ſo uniformly, ſo equally, and harmoniouſly move without the leaſt contrariety or diſorder, they ſeem altogether to reſt, whereof many Examples may be given in External Things: For indeed there are two kinds of Motion, which to our bodily ſight ſeem to want Motion, viz. that which is exceeding quick and ſpeedy, and that which is exceedingly ſlow; ſo that the middle ſort is only diſcernable by us. Now under Time, and the Laws thereof, may be comprehended not only the Earth, and Earthly Things; but alſo the Sun, Moon, and Stars, and all the viſible part of the World, together with more that is inviſible: So that after a long Tract of Time, all thoſe Things may be plainly changed into quite another Species of Things, and that by the ſame order and courſe of Divine Operation which God hath placed in all Creatures, as a Law on Juſtice, whereby in his Divine Wiſdom he D8r 47 he hath purpoſed to reward every Creature according to its Works: So now this may ſuffice to have been ſaid concerning that moſt excellent Middle Being; of whom upon occaſion farther mention may be made in the ſubſequent Pages.

Chap. D8v 48

Chap. VI.

§. 1. That all Creatures in their own Nature are changeable. §. 2. How far this Mutability may extend it ſelf, whether unto the Beings of Things, or unto the manner of their Exiſtence. §. 3. That they are only Changeable in manner of Exiſtence, and not in Eſſence. §. 4. That there are but Three Kinds of Beings eſſentially diſtinct one from the other, viz. God the higheſt, Chriſt the medium, and the Creature the loweſt. §. 5. That this Diſtinction is very neceſſary, and keeps us from falling into Extreams on either Hand, whereof the one is Ranteriſm, and the other groſs Ignorance, by which the Glory of the Divine Attributes is obſcured and darkned. §. 6. An Example hereof. §. 7. The Juſtice of God moſt gloriously appears in the Tranſmutation of Things out of one Species into another. §. 8. That when the Spirit of a Man, through Impiety, ſhall change it ſelf into the Qualities and Conditions of a Beaſt, it is but Juſtice in God, that the ſaid brutiſh Spirit ſhould enter into the Body of a Beaſt, and there for a certain Time E1r 49 time be puniſhed. §. 9. How many and diverſe are the depraved and wicked Opinions concerning God, and how he is conceived to be in Men by thoſe corrupt Opinions. §. 10. Why the old World was deſtroyed by Water, and why this is to be deſtroyed by Fire, and that all Puniſhments are Medicinal. §. 11. That every Creature is compoſed of Body and Spirit, and how every Creature hath in it more Bodies, and ſo likewiſe more Spirits, under one general governing Spirit, which hath the command over the reſt.

§. 1.That all Creatures in their own Nature are changeable, the diſtinction between God and Creatures, duly conſidered, evidently evinces, and the ſame is by daily experience confirmed. Now if any Creature be in its own Nature changeable, it hath this Mutability, as it is a Creature, and conſequently all Creatures will have the ſame, according to that Rule: Whatſoever agrees to any thing as placed under this or that Species, agrees to all comprehended under the ſame Species; but Mutability agrees to a Creature (which is the moſt general Name of that Species, under which all Creatures are comprehended,)E hended,) E1v 50 hended,) and from thence it is manifeſt; for otherwiſe there would be no diſtinction between God and Creatures: For if any Creature were of it ſelf, and in its own Nature unchangeable, that Creature would be God, becauſe Immutability is one of his incommunicable Attributes.

§. 2. Now let us conſider how far this Mutability may reach, or be extended; and, Firſt, whether one Individual can be changed into another of the ſame or a different Species? This, I ſay, is impoſſible; for then the very Eſſences of Things would be changed, which would make a great confuſion, not only in the Creatures, but in the Wiſdom of God, which made all Things: As for Example: If this Man could be changed into that, viz. Paul into Judas, or Judas into Paul, then he that ſinned would not be puniſhed for his ſin, but another in his ſtead, who was both Vertuous and Innocent; ſo then a Good Man would not receive the reward of his Vertue, but a Vicious Man in his ſtead: But if we ſuppoſe one good Man to be changed into another, as Paul into Peter, and Peter into Paul, Paul would not receive his own proper Reward, but Peter’s; nor E2r 51 nor Peter his, but Paul’s, which would be a confuſion, and unbecoming the Wiſdom of God. Moreover, if the very individual Eſſences of Things could be changed one into another, it would follow, Creatures were not true in themſelves; and ſo we could not be aſſured, nor have any certain knowledge of any thing; and then all the inbred Notions and Dictates of Truth, which Men generally find in themſelves, would be falſe, and by conſequence the Concluſions drawn from thence; for every true Science, or certainty of Knowledge, depends upon the Truth of the Objects, which are commonly called Veritates Objective, or Objective Truths: If therefore theſe Objective Truths ſhould be changed the one into the other, certainly the Truth of the Propoſitions depending thereon would be changed alſo; and ſo no Propoſition could be unchangeably true, no not the moſt clear and obvious as theſe are; the whole is greater than its part, and two halves make a whole.

§. 3. The Second Thing to be conſidered, is, Whether one Species of Things can be changed into another? Where we muſt diligently obſerve after what manner the Species of Things are diſtinguished one E2 from E2v 52 from another; for there be many Species of Things, which are commonly ſo called, and yet in Subſtance or Eſſence differ not one from another, but in certain Manners or Properties, and when thoſe Modes or Properties are changed, that thing is ſaid to have changed its Species: Now whether or no this be not a certain manner of Exiſtence, and not the Eſſence or Being of the Thing it ſelf that is ſo changed? As when Water indeed is not changed, but remains the ſame, and cold coagulates it, which before was fluid: When Water is changed into a Stone, certainly there is no reaſon, why we ſhould here ſuppoſe a greater change of its Subſtance, than in the former Example of Water turned into Ice. And again when a Stone is changed into ſoft and tender Earth, here is made no change of its Subſtance; and ſo in all other Mutations which we obſerve in Things, the Subſtance or Eſſence always remains the ſame, and there is only a change of Modus or Manner; ſo that when a Thing ceaſes to be after this manner, it then begins to be after another manner. And indeed the ſame Reaſons do prove, that one Species eſſentially or ſubſtantially diſtinct from another, cannot be changed into another,ther, E3r 53 ther, even as one Individual cannot be changed into another: For the Species of Things are nothing elſe but Individuals digeſted, or comprehended, under one general Idea of the Mind, or common Term of ſpeaking: As a Man, inaſmuch as he is a Species, comprehends under him all the Individuals of Men; and a Horſe is a Species, comprehending every individual Horſe. Now if one Man cannot be changed into another, much leſs can this Man be changed into another Individual of a differing Species: For Example: If Alexander cannot be changed into Darius, he cannot be changed into his own Horſe Bucephalus.

§. 4. In order to know how far the Mutations of Things can reach, we muſt examine how many Species of Things there be, which as to Subſtance or Eſſence are diſtinct one from another; and if we diligently inquire thereinto, we ſhall find only Three, as before was ſaid, viz. God, Chriſt, and the Creatures, and that theſe Three in reſpect of Eſſence, are really diſtinct one from another, is already proved; but there can be no Reaſon alledged to prove, that there is any Fourth kind of Being diſtinct from the other Three; yea, a Fourth kind of Being ſeems wholly ſuperfluous:E3 flu- E3v 54 fluous: And becauſe all the Phenœmena in the whole Univerſe may be ſufficiently reſolved into theſe Three before-mentioned, as into their proper and original Cauſes, there is no neceſſity to acknowledge any other, according to this Rule: (Which if rightly underſtood, it is moſt true and certain) Beings are not to be multiplied without neceſſity; for ſeeing the Three beforementioned remove all the Specifical Differences in Subſtance, which poſſibly can be conceived in our Minds; and ſo by theſe alone is that vaſt and infinite poſſibility of Things filled up: How then can there be room or place found for a Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, or Seventh Being? And that it is performed by theſe Three is already before demonſtrated; to wit, that whatſoever can be in any wiſe called a Being, the ſame is either wholly unchangeable, and ſuch is God the Supreme Being, or is wholly changeable, viz. to good, or evil, and ſuch is the creature or loweſt being, or that which is partly unchangeable, viz. in reſpect of Evil, or partly changeable, to wit, in reſpect of Good; by which is underſtood Chriſt, the Son of God; that Middle Being between God and the Creatures; into what Claſſis or Rank therefore ſhall we bring a certain Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, or E4r 55 or Seventh Being, &c. which is neither wholly changeable, nor wholly unchangeable; nor partly changeable, nor partly unchangeable: Beſides, he that ſuppoſeth a certain Fourth Being, eſſentially or ſubſtantially diſtinct from the three before-mentioned, overthrows that moſt excellent Order we find in the univerſality of Things, to wit, that there is not only one Medium between God and the Creatures, but two, three, four, five, ſix, or as many as can be ſuppoſed between firſt and latter. Moreover, it is very conſentaneous to ſound Reaſon, and ſo alſo to the Order of Things, that as God is but One, neither hath he two, three or more diſtinct Subſtances in him; and Chriſt but one Chriſt, neither hath in him more diſtinct Subſtances, inaſmuch as he is the Heavenly Man, and very Firſt Adam; ſo likewiſe the Creature, or whole Creation, is but one only Subſtance or Eſſence in Specie, although it comprehends many Individuals placed in their ſubordinate Species, and indeed in Manner, but not in Subſtance or Eſſence diſtinct one from another. And ſo that which Paul ſpeaketh concerning Man, may in like manner be underſtood of all Creatures, (who in their Original State were a certain Species of Man E4 ſo E4v 56 ſo called for their Excellencies, as hereafter ſhall be ſhown;) to wit, that God made all Nations, or Armies of Creatures, out of one Blood: And certainly here the reaſon of both is the ſame; for as God made all Nations out of one Blood, to the end they might love each other, and ſtand in a mutual Sympathy, and help each other; ſo hath he implanted a certain Univerſal Sympathy and mutual Love in Creatures, as being all Members of one Body, and (as I may so ſay) Brethren, having one common Father, to wit, God in Chriſt, or the Word made Fleſh; and ſo alſo one Mother, viz. that Subſtance or Eſſence alone, out of which they proceeded, and whereof they are real Parts and Members; and albeit Sin hath in a wonderful Manner impaired this Love and Sympathy, yet it hath not deſtroyed it.

§. 5. Those Three diſtinct Beings, before-mentioned, being granted, and no more, which are wholly inconvertible the one into the other, we ſhall tread in a ſecure path, in the mid-way of Truth, leaving thoſe grand Errors and Confuſions about Entity, both on the Right Hand and the Left: For, Firſt, there are ſome, who teach, that there is but one Being of all Things, E5r 57 Things, whereof the Creatures are real and proper Parts, and theſe confound God and the Creatures together, as though both were but one ſingle Eſſence; ſo that Sin and Devils would be nothing elſe but Parts, or at leaſt Modifications of that Divine Being, from whence do ariſe very dangerous Conſequences. Although I would not have it miſ-interpreted to thoſe who are unwarily faln into this Opinion; yet I would warn the Reader, that he may the better conſider whereunto ſuch Principles tend, and avoid their abſurdity. There are others again who allow only two Species of Things, viz. God the Supreme Being, wholly unchangeable; and the Creature the loweſt Being, wholly changeable; but theſe do not duly conſider that excellent Order by us above deſcribed, which is apparent in all Things; becauſe elſe peradventure they would have taken notice, that beſides theſe Two Extreams, there is a certain Medium, which is partaker of both, and this is Jeſus that Chriſt, whom not only the wiſer ſort of the Jews, but alſo ſome among the Gentiles ſo called, have acknowledged, viz. maintaining that there is ſuch a Medium, which they called by divers Names, as Logos, the Son of God, the Firſt E5v 58 Firſt Begotten of God, Mind, Wiſdom, Heavenly Adam, &c. So that ſome alſo do call him the Eternal Medium: Which Things, if duly conſidered, may not a little conduce to the propagation and furthering of the true Faith, and Chriſtian Religion, among the Jews, as well as Turks, and other Infidel Nations; that is to ſay, if it appears we are able to prove that there is a Mediator between God and Man; yea, between God and all Creatures, by as ſolid Reaſons as thoſe are, which prove God to be a Creator: And ſo they that believe on that, may be ſaid truly to believe on Chriſt Jeſus, though they ſhould not as yet have known, or been convicted, that he came in the Fleſh: For if they yield to the former, they will undoubtedly be forced (if ingenious) whether they will or no, to grant the latter. Others there are, who do as it were infinitely multiply the Specifical Beings of Things, in their diſtinct Eſſences and Eſſential Attributes; which wholly ſubverts that excellent Order of Things, and greatly obſcures and darkens the Glory of the Divine Attributes, ſo that it cannot ſhine forth in its due Splendor and Brightneſs in the Creatures: For ſo every Creature is ſo exceed- E6r 59 exceeding ſtraitly bounded, and ſtrictly included and impriſoned within the narrow limits of its own Species, that the Mutability of Creatures is wholly taken away: Neither can any Creature variouſly exerciſe any greater participation of Divine Goodneſs, or be advanced or promoted to any farther perfection.

§. 6. All which we ſhall demonſtrate by one or two Examples: And, Firſt, let us take an Horſe, which is a Creature indued with divers degrees of perfection by his Creator, as not only ſtrength of Body, but (as I may ſo ſay) a certain kind of knowledge, how he ought to ſerve his Maſter, and moreover alſo Love, Fear, Courage, Memory, and divers other Qualities which are in Man: which alſo we may obſerve in a Dog, and many other Animals: Seeing therefore the Divine Power, Goodneſs, and Wiſdom, hath created every Creature good; and indeed ſo, that it might by continual augmentations (in its Mutability) be advanced to a greater degree of Goodneſs, ad infinitum, whereby the Glory of thoſe Attributes do more and more ſhine forth: And ſeeing ſuch is the Nature of every Creature, that it is always in Motion or Operation, which doth moſt cer- E6v 60 certainly tend unto an higher degree of Goodneſs, as the Reward and Fruit of its Labour; unleſs the Creatures hinder that good by a voluntary Tranſgreſſion, and abuſe of that indifferency of Will which God placed in them in their Creation. Now I demand, unto what higher perfection and degree of Goodneſs, the Being or Eſſence of an Horſe doth or may attain after he hath done good ſervice for his Maſter, and ſo performed his Duty, and what is proper for ſuch a Creature? Is a Horſe then a mere Fabrick or dead Matter? or hath he a Spirit in him, having Knowledge, Sence, and Love, and divers other Faculties and Properties of a Spirit? if he hath, which cannot be denied, what becomes of this Spirit when the Horſe dies? if it be ſaid it paſſeth into Life, and takes upon it another Body of an Horſe, ſo that it becomes a Horſe as before, which Horſe may be ſtronger and fairer, and of a more excellent Spirit than before. Very well! But if he ſhall die, two, three, or four times, &c. ſhall he always remain a Horſe, though he be ſtill better, and more excellent, by how much the oftner his Spirit revolves. Now I demand, whether the Spirit of an Horſe hath in it ſuch infinite perfection, that a Horſe may always becomecome E7r 61 come better and better ad infinitum, and yet ſo as to remain a Horſe? For as the common received Opinion is, this viſible Earth ſhall not always remain in the ſame State, which may be confirmed by undeniable Reaſons: Now it neceſſarily follows, that the continual Generation of Animals in theſe groſs Bodies ſhall ceaſe alſo; for if the Earth ſhall take on it another Form, neither any longer bring forth Graſs, Horſes and other Animals ſhall ceaſe to be ſuch as they were before: And ſeeing they want their proper Aliment, they cannot remain in the ſame Species; yet nevertheleſs they are not annihilated, as may be eaſily conceived; for how can any thing be annihilated, ſeeing the Goodneſs of God towards his Creatures always remains the ſame; and the conſervation or continuation of Creatures is a continued Creation, as is generally granted, and already before demonſtrated, that God is a perpetual Creator; and as he is the moſt free, ſo alſo the moſt neceſſary Agent: But if it be denied, that the Earth is unchangeable, as before was ſaid, then it will come to paſs that Horſes and other Animals, according to their proportion, will be in like manner changed with the Earth, and the Earth accordingcording E7v 62 cording to the ſame proportion, will again produce or yield them Aliment or Food agreeable to their changed condition; then I demand, Whether they ſhall always remain in the ſame Species under ſuch a change? Or, whether there will not be ſome difference between that State and this. As for Example: There is between a Cow and a Horſe, which is commonly granted to be Specifical. Again, I ask whether the Species of Creatures do ſo infinitely one excel another, that an Individual of one particular Species may ſtill go forward in perfection, and approach nearer unto another Species, but yet never reach ſo far as to be changed into that Species? As for inſtance: An Horſe in divers Qualities and Perfections draws near unto the Nature and Species of a Man, and that more than many other Creatures; Is therefore the Nature of a Man diſtant from the Nature of an Horſe, by Infinite Degrees, or by Finite only? If by Finite, then certainly a Horſe may in length of Time be in ſome meaſure changed into a Man, (I mean his Spirit; as for his Body that is a thing evident:) If infinitely diſtant; then unto any Man, even one of the vileſt and baſeſt Nature and Diſpoſition, may be attributed a certain Infinite E8r 63 Infinite Excellence in Act, ſuch as only agrees to God and Chriſt, but to no Creature; for the higheſt Excellence of a Creature is to be Infinite only, in potentiâ, not in actû; that is, to be ſtill in a poſſibility of attaining a greater Perfection and Excellence, ad infinitum, though it can never reach this Infinite; for how far ſoever any Finite Being may proceed, yet that is ſtill Finite, although there be no limits to its progreſſion: As for Example: If we could ever come to the leaſt Minute of Eternity, or the like part of Infinite Duration, that would not be Infinite, but Finite: Neither do we herein contradict what is delivered in the Third Chapter, of the Infiniteneſs of Creatures; for it is not meant of their Infinite Goodneſs and Excellence, but in reſpect only of Multitude and Magnitude; ſo that the one cannot be numbred, nor the other meaſured, by the comprehenſion of any created Intellect: Yet the Individuals of Creatures, are always but Finitely good, and Finitely diſtant, quoad Species, or as to Species; and only potentially Infinite; that is, always capable of farther perfection without end. As if there ſhould be ſuppoſed a certain Ladder, which ſhould be infinitely long, containing Infinite Steps, yet E8v 64 yet thoſe Steps are not infinitely diſtant one from another, otherwiſe there could be no aſcenſion nor deſcenſion made thereon; for Steps (in this Example) ſignifie the various Species of Things, which cannot be infinitely diſtant one from another, or from thoſe which are next unto them; yea, daily experience teaches us, that the Species of divers Things are changed, one into another, as Earth into Water, and Water into Air, and Air into Fire or Æther; and the contrary, as Fire into Air, and Air into Water, &c. which yet are diſtinct Species of Things; and ſo alſo Stones are changed into Metals, and one Metal into another; but leaſt ſome ſhould ſay theſe are only naked Bodies and have no Spirit, we ſhall obſerve the ſame not only in Vegetables, but alſo in Animals, like as Barly and Wheat are convertible the one into the other, and are in very deed often ſo changed, which is well enough known to Houſe-keepers in many Provinces, and eſpecially in Hungary, where if Barley be ſown Wheat ſprings up in inſtead thereof; but in other places more barren, and eſpecially in Rocky Places, ſuch as are found in Germany, if Wheat be ſown, Barley cometh up, and Barley in other places be- F1r 65 becomes mere Graſs: And in Animals, Worms are changed into Flies, and Beaſts, and Fiſhes that feed on Beaſts, and Fiſhes of a different kind, do change them into their own Nature, and Species: And doth not alſo a corrupted Nature, or the Body of Earth and Water, produce Animals without any previous Seed of thoſe Animals? And in the Creation of this World, did not the Waters at the Command of God, produce Birds and Fiſhes? And did not the Earth alſo at the ſame Command bring forth Beaſts and Creeping Things; which for that Cauſe were real and proper Parts of the Earth and Waters? And as they had their Bodies from the Earth, ſo likewiſe they had their Spirits or Souls from the ſame; for the Earth brought forth Living Souls, as the Hebrew Text ſpeaketh, but not mere Corporeal Figures, wanting Life and Soul; wherefore there is a very remarkable difference between Humane Creatures and Brutes: Of Man it is ſaid, God made him after his own Image, and breathed into him the Breath of Life, and he became a Living Soul; ſo that from hence Man received his Life, that principal part of him, (by which he is become a Man,) which is F really F1v 66 really diſtinct from that Divine Soul or Spirit which God breathed into him.

And ſeeing the Body of Man was made out of the Earth, which (as is proved) had therein divers Spirits, and gave Spirits to all Brute Beaſts; then unto Man, no doubt, ſhe committed the beſt and moſt excellent Spirits whom he was to contain; but all theſe Spirits were of a far inferiour Species, in regard of the Spirit of Man, which he received from above, and not from the Earth: And the Spirit of Man ought to have Dominion over theſe Spirits, (which were all but Earthly,) ſo as to ſubdue them to himſelf, and exalt them to an higher degree, (viz.) into his own proper Nature, and that would have been his true Increaſe and Multiplication; for all this he ſuffered the Earthly Spirits exiſting within him, to get Dominion over him, and ſo became like them; wherefore it is ſaid, Earth thou art, and unto Earth thou ſhalt return, which hath no leſs a Spiritual than a Literal Signification.

§. 7. Now we ſee how gloriouſly the Juſtice of God appears in this Tranſmutation of Things out of one Species into another; and that there is a certain Juſtice which operates not only in Men and Angels,gels, F2r 67 gels, but in all Creatures, is moſt certain; and he that doth not obſerve the ſame may be ſaid to be utterly Blind: For this Juſtice appears as well in the Aſcenſion of Creatures, as in their Deſcenſion; that is, when they are changed into the better, and when into the worſe; when into the better, this Juſtice diſtributes to them the Reward and Fruit of their Good Deeds; when into the worſe, the ſame puniſhes them with due Puniſhments, according to the Nature and Degree of the Tranſgreſſion. And the ſame Juſtice hath given a Law to all Creatures, and written the ſame on their Natures; and every Creature whatſoever, that tranſgreſſeth this Law, is puniſhed for it: But that Creature that obſerves and keeps it, hath this Reward, viz., to be become better. So under the Law which God gave to the Jews, if a Beaſt killed a Man, that Beaſt was to be ſlain; and the Life of Man is ſaid to be required at the Hand of every Beaſt, Gen. 9.5. And if any one had to do with a Beaſt, not only the Man, but the Beaſt, was to be ſlain; ſo not only the Woman and her Husband did receive Sentence and Puniſhment from God after their Tranſgreſſion, but the Serpent alſo, which F2 was F2v 68 was the brutiſh part in Man, which he took from the Earth. God hath alſo put the ſame inſtinct of Juſtice in Man, towards the Beaſts and Trees of the Field; for whoſoever he be that is a good and juſt Man, the ſame loves his Beaſts that ſerve him, and taketh care of them that they have their Food and Reſt, and what elſe is wanting to them; and this he doth not do only for his own profit, but out of a Principle of true Juſtice; for ſhould he be ſo cruel to them as to require their Labour, and yet deny them their neceſſary Food, then certainly he tranſgreſſeth that Law which God hath written on his Heart; and if he kills any of them, only to fulfil his own pleaſure, he acts unjuſtly, and the ſame meaſure will again be meaſured unto him; ſo likewiſe a Man that hath a certain Fruitful Tree in his Orchard, that proſpereth well, he dungs and cleanſes the ſame, that it may wax better and better; but if it be barren, and incumbers the ground, then he heweth it down with an Ax, and burns it with Fire. And ſo here is a certain Juſtice in all theſe, as in all the Tranſmutation of Things from one Species into another, whether it be by aſcending from the Ignobler or Baſer unto F3r 69 unto the Nobler, or by deſcending into the contrary, there may be found the ſame Juſtice: For Example: Is it not juſt and equitable, if a Man on Earth liveth a pure and Holy Life, like unto the Heavenly Angels, that he ſhould be exalted to an Angelical Dignity after Death, and be like unto them, over whom alſo the Angels rejoice? But if a Man here on Earth lives ſo wickedly and perverſly, that he is more like a Devil raiſed from Hell than any other Creature, if he dies in ſuch a State without Repentance, Shall not the ſame Juſtice tumble him down to Hell? and ſhall not ſuch deſervedly become like Devils, even as thoſe who led an Angelical Life are made equal with the Angels? But if a Man hath neither lived an Angelical nor Diabolical, but a Brutiſh, or at leaſt-wiſe an Animal or Senſual Life on Earth; ſo that his Spirit is more like the Spirit of a Beaſt than any other thing: Shall not the ſame Juſtice moſt juſtly cauſe, that as he is become a Brute, as to his Spirit; whilſt he hath left the Dominion of his more excellent Part, to that Brutiſh Part and Spirit within him, that he alſo (at leaſt, as to his External Form, in bodily Figure) ſhould be changed into that SpeciesF3 cies F3v 70 cies of Beaſts, to whom he was inwardly moſt like, in Qualities and Conditions of Mind? And ſeeing this Brutal Spirit is now become Superior and Predominant in him, and holds the other Captive, is it not very probable, when ſuch a Man dies, that the very ſame Brutiſh Spirit ſhall ſtill have Dominion in him, and carry the Human Soul with it whitherſoever it pleaſeth, and compel it to be ſubſervient unto it? And when the ſaid Brutiſh Spirit returns again into ſome Body, and hath now Dominion over that Body, ſo that its Plaſtick Faculty hath the Liberty of forming a Body, after its own Idea and Inclination, (which before, in the Humane Body, it had not;) it neceſſarily follows, that the Body, which this Vital Spirit forms, will be Brutal, and not Humane; for the Brutal Spirit cannot produce and form any other Figure: Becauſe its Plaſtick Faculty is governed of its Imagination, which it doth moſt ſtrongly imagine to its ſelf, or conceive its own proper Image; which therefore the External Body is neceſſarily forced to assume.

§. 8. F4r 71

§. 8. Herein the Juſtice of God marvellouſly appears, whilſt he aſſigns to every Kind and Degree of Tranſgreſſion its due and proper Puniſhment; neither doth he ſentence every Sin and Tranſgreſſion to Hell-Fire, and the Puniſhment due unto Devils; for Chriſt hath taught the contrary, in that Parable, where he ſheweth the Third Degree only is Doom’d to Infernal Puniſhment, (viz.) if one ſay to his Brother: Thou Fool!

What can be here objected againſt the Juſtice of God? If it be ſaid it doth too much leſſen and diſparage the Dignity and Nobility of Humane Nature, to ſuppoſe the ſame with reſpect to Body and Soul, convertible into the Nature of a Brute. To this I Answer, according to the common Maxim, Corruptio optimi ſit peſſima, The beſt Things by Corruption become the worſt: For ſeeing Man by his voluntary Tranſgreſſion hath ſo exceedingly polluted and brought down his own Nature (which was ſo Noble) into a far worſe State and Condition, that the ſame could wax as vile and baſe in Spirit as the moſt unclean Beaſt or Animal; ſo that he is become as ſubject to Earthly Concupiſcences and Deſires, as any Beaſt; yea, is become worſe F4 than F4v 72 than any Beaſt: What Injuſtice will this be, if God ſhould alſo compel him to bear that Image outwardly in his Body, into the which he hath inwardly transformed himſelf? Or, which thinkeſt thou is the worſt Degeneration, to bear the Image of a Beaſt in Spirit, or in Body? Certainly, every one will ſay, to be like a Beaſt in Spirit is far the greateſt Degeneration; and there is not one, who is indued with true Nobility of Mind, who will not confeſs, that, to be like a Beaſt inwardly, is worſe than to be like the ſame outwardly; for to be one with him in Spirit, is far worſe than to be one with him in External Form and Figure of Body: But if any one ſhall ſay this Puniſhment is too little for ſuch a Man, who hath lived all his Days a Brutiſh Life, if after Death he ſhall only return to the State or Condition of ſome Beaſt; let ſuch know, that the moſt juſt Creator and Maker of all Things is wiſer than he, and knows beſt what Puniſhment is due unto every particular Sin; who hath alſo ſo moſt juſtly and wiſely diſpoſed all Things, that no Man that lives carnally, and after the manner of Beaſts, can enter into the Kingdom of Heaven; and ſo alſo the Doctrine of Chriſt expreſly F5r 73 expreſly informs us, that all Sins are not to be puniſhed with the pains of Hell: And that where the Treaſure is, there is the Heart alſo, and the Spirit of Man: Alſo if a Man is joyn’d or united with any Thing, that then he becomes unum quid, or one with the ſame; and that he that cleaves to the Lord is one with him in Spirit; and he that cleaves to a Harlot is one Fleſh with her. Why then doth not he that cleaves to a Beaſt, by the ſame reaſon, become one with a Beaſt? And ſo in all other caſes: For to whom any one yields himſelf in obedience, the ſame is his Maſter, ſo far as he obeys him; as the Scripture ſaith. Moreover alſo it is ſaid, With what meaſure ſoever ye mete, the ſame ſhall be meted unto you: As if it ſhould have ſaid, All Kinds and Degrees of Sin, have their proper Puniſhments, and all theſe Puniſhments tend to the Creatures Advantage; ſo that Grace prevails over Judgment, and Judgment is turned into Victory to the Salvation and Reſtoration of the Creature: For ſeeing the Grace of God is extended over all his Works, Why ſhould we think God a more ſevere and rigid Maſter to his Creatures than indeed he is? Seeing this doth wonderfullyderfully F5v 74 derfully obſcure and darken the Glory of the Divine Attributes; neither doth it beget a Love towards God, and an Admiration of his Goodneſs and Juſtice in the Hearts of Men, as it ought to be; but the plain contrary.

§. 9. For that common Notion of the Juſtice of God, that every Sin, how ſmall ſoever it be, ſhall be puniſhed with Hell Fire, and that without all end, begets in Men an horrible Idea or Conception concerning God; to wit, as though he were a cruel Tyrant towards all his Creatures rather than a Gracious Father: But if the lovely Image of God was more known unto Men, ſuch as indeed he is, and manifeſteth himſelf in all his Diſpenſations to his Creatures; and if our Souls could inwardly feel and taſt him, viz. as he is Charity and Goodneſs it ſelf, and as he inwardly reveals himſelf, by the Light and Spirit of Chriſt Jeſus our Lord, in the Hearts of Men; then indeed, and not till then, would Men come to Love God above all things, and acknowledge him to be, beyond all, the moſt Lovely, Juſt, and Merciful, who may not puniſh all Sinners with an equal Puniſhment.

§. 10. F6r 75

§. 10. And moreover alſo, Why did he drown the old World with Water, and hath purpoſed to deſtroy this with Fire? Such as was that of Sodom: but that he would ſhow, that for divers kinds of Sin, divers ſorts of Puniſhment are to be inflicted: And that the old World was indeed wicked, but that which is to be deſtroyed with fire is worſe, which for that reaſon will have the greater Judgment.

But the different nature of theſe tranſgreſſions, for which thoſe different puniſhments are prepared, ſeem to conſiſt in this; that the ſins of the old World were more brutiſh and carnal, as the word of God doth ſeem to point out, when he ſaith, My Spirit ſhall not always ſtrive with Man; becauſe he is become Fleſh; that is, he is become perfectly Brutiſh or Beſtial, by obeying the deſires of the Fleſh: So that unleſs this Generation had been cut off, all Mankind (except Noah and his Family) in the ſucceeding Generation, would have become Beſtial, which Evil God would prevent, by drowning them with the Waters, that by this Puniſhment they might be reduced from the Brutiſh Nature to the Nature of Men: But the Sins of this World, which like Sodomdom F6v 76 dom is to be deſtroyed with Fire, ſeem in their own Nature, to be more like the Sins of Devils, than any thing elſe, (viz.) by reaſon of Craft, Deceit, Malice, Hoſtility, and Cruelty; and therefore their proper Puniſhment is Fire, which alſo is the Original Principle of thoſe Noble Spirits ſo greatly degenerated; and ſo they ought deſervedly by the ſame to be reſtored and regenerated: For what is Fire, but a certain kind of imperfect Æthereal Subſtance ſhut up in combuſtible Bodies? as we obſerve the ſame ſtill to mount upwards, and by reaſon of its notable thinneſs immediately to vaniſh: From which Æthereal Subſtance, as well Angels as Men, have their Original, quoad Spiritus, or, as to their Spirits; as the Brutal Nature hath its Original from Water. But as all the Puniſhments, God inflicts on his Creatures, have ſome proportion with their Sins; ſo all theſe Puniſhments (the worſt not excepted) do tend to their Good and Reſtoration, and ſo are Medicinal, that by them theſe diſeaſed Creatures may be cured and reſtored to a better condition than before they enjoyed.

§. 11. F7r 77

§. 11. Now therefore let us examine, how every Creature is compoſed, and how the parts of its compoſition may be converted the one into the other; for that they have originally one and the ſame Eſſence, or Being.

In every viſible Creature there is a Body and a Spirit, or Principium magis Activum, & magis Paſſivum, or, more Active and more Paſſive Principle, which may fitly be termed Male and Female, by reaſon of that Analogy a Husband hath with his Wife. For as the ordinary Generation of Men requires a Conjunction and Co-operation of Male and Female; ſo alſo all Generations and Productions whatſoever they be, require an Union, and conformable Operation of thoſe Two Principles, to wit, Spirit and Body; but the Spirit is an Eye or Light beholding its own proper Image, and the Body is a Tenebroſity or Darkneſs receiving that Image, when the Spirit looks thereinto, as when one ſees himſelf in a Looking-Glaſs; for certainly he cannot ſo behold himſelf in the Tranſparent Air, nor in any Diaphanous Body, becauſe the reflexion of an Image requires a certain opacity or darkneſs, which we call a Body: yet to be a Body is F7v 78 is not an Eſſential Property of any Thing; as neither is it a Property of any Thing to be dark; for nothing is ſo dark that it cannot be made Light; yea, the Darkneſs it ſelf may become Light, as the Light which is created may be turned into Darkneſs, as the Words of Chriſt do fully evince, when he ſaith, If the Light which is in thee be darkneſs, &c. where he means the Eye or Spirit which is in the Body, which beholdeth the Image of any Thing: Therefore as every Spirit hath need of a Body, that it may receive and reflect its Image, ſo alſo it requires a Body to retain the ſame; for every Body hath this retentive Nature, either more or leſs in it ſelf; and by how much the perfecter a Body is, that is, more perfectly mix’d, ſo much the more retentive is it, and ſo Water is more retentive than Air, and Earth of ſome Things is more retentive than Water.

But the Seed of a Female Creature, by reaſon of its ſo perfect mixture; for that it is the pureſt Extraction of the whole Body, hath in it a notable retention: And in this Seed, as a Body, the Male Seed, which is the Image and Spirit of the Male, is received and retained, togetherther F8r 79 ther with other Spirits which are in the Female; and therefore whatſoever Spirit is then ſtrongeſt, and hath the ſtrongeſt Image or Idea in the Seed, whether it be the Maſculine or the Feminine, or any other Spirit from either of theſe received from without, that Spirit is predominant in the Seed, and forms the Body, as near as may be, after its own Image, and ſo every Creature receives his External Form. And after the ſame manner alſo, the Internal Productions of the Mind, viz. Thoughts are generated, which according to their Kind are true Creatures, and have a true Subſtance, proper to themſelves, being all our Internal Children, and all of them Male and Female, that is, they have Body and Spirit; for if they had not a Body, they could not be retained, nor could we reflect on our own proper Thoughts; for every reflection is made by a certain Tenebroſity or Darkneſs, and this is a Body; ſo the Memory requires a Body, to retain the Spirit of the Thing thought on, otherwiſe it would vaniſh as the Image in a Glaſs, which preſently vaniſhes, the Object being removed. And ſo likewiſe, when we remember any Body, we ſee his F8v 80 his Image in us, which is a Spirit that proceeded from him, whilſt we beheld him from without; which Image or Spirit is retained in Some-Body, which is the Seed of our Brain, and thence is made a certain Spiritual Generation in us: And ſo every Spirit hath its Body, and every Body its Spirit; and as the Body, ſc.ſcilicet of a Man or Beaſt, is nothing else but an innumerable multitude of Bodies, compacted together into one, and diſpoſed into a certain order; ſo likewiſe the Spirit of Man, or Beaſt, is a certain innumerable multitude of Spirits united together in the ſaid Body, which have their Order and Government ſo, that there is one Captain, or Chief Governor, another a Lieutenant, and another hath a certain kind of Government under him, and ſo through the whole, as it is wont to be in an Army of Soldiers; wherefore the Creatures are called Armies, and God the God of Hoſts, as the Devil which poſſeſſed the Man was called Legion, becauſe there were many of them; ſo that every Man; yea, every Creature, conſiſts of many Spirits and Bodies; (many of theſe Spirits which exiſt in Man) are called by the Hebrews, Nizzuzoth, or Sparks. See in G1r 81 in Kabbal. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 2. Part 2. Tract.Tractatus de revolutionibus animarum, Cap. 2. & ſeq. p. 256, 268, &c.) And indeed every Body is a Spirit, and nothing elſe, neither differs any thing from a Spirit, but in that it is more dark; therefore by how much the thicker and groſſer it is become, ſo much the more remote is it from the degree of a Spirit, ſo that this diſtinction is only modal and gradual, not eſſential or ſubſtantial.

G Chap. G1v 82

Chap. VII.

§.1. That every Body may be turned into a Spirit, and a Spirit into a Body; becauſe the diſtinction between Body and Spirit is only in Modo, not in Eſſentia: The reaſon hereof is taken, firſt, from the Order of Things aboveſaid, which conſiſts only in Three. And that the worſt of Creatures; yea, the moſt curſed Devils, after many and long-continued Torments, ſhall at length return to a State of Goodneſs. Moreover, that all this hardneſs and groſsneſs of Bodies, came from a certain Fall, which therefore ſhall in time return to a ſtate of ſoftness and ſubtilty. §.2. The Second Reaſon is drawn from the Divine Attributes, whereof ſome are communicable to his Creatures. §.3. The Third Reaſon, is drawn from the love which the Spirits have to their Bodies. §.4. That to be penetrable and indiſcerpible is as truly attributed to Bodies, as to Spirits; and to be impenetrable and diſcerpible agrees as well to Spirits as to Bodies; for that the difference is Gradual and G2r 83 and not Eſſential; And that no Creature, or Created Spirit, can be intimately preſent in any Creature, becauſe Intrinſick Preſence only pertains to God and Chriſt; and therefore that Philoſophical Penetration of Created Spirits, in regard of Bodies, is a mere Scholaſtick Fiction.

Now that I may more clearly demonſtrate, that every Body is a certain Spirit or Life in its own Nature, and that the ſame is a certain intelligent Principle, having Knowledge, Senſe, Love, Deſire, Joy, and Grief; as it is this or that way affected; and by conſequence hath Activity and Motion, per ſe; ſo that it can remove itſelf whitherſoever it deſires to be: I ſay, in its own Nature, wherein it was originally created, and as it ſhall be again, when it ſhall be reduced to its primitive State, and delivered from that Confuſion and Vanity, to which it is ſubject by reaſon of Sin. I ſhall produce theſe following Reaſons. (Of the Nature of Matter and Spirit, more may be ſeen in Kabbal. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 1. Part 2. p. 308. unto p. 312. and Tom. 2. Treatiſe ult. pag. 6. 28, 29, 32.)

G2 §.1. G2v 84

§1. The firſt hereof ſhall be from the Order of Things, before-mentioned, which I have already proved to be but Three; to wit, God the Supreme or Chiefeſt, Chriſt the Medium or Middle, and the Creature the loweſt in the Order; which Creature is but one Eſſence or Subſtance, as to Nature or Eſſence, as is above demonſtrated, ſo that it only differs ſecundum modos exiſtendi; or, according to the manners of exiſtence; among which one is Corporiety; whereof alſo there are many degrees; ſo that a Thing may more or leſs approach to, or recede from the State and Condition of a Body or a Spirit; but becauſe a Spirit (between theſe two) is more excellent in the Natural Order of Things, and by how much the more a Creature is a Spirit, (if at leaſt wiſe it doth not any otherwiſe degenerate) ſo much the nearer it approaches to God, who is the chiefeſt Spirit. Hence a Body may always be more and more Spiritual, ad infinitum; becauſe God who is the Firſt and Supreme Spirit is Infinite, and doth not nor cannot partake of the leaſt Corporiety; whence ſuch is the Nature of a Creature, unleſs it degenerates, that it always draws nearer and nearer unto G3r 85 unto God in likeneſs: But becauſe there is no Being, which is every way contrary to God, (viz. there is no Being, which is infinitely and unchangeably Evil, as God is infinitely and unchangeably Good; nothing infinitely Dark, as God is infinitely Light; nor any thing infinitely a Body, having nothing of Spirit, as God is infinitely a Spirit, having nothing of Body;) hence it is manifeſt that no Creature can become more and more a Body, ad infinitum, although the ſame may become more and more a Spirit, ad infinitum; and nothing can become infinitely more dark, though it may become infinitely more light: By the ſame reaſon nothing can be Evil ad infinitum, although it may become more and more Good ad infinitum: And ſo indeed, in the very Nature of Things, there are limits or bounds to Evil; but none unto Good. And after the ſame manner, every degree of Sin or Evil hath its Puniſhment, Grief, and Chaſtiſement annexed to it, in the very Nature of the Thing, by which the Evil is again changed into Good; which Puniſhment or Correction, though it be not preſently perceived of the Creature, when it Sins, yet is reſerved in thoſe very Sins G3 which G3v 86 which the ſame committeth, and in its due time will appear; and then every Sin will have its Puniſhment, and ſo the Pain and Chaſtiſement will be felt of the Creature, and by that the Creature will be again reſtored unto its former State of Goodneſs, in which it was created, and from which it cannot fall or ſlide any more; because by its great Chaſtiſement it hath acquired a greater Strength and Perfection; and ſo is aſcended ſo far above that indifferency of Will, which before it had to Good or Evil, that it Wills only that which is Good, neither is any more capable to Will any Evil. See Kabbal. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 2. Tract. ult. p. 61. §.9. p. 69. §.21. and 70. §.5. & ibid. Tract.Tractatus 2. p. 157.

And hence may be inferred, that all the Creatures of God, which heretofore degenerated and fell from their primitive Goodneſs, muſt after certain periods be converted and reſtored, not only to as good, but unto a better State than that was in which they were created: For Divine Operation cannot ceaſe: And hence it is the Nature of every Creature to be ſtill in Motion, and always to change either from Good to Good, or from Good into G4r 87 into Evil, or from Evil again into Good; and becauſe it cannot proceed infinitely to Evil, for that there is no Infinite Example thereof, hence it muſt neceſſarily return or ſlide into Eternal Silence, which is contrary to the Nature of it. But if it be ſaid, it goes into Eternal Torments, I Anſwer, If by Eternal thou meaneſt an Infiniteneſs of Ages, which ſhall never ceaſe, that is impoſſible; becauſe every Pain and Torment excites or ſtirs up an operating Spirit and Life in every thing which ſuffers; as we obſerve by continued Experience, and Reaſon teacheth us, that of neceſſity it muſt be ſo; becauſe through Pain, and the enduring thereof, every kind of craſſitude or groſsneſs in Spirit or Body contracted is attenuated, and ſo the Spirit captivated or detained in that groſsneſs or craſſitude is ſet at Liberty, and made more Spiritual, and conſequently more Active and Operative, through ſuffering. Now ſeeing a Creature cannot proceed infinitely to Evil, nor ſlide down into Inactivity or Silence, nor yet alſo into mere Eternal Paſſion, it inconteſtably follows, that it muſt at length return unto Good; and by how much the greater its Sufferings are, ſo much the ſooner G4 ſhall G4v 88 ſhall it return and be reſtored. And ſo we ſee how a Thing (the ſame Subſtance ſtill remaining) may be marvellouſly changed in reſpect of the manners of its Exiſtence; ſo that a certain Holy and Bleſſed Spirit, or Angel of Light, could by his voluntary Action, become a Wicked and Curſed Spirit of Darkneſs; which Change, or Metamorphoſis, certainly is as great as if a Spirit were changed into a Body. And if it be here demanded, Whether thoſe Spirits became more Corporeal by their Tranſgreſſion, than they were in their Primitive State before they fell? I anſwer, Yes; but becauſe, as I have already ſhown, that a Spirit is capable of Corporiety, Secundum majus & minus, or more and leſs; although not infinitely, yet in many degrees. Hence it is, they could remain for many Ages, and have nothing of ſuch a Corporeal Craſſitude, as Things in this viſible World have, ſuch as are hard Stones, or Metals, or the Bodies of Men and Women: For certainly the Bodies of the worſt Spirits have not ſuch a Craſſitude as any viſible Body, and yet all that groſsneſs of viſible Bodies came from the Fall of Spirits from their Firſt State: And ſo the Spirits after long and G5r 89 and various periods, could contract this groſsneſs to themſelves, although they could not together, and at one and the ſame time fall into an univerſal groſsneſs, ſo that the whole Body of any fallen Spirit ſhould be in all its parts equally groſs; but ſome parts become groſſer and groſſer, and the other Corporeal Parts of this Spirit (which are its immediate Vehicle, and wherewith it is moſt intimately united) retain a certain Tenuity or Subtilty, without which the Spirit could not be ſo moveable and active as otherwiſe it would; and with theſe ſubtiler and more tenuious Parts of the Body, the principal Spririt (together with its miniſtring Spirits, ſo many of them as it can poſſibly gather together) departs out of thoſe thicker Parts of the Body, which it leaves as ſo many cadaverous Bodies, which are no longer fit to ſerve the ſaid Spirits in thoſe Operations which they exerciſe in their preſent State.

And we may obſerve this departure of the ſubtiler and ſtronger Spirits, out of the harder and groſſer parts of the Body, into the more ſoft and tenuious, in a certain Spirituous Liquor, which is congealed with great cold, where the ſtronger Spiritsrits G5v 90 rits (forſaking the harder Parts which are outward, and chiefly expoſed to the cold) do gather themſelves into the middle Part of the Body, which is always ſubtile and thin, ſo that one drop of that Liquor (which is not congealed, but remaineth ſtill liquid in the innermoſt Part of the congealed Body) hath in it the augmented force of all thoſe Parts which are congealed; ſo that here is a two fold groſsneſs and hardneſs of Bodies, the one palpable and viſible to our External Senſes, the other inviſible and impalpable, which nevertheleſs is as groſs as the other, yea, often groſſer and harder, which may be truly perceived by the Internal Senſes, although the External Senſes may be inſenſible thereof; for the inviſible and impalpable groſsneſs or hardneſs is that which is proper to thoſe Bodies, which are ſo ſmall, that our External Senſes cannot perceive them, when nevertheleſs they are really exceeding hard, yea, harder than any Flint or Metal, which we can handle with our Hands. And out of theſe hard and ſmall Bodies, viſible Waters are for the moſt part compoſed, although they appear to us very ſoft, fluid, and tenuious, by reaſon of the great Plenty of certain other G6r 91 other ſubtile Bodies which continually agitate, and move the ſaid hard Particles; ſo that Water ſeems to our groſs Senſes to be one thing Homogeneal, Simple, and Uniform, although it conſiſteth of many Heterogeneous and Diſſimilar or differing Parts, more than many other Bodies; and many of theſe Parts are exceeding hard and ſtony, whence proceeds Gravel, bubbling forth, and all other little Sands and Stones, which have their Original and Birth from the Waters ſpringing from the bottom of the Earth; and when thoſe little Stones, or ſtony Particles of Water, grow into viſible Sand and Stones, the ſame after ſome time do again loſe this hardneſs, and become more ſoft and tenuious, than when they belonged to the Waters; for Stones do rot, and are converted into ſoft Earth, and out of this proceed Animals; ſo alſo Stones putrifying, do often become Water again; but this Water is of another Species than the former, for one is petrefying, the other mollifying; as it is obſerved that from one Mountain in Helvetia two Kinds of Water flow, one whereof being drunken breeds the Stone, and the other is a proper remedy againſt it; ſo that one Water is G6v 92 is changed into a Stone, and the other Water proceeds from that Stone, whilſt it is in Corruption, and ſo it alters and loſeth its former hardneſs; And ſo from what hath been ſaid may the better be underſtood, how the Heart and Spirit of a Wicked Man may be ſaid to be hard and ſtony; becauſe indeed his Spirit hath in it a real hardneſs, ſuch as is found in thoſe little ſtony Particles of certain Waters; when on the contrary the Spirits of good Men are ſoft and tender; which internal ſoftneſs and hardneſs of Spirits, we may alſo really feel, and every Good Man doth as ſenſibly perceive the ſame, as the external hardneſs of groſs Bodies is diſcerned by the outward touch; but ſuch who are dead in their Sins, have not this ſenſe of the hardneſs or ſoftneſs of Good or Evil Spirits; and therefore they call theſe only Metaphorical Speeches, when indeed the Things are really ſo in a proper ſence, and that without any Figure.

§.2. The Second Reaſon, that created Spirits are convertible into Bodies, and Bodies into Spirits, I ſhall deduce from a ſerious and due conſideration of the Divine Attributes; from which, as from a Trea- G7r 93 Treaſury of Inſtructions, may be manifeſted the Truth of all Things: For ſeeing God is infinitely Good, and communicates his Goodneſs infinite ways to his Creatures; ſo that there is no Creature which doth not receive ſomething of his Goodneſs, and that very largely: And ſeeing the Goodneſs of God is a living Goodneſs, which hath Life, Power, Love, and Knowledge in it, which he communicates to his Creatures, How can it be, that any dead Thing ſhould proceed from him, or be created by him, ſuch as is mere Body or Matter, according to their Hypotheſis, who affirm, that the ſame is wholly inconvertible, to any degree of Life or Knowledge? It is truly ſaid of one that God made not Death, and it is as true, that he made no dead Thing: For how can a dead Thing depend of him, who is infinitely Life and Charity? Or how can any Creature receive ſo vile and diminutive an Eſſence from him, (who is ſo infinitely Liberal and Good,) that ſhould partake nothing of Life or Knowledge, nor ever be able to aſpire to it, no not in the leaſt degree? Hath not God created all his Creatures for this end, that in him they might be Bleſſed and enjoy his G7v 94 his Divine Goodneſs, in their ſeveral States and Conditions? But how can this be without Life or ſenſe? Or how can any Thing, that wanteth Life, enjoy Divine Goodneſs? But we ſhall urge this Argument a little farther, The Divine Attributes are commonly and rightly diſtinguiſhed, into communicable, and incommunicable; the incommunicable are, that God is a Being, ſubſiſting by himſelf, Independent, Unchangeable, abſolutely Infinite, and moſt Perfect: The communicable are, that he is a Spirit, Life, and Light, that he is Good, Holy, Juſt, Wiſe, &c. But now there are none of theſe communicable Attributes, which are not living, yea Life it ſelf: And becauſe every Creature hath a Communication with God in ſome of his Attributes, now I demand, In what Attribute dead Matter hath it, or a Body that is uncapable of Life and Senſe for ever? If it be ſaid, It agrees with God in Entity, or that it is an Eſſence, I Anſwer, In God there is no dead Being, whereof he is or can be Partaker: Whence, therefore, ſhall this have its dead Eſſence? Moreover the Entity or Being of a Thing is not properly an Attribute thereof; but an Attribute is proproperly,perly, G8r 95 properly, tale quid, or ſomething that is predicated or affirmed of that Being: Now what Attributes or Perfections can be attributed to dead Matter, which do analogically Anſwer to thoſe which are in God? If we diligently enquire thereinto, we ſhall find none at all; for all his Attributes are living; yea, Life it ſelf. Moreover, ſeeing the Creatures of God, ſo far as they are Creatures, ought neceſſarily in ſome things to reſemble their Creator, now I demand, in what dead Matter is like unto God? If they ſay again in naked Entity, I Anſwer, There is none ſuch in God or his Creatures: And ſo it is a mere non ens, or nothing.

But as touching the other Attributes of Matter, viz. Impenetrability, Figurability, and Mobility; certainly none of theſe have any place in God, and ſo are not of his communicable Attributes; but rather EflentialEſſential Differences or Attributes of Diverſity, whereby the Creature, as ſuch, is diſtinguiſhed from God; as alſo Mutability is of the Number of thoſe differential Attributes, whence it cannot be ſaid that Mutability is of the communicable Attributes of God: And in like manner, Impenetrability, Figurability, and G8v 96 and Mobility, do not pertain unto the communicable Attributes of God; but to thoſe only in which the Creatures differ from him. And ſeeing dead Matter doth not partake of any of the communicable Attributes of God, we muſt certainly conclude, that the ſame is a mere non ens, or nothing, a falſe Fiction or Chimæra, and ſo a thing impoſſible. If they ſay, it hath a Metaphyſical Goodneſs and Truth, even as every Being is Good and True: Again; I demand, What is that Goodneſs and Truth? For if it hath no participation with any of the communicable Attributes of God, it will be neither Good nor True, and ſo a mere Fiction, as before was ſaid. Moreover, ſeeing it cannot be ſaid, wherein dead Matter doth any way partake of Divine Goodneſs, much leſs can it be ſhown, how it may be capable always to acquire a greater Perfection, ad infinitum, which is the Nature of all Creatures, viz. to increaſe, and infinitely advance towards a farther Perfection as is before demonſtrated. But what farther progreſs in Goodneſs or Perfection hath a dead Matter? Becauſe alter it hath ſuffered Infinite Changes of Motion and Figure it is conſtrained always to remain dead, as before;fore; H1r 97 fore; and if Motion and Figure contribute nothing to the receiving of Life, then certainly this is made never the better; nay, is not in the leaſt degree promoted in Goodneſs: For ſuppoſe this dead Matter had undergone all Forms, and been tranſmuted into all Kinds of Figures, even the moſt regular and exact: What doth this profit this Matter or Body, becauſe it wants all Life and Senſe? So let us ſuppoſe the ſame to have undergone Infinite Kinds of Motion, from ſlowneſs to ſwiftneſs; Wherein, therefore, is it better, by the way of its Intrinſecal Melioration? For the Argument ſpeaketh of Intrinſecal Melioration, which is ſuch a Melioration as the Nature of the Thing it ſelf requireth, and which is performed thereby; but a mere dead Body, or Matter, requires no kind of Motion or Figure; nor, in it ſelf, is perfected more by one Motion, or Figure, than by another: for it is alike indifferent to all Motions and Figures whatſoever, and by conſequence is not perfected or bettered by any of them. And then what advantage will it have from all theſe helps, if it always remain a dead and impaſſible Thing.

H §.3. H1v 98

§.3. My Third Reaſon is drawn from the great Love and Deſire that the Spirits or Souls have towards Bodies, and eſpecially towards thoſe with which they are united, and in which they have their Habitation: But now the Foundation of all Love or Deſire, whereby one Thing is carried unto another, ſtands in this, That either they are of the ſame Nature and Subſtance with them, or like unto them, or both; or that one hath its Being from the other, whereof we have an Example in all living Creatures which bring forth their young; and in like manner alſo in Men, how they love that which is born of them: For ſo alſo even Wicked Men and Women (if they are not extremely perverſe, and void of Parental Love) do Love their Children, and cheriſh them with a Natural Affection, the cauſe whereof certainly is this, That their Children are of the ſame Nature and Subſtance, viz. as though they were Parts of them; and if they are like them, either in Body, Spirit, or Manners, hereby their Love is the more increaſed: So alſo we obſerve that Animals of one Species love one another more than thoſe that are of a different Species; whence alſo Cattle of one Kind feed together; Birds H2r 99 Birds of a Kind flock together; and Fiſhes of a Kind ſwim together; and ſo Men rather converſe with Men, than with any other Creatures: But beſides this particular Love, there remains yet ſomething of Univerſal Love in all Creatures, one towards another, ſetting aſide that great confuſion which hath fallen out ſince, by reaſon of Tranſgreſſion; which certainly muſt proceed from the ſame Foundation, viz. in regard of their Firſt Subſtance and Eſſence, they were all one and the ſame Thing, and as it were Parts and Members of one Body. Moreover, in every Species of Animals, we ſee how the Male and Female Love one another, and in all their Propagations (which are not Monſtrous, and contrary to Nature) they reſpect each other; and that proceeds not only from the unity of Nature, but alſo by reaſon of a certain eminent ſimilitude or likeneſs between them. And both theſe Foundations of Love between a Man and a Woman, are expreſly mentioned in Geneſis; but that which Adam ſpoke concerning his Wife, This is Bone of my Bone, and Fleſh of my Fleſh, &c. pertains unto the Unity of Nature; for ſhe was taken out of him, and was a part of him, and H2 there- H2v 100 therefore he loved her. Moreover alſo, concerning Similitude, it is ſaid, there was no Help found for him, or before his Face, as it is in the Hebrew, (i.e.) among all Creatures he ſaw not his like, with whom he would converſe, until Eve was made for him. But there is yet another cauſe of Love, when Beings, that love each other, are not one Subſtance, but one gave Being to the other, and is the proper and real cauſe thereof. And ſo it is in the caſe between God and Creatures; for he gave to all, Being, Life, and Motion; and therefore he loves all Creatures; neither can he not love them; yea, at the same time when he ſeems to hate and be angry with them, this his Anger, and what proceeds therefrom, viz. Puniſhments and Judgments, turns to their Good, becauſe he perceiveth they have need of them. So, on the contrary, the Creatures which have not wholly degenerated, and loſt all ſenſe of God, do love him; and this is a certain Divine Law, and Inſtinct, which he put in all rational Creatures, that they might love him, which is the fulfilling of the whole Law: But thoſe Creatures which draw moſt near unto God in ſimilitude or likeneſs,neſs, H3r 101 neſs, do love him the more, and are the more loved of him. But if it be thought there is another principal cauſe of Love, to wit, Goodneſs, which is the moſt vehement or powerful Magnet thereof, whence alſo God is above all the moſt to be loved; becauſe he is the beſt; which Goodneſs is in ſome meaſure in Creatures, either really or apparently; wherefore ſuch are loved of their Fellow-Creatures: I Anſwer: It muſt be granted indeed, that Goodneſs is a great, yea the greateſt Cauſe of Love, and the proper Object of it; but this Goodneſs is not a diſtinct Cauſe from thoſe before laid down, but is comprehended in them. Wherefore do we call a Thing Good? But becauſe it either really or apparently pleaſes us, for the unity it hath with us, or which we have with it: Hence it comes to paſs, that Good Men love Good Men, and not otherwiſe; for Good Men cannot love Evil, nor Evil Men Good Men as ſuch; for there is no greater ſimilitude than between Good and Good: For the reaſon why we call or eſteem a Thing Good, is this, that it benefits us, and that we are made Partakers of its Goodneſs, and ſo here the Firſt Cauſe of Similitude is ſtill H3 Militant: H3v 102 Militant: So likewiſe, when one Thing gives being to another, as when God and Chriſt give Being to Creatures (as from whom have every true Eſſence proceeded,) here is in like manner a certain Similitude; for it is impoſſible that the Creatures ſhould not in ſome Things be like their Creator, and agree with him in ſome Attributes or Perfections.

This being ſuppoſed a Touch-ſtone, we ſhall now return to our ſubject matter, (i.e.) to examine, whether Spirits and Bodies are of one Nature and Subſtance, and ſo convertible one into another? Therefore, I demand, What is the reaſon, That the Spirit or Soul ſo loveth the Body wherewith it is united, and ſo unwillingly departs out of it, that it has been manifeſtly notorious, the Souls of ſome have attended on, and been ſubject to their Bodies, after the Body was dead, until it was corrupted, and diſſolved into duſt. That the Spirit or Soul gave a diſtinct Being to the Body, or the Body to the Spirit, cannot be the reaſon of this Love; for that were Creation in a ſtrict ſence; but this (viz.) to give Being unto Things agrees only to God and Chriſt; therefore that neceſſarily comes to paſs by H4r 103 by reaſon of that ſimilitude they have one with another, or ſome Affinity in their Natures: Or, if it be ſaid, there is a certain Goodneſs in the Body, which moves the Spirit to love it, certainly this Goodneſs muſt neceſſarily anſwer to ſomething in the Soul which is like it, otherwiſe it could not be carried unto it; yea, let them inform us what that Goodneſs in the Body is, for which the Soul doth ſo fervently love it? or in what Attributes or Perfections a Body is like a Spirit; if a Body is nothing but a dead Trunk, and a certain Maſs which is altogether uncapable of any degree of Life, and Perfection? if they ſay a Body agrees with a Spirit Ratione entis, or in reſpect of Being; that is to ſay; as this hath Being ſo that hath the ſame; this is already refuted in the former Argument; for if this Being hath no Attributes or Perfections wherein it may agree with the Being of a Spirit, then it is only a mere Fiction; for God created no Naked Ens, or Being, which ſhould be a mere Being, and have no Attributes that may be predicated of it; beſides alſo, Ens is only a Logical Notion or Term, which Logicians do call Genus generaliſſimum, or the moſt General Kind, which in the H4 naked H4v 104 naked and abſtracted Notion of it, is not in the Things themſelves, but only in the Conception or Humane Intellect. And therefore every true Being is a certain ſingle Nature, whereof may be affirmed ſuch and ſuch Attributes: Now what are thoſe Attributes of Body, wherein it reſembles a Spirit? Let us examine the principal Attributes of a Body, as diſtinct from a Spirit, according to their Opinion, who ſo much diſpute, that Body and Spirit are ſo infinitely diſtant in Nature, that one can never become the other: The Attributes are theſe, That a Body is impenetrable of all other Bodies, ſo that the parts thereof cannot penetrate each other; but there is another Attribute of Body, viz. to be diſcerpible or diviſible into parts: But the Attributes of Spirit (as they define it) are penetrability and indiſcerpibility, ſo that one Spirit can penetrate another; alſo, that a thouſand Spirits can ſtand together one within another, and yet poſſeſs no more Space than one Spirit. Moreover, that a Spirit is ſo ſimple, and one in it ſelf, that it cannot be rent aſunder, or actually divided into ſeparate parts. If now the Attributes of Body and Spirit are compared together, they are ſo far from H5r 105 from being like one another, or having any Analogy of Nature (in which nevertheleſs the true Foundation of Love and Unity doth conſiſt, as before was ſaid,) that they are plainly contrary; yea, nothing in the whole World can be conceived ſo contrary to any Thing, as Body and Spirit, in the opinion of theſe Men. For here is a pure and abſolute contrariety in all their Attributes; becauſe Penetrability and Impenetrability are more contrary one to another than black and white, or hot and cold: For that which is black may become white, and that which is hot may become cold: But (as they ſay) that which is impenetrable cannot be made penetrable; yea, God and Creatures do not ſo infinitely differ in Eſſence one from another; as theſe Doctors make Body to differ from Spirit: For there are many Attributes, in which God and the Creatures agree together; but we can find none, wherein a Body can any way agree with a Spirit, and by conſequence, nor with God, who is the chiefeſt and pureſt of Spirits; wherefore it can be no Creature, but a mere Non-entity or Fiction: But as Body and Spirit are contrary in the Attributes of Penetrabilitylity H5v 106 lity and Impenetrability; ſo are they no leſs contrary in Diſcerpibility and Indiſcerpibility: But if they alledge, that Body and Spirit do agree in ſome Attributes, as Extenſion, Mobility, and Figurability; ſo that Spirit hath Extenſion, and can reach from one place to another, and alſo can move it ſelf from place to place, and form it ſelf into whatſoever Figure it pleaſeth, in which caſes it agrees with a Body, and a Body with it: To this I Anſwer: Suppoſing the firſt, that a Spirit can be extended (which yet many of them deny, yea moſt, who teach that Body and Spirit are eſſentially diſtinct) yet the Extenſion of Body and Spirit, as they underſtand it, do wonderfully differ; for the Extenſion of Body is always impenetrable; yea, to be extended, and impenetrable, as pertaining to the Body, is only one real Attribute propoſed in two Mental and Logical Notions, or ways of ſpeaking; for what is Extenſion, unleſs the Body (whereſoever it is) be impenetrable of its own proper parts? But remove this Attribute of Impenetrability from a Body, and it cannot be conceived any longer, as extended. Moreover alſo, the Extenſion of Body and Spirit, according to their Notion, H6r 107 Notion, infinitely differ; for whatſoever Extenſion a Body hath, the ſame is ſo neceſſary and eſſential to it, that it is impoſſible for it to be more or leſs extended; when nevertheleſs a Spirit may be more or leſs extended, as they affirm; and ſeeing to be moveable and figurable, are only conſequential Attributes of Extenſion, (for that a Spirit is far otherwiſe moveable and figurable than a Body, becauſe a Spirit can move and form it ſelf as a Body cannot:) The ſame Reaſon which is good againſt the one is good againſt the other alſo.

§.4. But, Secondly, How can they prove Impenetrability is an Eſſential Attribute of Body; or that Penetrability is an Eſſential Attribute of Spirit? Why may not Body be more or leſs impenetrable, and Spirit more or leſs penetrable, as it may, and indeed doth happen in all other Attributes? For, ex. gr.exempli gratia ſome Body may be more or leſs heavy or light, condenſed or rarefied, ſolid or liquid, hot or cold; then why may it not alſo be more or leſs penetrable, or impenetrable? If it be ſaid, that in all thoſe other Mutations we always obſerve, that a Body remains impenetrable, as Iron when it is heat red-hot, yet remains ſtill impenetrabletrable: H6v 108 trable: I Anſwer, I grant it may remain impenetrable of any other Body of equal thickneſs; yet may, and is entirely penetrated of a more ſubtile Body, ſc.ſcilicit of the Fire which hath entred into it, and penetrated all its parts, whereby ’tis made ſo ſoft; and if the Fire be ſtronger, begins wholly to melt. But if, againſt this, they Object, that the ingreſs of Fire into the Iron, is not penetration in a Philoſophical Sence, nor as they underſtand it, viz. as though the Fire and Iron did poſſeſs but one place, and ſo the one could be intrinſecally preſent in the other; becauſe it is manifeſt to the contrary, that Iron (if it be made candent or glowing hot) it ſwelleth and acquireth a greater Bulk, than when it is cold; and as it waxeth cold again, it returneth to its former dimenſion. To this I Anſwer: If they mean ſuch a Penetration, which we call Intrinſeck Preſence, viz. that one Homogeneal Subſtance ſhould enter into another, both being of equal Dimenſions, and yet the bulk or quantity not increaſed, that ſeems wholly irrational: And it would be a mere impoſſibility and contradiction to grant ſuch an intimate Preſence in Creatures, which only agrees unto God and Chriſt H7r 109 Chriſt as Creators, whoſe Prerogative it is to be intrinſecally preſent in Creatures; whereas no Creature can have that Intrinſeck Preſence in its Fellow Creature, becauſe then it would ceaſe to be a Creature, and obtain one of the incommunicable Attributes of God and Chriſt, which is Intrinſeck Preſence. This (I ſay) is primarily to be attributed to God, and ſecondarily to Chriſt, in as much as he is Medium quid, or a certain Medium between God and Creatures, and who as he is Partaker of Mutability and Immutability, of Eternity and Time; ſo he may be ſaid to be Partaker of Body and Spirit, and conſequently of Place and Extenſion: For, in as much as his Body is of another Subſtance than the Bodies of all other Creatures, (as of whom he is the neareſt Beginning to God,) it may be truly ſaid, he is intrinſecally preſent in them, and yet not ſo as to be confounded with them. For to ſuppoſe one Creature intrinſecally preſent in another, ſo as to be mingled and moſt perfectly united with it, and yet its Quantity or Extenſion not increaſed, that confounds the Creatures, and maketh two or more to be but one: Yea, according to this Hypotheſis, it may H7v 110 may be ſaid the whole Creation is reducible into the quantity of the leaſt Grain or Duſt, becauſe every part would be ſuppoſed to penetrate another, and no greater extenſion follow than of one Part. But if it be ſaid, that only proves that Spirits may be reduced into ſo ſmall a ſpace but not Bodies: Becauſe Bodies are Impenetrable. I Anſwer, This is but a begging of the queſtion, becauſe they have not yet proved that Body and Spirit are diſtinct Subſtances; which, unleſs they are, it follows that one Nature is not more penetrable than the other, according to their ſence. And indeed it ſeems very conſentaneous to Reaſon, that as Times are each of them ſo extended into their due Meaſures and Extenſions, that they cannot exceed thoſe Bounds, and ſo cannot be intrinſecally preſent one with another; as (ex. gr.exempli gratia) the Firſt Day of the Week cannot be preſent with the Second Day of the ſame Week; nor the Firſt Hour of the Day with the Second; neither is the Firſt Minute of an Hour preſent with the Second Minute thereof; becauſe ſuch is the Nature and Eſſence of Time, that it is ſucceſſive, and hath partes extra partes, or parts, one without another. When nevertheleſs God is really and H8r 111 and intrinſecally preſent in all Times, and is not changed, which cannot be ſaid of the Creature, ſc.ſcilicit that that is preſent in all or more Times, and not changed; for the Creature is perpetually changed with Times, ſeeing Times are nothing elſe but the Motion or Change of the Creature from one State or Condition into another. And as it is in the caſe of Time, and Creatures which are in Time, ſo alſo in the caſe of Place, Bulk, or Quantity; for as in God there is no Time, ſo alſo in him there is no Bulk or Corporeal Quantity; but in Creatures there is both Time and Corporeal Quantity; becauſe otherwiſe they would be either God, or Nothing, which is impoſſible. For whatſoever Quantity, Bulk, or Extenſion any Creature hath, it retains the ſame, as ſomething which is of its own Eſſence; as it is the Eſſence of Time to conſiſt of more parts, and thoſe again of more, and ſo ad infinitum: For it may be eaſily conceived how a leſs Time is in a greater, ex. gr.exempli gratia how ſo many Minutes are in an Hour, and ſo many Hours in a Day; and one Hour doth immediately touch the next, but cannot be preſent in it, the ſame is to be underſtood of the Creatures, in regard of their H8v 112 their Quantity or Bulk; for indeed one Creature may immediately touch another, but cannot be preſent in all its parts, but only a leſs may be in a greater, and a ſubtiler in a groſſer; and this is more properly Penetration which agrees to Bodies as well as Spirits; as ſome Body, that is leſs groſs may penetrate another that is more groſs; but two Bodies of an equal thickneſs cannot penetrate each other: The ſame may be ſaid of Spirits which have their degrees of more or leſs groſsneſs, as Bodies have: Neither is there any other difference between Body and Spirit, (if Body be not taken in their ſence, who teach that it is a Thing merely Dead, and void of Life, or a Capacity thereof; but in a proper ſence: ſc.ſcilicit that it is an excellent Creature having Life and Senſe, which either actually or potentially agrees to it) but this that a Body is the groſſer part of a thing, and Spirit the ſubtiler, whence alſo Spirit hath it’s name from the Air, which is the moſt ſubtile Nature in this viſible World. In Kabbal. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. 2. Tract. ult. p. 6. §.13. Spirit is rather defined, a central Nature, having a Faculty to ſend forth a Sphere full of Light and to inlarge or contract the ſame I1r 113 ſame, which properly ſeems to be Ariſtotle’s έντφλχεια, and ibid. p. 28. §.4. Matter is defined: A naked Centre, or a Point wanting Eradiation, which Aristotle underſtood by Privation: Whence we muſt conclude, that the Impenetrability of theſe Creatures is to be underſtood of their Centres: For the Hebrew Word, ךוח, which ſignifies a Spirit, ſignifies alſo Air; and becauſe Air hath a very ſwift Motion, all ſwiftneſs of Motion is imputed to the Spirit in the moved Body: Hence out of Popular Ignorance, when in certain Bodies they perceived no Motion, they termed them Dead, wanting both Life and Spirit: But indeed there is no where any ſuch Body that hath not Motion, and by conſequence Life and Spirit. Therefore every Creature hath its due Quantity or Extenſion, which it cannot exceed, and wherein alſo it cannot be diminiſhed.

Neither doth this hinder, that we obſerve, how ſome very ſmall Body may be extended into a Space a Thouſand times greater than it had; even as Gun-Powder, if it be ſet on Fire doth marvellouſly extend it ſelf; for all this Extenſion is made by Diviſion of Parts into Parts, ſtill leſs I and I1v 114 and leſs, which indeed do not fill all that Space ſo great as it ſeems, when in the mean while each part hath neither greater nor leſſer Extenſion than it had before. Suppoſing this, it muſt be concluded that all Creatural Spirits, which are preſent in Bodies, are either in the Pores of the ſaid Bodies, or in certain Concavities made there, as Moles make in the Earth; or elſe they cauſe the ſaid Bodies to be puffed up, and acquire a greater Extenſion; as when Fire copiouſly enters Iron, it notably puffs up and extends the ſame: And although this Turgeſcency, or puffing up of Bodies, cannot be always obſerved by our External Senſes; yet it cannot therefore be denied: For ’tis poſſible, that a certain Body may conſiderably grow or increaſe in its dimenſions, and become intirely greater, and yet this increaſe of Magnitude may ſhun all outward Obſervation; yea, it may be ſo ſubtile that it cannot be expreſſed by Numbers; ex. gr.exempli gratia let us ſuppoſe ſome Body, whoſe Solidity or Cube may contain 64 Parts, and another whoſe Solidity contains 100, where the root of the former Body whoſe Cube is 64 is 4; ſo that the ſide of that Body contains four Longitudes of I2r 115 of the Parts ſo divided; but the ſide or root of the other Body, whoſe Cube is 100, can be expreſſed by no Number; for it is greater than 4, and leſs than 5, and no Fraction can determine the ſame: Therefore Bodies (as was ſaid) may be conſiderably ſwoln or puffed up, (if more Spirits or ſubtiler Bodies enter into them,) and yet ſo as that our groſs Senſes may judge them not at all greater. Now that we may come to the other Attribute, which is ſaid to be of Body but not of Spirit, viz. Diſcerpibility; if they underſtand it ſo; that one only Body, even the leaſt that can be conceived (if any ſuch Body can be conceived) may be divided; that is certainly impoſſible; for it is a contradiction in terms, and ſuppoſes every the leaſt Body to be diſcerpible into leſſer Parts. But if Body be taken individually only for one ſingle Body, that is indiſcerpible; and that which we call the Diſcerpibility of Body means only this, ſc.ſcilicit that we may divide one Body from another, by placing ſome Third Body between them; and according to this ſence Spirits are no leſs diſcerpible than Bodies; for although one ſingle Spirit cannot become two or more Spirits, yet more Spirits co-exiſting in one I2 Body, I2v 116 Body, are no leſs ſeparable one from another than Bodies; for however Bodies or Spirits may be divided or ſeparated one from another in the whole Univerſe, yet they ſtill remain united in this ſeparation; ſeeing the whole Creation is ſtill but one Subſtance or Entity, neither is there a Vacuum in it; How then can any thing be ſeparated from it ſelf? I mean, from that which is its proper Nature, as conſidered Originally, or in its Beginning, or Firſt Being? But as there is a General Unity of all Creatures one with another, ſo that none can be ſeparated from his Fellow- Creatures; ſo there is a more ſpecial and particular Unity between the Parts of one particular Species: As when the Body is divided, or torn aſunder, and the Members removed one from another unto a certain diſtance, ſo long as theſe Members are not corrupted, and changed into another Species, they ſtill ſend certain ſubtile Particles one to another, and to the Body from whence they came, and the Body ſends the like unto them, (which we call Spirits, and Bodies, or Spirits, for they are either,) by means whereof the Parts and Members ſo apparently ſeparated, ſtill retain a certain real Unity and Sympathy, as I3r 117 as is manifeſt from ſundry Examples; and eſpecially the two following: The Firſt of which is this: A certain Man wanting a Noſe, ordered one to be made for him out of the Fleſh of another Man, which being vitally agglutinated, (as a Scion or Graft is united with the Trunk of the Tree into which it is put;) when the other Man died, and his Body corrupted, this Noſe was likewiſe corrupted, and fell from the Body of this living Man. The Second Example is of a Man whoſe Leg was cut off; which Leg being removed ſome conſiderable diſtance from the reſt of the Body, when a certain Chirurgeon cut it, this man complained of Pains, and ſhowed in what part the ſaid Leg was wounded, which manifeſtly proves that there is a certain Union of Parts, though ſeparated at a great diſtance one from another: And ſo alſo Individuals of one Species, or ſuch who have a ſingular Affinity in Specie, have a Union one with another, although locally diſtant, which is yet more manifeſt in Humane Kind: For if two Men interely love one another, they are by this love ſo united, that no diſtance of place can divide or ſeparate them; for they are preſent (one with another)I3 nother) I3v 118 nother) in Spirit; ſo that there paſſeth a continual Efflux, or Emanation of Spirits, from the one to the other, whereby they are bound together, and united as with Chains: And ſo whatſoever a Man loves, whether it be Man or Beaſt, whether a Tree, or whether Silver or Gold, he is united with the ſame, and his Spirit paſſeth into that very Thing; and here is to be obſerved, that though the Spirit of Man is commonly ſpoken in the Singular, as though it were but one Thing; yet the ſaid Spirit is a certain compoſition of more, yea innumerable Spirits; as the Body is a compoſition of more Bodies, and hath a certain Order and Government in all its Parts, much more the Spirit which is a great Army of Spirits, wherein there are diſtinct Offices under one governing Spirit. And ſo from hence is appears that Impenetrability and Indiſcerpibility, are not more Eſſential Attributes of Body, than of Spirit; becauſe in one ſence they agree unto either, in another ſence unto neither.

But againſt this Infiniteneſs of Spirits in every Spirit, and Infiniteneſs of Bodies in every Body, may be objected that Saying: God made all Things in Number, Weight, I4r 119 Weight, and Meaſure; wherefore there cannot be an infinite multitude of Spirits in one Man, nor an innumerable multitude of Bodies in one Body? But I Anſwer that the infiniteneſs or innumerability of Spirits, and Bodies is only to be underſtood in reſpect of the Creatures underſtanding, ſo that they cannot be numbred, nor the outward Extenſion of Body and Spirit (that may happen in them) be meaſured by the knowledge of any Creature. But that God hath perfectly known the Number and Meaſure of all Creatures is freely granted. And if God made all Things in Number, Weight, and Meaſure; then certainly every Creature will have its Number, Weight, and Meaſure; and by conſequence we cannot ſay of any Creature, that it is but one ſingle Thing, becauſe it is a Number, and Number is a multitude, or more than one; and indeed the Nature of a Creature is ſuch, that the ſame cannot be merely one ſingle Thing, in caſe it ought to act or do ſomething, and ſo enjoy that Goodneſs which is prepared for it by its Creator: For (ex. gr.exempli gratia) let us ſuppoſe but one Atom to be ſeparated from its Fellow-Creatures, What can that do to perfect it ſelf, or I4 make I4v 120 make it ſelf greater or better? What can it ſee, hear, taſte, or feel, either from within or without? It cannot have internal Motion; becauſe every Motion hath at leaſt two Terms or Extreams, viz. Terminus à quo, and Terminus ad quem; or, the Term from which, and the Term to which: And ſeeing this is but one Atom or Centre, certainly it cannot have any Motion within it ſelf, è Termino à quo, & ad quem; and conſequently, ſeeing it cannot hear, ſee, taſte, or feel, ab intra, or, from within, it cannot have it from other Creatures, ab extra, or, from without; for if it ought to ſee, hear, feel, or taſte any other Creature, it is required to receive the Image of this Creature within it ſelf, which it cannot do, becauſe it is an Atom, and an Atom is ſo ſmall that it can receive nothing within it: For as the Organs of the external Senſes are compoſe of more parts; ſo alſo are the Organs of the internal, and conſequently all Knowledge requires variety or multitude, which is the Subject or Receptacle of it: I mean all Creatural Knowledge, where Knowledge is received or excited from known Things or Objects, (whereas the Knowledge of God is not received or excited by Creatures, I5r 121 Creatures, but is originally in and from himſelf.) Seeing, therefore, the Objects of our Knowledge are various, and every Object ſends its Image into us, and that Image is a real Being, it follows we have many Images in us, which cannot be all received in an Atom, but have need of their diſtinct Places in us, in their diſtinct Forms and Figures; otherwiſe there would not only follow a confuſion, but many Things would be preſent one with another without any Extenſion, which is repugnant to the Nature of a Creature. And although the Objects of our Knowledge are many; as for Example, I am manifold, who receive ſo many Images from thoſe Objects; yet from thence it doth not follow, becauſe I who know ſomething am manifold, that therefore I ought to behold one Object as it if was many, ſo that ſeeing one Man I ſhould ſee many; for when many Men ſee one Man they do not behold him as many Men, but as one Man only: So when I look up and behold ſomething with both my Eyes (unleſs peradventure there be any confuſion in my ſight) they do not ſeem to me as two, but one; and if I could behold ſomething with ten thou ſandſand I5v 122 ſand Eyes, as I do with two, certainly that Thing, whether an Horſe or a Man, would not ſeem otherwiſe to me than one alone. Hence appears to us a great diſtinction between God and Creatures; for he is One, and this is his Perfection, that he hath need of nothing without him: But a Creature, becauſe it needs the aſſiſtance of its Fellow-Creatures, ought to be manifold, that is may receive this aſſiſtance; for that which receives ſomething is nouriſhed by the ſame, and ſo becomes a part of it, and therefore it is no more one but many, and ſo many indeed as there are Things received, and yet of a greater multiplicity; therefore there is a certain Society or Fellowſhip among Creatures in giving and receiving, whereby they mutually ſubſiſt one by another, ſo that one cannot live without another; for what Creature in the whole World can be found that hath no need of its Fellow-Creature? Certainly none; therefore by conſequence every Creature which hath Life, Senſe, or Motion, ought to be a Number, or a Multiplicity; yea, a Number without Number, or Infinite in reſpect of any created Intellect. But if it be ſaid, ought not the Central or governing I6r 123 governing Spirit to be but one only Atom; for otherwiſe how can it be called a Centre, and the chief Spirit, having Dominion over the reſt? I Anſwer in the Negative: For this Centre it ſelf, or chief, and governing Spirit, is manifold, for the Reaſons before alledged; but it is called a Centre, becauſe all the other Spirits concur to it, as Lines from all parts of the Circumference do meet at the Centre, and do again depart out or proceed therefrom; and indeed the unity of the Spirits that compoſe or make up this Centre, or governing Spirit, is more firm and tenacious, than that of all the other Spirits; which are, as it were, the Angels or Miniſtring Spirits of their Prince or Captain; yea, in Man this Unity is ſo great, that nothing can diſſolve it, (although the Unity of the greateſt Plenty of Miniſtring Spirits which belong not to the compoſition of this Centre) may be diſſolved: Hence it comes to paſs that the Soul of every Man ſhall remain an entire everlaſting Soul, or be of endleſs duration, that it may receive the proper Fruit of its labour, and that the Univerſal Law of Juſtice (which is written on every Thing) doth require, which is as I6v 124 as a moſt ſtrong and indiſſolvable Band to preſerve this Unity: For what is more congruous with this Infinite Juſtice and Wiſdom than this, That they who have joined together, and conſented to work either Good or Evil, ſhall together receive their due Reward and Puniſhment, which cannot be if they ſhould be diſſipated or ſeparated one from another; and the ſame reaſon doth prove, that the Central Spirits of all other Creatures remain indiſſolvable; and that although new Central Spirits are continually form’d in the Production of Things; yet no Central Spirit is diſſolved, but farther promoted, or at leaſt diminiſhed, according to the preſent dignity or indignity, capacity or incapacity thereof.

Chap. I7r 125

Chap. VIII.

§. 1. That Spirit and Body, as they are Creatures, differ not eſſentially, is farther proved by three other Reaſons: And a Fourth is drawn from that intimate Bond or Union between Body and Spirit. §. 2. That would be altogether an unfit compariſon, to go about to illuſtrate the manner how the Soul moves the Body by an Example of God moving his Creatures. §. 3. The Union and Sympathy of Soul and Body may be eaſily demonſtrated; as alſo how the Soul moves the Body from the aforeſaid Principle; that Spirit is Body, and Body Spirit. §. 4. A Fifth Argument is taken from Earth and Water, which continually produces Animals of divers Kinds out of putrified or corrupted Matter. §. 5. How a groſs Body may be changed into Spirit, and become as it were the Mother of Spirits; where an Example is laid down of our Corporal Aliment, which by various Tranſmutations in the Body is changed into Animal Spirits, and from theſe into Subtiler, I7v 126 Subtiler, and more Spiritual. §. 6. Of the good or bad Angels of Men, which are properly the Angels of a Man, and proceed from him as Branches from the Root. §. 7. A ſixth and laſt Argument is drawn from certain places of Scripture.

§.1. TO prove that Spirit and Body differ not eſſentially, but gradually, I ſhall deduce my Fourth Argument from the intimate Band or Union, which intercedes between Bodies and Spirits, by means whereof the Spirits have Dominion over the Bodies with which they are united, that they move them from one place to another, and uſe them as Inſtruments in their various Operations. For if Spirit and Body are ſo contrary one to another, ſo that a Spirit is only Life, or a living and ſenſible Subſtance, but a Body a certain Maſs merely dead; a Spirit penetrable and indiſcerpible, but a Body impenetrable and diſcerpible, which are all contrary Attributes: What (I pray you) is that which doth ſo join or unite them together? Or, what are thoſe Links or Chains, whereby they have ſo firm a connexion, and that for ſo long I8r 127 long a ſpace of Time? Moreover alſo, when the Spirit or Soul is ſeparated from the Body, ſo that it hath no longer Dominion or Power over it to move it as it had before, What is the cauſe of this ſeparation? If it be ſaid, that the vital agreement, the Soul hath to the Body, is the cauſe of the ſaid Union, and that the Body being corrupted that vital Agreement ceaſeth. I Anſwer, We muſt firſt enquire, in what this vital Agreement doth conſiſt; for if they cannot tell us wherein it doth conſiſt, they only trifle with empty Words, which give a ſound but want a ſignification: For certainly in that ſence which they take Body and Spirit in, there is no Agreement at all between them; for a Body is always a dead Thing, void of Life and ſenſe, no leſs when the Spirit is in it, than when it is gone out of it: Hence there is no Agreement at all between them; and if there is any Agreement, that certainly will remain the ſame, both when the Body is found, and when it is corrupted. If they deny this, becauſe a Spirit requires an organized Body, by means whereof it performs its vital Acts of the external Senſes; moves and tranſports the Body from place to I8v 128 to place; which Organical Action ceaſes when the Body is corrupted. Certainly by this the difficulty is never the better ſolved. For why doth the Spirit require ſuch an organized Body? ex. gr.exempli gratia Why doth it require a Corporeal Eye ſo wonderfully formed and organized, that I can ſee by it? Why doth it need a Corporeal Light, to ſee Corporeal Objects? Or, why is it requiſite, that the Image of the Object ſhould be ſent to it, through the Eye, that it may ſee it? If the ſame were entirely nothing but a Spirit, and no way Corporeal, Why doth it need ſo many ſeveral Corporeal Organs, ſo far different from the Nature of it? Furthermore, how can a Spirit move its Body, or any of its Members, if a Spirit (as they affirm) is of ſuch a Nature, that no part of its Body can in the leaſt reſiſt it, even as one Body is wont to reſiſt another, when ’tis moved by it, by reaſon of its Impenetrability? For if a Spirit could ſo eaſily penetrate all Bodies, Wherefore doth it not leave the Body behind it, when it is moved from place to place, ſeeing it can ſo eaſily paſs out without the leaſt reſiſtance? For certainly this is the cauſe of all Motions which we ſee in the World, where K1r 129 where one Thing moves another, viz. becauſe both are impenetrable in the ſence aforeſaid: For were it not for this Impenetrability one Creature could not move another, becauſe this would not oppoſe that, nor at all reſiſt it; an Example whereof we have in the Sails or a Ship; by which the Wind drives the Ship, and that ſo much the more vehemently, by how much the fewer holes, vents, and paſſages, the ſame finds in the Sails againſt which it drives: When on the contrary, if inſtead of Sails Nets were expanded, through which the Wind would have a freer paſſage; certainly by theſe the Ship would be but little moved, although it blew with great violence: Hence we ſee how this Impenetrability cauſes reſiſtance, and this makes Motion. But if there were no Impenetrability, as in the caſe of Body and Spirit, then there could be no reſiſtance, and by conſequence the Spirit could make no motion in the Body.

§. 2. And if it be objected, That God is altogether incorporeal and intrinſecally preſent in all Bodies, and yet doth move Bodies whetherſoever he pleaſeth, and is the Firſt Mover of all Things, K and K1v 130 and yet nothing is impenetrable to him: I Anſwer, This Motion by which God moves a Body, doth wonderfully differ from that manner by which the Soul moves the Body; for the Will of God which gave Being to Bodies, gave them Motion alſo, ſo that Motion it ſelf is of God, by whoſe Will all Motion happens: For as a Creature cannot give Being to it ſelf, ſo neither can it move it ſelf; for in him we Live, Move, and have our Being; ſo that Motion and Eſſence come from the ſame cauſe, ſc.ſcilicit God the Creator, who remains immoveable in himſelf; neither is he carried from place to place, becauſe he is equally preſent every where, and gives Being to Creatures: But the caſe is far different, when the Soul moves the Body; for the Soul is not the Author of Motion, but only determines it to this or that particular Thing: And the Soul it ſelf moved, together with the Body, from place to place; and if the Body be impriſoned, or held in Chains, it cannot be free or deliver it ſelf out of Priſon or out of Chains: Wherefore it would be a very unfit compariſon, if one ſhould go about to illuſtrate that Motion the Soul makes in the Body, by an Example of K2r 131 of God moving his Creatures; yea, ſo great is the difference, as if a Man ſhould go to demonſtrate how a Carpenter builds a Ship, or an Houſe, by an Example of God creating the firſt Matter or Subſtance, wherein certainly there is as great a diſparity or diſproportion; for God gave Being to Creatures, but a Carpenter doth not give Being to the Wood whereof he builds a Ship.

But no Man can think, becauſe I have ſaid, All Motion of Creatures is of God, that therefore he is, or can be the Author, or Cauſe of Sin: For although the moving Power be of God, yet Sin is not in the leaſt of God, but of the Creature, who hath abuſed this Power, and determined to ſome other end than it ought: So that Sin is άταξία, or an inordinate determination of Motion, or the power of moving from its due place, ſtate, or condition unto ſome other, as, v.g.verbi gratia a Ship is moved by the Wind, but governed by the Mariner, that it goes to this or that place; where the Mariner is not the Author or Cauſe of the Wind; but the Wind blowing, he makes either a good or a bad uſe of the ſame, whereby he either brings K2 the K2v 132 the Ship to the place intended, and ſo is commended; or elſe ſo manages her that ſhe ſuffers Shipwrack, for which he is blamed, and worthy of Puniſhment.

Moreover, Why is the Spirit or Soul ſo paſſible in corporal Pains? For if when it is united with the Body, it hath nothing of Corporeity, or a bodily Nature, Why is it grieved or wounded when the Body is wounded, which is quite of a different Nature? For ſeeing the Soul can ſo eaſily penetrate the Body, How can any Corporeal Thing hurt it? If it be ſaid, the Body only feels the pain, but not the Soul; this is contrary to their own Principles, becauſe they affirm, that the Body hath neither Life nor Senſe: But if it be granted, that the Soul is of one Nature and Subſtance with the Body, although it is many degrees more excellent in regard of Life and Spirituality, as alſo in ſwiftneſs of Motion, and Penetrability, and divers other Perfections; then all the aforeſaid difficulties will vaniſh, and it will be eaſily conceived, how the Body and Soul are united together, and how the Soul moves the Body, and K3r 133 and ſuffers by it or with it. What the Opinion of the Hebrews is appears from a place in Kabbal. denud.Kabbala Denudata Tom. I. Part. 3. Diſſert. 8. Cap. 13. p. 171. ſeq.

§.3. For we may eaſily underſtand how one Body is united with another, by that true agreement that one hath with another in its own Nature; and ſo the moſt ſubtile and Spiritual Body may be united with a Body that is very groſs and thick, ſc.ſcilicit by means of certain Bodies, partaking of ſubtilty and groſsneſs, according to divers degrees, conſiſting between two Extreams, and theſe middle Bodies are indeed the Links and Chains, by which the Soul, which is ſo ſubtile and Spiritual, is conjoined with a Body ſo groſs; which middle Spirits (if they ceaſe, or are abſent) the Union is broken or diſſolved; ſo from the ſame Foundation we may eaſily underſtand, how the Soul moves the Body, viz. as one ſubtile Body can move another groſs and thick Body: And ſeeing Body it ſelf is a ſenſible Life, or an intellectual Subſtance, it is no leſs clearly conſpicuous, how one Body can K3 wound K3v 134 wound, or grieve, or gratifie, or pleaſe another; becauſe Things of one, or alike Nature, can eaſily affect each other: And to this Argument may be reduced the like difficulties, viz. how Spirits move Spirits; and how ſome Spirits ſtrive and contend with other Spirits; alſo concerning the Unity, Concord, and Friendſhip, which good Spirits reverence among themſelves; for if all Spirits could be intrinſecally preſent one with another, How could they diſpute or contend about place? And how can one expel or drive out another? and yet that there is ſuch an expulſion and conflict of Spirits, and eſpecially of the Good againſt the Evil, ſome few who have been acquainted with their own Hearts have experimentally known. If it be ſaid, the Spirit of God and Chriſt are intrinſecally preſent in all Things, contends with, and makes War againſt the Devil, and his Spirit, in the Heart of Man. I Anſwer, That this is alſo a very unfit ſimilitude, (viz.) when God and Creatures are compared in their Operations: For his Ways are infinitely Superiour to ours; yet nevertheleſs in this caſe alſo here K4r 135 here remains a ſtrong Objection. For the Spirits of God and Chriſt, when they ſtrive againſt the Devil, and the Evil Spirits in the Heart of Man, do unite themſelves with certain good Spirits, whom they have ſanctified and prepared for this Union; and by theſe, as a Vehicle, or Triumphant Chariot, they contend againſt and encounter thoſe Malignant and Wicked Spirits: And in as much as theſe Evil Spirits contend againſt thoſe Good Spirits in the Heart of Man, they contend againſt God and Chriſt; and theſe Good Spirits are the Spirits of this faithful and pious Man, who is become Good, when as before he was Evil: For God and Chriſt do help every pious Man to prevail over the Evil Spirits in this Conflict, but ſuffers the Wicked and Unfaithful to be captivated and overcome; for God helps none but thoſe that fear, love, and obey him, and truſt in his Power, Goodneſs, and Truth; for with ſuch he is united, and the good Spirits of ſuch Men are as ſo many Swords and Darts, whereby thoſe dark and unclean Spirits are wounded and repulſed. But if it be demandedK4 manded K4v 136 manded how the Soul of Man can be united with God, though it were in a State of the higheſt Purity; becauſe he is a mere Spirit: but the Soul even in its greateſt Purity always partakes of Corporeity? I Anſwer, It is done by Jeſus Chriſt, who is the true and proper Medium between both; for Chriſt and the Soul may be united without a Medium, by reaſon of that great Affinity and Similitude between them, which thoſe Doctors cannot demonſtrate between Spirit and Body, who ſay they are of a Nature ſo contrary one to another.

§. 4. I ſhall draw a Fifth Argument from what we obſerve in all viſible Bodies, as in Earth, Water, Stones, Wood, &c. What abundance of Spirits is in all theſe things? For Earth and Water continually produce Animals, as they hath done from the beginning; ſo that a Pool fill’d with Water may produce Fiſhes, though none were ever put there to increaſe or breed; and ſeeing that all other Things do more originally proceed from Earth and Water, it neceſſarilyrily K5r 137 rily follows, that the Spirits of all Animals were in the Water; and therefore it is ſaid in Geneſis, that the Spirit of God moved upon the Face of the Waters, viz. that from hence he might produce whatſoever was afterwards created.

§. 5. But if it be ſaid, this Argument doth not prove that all Spirits are Bodies, but that all Bodies have in them the Spirits of all Animals, ſo that every Body hath a Spirit in it, and likewiſe a Spirit and Body; and although they are thus united, yet they ſtill remain different in Nature one from another, and ſo cannot be changed one into another. To this I Anſwer, if every Body, even the leaſt, hath in it the Spirits of all Animals, and other Things; even as matter is ſaid to have in it all Forms: Now I demand, Whether a Body hath actually all thoſe Spirits in it, or potentially only? If actually, How is it poſſible that ſo many Spirits eſſentially distinct from Body, can actually exiſt in their diſtinct Eſſences in ſo ſmall a Body, (even in the leaſt that can be con- K5v 138 conceived,) unleſs it be by intrinſeck Preſence, which is not communicable to any Creature, as is already proved; For if all kinds of Spirits are in any, even the leaſt Body, How comes it to paſs, that ſuch an Animal is produced of this Body, and not another? Yea, how comes it to paſs that all kind of Animals are not immediately produced out of one and the ſame Body? which experience denies; for we ſee that Nature keeps her order in all her Operations; whence one Animal is formed of another, and one Species proceeds from another; as well when it aſcends to a farther Perfection, as when it deſcends to a viler State and Condition: But if they ſay, all Spirits are contained in any Body, not actually in their diſtinct Eſſences, but only potentially as they term it; then it muſt be granted, that the Body and all thoſe Spirits are one and the ſame thing; that is, that a Body may be turned into them; as when we ſay Wood is potentially Fire, that is, can be turned into Fire; Water is potentially Air, that is, may be changed into Air.

More- K6r 139

Moreover, if Spirits and Bodies are ſo inſeparably united, that no Body can be without a Spirit, yea, not without many Spirits; this is certainly a great Argument, that they are of one Original Nature and Subſtance, otherwiſe we could not conceive, why in ſo various and wonderful diſſolutions, and ſeparation of Things, they ſhould not at length be ſeparated one from another, as we ſee the ſubtiler Things may be ſeparated from the groſſer? But whence is it, that when a Body is at length corrupted, out of this Corruption another Species of Things is generated? So out of Earth and Water corrupted, proceed Animals; yea, Stones if they putrefie or rot, paſs into Animals: So Dung, or other putrefied Matter, generates Animals, all which have Spirits: But how doth Corruption or Diſſolution of Body tend to a new Generation, and that indeed of Animals? If it be ſaid the Spirits of thoſe Animals are as it were looſed from their Bonds, and ſet at Liberty by this diſſolution, and that then they can form or faſhion to themſelves a new Body, out of the aforeſaid Matter, by virtue of their Plaſtick Fa- K6v 140 Faculty: Unto this I reply, How did the Primitive Body ſo hold it Captive? Was it becauſe it was ſo hard and thick? If ſo, it will be manifeſt that thoſe Spirits are nothing elſe but ſubtile Bodies, becauſe hardneſs and denſity of Body could impriſon them, that they could not paſs out; for if a Spirit could as eaſily penetrate the hardeſt Body, as the ſofteſt and moſt fluid, it could as eaſily paſs out of the one as the other, nor would there be need of Death and Corruption to a new Life or Generation; therefore this kind of Captivity of Spirits in ſome kind of hard Bodies, and their deliverance therefrom, when the Bodies become ſoft, affords us a manifeſt Argument, that Spirit and Body are originally of one Nature and Subſtance, and that a Body is nothing but a fixed and condenſed Spirit, and a Spirit nothing but a ſubtile and volatile Body.

And here is to be noted, that in all hard Bodies, as in Stones, whether common or precious; and ſo alſo in Metals, Herbs, Trees, and Animals; yea, in all Humane Bodies, there don’t only exiſt many Spirits (which are as it were impriſonedpriſoned K7r 141 priſoned in thoſe groſs Bodies, and united with them, and therefore cannot flow forth, or fly out into other Bodies, until they have paſſed Death or Diſſolution;) but alſo many other very ſubtile Spirits, which continually flow from them, and which by reaſon of their ſubtilty, the hardneſs of the Body (in which they lay hid) cannot detain; and theſe Spirits are the more ſubtile Productions, or the Sutures of the groſſer Spirits detained in the Body; for although theſe are detained therein, yet they are not idle in their Priſon, but their Bodies are as it were Shops for them to work out thoſe ſubtiler Spirits, which afterwards flow out in colours, ſounds, odours, taſtes, and divers other Powers and Vertues; whence the groſs Body, and the Spirits therein contained, are as it were the Mother of thoſe ſubtiler Spirits, who take the place of Children; for Nature ſtill works to a farther perfection of ſubtilty and ſpirituality; even as this is the moſt natural Property of all Motion and Operation: For all Motion wears and divides, and ſo renders a Thing ſubtile and ſpiritual. Even thus in Man’s Body, the Meat K7v 142 Meat and Drink is firſt changed into Chyle, then into Blood, afterwards into Spirits, which are nothing elſe but Blood brought to perfection; and theſe Spirits, whether good or bad, ſtill advance to a greater ſubtilty or ſpirituality, and by thoſe Spirits which come from the Blood, we ſee, hear, ſmell, taſte, feel, and think, yea meditate, love, hate, and do all things whatſoever we do; and from hence alſo cometh the Seed, by which Humane Kind is propagated; and hence eſpecially proceeds the Voice and Speech of Man, which is full of Spirits (form’d in the Heart) either Good or Evil, as Chriſt hath taught; That out of the Plenty of the Heart the Mouth ſpeaketh, and that a Good Man out of the Good Treaſure of his Heart bringeth forth Good Things, &c. Alſo that which goeth into a Man doth not defile him, but that which proceeds out of him; for in like manner as they proceed from him, ſo ſhall they again return into him.

§.6. And theſe are the proper Angels, or Miniſtring Spirits of a Man, (although there are other Angels alſo, as K8r 143 as well Good as Evil, which come unto Men:) Of which Angels Chriſt ſpeaketh, where he ſpeaketh of thoſe little Ones that believe on him: Their Angels (ſaith he) always behold the Face of my Heavenly Father. Which are the Angels of thoſe Believers, who become, as it were, like little Infants.

§. 7. My ſixth and laſt Argument I ſhall deduce from certain Texts of Scripture, as well of the Old as New Teſtament, which do prove in plain and expreſs Words, that all Things have Life, and do really live in ſome degree or meaſure. Acts 17.27. It is ſaid, He giveth Life to all Things. Again, 1 Tim. 6.13. of God it is ſaid, That he quickens all Things. And Luk. 20. 38. he is not called, The God of the Dead, but of the Living, (which though principally meant of Men, yet it is generally to be underſtood of all other Creatures,) viz. he is the God of all thoſe Things which have their Regeneration and Reſurrection in their kind, no leſs than Man hath in his Kind: for Death is not the Annihilation of K8v 144 of theſe Things; but a change from one kind and degree of Life to another; wherefore alſo the Apoſtle proves, and illuſtrates the Reſurrection of the Dead by a Grain of Wheat, which being faln into the ground, dies, and riſeth again exceeding fruitful.

Chap. L1r 145

Chap. IX.

§. 1. The Philosophers (ſo called) of all Sects, have generally laid an ill Foundation to their Philoſophy; and therefore the whole Structure muſt needs fall. §. 2. The Philoſophy ere treated on is not Carteſian. §.3. Nor the Philoſophy of Hobbs and Spinoſa, (falſly ſo feigned,) but diametrically oppoſite to them. §. 4. That they who have attempted to refute Hobbs and Spinoſa, have given them too much advantage. §. 5. This Philoſophy is the ſtrongeſt to refute Hobbs and Spinoſa, but after another method. §. 6. We understand here quite another thing by Body and Matter, than Hobbs underſtood; and which Hobbs, and Spinoſa, never ſaw, otherwiſe than in a Dream. §. 7. Life is as really and properly an Attribute of Body, as Figure. §. 8. Figure and Life are diſtinct, but not contrary Attributes of one and the ſame thing. L §. 9. L1v 146 §. 9. Mechanical Motion and Action or Perfection of Life, distinguiſhes Things.

§. 1. From what hath been lately ſaid, and from divers Reaſons alledged, That Spirit and Body are originally in their firſt Subſtance but one and the ſame thing, it evidently appears that the Philoſophers (ſo called) which have taught otherwiſe, whether Ancient or Modern, have generally erred and laid an ill Foundation in the very beginning, whence the whole Houſe and Superſtructure is ſo feeble, and indeed ſo unprofitable, that the whole Edifice and Building muſt in time decay, from which abſurd Foundation have aroſe very many groſs and dangerous Errours, not only in Philoſophy, but alſo in Divinity (ſo called) to the great damage of Mankind, hindrance of true Piety, and contempt of God’s moſt Glorious Name, as will eaſily appear, as well from what hath been already ſaid, as from what ſhall be ſaid in this Chapter.

§. 2. L2r 147

§. 2. And none can Object, That all this Philoſophy is no other than that of des Cartes, or Hobbs under a new Mask. For, Firſt, as touching the Carteſian Philoſophy, this ſaith that every Body is a mere dead Maſs, not only void of all kind of Life and Senſe, but utterly uncapable thereof to all Eternity; this grand Errour alſo is to be imputed to all thoſe who affirm Body and Spirit to be contrary Things, and inconvertible one into another, ſo as to deny a Body all Life and Senſe; which is quite contrary to the grounds of this our Philoſophy. Wherefore it is ſo far from being a Carteſian Principle, under a new Mask, that it may be truly ſaid it is Anti-Carteſian, in regard of their Fundamental Principles; although it cannot be denied that Cartes taught many excellent and ingenious Things concerning the Mechanical part of Natural Operations, and how all Natural Motions proceed according to Rules and Laws Mechanical, even as indeed Nature her ſelf, i.e. the Creature, hath an excellent Mechanical Skill and Wiſdom in it ſelf, (given it from God, L2 who L2v 148 who is the Fountain of all Wiſdom,) by which it operates: But yet in Nature, and her Operations, they are far more than merely Mechanical; and the ſame is not a mere Organical Body, like a Clock, wherein there is not a vital Principle of Motion; but a living Body, having Life and Senſe, which Body is far more ſublime than a mere Mechaniſm, or Mechanical Motion.

§. 3. But, Secondly, as to what pertains to Hobbs’s Opinion, this is yet more contrary to this our Philoſophy, than that of Cartes; for Cartes acknowledged God to be plainly Immaterial, and an Incorporeal Spirit. Hobbs affirms God himſelf to be Material and Corporeal; yea, nothing elſe but Matter and Body, and ſo confounds God and the Creatures in their Eſſences, and denies that there is any Eſſential Diſtinction between them. Theſe and many more the worſt of Conſequences are the Dictates of Hobbs’s Philoſophy; to which may be added that of Spinoſa; for this Spinoſa also confounds God and the Creatures together, and makes but one Being of both; all which are L3r 149 are diametrically oppoſite to the Philoſophy here delivered by us.

§. 4. But the falſe and feeble Principles of ſome who have undertaken to refute the Philoſophy of Hobbs and Spinoſa, ſo called, have given them a greater advantage againſt themſelves; ſo that they have not only in effect, not refuted them, but more expoſed themſelves to Contempt and Laughter.

But if it be Objected, That this our Philoſophy ſeems, at leaſt, very like that of Hobbs, becauſe he taught that all Creatures were originally one Subſtance, from the loweſt and moſt ignoble, to the higheſt and nobleſt; from the ſmalleſt Worm, Inſect, or Fly, unto the moſt Glorious Angel; yea, from the leaſt Duſt or Sand, unto the moſt excellent of all Creatures; and then this, that every Creature is Material and Corporeal; yea, Matter and Body it ſelf; and by conſequence the moſt Noble Actions thereof, are either Material and Corporeal, or after a certain Corporeal manner. Now I Anſwer to the Firſt, I grant that all Creatures are originally one Subſtance, L3 from L3v 150 from the loweſt to the higheſt, and conſequently convertible or changeable, from one of their Natures into another; and although Hobbs ſaith the ſame, yet that is no prejudice to the Truth of it, as neither are other parts of that Philoſophy where Hobbs affirms ſomething that is true, therefore an Hobbiſm, or an Opinion of Hobbs alone.

§. 5. Moreover, this Principle is ſo far from defending them in their Errours, that nothing is ſo ſtrong to refute them, ex. gr.exempli gratia The Hobbiſts argue, all Things are one, becauſe we ſee that all viſible Things may be changed one into another; yea, that all viſible Things may be changed into inviſible, as when Water is made Air, and Wood being burnt (for the greateſt part) is changed into a certain inviſible Subſtance, which is ſo ſubtile, that it eſcapes all obſervation of our Senſes; add to which, that all inviſible Things may become viſible, as when Water proceeds from Air, &c. and hence he concludes, nothing is ſo low that it cannot attain to ſublimity.

But L4r 151

But not that we may Anſwer to this Argument, his Adverſaries generally deny the Antecedent, and on the contrary affirm that no SpiciesSpecies of Things is convertible into another: And when Wood is burnt, many ſay that the Wood is compoſed of two Subſtances, to wit, Matter and Form, and that the Matter remains the ſame, but the Form of the Wood is deſtroyed or annihilated, and a new Form of Fire is produced in this Matter; ſo that according to them, here is a continual Annihilation of real Subſtances and Productions of new Ones in this World: But this is ſo frivolous, that many others deny that, in the caſe of Wood, changed into Fire, and afterwards into Smoak and Aſhes; yet they ſtill perſiſt in the ſame Errour in other Tranſmutations, as when Wood is changed into an Animal, as we often ſee that of rotten Wood; yea, Dung alſo, living Creatures are generated: But if they deny here, that the Wood is changed into an Animal, and ſay that Wood is nothing but Matter; but Matter hath not Life, nor a capacity to Life or Senſe; and therefore this Animal which hath L4 Life L4v 152 Life and Senſe, ought to have the ſame from elſewhere, and muſt have a Spirit or Soul in it, that is not a part of its Body, neither doth proceed from it, but is ſent thither.

But if it be demanded of them, from whence this Spirit is ſent, and who ſendeth it: Alſo why a Spirit of this Species is ſent, and not of another; here they are at a ſtand, and yield themſelves to their Adverſaries.

Therefore this our Philoſophy before laid down, more ſtrongly conduces to the refutation of the Hobbeſian and Spinoſian Philoſophy, viz. that all Kinds of Creatures may be changed one into another, that the loweſt may become the higheſt, and the higheſt (as conſidered originally in its own proper Nature) may become the loweſt, ſc.ſcilicit according to that Courſe and Succeſſion which Divine Wiſdom hath ordained, that one Change may ſucceed another in a certain order; ſo that A muſt be firſt burned into B, before it can be turned into C, which muſt firſt be turned into C, before it can be changed into D, &c.

But L5r 153

But we deny the Conſequence, viz. that God and Creatures are one Subſtance.

For in all Tranſmutations of Creatures from one Species into another, as from a Stone into Earth, and from Earth into Graſs, and from Graſs to a Sheep, and from a Sheep into Humane Fleſh, and from Humane Fleſh into the moſt ſervile Spirits of Man, and from theſe into his nobleſt Spirits; but there can never be a Progreſſion or Aſcenſion made unto God, who is the chiefeſt of all Beings, and whoſe Nature ſtill infinitely excels a Creature placed in his higheſt Perfection; for the Nature of God is every way unchangeable, ſo that it doth not admit of the leaſt Shadow of a Change: But the Nature of a Creature is to be changeable.

§. 6. Secondly, If it be ſaid, by way of Objection, that according to this Philoſophy, every Creature is Material and Corporeal; yea, Body and Matter it ſelf, as Hobbs teacheth. Now I Anſwer, That by Material and Corporeal, as alſo by Matter and Body, here the thing is far otherwiſe L5v 154 otherwiſe underſtood, than Hobbs underſtood it, and which was never diſcovered to Hobbs or Cartes, otherwiſe than in a Dream: For what do they underſtand by Matter and Body? Or, What Attributes do they aſcribe to them? None, certainly, but theſe following as are Extenſion and Impenetrability, which nevertheleſs are but one Attribute; to which alſo may be referred Figurability and Mobility. But, ſuppoſe, thoſe are diſtinct Attributes, certainly this profits nothing, nor will ever help us to underſtand what that excellent Subſtance is, which they call Body and Matter; for they have never proceeded beyond the Husk or Shell, nor ever reached the Kernel, they only touch the Superficies, never diſcerning the Centre, they were plainly ignorant of the nobleſt and moſt excellent Attributes of that Subſtance which they call Body and Matter, and underſtood nothing of them. But if it be demanded, what are thoſe more excellent Attributes? I Anſwer, theſe following, Spirit, or Life, and Light, under which I comprehend, a capacity of all kind of Feeling, Senſe, and Knowledge, Love, Joy, L6r 155 Joy, and Fruition, and all kind of Power and Virtue, which the nobleſt Creatures have or can have; ſo that even the vileſt and moſt contemptible Creature; yea, Duſt and Sand, may be capable of all thoſe Perfections, ſc.ſcilicit through various and ſuccedaneous Tranſmutations from the one into the other; which according to the Natural Order of Things, require long Periods of Time for their Conſummation, although the abſolute Power of God (if it had pleaſed him) could have accelerated or haſtened all Things, and effected it in one moment: But this Wiſdom of God ſaw it to be more expedient, that all Things ſhould proceed in their Natural Order and Courſe; ſo that after this manner, that Fertility or Fruitfulneſs, which he hath endued every Being with, may appear, and the Creatures have Time by Working ſtill to promote themſelves to a greater Perfection, as the Inſtruments of Divine Wiſdom, Goodneſs and Power, which operates in, and with them; for therein the Creature hath the greater Joy, when it poſſeſſeth what it hath, as the Fruit of its own labour.

But L6v 156

But this capacity of the afore-mentioned Perfections is quite a diſtinct Attribute from Life, and Underſtanding, or Knowledge, quite diſtinct from the former, viz. Extenſion and Figure; and ſo alſo a Vital Action is plainly diſtinct from Local, or Mechanical Motion, although it is not nor cannot be ſeparated from it, but ſtill uſeth the ſame at leaſt, as its Inſtrument, in all its concourſe with the Creatures.

§. 7. I say, Life and Figure are diſtinct Attributes of one Subſtance, and as one and the ſame Body may be tranſmuted into all Kinds of Figures; and as the perfecter Figure comprehends that which is more imperfect; ſo one and the ſame Body may be tranſmuted from one degree of Life to another more perfect, which always comprehends in it the inferior. We have an Example of Figure in a Triangular Priſme, which is the firſt Figure of all right lined ſolid Bodies, whereinto a Body is convertible; and from this into a Cube, which is a perfecter Figure, and comprehends in it a Priſme; from a Cube it may be turned L7r 157 turned into a more perfect Figure, which comes nearer to a Globe, and from this into another, which is yet nearer; and ſo it aſcends from one Figure, more imperfect, to another more perfect, ad infinitum; for here are no bounds; nor can it be ſaid, this Body cannot be changed into a perfecter Figure: But the meaning is, that that Body conſiſts of plain right lines; and this is always changeable into a perfecter Figure, and yet can never reach to the perfection of a Globe, although it always approaches nearer unto it; the caſe is the ſame in divers degrees of Life, which have indeed a beginning, but no end; ſo that the Creature is always capable of a farther and perfecter degree of Life, ad infinitum, and yet can never attain to be equal with God; for he is ſtill infinitely more perfect than a Creature, in its higheſt Elevation or Perfection, even as a Globe is the moſt perfect of all other Figures, unto which none can approach.

§. 8. And thus Life and Figure are diſtinct, but not contrary Attributes of one and the ſame Subſtance, and Figure ſerves L7v 158 ſerves the Operations of Life, as we ſee in the Body of Man or Beaſt, how the Figure of the Eye ſerves the Sight, the Figure of the Ear, the Hearing; the Figure of the Mouth, Teeth, Lips, and Tongue, ſerve the Speech; the Figure of the Hands and Fingers ſerve to Work; the Figure of the Feet to Walk; and ſo the Figures of all the other Members have their uſe, and very much conduce to the Vital Operations, which the Spirit performs in theſe Members; Yea the Figure of the whole Body is more commodious for the proper Operations of Human Life, than any other Figure whatſoever is, or could be made; So that Life and Figure conſiſt very well together in one Body, or Subſtance, where Figure is an Inſtrument of Life, without which no Vital Operation can be performed.

§. 9. Likewise, Local and Mechanical Motion (i.e.) the carrying of Body from place to place, is a Manner or Operation diſtinct from Action of Vital Operation, altho’ they are inſeparable, ſo that a Vital Action can in no wiſe be without all Local Motion, becauſe this is the In- L8r 159 Inſtrument thereof. So the Eye cannot ſee, unleſs Light enter it, which is a Motion, and ſtirs up a Vital Action in the Eye, which is Seeing; and ſo in all other Vital Operations in the whole Body. But an Action of Life is a far Nobler and Diviner manner of Operation than Local Motion; and yet both agree to one Subſtance, and conſiſt well together; for as the Eye receives the Light into it ſelf, from the Object which it ſeeth from without; ſo alſo it ſends the ſame Light to the Object, and in this Spirit and Life is a Vital Action, uniting the Object and Sight together.

Wherefore Hobbs, and all others who ſide with him, grievouſly erre, whilſt they teach that Senſe and Knowledge is no other than a re-action of Corporeal Particles one upon another, where, by reaction, he means no other than Local and Mechanical Motion. But indeed Senſe and Knowledge is a Thing far more Noble and Divine, than any Local or Mechanical Motion of any Particles whatſoever; for it is the Motion or Action of Life, which uſes the other as its Inſtrument, whoſe Service conſiſts herein; that L8v 160 that is, to ſtir up a Vital Action in the Subject or Percipient; and can like Local Motion be tranſmitted through divers Bodies, although very far diſtant aſunder, which therefore are united, and that without any new Tranſition of Body or Matter, ex. gr.exempli gratia a Beam of Wood of an exceeding great length, is moved by one Extream from the North to the South, the other Extream will neceſſarily be moved also; and the Action is tranſmitted through the whole Beam, without any Particles of Matter ſent hither to promote Motion, from one Extream to the other; becauſe the Beam it ſelf is ſufficient to tranſmit the ſaid Motion: After the ſame manner alſo, a Vital Action can proceed together with Local Motion from one thing to another, an that too at a great diſtance, where there is an apt and fit Medium to tranſmit it, and here we may obſerve a kind of Divine Spirituality or Subtilty in every Motion, and ſo in every Action of Life, which no created Body or Subſtance is capable of, viz. by Intrinſecal Preſence, which (as before is proved) agrees to no created Subſtance; and yet agrees to every Motiontion M1r 161 tion or Action whatſoever: For Motion or Action is not a certain Matter or Subſtance, but only a manner of its Being; and therefore is intrinſecally preſent in the Subject, whereof there is a Modus, or Manner, and can paſs from Body to Body, at a great diſtance, if it finds a fit Medium to tranſmit it; and by how much ſtronger the Motion is, ſo much the farther it reacheth; ſo when a Stone is caſt into ſtanding Waters, it cauſes a Motion every way from the Centre to the Circumference, forming Circles ſtill greater and greater at a great diſtance, by how much longer the time is, till at length it vaniſhes from our ſight; and then without doubt, it makes yet more inviſible Circles for a longer ſpace of Time, which our dull Senſes cannot apprehend, and this Motion is tranſmitted from the Centre to the Circumference, not conveighed thither by any Body or Subſtance, carrying this Motion with it from the Stone. And as the External Light alſo, ſeeing it is an Action or Motion ſtirred up by ſome illuminate Body, may be tranſmitted through Glaſs, Chryſtal, or any other tranſparent Body, withoutM out M1v 162 out any Subſtance, Body, or Matter, conveighed from that illuminate Body from whence the ſaid Action proceeded, not that I would deny that abundance of ſubtile Matter continually flows from all illuminate Bodies, ſo that the whole Subſtance of a burning Candle is ſpent in ſuch Emanations: And this hath in it that Motion or Action, which we call Light; but this Motion or Action may be increaſed, v.g.verbi gratia by Chryſtal, where thoſe ſubtile Emanations of Bodies may be reſtrained, that they cannot paſs out at leaſt in ſuch abundance, as may be ſufficient to communicate the whole Light: But ſeeing Chryſtal (which doth ſo eaſily tranſmit the Light) is ſo hard and ſolid, How can it receive ſo many Bodies, and tranſmit them ſo eaſily through it, when other Bodies, neither ſo hard nor ſolid, do let or reſiſt it? for Wood is neither ſo hard nor ſolid as Chryſtal, and yet Chryſtal is tranſparent, but Wood not; and certainly Wood is more porous than Chryſtal, becauſe it is leſs ſolid, and conſequently the Light doth not enter by the Pores of the Chryſtal, but through the very Subſtance of it; and yet ſo as not to adhere to M2r 163 to it, or make any turgeſcency or increaſe of Quantity, but by a certain intrinſeck preſence, becauſe it is not a Body or Subſtance, but a mere Action or Motion. Now Chryſtal is a fitter Medium to receive this Motion, which we call Light, than Wood is; and hence it is, that it pervades or paſſeth through that and not this; and as there is a great diverſity of the Motion and Operation of Bodies, ſo every Motion requires its proper Medium to tranſmit the ſame. Therefore ’tis manifeſt, that Motion may be tranſmitted through diverſe Bodies, by another kind of penetration, than any Body or Matter (how ſubtile ſoever it be) is able to make; to wit, by intrinſeck Preſence. And if mere Local or Mechanical Motion can do that, then certainly a Vital Action (which is a nobler kind of Motion) can do the ſame; and if it can penetrate thoſe Bodies, it paſſeth through by intrinſeck Preſence, then it may in one moment be tranſmitted from one Body to another, or rather require no time at all, I mean Motion or Action it ſelf requires not the leaſt time for its tranſmiſſion, although ’tis impoſſible but that the Body, whereinM2 in M2v 164 in the Motion is carried from place to place, ought to have ſome time, either greater or leſſer, according to the quality of Body and vehemency of Motion which carries it.

And therefore we ſee how every Motion and Action, conſidered in the Abſtract, hath a wonderful ſubtilty or ſpirituality in it, beyond all created Subſtances whatſoever, ſo that neither Time nor Place can limit the ſame; and yet they are nothing elſe but Modes or Manners of created Subſtances, viz. their Strength, Power, and Virtue, whereby they are extendible into great Subſtances, beyond what the Subſtance if ſelf can make. And ſo we may diſtinguiſh Extenſion into Material and Virtual, which two-fold Extenſion every Creature hath; Material Extenſion is that which Matter, Body, or Subſtance hath, as conſidered without all Motion or Action; and this Extenſion (to ſpeak properly) is neither greater or leſſer, becauſe it would ſtill remain the ſame. A Virtual Extenſion is a Motion or Action which a Creature hath, whether immediately given from God, or immediately received from its Fellow Creature. M3r 165 Creature. That which is immediately given of God (from whom alſo it hath its Being,) and which is the natural and proper effect of its Eſſence, is in a more proper way of ſpeaking, a proper Motion of the Creature, proceeding from the innermoſt parts thereof; and therefore may be called Internal Motion, as diſtinguiſhed from External, which is only from another; and therefore in reſpect thereof may be called Foreign; and when the ſaid External Motion endeavours to carry a Body, or any Thing, to a place whereunto it hath properly no natural inclination, then it is preternatural and violent; as when a Stone is thrown up into the Air, which Motion being preternatural and violent, is plainly Local and Mechanical, and no way vital, becauſe it doth not proceed from the Life of the Thing ſo moved: But every Motion, proceeding from the proper Life and Will of the Creature, is vital; and this I call a Motion of Life, which is not plainly Local and Mechanical as the other, but hath in it a Life, and Vital Virtue, and this is the Virtual Extenſion of a Creature, which is either greater or leſſer, according to that M3v 166 that kind or degree of Life wherewith the Creature is endued, for when a Creature arrives at a Nobler Kind and Degree of Life, then doth it receive the greater Power and Virtue to move it ſelf, and tranſmit its vital Motions to the greateſt diſtance.

But how Motion or Action may be tranſmitted from one Body to another, is with many a matter of great debate; becauſe it is not a Body or Subſtance; and if it be only Motion of Body, how Motion can paſs properly with its own ſubject into another, becauſe the very being of Modus, or Manner, conſiſt herein, viz. to exiſt or be inherent in its own Body; The Anſwer to this Objection, which ſeemeth to me beſt, is this, That Motion is not propagated from one Body to another by Local Motion, becauſe Motion it ſelf is not moved, but only moves the Body in which it is; for if Motion could be propagated by Local Motion, this Motion would be propagated of another, and this again of another, and ſo ad infinitum, which is abſurd. Therefore the manner of the ſaid propagation is (as it were) by real Production or Creation; ſo that as God M4r 167 God and Chriſt can only create the Subſtance of a Thing, when as no Creature can Create or give Being to any Subſtance, no not as an Inſtrument; ſo a Creature, not of it ſelf, but in ſubordination to God, as his Inſtrument may give exiſtence to Motion and vital Action, and ſo the Motion in one Creature may produce Motion in another: And this is all a Creature can do towards the moving it ſelf or its Fellow Creatures, as being the Inſtrument of God, by which Motions a new Subſtance is not created, but only new Species of Things, ſo that Creatures may be multiplied into their Kinds, whilſt one acts upon, and moves another; and this is the whole Work of the Creature, or Creation, as the Inſtrument of God; but if it moves againſt his Will, whoſe Inſtrument it is, then it Sins, and is puniſhed for it: But God (as before was ſaid) is not the cauſe of Sin; for when a Creature Sins, he abuſeth the Power God hath granted him; and ſo the Creature is culpable, and God intirely free from every ſpot or blemiſh hereof. If therefore we apply thoſe things which have been already ſpoken, concerning the Attributes of M4v 168 of a Body, viz. that it hath not only Quantity and Figure, but Life alſo; and is not only locally and mechanically but vitally moveable, and can tranſmit its vital Action whitherſoever it pleaſeth, provided it hath a Medium aptly diſpoſed, and if it hath none it can extend it ſelf by the ſubtile Emanation of its parts, which is the fitteſt and moſt proper Medium of it, to receive and tranſmit its vital Action. Hereby it will be eaſie to Anſwer to all the Arguments, whereby ſome endeavour to prove that a Body is altogether uncapable of Senſe and Knowledge; and it may be eaſily demonſtrated, after what manner ſome certain Body may gradually advance to that Perfection, as not only to be capable of ſuch Senſe and Knowledge as Brutes have, but of any kind of Perfection whatſoever may happen in any Man or Angel; and ſo we may be able to underſtand the Words of Chriſt, that of Stones God is able to raiſe up Children to Abraham, without flying to ſome ſtrained Metaphor; and if any one ſhould deny this Omnipotence of God, viz. that God is able of Stones to raiſe up Children to Abraham; that certainly would be the greateſt Preſumption.