The Almanacks of Mary Moody Emerson: A Scholarly Digital EditionThis digital edition of the manuscript Almanacks of Mary Moody Emerson (1774–1863) adheres to editorial reporting standards established by the Modern Language Association’s Committee on Scholarly Editions. The edition is being published in phases, such that additional Almanack folders will be published semi-annually over the next few years. The editors gratefully acknowledge the support of Harvard University’s Houghton Library; Pennsylvania State University, Altoona; the Ralph Waldo Emerson Fund; the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association; and the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). Any views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this edition do not necessarily represent those of the NEH. Editorial interventions that cannot be displayed in this current WWO interface include mouse-over identifications of dating; of local and historical figures; of geographical places; and of literary, historical, scientific, theological and philosophical terminology; Emerson’s unclear text (with the exception of multiple potential transcriptions of unclear text); the editors’ speculations on the likelihood of a reading in the case of offering multiple options for indiscernible text as well as the reasons that text is encoded as unclear (i.e., manuscript damage, poorly formed letters, or illegible writing); Emerson’s missing quotation marks; end of line hyphens, whether original or supplied; and Emerson’s formatting, such as paragraphing, underlining, and passages written in irregular directions. Material features of the manuscripts that cannot be displayed in this current WWO interface include Emerson’s use of horizontal, vertical, and circular lines to demarcate and enclose textual sections or page numbers; Emerson’s graphic representation of the word “world”; and other design features of unknown intent and authorship.To view a model of the display and search capabilities anticipated in a future iteration of Women Writers Online, visit the prototype interface. Please read the Project Synopsis and General Introduction for more information on Emerson, her writings, and this project’s goals and methods.A key to the display features of this WWO edition follows below.               
Page Numbers Three levels of pagination are shown at the top of each Almanack folder’s page: 
Houghton This page number appears encircled in pencil on one side of each holograph manuscript leaf at Harvard University’s Houghton Library. This number followed by a “b” indicates the unnumbered side of the same holograph manuscript leaf. 
Tolman This is the folder number that corresponds to George Tolman’s scribal witness transcription of this Almanack page. In cases where Tolman did not transcribe certain pages, no folder information will display. 
Editors This is the chronologically sequenced number assigned by the editors to the Almanack page. 
A red asterisk (which the reader can click to view content) indicates Annotations or Textual Notes that provide commentary on the preceding sentence(s). We are currently refining the ways that these notes display in WWO. 
A large horizontal ellipsis indicates a gap in the manuscript, most often due to damage. 
[word] Bracketed text in roman type indicates text supplied by the editors, by Mary Emerson’s commonplace source, or by George Tolman’s or Ralph Waldo Emerson’s scribal witness transcription. 
wordword Text in roman type followed by bracketed and italicized text marked “RWE” indicates cases where there are substantive differences between Ralph Waldo Emerson’s transcription and Mary Moody Emerson’s text. 
cancrepl Struck-through text in roman type followed by italicized content in braces indicates that MME has cancelled her initial text and replaced it with alternative word(s). 
wordword Text in roman and italic type separated by a vertical bar and surrounded by braces indicates one of the following: 1) Mary Emerson’s abbreviated text followed by one or more possible expansions; 2) Mary Emerson’s original text followed by one or more possibilities for the editors’ regularization of text that Emerson misspells to a sufficient degree that the editors judge it to be indeterminate to the average undergraduate reader. 
wordword Text in roman type separated by a vertical bar and surrounded by braces indicates two or more possibilities in cases where the text is sufficiently unclear that multiple transcriptions are possible. 
{[text] [text]} George Tolman and Waldo Emerson differ in their transcriptions of this text; Tolman’s reading is shown in square brackets preceding Emerson’s reading, which is also shown in square brackets. Both readings are enclosed in braces. 
Struckthrough ellipses represent cancelled text that the editors cannot discern. 
The following is a partial bibliography of works cited.                
Barish  Evelyn Barish. Emerson: The Roots of Prophecy. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1989. 
Cole  Phyllis Cole. Mary Moody Emerson and the Origins of Transcendentalism: A Family History. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. 
EmFBL  The Emerson Brothers: A Fraternal Biography in Letters. Ed. Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2006. 
EmJMN  The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Ed. William H. Gilman, Ralph H. Orth, et al. 16 vols. Cambridge: Harvard UP: 1960–82. 
EmL  The Letters of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Ed. Ralph L. Rusk and Eleanor M. Tilton. 10 vols. New York: Columbia UP, 1939, 1990–95. 
Richardson  Robert D. Richardson, Jr. Emerson: The Mind on Fire. Berkeley: U of California P, 1995. 
Rusk  Ralph L. Rusk. The Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949. 
SL  The Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson. Ed. Nancy Craig Simmons. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1993. 
MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 1), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Written c. 31 October 1804–25 Nov 1804. Malden and Concord, Massachusetts. 10 MS sheets, bearing damage due to burning, foxing or mildew, and water. This earliest extant Almanack fascicle documents an array of emotions and concerns as MME, age 30, discusses free will and divine justice, her ongoing pursuit of virtue, and the utility of prayer. Deriding the sermons offered by the local clergy, she instead finds ecstasy in both the natural world and her own imagination. This folder reflects MME’s reading of theologians Robert Fellowes and William Sherlock, Anglican bishop Joseph Butler, the letters of Cicero, and Shakespeare’s Othello; poignantly, her comments remind us that such intellectual pursuits are possible only after she has attended to “the needle, the flatiron the porridge pot.” Several family members visit MME during these months, including sister Hannah Emerson Farnham and family, and half brother and sister Daniel and Sarah Ripley. Ralph Waldo Emerson transcribed several of this fascicle’s pages in his MME Notebooks 2; substantive differences between his transcriptions and MME’s text are encoded in this interface display.

damaged Malden For Charles. From the age of two, MME lived in Malden, Massachusetts with her widowed grandmother Mary Moody Emerson. After her grandmother died, MME continued in Malden with her aunt Ruth Emerson, Ruth’s first husband, Nathan Sargent, and MME’s aunt Rebecca Emerson Brintnall, considered insane by the early 1780s. In 1791, MME moved to Newburyport, Massachusetts to live with her sister Hannah Emerson Farnham; after two years she moved to Concord to live with her mother, Phebe Bliss Emerson Ripley; and in 1802, she returned to Malden to live again with Ruth Emerson and Ruth’s second husband, Samuel Waite, until 1808, the year Ruth Emerson died; Rebecca married Waite after Ruth’s death (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. xxx-xxxi, vii-x, 4). MME occasionally bestowed or dedicated her Almanacks to her nieces and nephews. vo damaged

damaged I cannot easily express the joy w’hwhich this ardent pursuit of duty inspires—views of death & eternity so exhilartingexhilarating! What can I render! MME may refer to Psalm 116:12: What shall I render unto the LORD for all his benefits toward me? Glimspes of God govt government sentiments inspired by his presence & attributes— Oh may I never reach a period when I shall lose sight of a probationary state so interesting! I tremble leastlest I am about to leave this solitude. I have been these some days reading a little portion of scripture with attention— Can I ever forget the eternal consequence of love & humility— rather may my right hand forget her use . MME alludes to Psalm 137:5: If I forget thee, O Jerusalem: let my right hand forget her cunning. I last night practiced anew on the latter— with success to the happiness of others I hope. Today I visited the grave yard—how interested—how realising was the tho’tsthoughts of my own descease—how animating of reposing limbs weary in offices of love in the bosom of the peacefull earth. I saw merecy thothough guilty I was not niggardly—at such a time to have paused wd would have been criminal!

31. Yesterday at 2 o’cko’clock came Sarah! Never so glad to see any one it seemed. She tarried 24 hours. Some of the most social. & afft affectionate. Rockwood & Daniel pastpassed the eve. How could I at first been so engaged in his society? Dear Sarah set off at 8 today. Uncle & Aunt returned this eve. Comes care & clamour with variance with the other family. God most mercifull forgive & bless me. I erred today in walking—intoxicated with pleasure.

No.November 1. Morn. Hail day of life, widened, lenghtened & strenghtened! There is a wonderfull consistency—(an nameless theo illegible feature of truth w’hwhich is adapted to the consitution of the mind, thro’through the scriptures together with a marvellous mystery which while it is callulatedcalculated to incite inquiry—to keep alive the endless curiosty of man, eludes opens sources of endless variety in opinions. Stronge proof of their divine origin.

Noon. In passing this little time this little department of eternity what accountability! A division of existence filled with duties w’h which damaged damaged exist not else where—pity in all it’s offices benev volence in most interesting demands are here in this world of diversied woes only to be filled What hinthartheart what sanctity what passion & power sd should not be made subservient to a AU damaged of w’hwhich interests all intelligences? In Heaven we shall sympathise with happiness but possibly not add to it’s sum!

Eve. How inrapturing the sight of the Heavens—exalt the sentiment— by remembering the voice of inspiration these shall perish —shall wax old as a garment as a vesture shalt thou fold them! MME alludes to Psalm 102:26: They shall perish, but thou shalt endure, yea all of them shall wax old like a garment: as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed. I have been to lecture tonight—poor Preacher but my ardor is not to be cooled. According to Phyllis Cole, when MME lived in Malden for a second time (1802–1808), she had purchased a pew in Aaron Green’s meetinghouse and, along with Ruth, attended church there. Green was a Harvard-trained minister whom MME likely refers to as poor in another Almanack entry from 1804: I could not be reverent tonight with poor Mr. Green ’s preaching. Other possibilities for the poor Preacher in this reference include Nehemiah Coye and Joel Wicker of the Methodist Needham Circuit in 1804 (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, p. 102) (Bruce, Directory, pp. 15, 155) (Methodist Beginnings, p. 45). What can I render! MME may refer to Psalm 116:12: What shall I render unto the LORD for all his benefits toward me? I felt worldly too!

2 Such is life I never expect to feel more fully the feast of contentment—it is more animated & sublime than content— How narrow & feeble my views I know—other situations might inlarge my existence—but none could inrich the coulerscolors of the Heavens or give a great zest to the joys of love & faith w’hwhich religion inspires. I wd would reflect on the disppts disappointments of knowledge & the feebleness of pursuit—but I cannot.

SabSabbath eve. 4. Day of that sort of pleasure w’hwhich I fear—prevented zeal penitence & knowledge—relaxed—vain tho’tsthoughts insued— Cannot accuse myself of indolence in deed—felt the sweet influence of secret hope, joy & charity. But in gaining the habit of meditation this eve I strove to add numbers of ages to my existence— How then frivolous does all injoyt enjoyment appear on this earth—how dangerous—sd should any thing be ommitted!!!! how extensive is the effect of one idea on the principal of association —how extensive the association in the world of ideas—after millions of years, when on the verge of a new existence (for such is the nature of created existences to be forever new to life) on entering new scenes—untried & full of hope then to feel the full effect of some long forgotten habit—!! the remotest posibility of such consequences (& such as we find here in this imperfect sketch of God’s moral govt government) sd should arouse a never ceasing anxiety! It is said that the desire of immort immortality is universal—the desire of continued existence is—but when I contemplate endless being I shudder & am confounded—if it be an ndamaged appetite, one object I shudder & am confounded—if it be an ndamaged appetite, one object incomprehensible— A late PhilosPhilosopher (Fellows) observes among many other errors that the hope & expectation of immort immortality does not prove it. “for we are so constituted organised that we could not pass thro’through life, in our circumstances without the sentiment, since the untutored Savage feels it more acutely than the PhiPhilosopher.” MME refers to Robert Fellowes’s A Picture of Christian Philosophy, in which he states: The restless longing after immortality, which seems a cheering sensation, peculiar to the breast of man, is by no means a proof that such a state awaits us. For we are so organised, and placed in such circumstances, that we could not well pass through life, without this sentiment being excited in us. Hence the untutored savage usually feels it, in as much, if not more vigour than the civilized philosopher (Fellowes, Picture, pp. 252–55). MME characterizes as errors Fellowes’s deism and his belief in the Christian’s ability to live in the gay world without being stained by it. Query. Is there any appetite thro’outthroughout our organisation to w’hwhich some object is not adapted? I acknowledge, it is from our organisation the sentiment arises—that it is an inmate of the soul & not a deduction of reason I allow, & the case of Savage proves it to be such. I can find no argument for a future existence from reason, unless it be the reason of a Deist.— —hence the nessisity of a revelation—for that of a Deist is feeble, & insuficient (alone) for the purposes of morality. The crude expectation w’hwhich has dwelt univirsally in the mind of man, tho’though it does not prove illegible to a demonstration the truth of a future somthing, yet furnishes an argument irrestistable to contrary reason, and supports the internal evidences of revelation. Still what I call the desire of immot immortality is only a desire of continued consciousness— As a proof of endless being it seems we may rank that novelty w’hwhich perpetually attends life—on the borders of the graeegrave the hoary sage looks forward with an invarible elasticity of mind.— or hope

Night. Whether the mind exist from the organisation of matter or be an immaterial substance as different from a material as the rays of light from the surface w’hwhich reflects them it’s construction may often, as well as it’s diseases, be analogous to that of the body. In the latter we find a power of life—& w’hwhich counteracts diseases & decay—when this power is stimulated too much or crowded as it were—the habits become depraved & the natural tendency of the body to preserve health weakned—so it with the m damaged—and it’s native light may be obscured by damaged reading, & it’s strenght consumed under the burden of too damaged matter. Annotation in progress.

5 A.M. “We know but little of the nature general laws w’hwhich regulate the natural world, & still less of those w’h which moral laws w’hwhich regard the conduct of intelligent beings & the relations w’hwhich may exist between them & the Maker of all things.”— — — “A moral govt government not incompatible with general laws (no, nor with absolute decrees, perhaps, surely not, if many passages of scripture are true) for if we allow that those laws were origenallyoriganally pastd passed by a moral Governor, they are from the beginning adapted to moral purposes, those parts therefor in the moral system w’hwhich appear deviations from what we call general laws of nature & ways of ProviProvidence may be in fact only a part of them tho’though the sight is too dim to see their connection. These tho’tsthoughts readily reconcile the notion of prescience & an overruling Provi. Providence for in fact the same thing.” MME quotes Robert Fellowes, A Picture of Christian Philosophy: We know but little of the general laws which regulate the course of the natural world; and we know still less of those moral laws which regard the conduct of intelligent beings, and the relations which may exist between them and the maker of all things … A moral government is not incompatible with general laws; for if we allow that those laws were originally fixed by a moral governor, we must allow that they were, from the beginning, adapted to moral purposes. Those parts, therefore, in a moral system, which appear to us deviations from what we call the general laws of nature and ways of Providence, may be, in fact, only part of them, though the sight is too dim to see their connexion. These thoughts easily reconcile the notion of prescience, and an over-ruling Providence; for they are, in fact, the same thing (Fellowes, Picture, pp. 263–64). These tho’tsthoughts have passed my own mind in much the same connection.

Eve. Why oh my God are thy virtuous creatures ever unhappy! It is because they comprehend nothing of the wonders w’hwhich surround them in the vast vol.volume of nature—in the divine book of providence w’hwhich nature unfolds, and which revelations writes with sun beams! They grovel in the dark—they feel not after God they perceive not the charm w’hwhich binds the Universe & is diffused over every object & event. Place, objects of sense w’hwhich press on the mind engross them &once animated by the works & government of God—and the enlarged mind sympathising with all that is human—with all that is interesting in the world of ideas & virtue wd would defy care ennuie & apathy—the thirst of knowledge kindled—the intellectual eye once opened & tho’though the mind might pant & hunger, yet it’s pains wd would be precious & it’s struggles noble. “In viewing the operations of the Deity, we wer surrounded with infinity of forms, of combination—of magnitudes, of space, of time. The final object of knowlegde is to give us more perfect notions of the supreme Being, & to make us more reciprocally usefull. The degree in w’hwhich we can be usefull, depends in a great measur on the degree according to w’hwhich we can rightly estimate the powers of nature, and according to whwhich the degree in w’hwhich we know how the Supreme Being adapts the train of causation to the end to be produced. The farther advances we make to the source of all intelligence, we more reason we have to admire his perfections & reverence his power. Admiration must generate the desire of imatation; & serious impressions of religious veneration must give life to a sentiment of universal love & charity.” MME quotes Robert Fellowes, A Picture of Christian Philosophy: In viewing the operations of the Deity we are on all sides surrounded with infinity; an infinity of forms, of combinations, of magnitudes, of space, of time … The final object of knowledge is, in my opinion, to give us more perfect notions of the supreme Being, and to make us more reciprocally useful to each other. The degree, in which we can be useful to our fellow-creatures, depends in great measure in the degree according to which we can estimate rightly the powers of nature, and ascertain how the supreme Being adapts the train of causation to the end to be produced. The farther advances which we make to the source of all intelligence, to the Divinity himself, the more reason we shall have to admire his perfections, and to reverence his power. Admiration must generate, as far as human frailty will admit, the desire of imitation, and serious impressions of religious veneration must give life to a sentiment of universal love and charity (Fellowes, Picture, pp. 259–60).

Night. A word amiss—manners of levity and I lost what I am after.

6. Morn. Were it not that I considered the least ray of knowlegde inconceivably important as producing future effects on my practice & usefullness, I sd should not labour thus I sd should taste the fuller pleasurs of ease, hope & retirement. I could walk—could knit—could even in this Town find food for my social affections—could amuse myself with books at a high rate, and acquire those showy virtues w’hwhich dazzel & please! But what a dereliction of veiws wd would take place! What a different being! My heart wd would have objects beneathe it, And tho’though on the whole I might be happier for the present, yet what of old age, when these soothing vertues shall wither! It is a fundamental mistake, fatal to the vitals of an elevated benevolence, that the most social & gentle habits are the surest means of cultivating it’s spirit. It is in hearts subjugated by grace and sanctified from the world, where only the spirit of love is triumphant. True the heart must cultivate by devout sensations the mild & gentle habits of love—they surpass hope, & faith itself MME alludes to 1 Corinthians 13:6–7, 13: Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. … And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity. —the means alone I dispute, and maintain that as far more promotive of piety is solitude, so is it of the sympathies of benevolence—for these follow that. The fact is, that every process of virtue is a preparation as it relates to the agent and solitude wd would be but a dreams of of ease to mortals, were it not preparative to the duties of society here and the duties & pleasuers of society hereafter. The heart generally preys on something—it wd would be dangerous to collect around me objects of pleasue & amusement in this situation— I wd would have my heart find no rest on barren ground.

Night. at 12 came brother & sister C‑‑‑ & left their Wm I never was so illy prepared for company & never recevd received any so happily nor enjoyed any more In thinking of the omnicience of God we find a rapose & joy equalled by nothing beside. True, it does not prove the actual providence of God in all events— He may govern us by stated laws of in the natural & moral world and interpose neither to resist sin—disease or death. It is certain that were he to act irresistably on the mind there wd would appear to be an end of all moral agency & govt government. Still, am I disposed offof according to laws established or decrees, from eternity I am as resigned & joyfull as if they were this instant formed in the divine mind. Am I left to the precarious & hazardous honors or disgraces w’hwhich may await my own conduct inevitably or probably, it is the wise at moments establishment of a God whom I supremely love—and tho’though I tremble at moments at the present disadvantages w’hwhich may accrue to me from want of commonplacdamaged prudence, yet I repose with confidence. God will cause them eventually to work for my good . MME alludes to Romans 8:28: And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose. With a deep & rational conviviction of future scenes, these will require but common courage to surmount. However as a matter of reverent speculation we may conjecture that the infinite Mind in whom we exist & move is never inactive. The human mind seems forever in motion— the material world reposes not an instant, but some of its laws operate with inconceivable velosity—the hand of the Almighty weilds the creation—his eye beholds it—does He only rest!? Yes, in the sublimest sense! his will is the law of nature creation & moves & breathes & thinks & reasons thro’outthroughout the Universe!! Lost in wonder & ignorance let us adore & admire & praise Him!! That I love Him supremely I belive bdamaged damaged his will & approbation are ultimate when I contemplate damaged damaged & the possible honors & pleasur of Heaven.

7. Morn. How more damaged must be that intelligent being who does not rejoice in the character of God—low & feeble his enjoyment w’hwhich does not result from confidence in it. How fatal the eclipse w’hwhich those passions cause in the the mind that glories in ought save the knowledge of God. MME may allude to Jeremiah 9:23–24: Thus saith the lord, Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his might, let not the rich man glory in his riches: But let him that glorieth glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth me, that I am the lord which exercise lovingkindness, judgment, and righteousness, in the earth: for in these things I delight, saith the LORD. She may also allude to Colossians 1:9–11: For this cause we also, since the day we heard it, do not cease to pray for you, and to desire that ye might be filled with the knowledge of his will in all wisdom and spiritual understanding; That ye might walk worthy of the Lord unto all pleasing, being fruitful in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God; Strengthened with all might, according to his glorious power, unto all patience and longsuffering with joyfulness.

Night. Perhaps I ought to fear this hilarity—but it is connected with newer emotions of religious joy. I could not be reverent tonight with poor Mr. G‑‑‑s preaching MME likely refers to Reverend Aaron Green. Rejecting Calvinism and favoring rationalism, Green was known for a theology based on liberal doctrines (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, p. 102). — I sympathised with the joys of the vulgar— I trod on air, I danced at the musick of my own imajanation—it is well no one knows the frolick of my fancy, for they wd would think me wild unless they knew me. Ideas of objects—scenes & sentiments loved & cherished thro’through vanity & the social appetite adieu! I dance our everlasting farewel. Friends, in what dear forms I can paint you! Vanish—for you are but paintings— I press on to yonder skies! Scenes of dirt, vulgarity, misery & unqualified ignorance I hail you as the safest, spediest passage to worlds of light—gay pleasure—ardent hope and activity w’hwhich knows no langor!

7. Morn. God I praise! Angels can do no better— but sin dwells in me— Jesus high Priest of the Univirce! sprinkle my sacrifice with incence! The senses distract and pollute my worship, but they cannot weaken my hopes.

8 Morn. Were the genius of the xianchristian religion painted, her form would be full of majesty—her mein solemn, her aspect benign and strongly impressed with joy & hope, her eyes raised to Heaven with tears for Zion and rays of glory desending to illuminate the earth at her intreaties!

Night I have been up 13 hours Save 3 I have had them to myself. I wd would sacrifice almost any thing to be able to appreciate justly the pleasures & profit of such days. Whether I read the best illegible books I can & whether I read too much I certainly read more than is easy for my eyes or mind—but little very little. I poured over Othello as a literary duty the second time William Shakespeare’s tragedy of Othello centers on an allegedly adulterous wife and was first published in 1622 (Holland, Shakespeare). Ceciro’s letters gave me no animation Neither phislosphy nor grandeur marked the 20 that I looked glanced over Possibly thdamaged can be the reason that I find myself asleep over Pliny & Ceciro! Aikins 2 or 3 of those essay may nodamaged full. The extensive letters of Marcus Tullius Cicero, first published in 1483 in Letters of Marcus Tullius Cicero, often discussed political questions in a persuasive manner comparable to his formal orations. In them, Cicero mentioned Pliny the Younger, or Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus. John Aikin’s Letters from a Father to His Son on Various Topics Relative to Literature and the Conduct of Life (1793) contains a section on the character of Cicero and Pliny. Ran thro’through (for they deserved no more attention) some pages of H‑‑‑ . Because MME masks the name of the author of her reading, she may be reviewing previous correspondence from friends or family, such as her sister Rebecca Emerson Haskins, brother-in-law Robert Haskins, sister-in-law Ruth Haskins, acquaintance Hannah Adams, or sister Hannah Emerson Farnham. In Newburyport, around 1805 and 1806, MME met the budding author Hannah Farnham Sawyer, of whom she said, I love & dislike—approve & shun the Sawyer sisters (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, p. 117). Unusual ardor in devotion tonight attones for the diap t disappointment of knowledge tho’ thro’through day. It is painfull that I have made no more advance here—it wd would have been natural with such habits. Oh it is important—devout sensations purifys & exalts the soul. A duty to God, inexpressible reverence as well as the warm language of peace & love.

10 Too gay—but these dark scenes raise my mirth. Poor old folks! Were I to sympathise with them I must quickly quit and render them miserable.

11 SabSabbath. eve. Dull, dull day—this health & strenght to lose, abuse! I laid abed this morning! No one I don’t believe ever attained emineceeminence in virtue who did not deny themselves sleep & food in a degree. I am discouraged in attaining love gratitude devotion or knowldge! I am glad I feel it.

12. I rose in high style—poor day—cold weather cold chiling I could not read I had not courage to stand the wind & put bye my walk to Lynn. Felt a secret resentment & injured the feelings of the aged. Lost the Girl by my ready belief that she could do better otherwise I lose thro’through impruedence— MME likely refers to the departure of a female houseworker. This eve. I rose above all incumbrances in devotion & social duties. Retierment & devotion naterally beget an elevated temper & indifference to present incidents. But I have failad failed & fallen in the temptations of the year past.

13. Morn. Yesterday I walked 3 miles or more to Lynn. Never were emotions so animated & uninterrupted as those of my walk. Diapt Disappointment of finding Mr & Mrs F‑‑‑ returned soon unwearied but lost perhaps the eveg evening When we contemplate the graves of the departed the idea of their pleasurs & honors never incite emulation but their virtues do; How useless at best every bodily sensation of pleasure, but the least virtue gained thro’through mortification of those will adhere forever to the consciousness of identity. Beside selfishness will be wonderfully counteracted by incessant labours, however mean, for others Why our commanded labours & tears, were not the happiness of people in their own power? Were it altogether in God’s, why weep on human sorrows? Were it not even (by circumstances alone) in Gods in a degree damaged, why pray? Only to cultivate love? Is not prayer a means for bringing to pass the decrees of God? As it affects the minds of individuals & societies it has a natural tendency to promote the good we solicit by arousing personal & publick exertion. The great Sherlocke goes so far as say the Deity may be affected by prayer somewhat analogous to created beings. But as to the assertion that Butler makes of our “our joys and most of our sufferings being put in our own power” is contradicted by experience & reve—revelation It is the reverse of this truth w’hwhich is a captital difficulty in natural religionit and to obviate which, seems to be a peculiar advantage in revealed. Comparing Christians praying to children asserting their desires to their parents or subjects professing their wants to their princes, William Sherlock considers God as changeable as Man: Nor is it any Reproach to the divine Nature and Providence to say, that God is moved by our Prayers and Intreaties to do for us that which otherwise he would not have done; for it neither unbecomes God nor Men to be moved by Reason (Sherlock, Discourse, pp. 262–64). MME paraphrases the assertions of Joseph Butler, whose writings about the challenges to Christianity in the face of the traditions of faith were so influential they were taught at Harvard College. In The Analogy of Religion, Butler contends: Now in the present state, all which we enjoy, and a great part of what we suffer, is put in our own power. For pleasure and pain are the consequences of our actions, and we are endued by the Author of our nature with capacities of foreseeing these consequences (Butler, Analogy, p. 87). Were virtue to have it’s natural effect it wd would be it’s own reward in most all instances, even where the love of it was not eminently cultivated. Tho’Though in all ordinary cases the pleasures (I speake not of it’s solid sattisfactions) must depend on the temper; there are tempers, or habits of soul, which will as surely be happy as certain effects follow their causes, save some violent obstructions of vice or affliction. If then the physical differences in individuals put it out of their power to be equally happy or unhappy with others of equal virtue, added to the nameless variety of circumstances w’hwhich discoulerdiscolor & variate their lives, it cannot be that our joys or sufferings are so much in our own power. Still it argues nothing against natural or revealed religion. Variety of trials are adapted to variety of tempers. And I had rather my every joy & greif sd should be allotted me by that mode, be it what it may, by w’hwhich God governs his creatures. Besides circumstances are evidently designed by God as coercivesscoercives to the good & bad—to try, humble and purify them, and the greatest events have been accor.dlyaccordingly the sufferings of the good.

14 Eve. I last eve enjoyed highly But better after my return from Mr. W. S‑‑‑s. Today read all the time Rather than returning from a visit to an actual man whose initials are W. S., MME perhaps indicates that she’s newly returned from reading and continues to read more of William Sherlock, whose Discourse Concerning the Divine Providence she has been citing in these Almanack pages. damaged irly wakefullness. I seem to live. I pant for knowledge In praising God it has a natural tendency to impress the mind with awe of it’s advantages—to realize the distinctions it enjoys—rn damageded, wittnessed of the Spirit , MME likely alludes to either Romans 8:16: The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God or 1 John 5:8: And there are three that bear witness in earth, the spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one. porsting to immortality—called from nothing to be an intelligent part of the Univerce, hold of an existence illegible without a doubt of losing it, whose every law turns on hope! And these last truths are those which are supplied from nature & insured by revelation! Those w’hwhich have their foundation in our moral constitution, and informed by God are very dear to us. But when we contemplate our inability to keep the revealed will of God in any one instance perfectly, and to act up to the dictates of our own reason when our passions are interested, how gratefull we feel, how marvellously gracious appears the interposition of Christ and his attonement! But when we view it in the light of imputation we are bewildered. We are fallen, depraved; deeply by nature. But till the restitution of all things, none will ever know in this life the extent and exact nature of the interposition of Christ. MME alludes to Acts 3:21: Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began. But enough is known for matter of the most constant love gratitude and vigilance. The more exalted and just our views of the duties we owe to God, the more we shall realize our natural inability to discharge them, and the apprehend somthing of the misery attendant on a failure in duty. Lively convictions of truth as it exists in our immortality and our consequent hopes, induce & strenghten a practical faith in Christ and profreessingprofessing attachment to his interposition.

15 What a rich day, so fully engagedoccupied in pursuing truth that I scorned to touch a novel w’hwhich for so many years I have wanted. How insipid is fiction to a mind touched with immortal views. Injured the feelings of the aged once.

16 SabSabbath. eve. I am so smale in my expectations that a week of industry delights. Rose before light every morn. visited from nessisity once & again for books—read Butlers Analogy—commented on the scriptures—read a little book,— Ceciros letters a few—touched Shakes. MME refers to Joseph Butler’s Analogy of Religion (1793) and to the Letters of Marcus Tullius Cicero, which she perhaps read in a recently published London edition. Washed, carded cleaned house and baked. Today I cannot recall an error; nor scarsly a sacrifice—but more fullness of content in the labours of a day never was felt. There is an sweet pleasur in bending to curcumstances; while superior to them

17 sabsabbath eve. Never did mortal with no larger powers experience more serene hope & joy in a morning than I did on the early dawn of this. At ChhChurch I found a frivolous Preacher tho’though polished, whether it was him As described in other Annotations in this Almanack, MME could be referring to several local ministers, whose churches she may have attended: Aaron Green, William Farnham, Lincoln Ripley, Samuel Stillman, J. S. Buckminster, Thomas Baldwin, David Osgood, Joseph McKean, Nehemiah Coye, Joel Wicker, and Henry Pottle. —but never was a day pastpassed in less tho’tthought—less existence—more ease & glee. The same kind of enjoyment w’hwhich we see bouy up the weake from one period, or desolate, useless life to another. We think them unhappy, from their situation & emptiness, till we watch them; and then we conclude it is the mercifull arrangement of God that they are full. AlassAlso, it is happy for them; but let us avoid their destiny, as we would disgrace. Negative virtue if such it may be called, is disgracefull to mind. What more could I have done , MME may allude to the first portion of Isaiah 5:4: What could have been done more to my vineyard, that I have not done in it? till noon; then imaja.imagination took a quiet possesion. I am not aware of my enimeisenemies— I maintain no fight— I return as the dog to his vomit . MME alludes to Proverbs 26:11: As a dog returneth to his vomit, so a fool returneth to his folly. I am a poor needy sinner; complete in nothing, lacking in all the whole of many things, I fear!

All reasonabe men know that certainly there can not be in reality be such a thing as chance but conclude that such appearances are the result of general laws & must be reduced into them. Tho’Though we can trace up the natural causes of things but little way to general law. MME quotes from Joseph Butler who in his Analogy of Religion writes that all reasonable men know certainly, that there cannot, in reality, be any such thing as chance: and conclude, that the things which have this appearance are the result of general laws, and may be reduced into them. It has then but an exceeding little way, and in but a very few respects, that we can trace up the natural course of things before us to general laws (Butler, Analogy, p. 236). These lines are written vertically on the right side of the page with a line dividing them from the rest of the page.

1810 . Parson G. Esqc r Esquire &c tea’d here. There is an influence in society w’hwhich can be accounted for only on metaphysical principles. It is estimable—it is in short, the great bond thothough the invisible of society and a sourcee of endless dangers, priviledges, joys & sorrows! We observe not these laws of society till the bitterness of negative & positive experience teach them. How much more forcibly shall we experience these laws in the world of disimbodied spirits! How nameless the importance of our society then! To retrace any particular passage of our lives now dark, or taisteless, or ambiguous in company with some favorite spirit, whose long vista of existence has crowned him with distinguished laurels of wisdom & penetration; to trace any of our past journey, and develop it’s character by the aid of this courteous immortal illegibletiillegible how richly repaid for every sufferance. Nor is it unreasonable to conclude that in identifying our past existence we shall at passages blush with modest, not guilty emotions. Yes it may be in such society by their inlightening vision, that we discover the relations of our conduct in such views that those parts w’hwhich have long reproached us shall cease to wound illegible y longer. Would we be distinguished among the endless variety and numbers of the immence community w’hwhich we shall behold, we must cultivate the vertues w’hwhich do not pretend to dazzel and attract the gaze of the world—it must be the rich drapery of humility and love w’hwhich clothes the soul for mansions w’hwhich Jesus prepares. Would we when coasting the riegions of other worlds behold new orders of intelligences with advantages to arrest their attention and invite their interest; let us bear about some peculiar test of our Soverign’s approbation—some rich insignia of his pleasure in us! What does he asign his favorites as instances of his love; the sweet & gentle virtues of the heart, those to w’hwhich he has promised blessedness . Between 1804 and 1805 Emerson and Mary Wilder Van Schalkwyck published seven letters—as Constance and Cornelia, respectively—in the Monthly Anthology, a periodical edited by Emerson’s brother William. See Van Schalkwyck’s first essay, published four months before Emerson composed this Almanack entry, for a similar discussion of the benefits of informed social discourse in the afterlife. Like Emerson, Van Schalkwyck supports her commentary by selectively quoting John 14:2: In my Father’s house are many mansions; if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you (Cornelia, July 1804, pp. 394–395).

Night. Whatever speculative views people who pretend to philosophise on general priniples say against prayer, we can confute all by the internal evidences of it’s utility. Still reason has her claims. She teaches us that we comprehend scarce any piontpoint of Gods dispensations; that we cannot trace the end of the means nature of cause & effect—the relation in any instance between means and the end, but in matters open to familiar our senses we forget this fact; Whatever effect prayer may have on God—on the, high Priest of our profession who sympathises with our infrimitiesinfirmities , it is enough that we are commanded to pray under every dispensation of Gods govt government that prayer is uniformly commanded as a duty and enjoined as a ddamaged MME alludes to Hebrews 3:1: Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession Christ Jesus, and to Hebrews 4:15, For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin. She may also allude to 1 Thessalonians 5:17–18: Pray without ceasing. In every thing give thanks: for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus concerning you. damaged and the various events attendant on, and the wonderfull success attached to this duty form a bright portion of the scriptures. It is an unwarrantable persumption to argue against it on the priniples of Gods decrees; in those who profess to believe the scriptures It is enough to silence every objection if God has commanded it. What it’s nature or tendency farther than to sanctify us we know not; we perceive not but by and history sacred & prophane records certain events to follow the prayers w’hwhich besought them. The declaration in Isaiah may well adjust the philosophy and generalise the nature of this invisible intercourse with an infinite Being, —before they call I will hear answer, and whilst they are speaking I will hear MME alludes to Isaiah 65:24: And it shall come to pass, that before they call, I will answer; and while they are yet speaking, I will hear. —the answer was prepared in the laws of nature— and the request was heard from eternity—the events which were requested depended on the operations of the will of others; free, as well as the exercises of prayer. However, we may trace this, as any subject in a speculative way, into endless intricacies and obstruse perplexities. There may be endless disquisitions on the nature of food to assimulate with the blood & invisible spirits of the body, and to presevepreserve that active, yet unrecognisable power of life in the constitution of animals; yet instinct irresitablyirresistably overpowers the difficulties of reason; and reason herself takes a practical part, and the body thrivs. Our nobler instincts prompts to feel often—to adore—to rest upon a power superior to what we behold in visible objects and reason in vain searhcsearch for a support from it’s own resources—it takes part with the desires of the heart and the mind is nourished as actually from this spiritual exercise as the body from imbibing other substances. The above scripture related to the prayers of the good and were matter of promise to times of gospel grace—but such is the native or implied language of the scriptures throthroughout. If the good damaged are to pray, surely the wretched, the weary, the igordamaged nt & heavy ladinladen can have no other resource. MME may allude to Matthew 11:28: Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Were there only a possibility of a Power superior to nature—a distant hope of being related to it, it would the wisest use of all the faculties of the guilty and misirable to implore it’s aid.

19. Morn. I would not relinquish the hopes, nay, even the positive pleasurs of this day for any of socity. while it was dark, before I was dressed, I begged for mercy—and mercy I find. This habit of rising that I have had of late, is mercy itself. How admirably calculated is the state of trial adaopted to our constitution—to that unquencable thirst for fame which universally more or less prevails in the human mind. To dirict this to a future good or corrupt its engergies with present objects constitute the man, the philosopher and the xianchristian ! In proportion as it gains strenght in a good diriction every virtue increases. Too strongly it cannot operate as there is not any intimation in the old or new testa.testament of this life being succeeded by a another of probation. The head of human nature was perfected here—he was made like unto his brethenbrethren . MME alludes to Hebrews 2:17: Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people. His offices and govt government remain but no trials. Our bodies and spirits are so wonderfully adapted that it is a dictate of reason to believe their disunion will end the conflicts. To those who aim at high degrees of perfetionperfection, the present variety of dangers and temptations make their state so intense a scene of vigalance that it may well be supposed to equal the longer one of more refined orders of beings whose obedience is attended with no privations! of body or mind! Yet that it shall introdece us into a state intirely divested of pain I is not probable. That when amid spirits of brighter acquirments and longer views, thro’through their intenser application, we shall not at times shrink from their society into lower ranks is not unreaso nable to expect. Amid the endless deuvinity which awaits us in the events which await us in immortal scenes, these are probably our adaopted to our constitution.

Eve. Never so good a day for devotion joy & seeing my brother if in my walk my fancy had not run wild. In 1804 and/or 1805, MME travelled between Malden, Concord, Boston, and Newburyport, during which visits with family she likely saw her brother William Emerson, then the minister at Boston’s First Church. It is also possible that MME visited (and thus walked) with her half brothers, Samuel Ripley or Daniel Ripley, both of whom attended Harvard College at this time (Simmons, Selected Letters, p. 4). What a walk—the scene was exhilerating beyond my present leisure to describe.

20. MMorning. There is nothing within the limits of crimes so degrading—so extensively unfortunate as that debility of mind which habitually craves the support of praise. Praise is sweet! It’s desire is one of the most important parts of human constuitionconstitution. God himself addresses us thro’through this soothing principle. And where it is not polluted on earth, where it lives and grows by a constant reference to God, it is becomes the cause and the effects at once of the most lofty virtue. As it is vigorous here, it ceases to operate as a improperly in the social intercourse, and thus only can it’s grandest consequences frollowfollow. For after this principle is exhausted by heavenly prospects, by earthly sorrows, by age by sickness or disgrace it still has resources—it is in general, perhaps, universially the most invincible of human propensities in mind not brutel & ignorant. Hence, it’s dangers; it’s sickly effects on the weakly virtuous—it often confounds the nice distinction between right & wrong and saops the only foundation of an exclusive piety. It is impossible to cultivate the peculiar graces of the xianchristian life and gain the approbation of the captivating inhabitants of a busy world. Ye cannot serve God and mammon! MME alludes to Matthew 6:24: No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon. Neither can the devotee to praise, however innocent, be permanently happy—the sensibility is tortered, the imajanation becomes micorscopic and represents the evanescent failures of the moment as barriers to glory. Seek not honor from men love not the praise of men more than the praise of God , MME may allude to John 5:44: How can ye believe, which receive honour one of another, and seek not the honour that cometh from God only? must be the motto of the philosopher in contintment as well as the xianchristian. Let the cross, the grave, the crown of Jesus Christ regulate the affection of ambition in every believer of revelation!

Eve. I look not forward to this life—if at all, with hope undashed—but at times like the present I tremble at my present possessions—what do they forebode—what do they do demand! I do not expect ever to be happier in this world than I have been for the past months of health & dilligence. I can never can reasonably expect to injoy so much devotion in any other situation. More active influence more exertion I may injoy—but on the whole never more solid & animated pleasures. Had I never met various trials my virtue might be deceptive. But it is madness to say virtue depends on temptation & trial for it’s existence. The highest sublimest virtues may be practised in solitude. The heart is the seat of holiness that is never inactivee. The Great Awakening (1720s–1740s), or Revivalism, was characterized by the widespread influence of a pietist stress on religion of the heart, spawning many literary and theological comparisons of the heart as a seat of biblical ideas such as affection, faith, will, soul, virtue, devotion, life, prayer, or tenderness. Theologian Jonathan Edwards relates the heart specifically to holiness in Some Thoughts Concerning the Present Revival of Religion in New-England: All will allow that true Holiness has its Seat chiefly in the Heart; not the Head (Blumhofer, Revivalism) (Edwards, Thoughts, p. 10). If virtue could only be known and cultured by the laboures of pity and beneficence, which can be practised only in a state of where human misery prevails, then the highest order of beings may not be virtuous. I think of my relations & my MVS & Mrs T. &c with growing tenderness & zeal for their welfare. MME met close friend and fellow literary coterie member Mary Van Schalkwyck through half sister Sarah Ripley. By 1804, MME and Van Schalkwyck were publishing letters under the pseudonyms Constance (MME) and Cornelia (Van Schalkwyck) in Monthly Anthology. Mrs. T may be MME’s friend Rebecca Kettell Thoreau, also of Concord. Her husband, John Thoreau, died in 1801, and she likely stayed in their Concord home to care for her eight stepchildren. Rebecca and John Thoreau are the paternal grandparents of author Henry David Thoreau (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, p. 94) (Dwight, Memorials, pp. 60, 97, 100) (Simmons, Selected Letters, p. 33). Where is the sorry weake thing that says habits of bodily intercourse are nesscary to friendship? As we love God we alone are formed to the next holy passion, friendship, the more independant of it’s immediate aids the more pure and lasting it’s nature. God most mercifull, I bless thee in the name of my Master that thou hast formed me capable of friendship in its joys & privations and sd should thou never fully give me the exercise of this sublime passion I praise thee for the capasity. And is it irrational or unanalogous to the nature of things to suppose that a soul whose affections are cultivated by the highest objects and unexhausted by earthly ones will join with more fervor & joy the soceity of holy beings? We feel this hunger and injoy a repast of scoialsocial intercourse with zeal apportioned to our privations. And it is probably consistent with the distributions of God, who often here makes up to us the losses we have sustained in one instance damaged by the advantages of another. There seems a damaged damaged equalising the happiness of individuals constantly going on. What is poisen in one situation is needed in another. Not one day but it’s boounds appear set. Annotation in progress. This eve I am disappt disappointed of the continua damagede of my joys by disagreable apprehensions, from these symptoms of my tenia or dropsy, The afflictions of which MME complains are tinea infection (also called edema)—a burning red rash that can cause itching and swelling such as tapeworm or ringworm—and dropsy, which usually causes swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet due to fluid buildup in the body’s tissues. (Tinea Infections). which I often feel without the least apprehension as my health is good. But I never can, I “believe” I never shall suffer a moment’s anxiety, as far as I discern the correcting hand of God. Do what He will his will I shall always love. Greatly have I deserved it’s chastisments; and my own sense of justice will be gratified in my punishment. Pho—as far as I can discern how weake, how cowardly, I was an hour agone! If by stated inevitable laws I suffer, they are Gods laws—whether established a million ages past or this moment, it is the same to me who behold a God continually. If I have ignorantly tampered with them I must submitt. But what we term laws of nature we know but little any m how they operate. It is Gods immediate agency on every particle of matter—not a sparrow “without” God. &c MME may allude to Matthew 10:29: Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father. That This method of operation is stated; or & or similar is a mercifull ordination—the basis of all expirience, which is called knowledge In case of what we call miracles the laws of nature are not suspended or reversed—but the mode of acting on mind & matter is different. MME may allude to Dugald Stewart’s Dissertation First: Progress of Metaphysical, Ethical, and Political Philosophy (1800), in which he details the philosophy explored by John Locke, René Descartes, and George Berkeley that exposes the difference between mind and matter. Referring to Malebranche’s doctrine of occasional causes, Stewart observes, The chief objection to the doctrine of occasional causes is, that it presumes to decide upon a question of which human reason is altogether incompetent to judge;—our ignorance of the mode in which matter acts upon mind, or mind upon matter, furnishing not the shadow of a proof that the one may not act directly and immediately on the other, in some way incomprehensible by our faculties (Stewart, Works, pp. 4:237–38).

21. What is the highest, holiest exeriseexercise a creature can is capable of? Contemplating with suitable affections the Creator! The impressions are not passive—the effects, when the duty is cultivated largely, are beyond all the sublimity of the stoical philosophy—they add to the magnanimity, of fortitude & constancy of the philosopher, the glowing tenderness of sympathy and the irresistable grace of humility. Where can this duty be most effectually cultivated? In solitude, no one has a hermit’s. The soul that God dwels in can aspire in love to the sympathise with Angels damaged it visits the happy and great of all ages & nations and triumps in their aggrandisement—it descends to Caverns of and weeps over over eveyevery form of human woe! It’s leading edamaged is active zeal in ameliorating human misery by habits of intercession —it would lose sight of the bonds w’hwhich at once connect it with God & man! Are these passive impressions, such as Butler says weaken oin the mind by repitition—whereas habits strenghten the virtuous principle?? MME alludes to Joseph Butler’s Analogy of Religion, in which he states, And from these two observations together; that practical habits are formed and strengthened by repeated acts, and that passive impressions grow weaker by being repeated upon us; it must follow, that active habits may be gradually forming and strengthening, by a course of acting upon such and such motives and excitements, whilst these motives and excitements themselves are, by proportional degrees, growing less sensible, i.e. are continually less and less sensibly felt, even as the active habits strengthen. Butler continues, it must always be remembered, that real endeavors to enforce good impressions upon ourselves, are a species of virtuous action … when the exercise of the virtuous principle is more continued, oftener repeated, and more intense; as it must be in circumstances of danger, temptation, and difficulty, of any kind and in any degree; this tendency is increased proportionately, and a more confirmed habit is the consequence (Butler, Analogy, pp. 136, 137, 150). No! these tho’tsthoughts by often passing the mind can never lose their effect. They are not speculative—they are vital exercises—where the heart feels. And here perhaps I find the distinction between the growth of virtue in solitude & sociity. In the latter habits, externally, increase with more facility. Innocence is more easily preserved in solitude. But it requires more strenght & vertue to increase, in solitude, the virtues which have no assistance from external acts. Habit may carry it’s possessor along, in frequent cases, somewhat like a machine. Clearer virtues demand imply taste, discrimination and the knowledge of the truth of them.

22. I cannot but rejoice (tho’though the great might ridecule) at a whole day begun so early and so unremittingly active, devout & happy. True, I have not read all, the needle, the flat iron the porridge pot have been plied with success. I cannot but compare these serene hours of ardent book, pen &c to somthing like what I shall feel in a world all activity & sucess. I am studying the history of my Saviour! Oh may I imbibe his spirit, feel an ambition to pursue his path and aim at possesing his glory! I have from unfortunate circumstances been erroneous in my ideas of age. It does not nessesarily deface the beauty of the mind. I tremble! Does it not weaken— Old age has no terror else. The soul is as alive to what it deems injurious or beneficial as ever. I must enter into the nature & possibilietes of this soul more and I shall cease to estimate the decay of the body— I shall pursue with more zeal it’s strenght & ornament. My breath shortens with hunger & thirst. MME may allude to one of many biblical verses that mention hunger & thirst for spiritual succor, including, for example, Matthew 5:6: Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled, and John 6:35: And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.

23. Morn. We are not certain from the testimony of damagedce or our reason that we shall have scope for knowledge damaged e, verasity patience, faith temperance & fear, in the community w’hwhich constitutes the socity of another life. But for love and all the aimableamiable sympathies w’hwhich result from a high cultivation of it, we are assured we will naturally tend to our advancement. What priniple of our nature can have such scope when we are surrounded with the higerhigher & more perfect displays of God’s character, govt government and works. The universe is filled with a proportion altogether extensive of happy beings; and those benevolent affections of the heart, which delight in happiness that it has no way been influential towards, w’hwhich are the purest & most exallted, will then have the most ellimitable progress. Yet we know not of what advantage the other virtues will be even in a perfect society. Here they are indispensible, by the will of God and the pissentpresent nature of man. Besides, the virtues are connected—no one can bear, can practice charity whose own passions have not been subjugated.

Night. I attended a funeral— performed the social duties I owed to some of my acquanitarceacquaintance in walking to the grave. Research in the vital records of Malden, Massachusetts suggests that MME may have attended several funerals at this time. With pleasure I intirely forgot myself in heightening the poor existence of others. I need comfort this eve. this tenia swells me I believe. I have it I have read open’d to a scripture. God is mine and I am his! MME alludes to Song of Solomon 2:16: My beloved is mine, and I am his: he feedeth among the lilies. No power short of God himself shall dissuade me from this. As a truth existing in the nature of things it is fast as fate. The heathen had strange notions of fate they said it was uncontroulable by the gods—tho’though they never attributed to it any virtue. It seems they had some ideas w’hwhich are interwoven with the mind of nessisity. MME may refer generally to current assessments of the religious and philosophical beliefs of classical Greek and Roman writers, as expressed in several works published around the time of this Almanack’s composition. As expressed by “The Theologist”: In the most polished ages of heathen antiquity there were only a few individuals to whom the divine unity and perfections were known… Among the ancient legislators, so extensive was the conviction of necessity of a divine sanction of their laws, that they always pretended to derive them from the gods. … The heathen nations all boasted of their revelations; but none of them ever pretended to possess a regular and connected dispensation of the divine will. Their whole systems of religion being fabrications, and involved in mystery, any deceptions might be practised on the people, who were kept in the most profound ignorance; and it is difficult to conceive by what artiface such impious absurdities, as were practised under the name of religious rights, should ever have been imposed on mankind (Theologist, Advantages, pp. 628, 629–30). MME may also have in mind the first article in this series, published two months earlier, in which “The Theologist” had argued that the beliefs in inferiour gods and skepticism about the immortality of the soul received by the wisest of heathen philosophers, were inconsistent and contradictory (Theologist, Necessity, p. 538). A similar view is expressed by Jonathan Edwards in Freedom of the Will: Such subjection to necessity … would truly argue an inferiority of servitude, that would be unworthy the Supreme Being; and is much more agreeable to the notion which many of the heathen had of fate, as above the gods, than that moral necessity of fitness and wisdom which has been spoken of (Edwards, Freedom, p. 326). Cicero, whose letters MME is reading at this time, seems to confirm this classical understanding of the gods and fate: But if our present fate is unalterably fixed—Ah! my dearest Terentia, if we are utterly and for ever abandoned by those gods whom you have so religiously adored, and by those men who I have so faithfully served; let me see you as soon as possible, that I may have the satisfaction of breathing out my last departing sigh in your arms (Cicero, Letters, p. 1:26). God exists by the nessesity of his nature! We adore but with mute reason & reverence. We adore with every faculty of our mind that in Him are is the gov government of every agent in nature, matter and mind. Nesissity exists to us but we rejoice it reasonsches not the operations of the infinite Mind but in connection with the everlasting & immutable attributes which belong to his nature. We rejoice that possesing an emanation from Him, we reason that truth is grafted on our demonstration; we learn that God can not commit contradictions, that there are things w’hwhich he can not do. This nesisity we admit.

24. sabsabbath. eve. The social intercourse of loving smiling and asking my few neighbours how they do is indisputably a duty. It is a pleasure of late! The heart never is so sensible of the love of God as when it communicates the least pleasur to others. Day not devout & ardent thothough pleasant. Daniel writes me to go to Concord to Thansgiving. My poor Aunt was so clamorous that tho’though I lost not my temper yet I might have done better how much better I wont say. No. I dont intend, I dont wish to go. I expect like the towtwo last a holy frolick. Circumstances so the reverse; and a wish to oblige three old persons will give me the glee of virtue. Thanksgiving fell on November 29 in 1804 and on November 28 in 1805.

But to the test, I do not advance in promotion in that king- This line is indented for a new paragraph. dom w’hwhich is not in this world. Perhaps my desires to add to the justice charity & truth w’hwhich compose it’s claims in this world will all evaporate in passive impressions. I should set somthing new before me every day—some object in a new light— some sacrifice some offering—! Heavens, I tremble. God most mercifull my claims are to on thee written in the blood of thy Son! I bow with unshaken constancy to thy ordinations. Place me here & hereafter just where thou pleasetpleasest—only I urge tThee I cannot let Thee go without grace to perform my the part Thou assignest me.

25 Morn. The very hour after I injured the feelings of the aged tho’though preserved temper yet I sinned against God; considering my priviledges, the least impatience, the least interference on my own present acc account the least justification of what appeared to others dark should be avoided, as it gave pain In future I will given ten points to gain my darling hopes

MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 2), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Written 16 June 1806-c. 26 December 1806. Malden, Boston, and Newburyport, Massachusetts. 13 MS sheets, bearing considerable damage due to burning, foxing and water; three sheets are vertical fragments with minimal text. This Almanack opens with MME’s enthusiastic record of the solar eclipse of 16 June 1806. In this passage and others, her mood seems inspired, and she describes her sense of intellectual and emotional fulfillment, which she credits to “imajanation that faculty of mind w’h [which] seems to unite the feelings of the heart to the exertions of the intellect.” Her reading at this time includes poets James Thomson and John Milton, orientalist Sir William Jones, and statesman Edmund Burke, excerpts from Virgil’s Aeneid, and the sermons of Robert Robinson. She visits Boston and then Newburyport, where she assists in caring her ailing sister Hannah Emerson Farnham and her infant daughter, Hannah Bliss Farnham, both of whom were ill were tuberculosis; Hannah Bliss died on 11 October 11. While in Newburyport, she enjoys several visits with her close friend Daniel Appleton White. In this folder, MME also opines on the need for a Christian to temper her ambition with “humility”; she mentions specific occasions of her recent “weakness of heart,” social obligations and relations that bring her little comfort, and her joy in solitude.

damaged 806 The text at beginning of this line is irrecoverable; MME possibly wrote 1806 here to date this Almanack page.  There was a total eclipse [of the sun The total eclipse of the sun on June 16, 1806 was widely predicted and studied by contemporary natural scientists. It was known as Tecumseh’s eclipse after Shawnee Indian Tenskwatawa, Tecumseh’s brother, accurately predicted its occurrence based on what he claimed were a series of visions. Eclipses for both April 12 and October 7 are recorded for 1782, the date twenty-four years earlier to which MME compares the present event. (Espenak, Solar Eclipses) (Edmunds, Tecumseh) to]day damagedrd with the scene, I was describing the subdamaged gloom of which inveloped the scenery when the first moments wherewere approaching— I flew to the woods to get beyond the din of human tongues and be fore I arrived to the most sequestered spot the sun immerged— Alass I never so deeply regreted a loss—for never surely there did the sublime ever in perception so fully appear. The appearance was unexpected—so exquisiite a light I cannot describe—the winds were hushed as if in awe—the birds screamed—the stars glowed—with what rapt devotion did I view my Makers hand— Oh how forgotten are the vanitis & sorows of life at grand appearances! How easy death at clear veiws of Gods works.! I sunk into life and walked & lost the afternoon I remember a similar eclipse 25 years agone I then felt stupid the scene was lurid & gloomy.

17. Eve. Not easily forgotten—read scrip.scripture Thom. Spring & half Summer—lives of towtwo courtesans, of Demosthenes . In Plutarch’s Lives, she may have read about the Athenian orator and statesman Demosthenes and several influential courtesans, including Aspasia, Præcia, Flora, and Lamia. baked walked repeatedly into woods— Mr & Mrs F. tea’d here! Slept twice—all these with other avo.s avocations and the day has been the picture of ennui. God most mercifull forgive and pity me!

18. Incommunion with trees, with streams and stars and suns, man finds his own glory ins kribed on every flower and sparkling in every beam damaged the skies I read my future destiny, and fdamaged damagedes and sorrows w’hwhich hedge up damaged principali ties and power s at extended damaged and her God! But there are grander emotions damaged moral world of man—those which will not de damaged the blood nor rest in the grave—it is those exercises of obedience w’hwhich unite the soul to the attributes of the first Cause—that awfull respect for his will w’h which gives life to the obscurest deed—w’hwhich abides by the soul in the moments of complete destitution, and supports the love, the practice of virtue without influence or power! Ah for the witchery of fancy I have this very morning forgone this bliss of blessedness this last sure stay of existence—this stamina of glory! It does appear that there is so much remaining of the image of God (whose nature, I conceive, the sole origin of morality) on the immortal essence of man that when the conviction of moral agency attended with active virtue, is strongly felt, the soul is happy more perfectly, than at any other sentimet independent of future rewards; supposing no violent obstruction. But I find a surer token evidence of alliance to God in that zeal to do his will, separate from the reward of any kind. When I contemplate the high ranks of celestial spirits & the goal to w’hwhich I am tending with my contemporaries, it is not distinction I pant for. My God I love thee damaged damagede thy will—a calm spectator of thy ways and damaged damaged be blest in liberty—at the lowliest damaged damaged time—holy—

16 If the exercises of Devotion di d not remain lively—the soul could ask nothing of God But while clogged with a putrid body it seeks the supports adapted to the senses—while active duties must take the place of contemplative and tranquil emotions (the purest & sublimest) it seem duty to seek those advantages w’hwhich will most readily develop the powers of the mind and the virtues of the heart—if desired—how sweet to bear his mild yoke to rejoice in felicity to w’hwhich we are not accessible to behold God carrying on the affairs of the universe without the mimickery of our help

17 I am getting my clothes ready for sickness—and conclude to have advice this eve. I ask not to be rid of disease.— Instead of it health may be my lot—joy & prosperity—but when we contemplate God—the grave the brightest scene are equally indifferent. How much more so will the style of life appear when actually in the immortal world. “Whilst all things are in motion & fluctuate on the earth; whilst states & empires pass away with incredible swiftness, & the human race vainly employed in the external view of these things, are also drawn in by the same torrent, almost without percvngperceiving it, there passes in secret an order & disposition of things unknown & invisible, w’hwhich, however, determine our fate to all eternity. The duration of ages has no other end than the formation of the bodies of the elect w’hwhich augments, & tends daily to perfection. When it shall receive its final accomplishment by the death of the last elect damaged At least one final line of text and possibly more is irrecoverable due to manuscript damage; the editors speculate that some portion of this Rollin quotation continued on these lines, based on MME’s references on the next page to Rollin’s "paragraph" and to "eternity," the last word of the full Rollin quotation. MME quotes from Charles Rollin’s Ancient History of the Egyptians, Carthaginians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes and Persians, Macedonians, and Grecians Whilst all things are in motion, and fluctuate upon earth; whilst states and empires pass away with incredible rapidity, and the human race, vainly employed in the external view of these things, are also drawn in by the same torrent, almost without perceiving it; there passes in secret an order and disposition of things unknown and invisible, which, however, determine our fate to all eternity. The duration of ages has no other end than the formation of the bodies of the elect, which augments and tends daily towards perfection. When it shall receive its final accomplishment by the death of the last of the elect, Then cometh the end when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule, and all authority, and power. God grant that we may have all our share in that blessed kingdom, whose law is truth, whose king is love, and whose duration is eternity (Rollin, Ancient History, p. 8:197). this paragraph incites the grandest emotions we can feel. If there be an infinite first Cause, as good as great, the perfection of his virtuous creatures must have formed a part of his plan & the principle of his moral govt government from eternity And the forgoing fact be indisputable. Yes, this little speck of nature we live on, then seems but a beautifull minature painting from w’hwhich we wd would gladly turn our eyes to the vast Original of beauty, & explore scenes where the elect of all ages & nations inhabit perfect righteousness.

17 This dated entry repeats the date of 17 from the preceding entry on the previous page. One hour in the morning and I envied not the blest. Then illegible went to see that agreeble woman & appeared worldly tho’though I did not feel so—alass! The more comprehensive the mind & pious the affections the more wholly confident in God. Conversant about Him & distinctions of time place & emolomentemolument die away here & for hereafter.

18 If animal spirits w’hwhich are the effect of health geneate worldly mindedness—if they belong to earth—if they are of a gross not ethereal nature oh let me depart—the feeblest spirits if they comprehend but one duty are preferable to these—this day of quiet of hilarity I abhoor it! Mercifull God cut short my time—fill it up, crowd in what Thou wouldst have me do damaged peculiar province must commence in the intellectual world. It is to imajanation that faculty of the mind w’hwhich seems to unite the feelings of the heart to the exertions of intellect that arewe damaged veracevieveewe the softd softened tints of past misfortune and the liveliness of future hopes—in fine it is the medium of every joy and harmonises all the soul. As long as idenity exists so long the perogative of a happy imajan imagination will remain: the peculiar gifts, the indefinable combinations of genius will never be the portion of vulgar souls (it seems) even in ages of blessedness! They may grow expatiate and triumph in the devolving wonders of a God, but by analogy of all human education they will not acquire gifts different from the stamina—the constituent principles w’hwhich compose the soul.— the Soul what is it? whatever it be, it’s stamp is given—it’s features are indelibly stamped for eternity at it’s formation—education forms—marrs—or perfects them—and supernal influence directs & sanctifys them. We antiscipate new powers in eternity—true, but they will be in unison perhaps to those we exercise now—nay, the germ—the embreyo of every principle must lie within us MME paraphrases and loosely quotes several pages from George Turnbull’s Principles of Moral PhilosophyAnd here we may observe, 1. That the imagination is a faculty of wonderful use in our frame (1:54); For how else is it that the remote one receives strength, but by the lively affecting manner in which imagination represents it, so as to render it as it were present, or, at least, tho’ absent, so efficacious, that no intervening self-denial, or suffering is sufficient to retard the mind from pursuing it, with the utmost intenseness? (1:56); What distinguishes our senses (i) from those of brutes, is, (as these philosophers have observed) that sense of beauty, order and harmony, with which they are united in our frame, by means of which they are not merely sensitive, but rather rational faculties (1:66); On the other hand, the man of judgment or discretion (for so discretion properly signifies) may be defined to be one who has a particular aptitude to discry differences of all kinds between objects, even the most hidden and remote from vulgar eyes. Now however these different aptitudes may be acquired, or in whatever respects they may be original, congenial or unacquired; it is manifest that they make a very real difference in character or genius. They have very different effects, and produce very different works; and they presuppose the law of association. The improvement of the one, certainly very much depends upon accustomance to assemble and join; and the improvement of the other upon accustomance to disunite, break and separate. But there is in respect of moral character a parallel variety; some here also are propense to associating, and others to disjoining. Nay as the great variety of genius’s may be in general divided into the aptitude to associate, and the aptitude to dissociate (1:94-95); and, That those powers which, at our entrance upon life, are and must necessarily be but in embrio, rude and shapeless as it were, or quite unformed, may be made very vigorous and perfect here by proper exercise and culture; so as to become fit to be employed about any objects of knowledge of whatever kind, or however different from those which make the present materials of our study and speculation. Insomuch that this state may as properly be said to be a school for forming and perfectionating our rational powers, in order to their being prepared and fitted for exercise about higher objects in a succeeding state; as the first part of our education here is called a school for life, or to prepare us for the affairs of the world and manhood, which are objects far above our reach, till our understanding by proper gradual exercise and employment is considerably ripened, or enlarged and strengthened which is the proper business of liberal education (1:261). MME’s wording on this page also suggests that she may be reading John Blair Linn’s The Powers of Genius: A Poem, in Three Parts, a text which, as Nancy Craig Simmons speculates, MME asked Ruth Haskins Emerson to lend her at this time. As the following examples indicate, selections from both Linn’s notes and introduction especially correspond to MME’s wording: Invention is the first part of poetry and painting: and absolutely necessary to them both; yet no rule ever was or ever can be given how to compass it. A happy genius is the gift of Nature; it depends on the influence of the stars say the astrologers; on the organs of the body say the naturalists; it is the peculiar gift of Heaven say the divines. How to improve it many books can teach us; how to obtain it, none; that nothing can be done without it all agree: In nihil invita dices faciesve Minerva. Without invention a painter is but a copier, and a poet but a plagiary of others (13-14); and Say what is genius? words can ne’er define That power which springs from origin divine; We know it by its bold, impetuous force; . . . Invention marks the genius of the soul, And on the lightning rides from pole to pole (13) (Turnbull, Principles, pp. 1:54, 56, 66, 94-95, 261) (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 37 n3) (Linn, Powers, pp. 13-14). new objects incite new ideas MME commonplaces from George Turnbull’s The Principles of Moral PhilosophyNew or uncommon objects greatly attract our minds, and give us very high pleasure. Now by this means we are prompted to look out for new ideas, and to give all diligence to make fresh discoveries in science (Turnbull, Principles, p. 47).  damaged damaged —in similar manner the powers may be dead as long as it exists— How differently one and the same object strike towtwo minds; they who have happy powers of perception can tell. MME refers to George Turnbull’s Principles of Moral PhilosophyAnd as it is certain, that different textures of eyes must see differently; or every object must necessarily partake of the colour with which the eye itself is tainted: so variety in temperature, texture and mould, (so to speak) among minds, must necessarily produce great variety of conceptions, sentiments and judgments, and consequently of inclinations, appetites and dispositions. … And hence it is, that every man’s turn of thinking is as distinguishable as his face or gate from that of every other; there are as few minds as faces that have not very peculiar and distinguishing features. … All therefore that belongs to the present questions is, how far differences among minds depend upon different textures, and temperaments of bodies, and physical causes, and how and why it is so? (Turnbull, Principles, pp. 1:75-76) Will the covdamaged ous, the frostn bound soul, ever perceive objects with the same rapture that another does? Oh how inestimable are the hopes w’hwhich those (I sd should think) would taste who possess the gifts of the mind. Eternity must forever charm their eyes, their ears, their hearts; and the path that leads them thither be itself sweetened. MME paraphrases from George Turnbull’s Principles of Moral PhilosophyThe mind of man is so made, that the idea of attainment to great happiness hereafter, by the suitable culture of his mind here, is no sooner presented to it, than it gladly takes hold of it, and indulges itself with truly laudable complacency in the great and cheering hope; nay, it triumphs and exults in it, and thereby feels itself rise to the noblest ambition, and swell with the most elating expectation (Turnbull, Principles, p. 420). With what ever living zeal sd should they cherish the distinction w’hwhich God has eternally conferred on them—to prepare for a climate congenial to love & thought —to lighten the darkness of others and give to the cold some taste of joy.

19 sab.sabbath In determining the pagination and chronology of this Almanack fascicle, the editors have determined that MME likely wrote this Almanack page in July 1806, since on the next page she appears to continue this Sunday series of Almanack entries and also describes going to Newburyport to care for her ailing sister and niece on the first of August. In July 1806, however, the 19th was a Saturday, rather than a sab. or Sunday; MME may therefore be mistaken by a day. morn. The collection of psalms resembles the garden of Eden in its variety richness & magnificence. The citizen of the immortal Eden wanders from one luxuriant scene to another and looselose Multiple options are possible for this word. himself in its beauties. That man retains some natural affection for his divine Parent is manifest from the delight he feels from the harmony of his works and the sense of His perfections. That grace has sanctified damaged is evident when the discovery damaged damagedn and immensity give him more delight than any other sentiment.

Night Never a sabsabbath more dexpectedexpected was intending to avoid those any smaliersmaller irrgs irregularities w’hwhich I have committed. I did. I never remember so much continual penance— The success makes me hope for a nother sab.sabbath This eve. has been wandering & guilty—alas not one whole day to God while in the holy.

21. When suffering under the weakness of my heart I cannot wholly complain— I respect the susceptiblity—given by God and a germ of future delight. How singular the incident—so wished—so illy prepared for it. Weakness the whole. Mr Emerson & F. after that came & bro’tbrought me disagreeable news from N—t. I must go & resign the rapture of devo.devotion the sight of the charms of nature & devote my time to care to sickness & labor. Samuel Emerson and William Farnham both lived in Newburyport, Massachusetts. They likely brought the news that MME’s sister Hannah Emerson Farnham and perhaps MME’s infant niece, Hannah Bliss Farnham, had fallen ill. Hannah Bliss Farnham died in October 1806; Hannah Emerson Farnham died of tuberculosis in March the following year. MME cared for her sister, if not both of them, during the fall of 1806 in the Farnham home in Newburyport (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, p. x) (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 35, 36, 38). No matter—it will not retard my glory in the skies a moment. At view of the heavens—what associations of earth and its finel forms of fancy love & friendship—of the martyrs to passion—& of to reason— of worlds of men who are gone—of the scenes w’hwhich they inhabit “ — The spirit of Plato to unfold What worlds &c — ” Every thing seems gone before and the earth a poor desolate place. Yes, these gifts of fancy love & friendship are dear tho’though forever famished here—and here damagedt be indulged without selfishness damaged damaged for I am not practionerpractitioner nor theorist enough at present to find myself one self denying virtue, or one wholly disinterested when surrounded by congenial objects of love & friendship. I might & hazard my life & health whenever their interest called—so does the feathered inhabitant of the air—an instinct prompts to efforts the most desprate for another’s self. Is this virtue? Virtue renders the little every day sacrifices w’hwhich we perform for those who are naterally obnoxious to our happiness even pleasant—but where is duty when we love?

21 What contemptible trifles depriv us of the richest blessings—impat impatient of time—what dangers attend solitude that the incident of yesterday sd should beget so many sins, that is, vain tho’ts thoughts . What a day—lost as a saint—an immortal.

22 Morn. Solitude must have it’s langors & diseases—else it wd would be too much of Heaven, & death wd would not be desirable. But at such times it is perhaps folly to ask for activity—and the development of embryo powers. In these cases I sd should meet with labours I sd should illy bear—with duties partially discharged—with temptations weakly resisted. To wish for human happiness is sublime—to feel uneasy at not aiding it, is insensitiate insentient damaged to the damaged

  damaged eas sd shouldsaid as a disgrace for a man damagede or die for himself yet he was damagedrtunate. His Mother in the a tempel sealed to heanthenismheathenism MME may refer to the story in Luke 2:21-35, describing Mary and Joseph taking their infant, Jesus, to Jerusalem to be circumcised in the temple and hearing Simeon’s prophecy about his fate. Verses 34 and 35, especially, prophesy Mary’s future pain as it relates to her son’s future: “And Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is set for the fall and rising again of many in Israel; and for a sign which shall be spoken against; (Yea, a sword shall pierce through thy own soul also,) that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed.” Or MME may allude to John Milton’s Samson Agonistes, which she is reading at this time, and which describes Samson pulling down the pillars of the “heathen” temple of the Philistines. (Milton, Samson) sd said we can restrain our tear for the sake of other, but events are with the God. I rejoice cure my ladybody in this sense before it damaged worn with age

damaged to retrieve former errors is weakness—the same causes will forever generate the same effects—to aim at an example is like giving substance to a shadow—the safest ambition is that to be shine in scenes of immortality & reality. Obscurity humility and benevolence sd should employ the first & latest desirsdesires of a xianchristian. True dignity is there often and there only found and as the appt appointment of God not the resort of indolence sd should be gratefully receivd. How little of God and less of himself does he know who confines virtue & glory with to eclat—activity and learning.

24 Sacred & prophane history wonderfully sullies all human glory. The greatest Saint Hero & Statesman is left to cast a shade on their brightest acquirments Amidst their height of noon Changest thy countenance & thy hand with no regard Of highest favors past From thee on them, or them to thee of service.Milton. MME quotes from John Milton’s Samson Agonistes Amidst their heighth of noon Changest thy countenance, and thy hand with no regard Of highest favors past From thee on them, or them to thee of service  (Milton, Samson, pp. 96-97). What a love of solitude & sacred regard to the humble virtues sd should this induce! And a stronger ardor in every reflecting mind for a more perfect stage of existence. When sublimed with the sentiments & presence of God we exult in retirment but the laws of nature will not permit the continuance of these emotions—formed for trial labour damagede. Yesterday & today tedious because damaged damaged subject that damaged I am engaged in a pursuit new & important. God most mercifull smile for my Master’s sake.

29. Too awestruck & feeble to pursue the subject.

25 came Home the reflections of my hilarity painfull.

26. Went to see brother W. &c went to Capt D— got rid of dread full spirits

27 sab.sabbath Later on this page, MME gives the date as 11 November. The editors therefore believe it likely that the many preceding dates on this page were written in October 1806. If their judgment is accurate, MME is mistaken by a day in calling October 27 a sab. since this date fell on a Monday rather than a Sunday in 1806. eve. Heard Mr May with great pleasure & impt import lost illegible it & God only knows what else by folly & weakness. Yesterday Visited to advantage of my spirits.

31. An clipseeclipse, when this MMS.manuscript was begun— The total eclipse of the sun on June 16, 1806 was widely predicted and studied by contemporary natural scientists. It was known as Tecumseh’s eclipse after Shawnee Indian Tenskwatawa, Tecumseh’s brother, accurately predicted its occurrence based on what he claimed were a series of visions. Eclipses for both April 12 and October 7 are recorded for 1782, the date twenty-four years earlier to which MME compares the present event. (Espenak, Solar Eclipses) (Edmunds, Tecumseh) it has passed thus on in a mental eliepseeclipse. Yesterday I awoke recalling the passage of one joyfull who sd said when he slept his heart waked . MME alludes to The Song of Solomon 5:2, which begins, I sleep, but my heart waketh. for the three past months most of my sleep has been with a heart awake to depression. It must be owing to my health, for God is my friend. x Written in pencil.

No.November 11. Almighty God! Have mercy upon me! Let this painfull perplexed memorable moment decide my soul.

12 I went the 1t first of Au.August to Boston & from thence to N.P. to take Sarah’s place who had the care of sister F—’s family the care of so numerous a family with a sick infant passed of very easily. The 10 of oct.october the dear & promising child died. It was a tender situation. It had become wholly attached to me and formed a great part of my pleasures. It’s Mother returned to the funeral and behaved with much calmness. MME may have been in Boston to visit her brother William Emerson, who lived there at this time. In 1806, MME and her sister Sarah Ripley took turns caring for Hannah Emerson Farnham and Hannah’s infant daughter Hannah Bliss Farnham, who were both ill with tuberculosis, in their Newburyport home. Hannah Bliss died on October 11, 1806 (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, pp. 116, 117) (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 36 n2). I came here to see idamaged might tarry there longer—returned thence for damaged damageds at the close of which, went to damaged damaged damaged entanceintance than for some years, entered more into society—thro’through situation not choice—many interesting passages of life with the most interesting characters among which the Sawyers Hannah & M. they have played with my feelings—duped my sagacity—flattered my self esteem and exposed my weak side. I love & dislike approve & shun abhor them. M. Ann grew on my affections. How fervently I pray God to bless them! A. Bromfield disappointed at first, pleased & interested & gained my respect. I hope a blessing will attend the acquaintance D.A.W. became almost my sole companion, MME refers to a group of young men and women, including the sisters Hannah Sawyer (later Hannah Sawyer Lee) and Mary Anna Sawyer (later Mary Anna Sawyer Schuyler), with whom she had become acquainted in Newburyport and Concord, Massachusetts by 1805. In June 1806, MME described these women as leaders of Newburyport’s beau monde. MME and Lee, who became an author, discussed William Cowper and Edward Young in 1806; Lee later joined this literary coterie, loosely led by Mary Wilder Van Schalkwyck of Concord. At age 17, while living with Hannah and William Farnham in Newburyport, MME first met Ann Bromfield. The two were associates in the same network of intellectual women throughout their lives and together suffered the death of their mutual friend Mary Wilder Van Schalkwyck. In 1843, MME referred to Bromfield as her antiently formed acquaintance. As a young lawyer and Harvard graduate, Daniel Appleton White boarded with the Farnhams in Newburyport. While there in 1806 caring for her ailing sister Hannah Farnham, MME described White as her sole companion … in the social table he occupied my attention & shortened my labors. She introduced White to her close friend Mary Wilder Van Schalkwyck in Concord; the two became engaged in January 1807 (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, pp. 17, 91, 117, 135, 262) (Simmons, Selected Letters, p. 36). (from the interest I took in his seeing my friend, & the pleasure the success afforded me), in the hours of a silent house—in the case of my little charge in the social table he occupied my attention & shortened my labours. How thankfull that he did no more. To others he appeared to, but there was no harm in their suspionsuspicion. On the whole devotion Decayed—ardor lost—levity gained—worldly intercourse induced common feelings—feelings—w’hwhich I abhor; tho’though they rather touched than resided in my heart. Many many miscarriages in delicacy, integrity & firmness—from damaged in gentleness with my family. In short I damaged damaged to retrace the beginnings of my damaged damaged I was doing the family never entered my heart nor rendered me important for an instant. How much better I might & ought to have done in one case is most painfully certain. Its consequences I know not I committed them, and this poor, feverish, weak, distorted soul went into the hands of an high Priest touched with human misery—an Advocate, if any man sin! MME alludes to Hebrews 4:15: For we have not an high Priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin.  I press to the throne of grace emboldened by his officesofficer. And I think myself sincere when I say to Him, that I had rather have died than passed the three last months. Yet in those months I have prefered my devotion to every social pleasue and death has been my most pleasant theme & hope. Yet there have been pious resolutions broken before human influence & private passion. No friendship I made but I would instantly relinquish to be free from this awfull reflection. No pleasur, I wd would not exchange for anguish.

13. Eve. What a frolick—is it from levity—not wholly I know—bereft of every human support—failed in some of the niciest points—how strangely made! I read some of Jones’ life MME likely refers to Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Correspondence of Sir William Jones (Simmons, Selected Letters, p. 37). & I never felt so intirely diminutive in point of knowledge & activity. Yet it was then I felt most grandly—at death. yes after death (& ten leigion of Angels can’t avert my death damaged my death, there is perfect musick in the sound) I shall enter the wide, the boundless domain of the damagediliefe, truth & nature! I shall then damaged nature of soul & body without tdamaged whole science of poetry in all its magic influence and trace it’s birth and progeny from one long age of bliss & praise to another. Compared to moments of divine intuition like these to antisapate, thy researches, Oh departed Linguist, seem puerile & uninteresting! MME likely refers to Sir William Jones, whose Memoirs of the Life she is reading at this time (Simmons, Selected Letters, p. 37). Since last eve. much queietness & ease Has all been done?! I know no omission but rising—no sacrifices—no labours—

14. Disapt Disappointment again about M.S— & now with DAW. My Uncle & Aunt gone & every thing in prisn prison. But I had rather have these devout emotions than the whole world. Sir W. Jones prays that when he died he might go where “he sd should increase in knowlegde & awfull love.” MME quotes from Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Correspondence, of Sir William Jones O thou Bestower of all Good! if it please thee to continue my easy tasks in this life, grant me strength to perform them as a faithful servant; but if thy wisdom hath willed to end them by this thy visitation, admit me, not weighing my unworthiness, but through thy mercy declared in Christ, into thy heavenly mansions, that I may continually advance in happiness, by advancing in true knowledge and awful love of thee. Thy will be done! (Jones, Memoirs, p. 256). What a noble petition! But sd should I not enter immediately on such a state—sd should my soul mingle with the dust of the earth & slumber away the long ages of time, I will praise God for death—the last convulsions of my soul shall bless him for every mode of existence.

19. I have just returned from Boston where I went to see poor sick sister Hannah Hannah Emerson Farnham died of tuberculosis in March 1807. Farnham, who lived in Newburyport, had previously travelled for her health, including to Boston, where her and MME’s brother William lived (Simmons, Selected Letters, p. 36) (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, pp. 116-17). there I enjoyed the literary & social society of my brother & my book very much. This day was snowy & deeply clouded—how this Town appeared is not easily described— To judge by appearances a spectator might have supposed that the apparatus of death to the sorry worldling or gaudy flutterer would not have been less abhorred. At first sight I always shrink but oh how suddenly do I collect myself—how damaged by do I tread on the storms & mists of life damaged the warm rays of of my Ma damaged With what designs in my head & heart do I return? Oh Father of my spirit! I dare not resolve—I foresee how little I shall accomplish—I shrink—imbecillity of body will soon arrest me— Yet I hope in God—a may be thy mercy will assist me in a wonderfull manner —this my dark disgracefull perieod (for I have sinned) may be the one when the hand of my Master may extricate me more happily than it did the drowning Apostle. MME alludes to Matthew 14:27-32: But straightway Jesus spake unto them, saying, Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid. And Peter answered him and said, Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water. And he said, Come. And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go to Jesus. But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord, save me. And immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt? And when they were come into the ship, the wind ceased. To my improvement in virtue alone shall every effort be made. I went to B. on friday with sister F & Daniel—that day came DAW. & MS. & Rogers—an incident of the most mortifying kind took place—one which spoke a language perhaps w’hwhich I should hear forever. No in the pursuit of glory I’ll not heed it. It has died in my memory.

20 Yes no pain but positive pleasur. Studiied a little the holy scriptures read the substance of towtwo ser.sermons 25 pages of the last lay & & 25 6 of Burke on x May be written in pencil.  political “state of nature” culture &c.” MME may refer to Edmund Burke’s A Vindication of Natural Society (1756), a pamphlet in which Burke frequently mentions the state of nature in his examination of social structures and religious belief. By tow ser. MME likely refers to Robert Robinson’s translations of the sermons of Jacques Saurin, which she mentions later in this paragraph and which she continues to praise over the next several months, both in the Almanacks and in her correspondence. The last lay is likely Sir Walter Scott’s The Lay of the Last Minstrel: A Poem (Canto First) (1805), a poem with which MME was very familiar and which her Concord friend and fellow literary coterie member, Mary Wilder Van Schalkwyck, states that she was reading on November 20, the evening of which she spent with MME in Concord  (Burke, Vindication, pp. 6, 8, 12, 20, 23, 43, 44, 48, 49) (Dwight, Memorials, pp. 248, 261). Not one idle inactive moment. God most mercifull I praise thee!

21 Morn I have read a sermon of Robinson’s. My soul yields herself with delight to faith & all it’s rapturous progeny!

Eve Positive happiness—& if not deluded, of the most rational damaged read towtwo of the best sermons I ever read. damaged damaged Tonight the sentiments of faith damaged damagedph in the hope of society, knowledge perfetion of every kind. My poverty of mind & all its brood of infirmities I glory in in prospect of my passions in Christ Jesus. At such times how eagerly my heart pants to confer bliss—how it visits every familiar form & embraces their prosperity.

24 A day of penetence & prayer for the past failures— How strongly impresed my mind with what a few hours before apd appeared trivaltrivial. How important (indispensably so) for a xianchristian to set apart such seasons. Never a more sad one—never one enduedendured so warmly in faith & hope. I blessed God I was out of punishment. Had I my deserts what shame & pain would involve me! Blessed & adorable Jesus—thy attonement how rich how adapted to my condition. Blessed & adorable Saviour how magnificent thy gospel! Henceforth to honor & beautify it shall be my sole design—rather than disgrace it, oh pardon my sins and take me to thyself— rather than mar & weaken its influence let my body be sunk into the depthes of the sea or dispersed by the vultures of the desert.

25. sab.sabbath Based on evidence that includes MME’s reflection on the next line that she worship[s] on this day as she had not for 16 sabbaths and her repeated date of 25 on the next page of this Almanack, the editors judge that this Almanack page was written in November 1806, four months after MME went to Newburyport to care for her ailing sister. If this date is correct, however, then MME mistakenly dates this sabbath November 25; in 1806, this date fell on a Tuesday.  eve. noon. I worshiped as I wished in sadness, where I had not for 16 sabbaths The last sunday I fully recall—the prospect of N P. was dark, health &c &c feeble, but what an enthusiasm of tranquil endurance & of fervid emotions of benevolence & pleasure endurance. The next at N.P. was more damaged the objects the same, with which I felt damaged God most mercifull could damaged damaged

Eve. How gratefull is penitence what a change does it work by inducing new obedience—not a modamaged not an object but now calls for my exertions. Age & deformity shall have my tenderness. How dreamy pleasure the most fascinating, & honor at view of accountability—at aspiring like the eagle to mount MME possibly alludes to Isaiah 40:31: But they that wait upon the LORD shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; and they shall walk, and not faint. —to pursue glory which will outlive the works of nature. The fear of the Lord that is wisdom—this I’ll follow—what fatness & marrow will it give my faculties! MME alludes to Psalms 111:10: The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom: a good understanding have all they that do his commandments: his praise endureth for ever; and to Psalms 63:5: My soul shall be satisfied as with marrow and fatness; and my mouth shall praise thee with joyfull lips.

25. He who dont value the breadblood of Christ and his offices never felt the stings of sin & the demands of the law. MME may allude to 1 Corinthians 15:56: The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the law. I thotthought I never was so fallen— With what rapture must the thief have received the promise of life MME likely alludes to Luke 23:39-43, in which Jesus promises paradise to a thief hanging next to him on a cross: And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself and us. But the other answering rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation? And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss. And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom. And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise. and the infamous woman at the feet of Jesus her pardon! MME alludes to Luke 7:37-38: And, behold, a woman in the city, which was a sinner, when she knew that Jesus sat at meat in the Pharisee’s house, brought an alabaster box of ointment, And stood at his feet behind him weeping, and began to wash his feet with tears, and did wipe them with the hairs of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment. Ah blessed gospel—while thy pardons are applied to my guilty soul thy precepts shall be ingraved on my heart & influence my life! The xianchristian is engaged in a career the most grand & important—his object is a character to be scrutinised before the universe—live coeval with elder spirits & in short it is connected with the glory of God!! I tremble!

26. Were my character to be lost amid the numerous worlds w’hwhich, probably, inhabit the universe, & undistinguished amid the infinite orders of intelligences, that no one wittness of it’s efforts should ever appear, yet the sole attributes of the Deity would be enough to induce the mdamaged suffusion in the attributes of God damaged damaged they alone they only sanctify—they alone constitute eveyevery idea & obligation of virtue glory & happiness! They sanctify by their omnipresence eveyevery virtuous affection, suffering & joy. An endless seclusion from nature & society with thy felt presence, oh source of all nature & beings, who art connected with every event & passeth thro’through all existances, would render my self for ever dear & valueable! My connection with thee by creation (for thy pleasure) gives me inexpressible hope, and tho’though lost by my depravity & forfeited by incessant (& oh by Holy seeking guilt) failures, yet restored and continued by the rich & magnificent offices of my high Priest, induces faith & confidence most merit which passeth knowliegde . MME may allude to Ephesians 3:19: And to know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge, that ye might be filled with all the fulness of God. God holy, infinite happy myself—unholy, minute feelble & often unhappy. And I find society in these contradictions—hope springs MME alludes to Alexander Pope’s An Essay on Man Hope springs eternal in the human breast: Man never Is, but always To be blest (Pope, Essay on Man, p. 3:24). — God with all his perfections loves me with me with all my miseries— with an everlasting love with loving kindness truth he drawn me. MME alludes to Jeremiah 31:3: The LORD hath appeared of old unto me, saying, Yea, I have loved thee with an everlasting love: therefore with lovingkindness have I drawn thee. “Before the xianchristian religion had as it were humanised the idea of the Divinity, & bro’tbrought it as it were somewhat nearer to us, there was little said about the love of God. The followers of Plato had somthing of it, & only somthing, the other writers of pagan antiquity, whether Poets or philosophers, nothing at all. And they who consider with what infinite attention, by what a disregard of imperishable object, thro’through what long habits of piety & contemplation it is, any man is able to attain an intire love & devotion to the Deity, will easily perceive that it is not the first, the most striking natural, and the most striking effect which proceeds from that idea.” Burke MME loosely quotes from Edmund Burke’s A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and BeautifulBefore the Christian religion has, as it were, humanized the idea of the Divinity, and brought it somewhat nearer to us, there was very little said of the love of God. The followers of Plato have something of it, and only something; the other writers of pagan antiquity, whether poets or philosophers, nothing at all. And they who consider with what infinite attention, by what a disregard to every perishable object, through what long habits of piety and contemplation it is, any man is able to attain an entire love and devotion to the Deity, will easily perceive, that it is not the first, the most natural, and the most striking effect which proceeds from that idea (Burke, Enquiry, p. 104).  

28 I went on wednesday to C—d with brother Daniel & returned today I fear I did not do right in going & regret it, tho’though I enjoyed the ride—self possesion—social & tender affections—yet since I returned I have sinned.— I erred there. How excruciating.

29 Awaked to penitnce how human & impenitent—what a restranstrestraint on my self against pleasure. The 18 chap.chapter of Mat.Matthew how awfull it’s instructions. Jesus adjudicates the greatest in the kingdom of heaven by offering severe instructions to his disciples in Matthew 18, particularly in verse 8: Wherefore if thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast them from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into everlasting fire; and in verse 9: And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire.

30 sabsabbath morn. Glowing with life, with health & hope I praise God! But I fear I am lacking in that wisdom so grand so indispensable. Yet when I antisapate sickness & destitution, in all its forms of mortifying the poor affections I find myself invironed by the presence of the infinite God—& I rejoice— I rejoice that the very nessisity of His adorabled nature unites my existance to his omnipresence. Should his fires visitation of affliction be in anger for my departure from truth &of practical holiness would not my spirit damaged damaged lyexcised haexcised pexcised neexcised glexcised &excised th excised a mexcised hisexcised to excised heexcised naexcised losexcised thexcised arexcised dinexcised likexcised ucexcised This leaf has been excised and is now a vertical fragment, approximately 14 cm in height, with little discernible text remaining. excisedut excisedts excisede excisedger excisedte This leaf has been excised and is now a vertical fragment, approximately 14 cm in height, with little discernible text remaining. damaged without activity) lose their charms when we are sensible of the divine perfections—a fullness & damaged as I have before said a silent wittness of his works & attributes and I should be forever happy. MME may allude to John 1:15-17: John bare witness of him, and cried, saying, This was he of whom I spake, He that cometh after me is preferred before me: for he was before me. And of his fulness have all we received, and grace for grace. For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. What damaged rities of happiness has He already indowed me with! Never insufficient to the sweetest tranquility and unremitting exertions but when depraved by mingling in the views pursuits & passiinspassions of others. I broke my engagments already or forgot them & wandered in the bewitching paths of fancy. How alarming such disorder—sin it’s concommittant. I tremble for what I’ve lost, and for what I must do. Very clear ideas of this state of probation connected by all it’s deeds with future glory. Away with devout prayers—faith in a Mediator’s responsibility—delight at tho’tthought of death, & assurance of salviation because of the leading features of xianitychristianity . Nothing short of standing complete & perfect MME alludes to Colossians 4:12: Epaphras, who is one of you, a servant of Christ, saluteth you, always labouring fervently for you in prayers, that ye may stand perfect and complete in all the will of God. —of imitating Jesus Christ in every trait of his imitableinimitable & sacred character shall henceforth be my object. My wisdom & glory to feel superior to those pleasurs w’hwhich are innocent in ’emselvesthemselves & inchanting —not designed for my constitution—better for those who are colder, & less solitioussolicitous for future advance. The greater they are the greater to forgo them. With ot thoseere I’ll pass the late injury & dare my chamber e ternity is before me—and I may sensibly notice by damaged tinsity of habit more than my cotemporaries expect: damagedtever divine attributes belong to my Saviour, damaged example for us, and the more grand damaged damaged his wonder damaged and the more zealously we sd should aspire to those same heights of perfection.

9 What a morning of worship! Sweetest highest day— Lotts damaged done & nothing suffered—but what was done —performed in unremitting obedience. What is truth I love God with all my heart and mi nd. MME alludes to Mark 12:30: And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment. One proof is that I when I contemplate the day light of an open & abundant entrance MME may allude to 2 Peter 1:11: For so an entrance shall be ministered unto you abundantly, into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. —when I feel the whole force of anxity to rise in the scale of moral excellence it is from motives of love, of fear of obedience to God rather than ambition— it is to be fully receivd by Him— conformity to his will that stimulates me. His will my delight, MME alludes to Psalms 40:8: I delight to do thy will, O my God: yea, thy law is within my heart. and while I see the world before, and contemplate happier myriads in Heaven than myself I press on to do my utmost to be found of Him in peace. His will gives me my tabeltalent and I rejoice in it.

10 Weak day—closed a painfull business—never, never more to resume it.— what has it not cost me? Perpetually convinced that I am priviledged above others—but that I must not seek for any thing they injoy—what scenes of abstraction of angelic joy of peece of elevated pleasurs lie before me Once cut the ties of earth and an spiritual ixestanceexistence commences!

11 Yes, and I viewd with delight the glimmering sun this dreary morning & said its light aid me to founder when do a work that would damaged age & dying hours. Walked thdamaged pjhk excised sexcised (excised scexcised ceexcised enexcised toexcised sexcised This leaf has been excised and is now a vertical fragment, approximately 12 cm in height, with little discernible text remaining. excisede excisede exciseds This leaf has been excised and is now a vertical fragment, approximately 12 cm in height, with little discernible text remaining. damaged ut I run—& fancy was victor—alass— damaged member a colder storm—never a day of more ardor in damaged nate devotion & literature. At eve in ironing fancy damaged the intire guidance. Alass no more fear of God— Horace said it was the last effort of philosophicaly to fortitude to contemplate the immense & glorious structer of the univese without without terror & amazement.” MME misquotes from Edmund Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and BeautifulAn heathen poet has a sentiment of a similar nature; Horace looks upon it as the last effort of philosophical fortitude, to behold without terror and amazement, this immense and glorious fabric of the universe (Burke, Enquiry, p. 297). To feel this what would be the worth of existence how inlarged how sanctified.

13 Day of literary reading & good spirits. Eve the uncommon solemnity.

14 sab.sabbath eve. When I am rid of this cold putrid body I shall adore & worship as elder spirits do. A joyous day but not victorious.

15 Visited P. Wait—little impression fomfrom reflecting on the variety of scenes, of sympathy friendship—&—vanity & errors passed in 18 months & little from the prospects of those to come. Said just the things I sd should not lost command of my fancy in going.

16 Day of joy & reading. Can I hope too largely when He who made yon skies is the only Being I am connected with.

17. A being possessed of senses which illegible correspond to the objects of magnifiicent nature & supply me with involuntary rapture—with reason— with sensibility—with moral agency—the grand foundation of my connection with God and all perhaps, that that imparts of future glory—with sympathy love & friendship & benevolence—with these my heart bounds forward with too frequent exultdamaged t—for all these gifts are idle mean damaged damaged zeal in the cause of holiness. By joy I crdamaged off my gourd—bitter let me feel it. Irrecoverable text due to manuscript damage adds to the difficulty of understanding the complete context for this unusual phrase. In the early nineteenth century, as today, gourd was a colloquial term for head; our research has not determined whether the colloquialism off my gourd then, as today, meant emotionally unbalanced, nor is it evident, given the missing text, what MME may have meant by such a phrase in the context of this Almanack passage. She may, however, refer to one of two biblical gourds. In the book of Jonah, chapter 4, Jonah has reluctantly gone to Nineveh to deliver God’s warning that its city’s residents should repent of their sinful ways or risk destruction. All of the people and the king took the message seriously. They repented, fasted, and prayed for mercy, and God therefore decided not to punish them, which angered Jonah, who had waited outside the city gates to watch Nineveh’s destruction: So Jonah went out of the city, and sat on the east side of the city, and there made him a booth, and sat under it in the shadow, till he might see what would become of the city. And the Lord God prepared a gourd, and made it to come up over Jonah, that it might be a shadow over his head, to deliver him from his grief. So Jonah was exceeding glad of the gourd. But God prepared a worm when the morning rose the next day, and it smote the gourd that it withered. And it came to pass, when the sun did arise, that God prepared a vehement east wind; and the sun beat upon the head of Jonah, that he fainted, and wished in himself to die, and said, It is better for me to die than to live. And God said to Jonah, Doest thou well to be angry for the gourd? And he said, I do well to be angry, even unto death. Then said the Lord, Thou hast had pity on the gourd, for the which thou hast not laboured, neither madest it grow; which came up in a night, and perished in a night: And should not I spare Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than sixscore thousand persons that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand; and also much cattle (Jonah 4:5-11). Perhaps, in referring to my gourd—bitter let me feel it, MME compares her own displeasure at her visiting Company with Jonah’s lack of empathy for the Ninevites. Although less likely, MME could refer to a bitter or poisonous gourd in 2 Kings 4:38-40: And Elisha came again to Gilgal; and there was a dearth in the land; and the sons of the prophets were sitting before him: and he said unto his servant, Set on the great pot, and see the pottage for the sons of the prophets. And one went out into the field to gather herbs, and found a wild vine, and gathered thereof wild gourds his lap full, and came and shred them into the pot of pottage: for they knew them not. So they poured out for the men to eat. And it came to pass, as they were eating of the pottage, that they cried out, O thou man of God, there is death in the pot. And they could not eat thereof. Company damaged the same I had a year since—was not so elevated—absolutely disgusted with the task and I was just animated to be decent. From such society what lurking monitions arise that I shall one be among better. I took care of my weaork folks with pleasure but there are some with bodies of ladies so disgusting to reason & refinement that to shrink is not antibenvolintantibenevolent. I hope God will forgive me if I pass at first penitence for the guilt of the day, in thanks giving for my being. Alone with Him—ever with Him—in every individual instant of my existence, whether alive or dead—here on earth, or in the uttermost parts of Heaven or in the abodes of Hell! MME may be alluding to Psalms 139:8: If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: if I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there. Abodes of hell was a common literary phrase in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, as evidenced by these examples from Thomas Cook’s translation of Hesiod’s The Theogony: Th’ abodes of Hell from the same fountain rise; from William Falconer’s The ShipwreckSuch torments in the drear abodes of hell; and from Tobias Smollett’s translation of Miguel De Cervantes Saavedra’s The History and Adventures of the Renowned Don QuixoteNor am I, in the least, mortified to hear that I wander like a fantastic shadow through the dark abodes of hell (Cooke, Theogony, p. 142) (Falconer, Shipwreck, p. 120) (Smollett, Don Quixote, p. 2:445).

18 Morn. What signifies the paltry speculations of Philosophers & Divines about the immediate agency of the great God? Convinced only of his infinity—of his omnipresence and it matters not whether his material or mental laws are effected in their operation by his perpetual agency or by qualities indowed by Him ages agone! In either case it is abdamaged His will and man’s accountability, tho’though damaged damagedtant damaged nexcised hexcised oexcised texcised This leaf has been excised and is now a vertical fragment, approximately 9 cm. in height, with little discernible text remaining. excisedes excised d exciseds This leaf has been excised and is now a vertical fragment, approximately 9 cm in height, with little discernible text remaining. damaged the weakness of damaged and the sympathy of feeling

Eve—never a more exalted moment than that w’hwhich penned the above—one ten minuttes damaged a stranger appeared—only a friend— Sweet memories best & noblest where did ye flee! Ah my heart is in tears—over the departed morning! Tokens of affection, esteem & friendship thro’through the medium of damagedcial hour—dearly purchased—I loathe ye—the immaculate manners of devotion sped in your intercourse. “God of our Fathers what is man” ; MME alludes to a portion of Psalms 144:3: LORD, what is man, that thou takest knowledge of him! or the son of man, that thou makest account of him!; and to Acts 3:13: The God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the God of our fathers, hath glorified his Son Jesus; whom ye delivered up, and denied him in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let him go. never completely happy but at thy feet in adoration. Yet I erred not I was unusually fortunate yet I hate the morn & the day. I walked to rid myself of the impression. I wrote to MVS. I panted to give pleasur amid my own disgust of my own self.

19 Morn. Whoever read Virgil’s account of the dead & doubted whether the soul of man is not impressed with religion by the hand of it’s Creator— —prepared for revelation. How sublime & pious the suggestion that the souls of the happy are united to the Deity. MME refers to Virgil’s Aeneid, in which a part of the underworld, Elysium, is reserved for contented souls. The “hero” of Elysium, Musæus, describes this idyllic aspect of Hades: First then, the divine Spirit within sustains the Heavens, the Earth, and watery Plains, the Moon’s enlightened Orb, and shining Stars; and the eternal Mind, diffused through all the Parts of Nature, actuates the whole stupendous Fame, and mingles with the vast Body of the Universe. Thence proceed the Race of Men and Beasts, the vital Principles of the flying Kind, and the Monsters which the Ocean breeds under its smooth crystal Plain. These Principles have the active Force of Fire, and are of a heavenly Original, which they exert so far as they are not clogged by noxious Bodies, blunted by Earth-born Limbs and sickly dying Members. From the Union and Incumbrance they are subjected to various Passions, they fear and desire, grieve and rejoice: and, shut up in Darkness and a gloomy Prison, lose Sight of their native Skies. Nay, even when with the last Beams of Light their Life is gone, yet not every Ill, nor all corporeal Stains, are quite removed from the unhappy Beings: And it is absolutely unavoidable that many vicious Habits, which have long grown up with the Soul, should be strangely confirmed and riveted therein. Therefore are they afflicted with Pains, and pay the Penalties of their former Ills. Some, hung on high, are spread out to whiten in the empty Winds: In others the Guilt not done away is washed out in a vast watery Abyss, or burnt away in Fire: We have each of us his Demon, from whom we suffer, till Length of Time, after the fixed Period is elapsed, hath done away the inherent Stains, and hath left celestial Reason pure from all irregular Passions, and the Soul, that Spark of heavenly Fire, in its original Purity and Brightness, simple and unmixed. Then are we conveyed into Elysium, and we, who are the happy few, possess the Field of Bliss. All these Souls whom you see, after they have rolled away a thousand Years, are summoned fothirrth by the God in a great Body to the River Lethe; to the Intent that, losing Memory of the past, they may revisit the Upper Regions, and again become willing to return into Bodies (Virgil, Æneid, pp. 2:162-64)

Eve Night. Painful day thro’through damagedsptuorsn. Past eve. out enjoyed it—erred in return most foolishly. Such is the laows of my constitution that there is somthing of nessisity attached in my errors when I am social. Therefore it seems my wisdom to avoid relaxation however stupid my life. Let me be but innocent and let others shine & inspdamaged damaged 

Noon. I cannot with every experiment keep damagedtudamaged I am sad—be it more damaged the feet of Him to love—if no fortitude can counteract them meekness shall make them “peris damaged an hour after & Rogers & R Hurd came—lost the day— How fervently I desire to see nothing interesting here

21 Erred morn. Zealous day at chhchurch & damaged

22 Never did nature inrapture me so. I pant as the hart to taste &c MME alludes to Psalms 42:1: As the hart panteth after the water brooks, so panteth my soul after thee, O God. —to grow in knowledge & virtue. What delusion & madness to forfeit the smalest advantage in a future world whose laws are permanent; to the most splendid in this. Yet today the rovings of fancy have deluded my reason

23. Never a morning more rapt & eve. The same drudgery of company a year agone. How misterious the power w’hwhich renovates as it were our ardor; our patience our freshness of pleasurs. Never could a party of fanatics be more odious than this and never was a richeeker evening.

25. Yesterday & today read dilligently —suffered from my eyes and close struggles with ignorance & doubts. Receivd Received letters from Miss R H—d MVS and Mr. White. I can sleep quietly, tho’though the towtwo last give me pleasur. “ Oh Solitude thou nurse of sense Where the free soul looks down & pitys Kings. ” How abstracted & calm

26. I don’t know what doubt means respecting the truths facts of related in the scriptures. It may be owing to ignorance of the rnesdamaged damagedirs of scepticism, tho’though when conversant with damaged only inlivened my faith damaged damagedill or rather their modes of existing are damagedning. But the bible brings it’s own evidence damaged meeting with internal evidence. Were man damagedid of permanent pininiplesprinciples—merely the creature of habit—or totally depraved there would be no such thing as internal evidence for the exitxtanceexistence of God and the justicee of his law. Were the bible a fiction, and the I not shaken in the faith of God and his moral govt government, I sd should be happy & pious; after having been formed on the plan of the gospel rules. I feel that while the first great Cause of beauty & holiness lives I shall be happy. Were physical nessisity (the meanest of all doctrines) true I should be happy if God were the agent. But God is a moral agent, and wonderfull as the gift, he hath given moral agency to men. Astonishing gift they who would loosen the obligations of moral accountability say, “would you take the merit of your salvation would bring God in debt”? Our research has located no direct source of this quotation, which may be MME’s own rhetorical query. MME seems to be paraphrasing a common theological argument relative to divine grace in bestowing salvation, the question of free will versus determinism, and moral agency as well as the burden of human accountability to observe strict moral codes. Similar wording is found in various theological works with which MME may have been familiar, including Man’s Natural Blindness in the Things of Religion by Jonathan Edwards, nations under Popish darkness . . . think they can do works of supererogation: that is, more good works than they are obliged to do, whereby they bring God into debt to them (qtd. in Hopkins, Sermon III, pp. 183-184); Edwards’s Great Christian Doctrine of Original Sin Defended: But the merit of our respect or obedience to God is not infinite. The merit of respect to any being does not increase, but is rather diminished, in proportion to the obligations we are under in strict justice to pay him that respect. There is no great merit in paying a debt we owe, and by the highest possible obligations in strict justice are obliged to pay, but there is great demerit in refusing to pay it. That on such accounts as these there is an infinite demerit in all sin against God, which must therefore immensely outweigh all the merit which can be supposed to be in our virtue, I think, is capable of full demonstration; and that the futility of the objections which some have made against the argument, might most plainly be demonstrated (Edwards, Original Sin, pp. 155-156); and writings by William Romaine: All his mercies are covenant mercies; given from mere grace, and given to miserable sinners—not to make them self-admirers, but to humble them—not to lead them to think that they can bring God in debt to them for his own gifts, or for the right use of them, which is a fresh gift—but he gives all the praise of the glory of his grace (Romaine, Works, p. 1 pp. 274-75). Miserable, more miserable, most miserable deduction! God infinite and eternal, hath inhanced the gift of salvation by a contrivance of benevolence so grand that the damagedbjects of it cannot believe it. Believing damaged glimspglimpse of this light from Godhead. It is damaged imperfect view any can have of this divine act of goverment. The holy cabinet is surrounded with clouds & darkness; and we must not go too near leastlest we die. The ark which contained all the revealed law was covered with the wings of cherubims—these would incite rather than repress devotion—the law was known to all the purposes of obedience—the whole scheme of govt government and all it’s relations which extend thro’through ages past & future cannot be comprehended by man. In view of the parts he must adore with the seraphim who cover their faces and with those Angels who cast their crowns at the divine feet MME alludes to several biblical verses as follows: Psalms 97:2: Clouds and darkness are round about him: righteousness and judgment are the habitation of his throne; Exodus 20:19: And they said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear: but let not God speak with us, lest we die; 1 Kings 8:6-8: And the Priests brought in the Ark of the Covenant of the LORD unto his place, into the oracle of the house, to the most holy place, even under the wings of the cherubims. For the cherubims spread forth their two wings over the place of the ark, and the cherubims covered the ark, and the staves thereof above. And they drew out the staves, that the ends of the staves were seen out in the holy place before the oracle, and they were not seen without: and there they are unto this day; Isaiah 6:1-2: In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple. Above it stood the seraphims: each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly; and Revelations 4:8-10: And the four beasts had each of them six wings about him; and they were full of eyes within: and they rest not day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, LORD God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come. And when those beasts give glory, and honour and thanks to him that sat on the throne, who liveth for ever and ever, The four and twenty elders fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship him that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying, Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour, and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created.

damaged of damaged couny damaged damaged am the woes of the nessitiores with damaged damaged life giving hopes of future riches & joys! The Author concludes that he believes this world the Bedlam of the universe—if so a natural state unsustained by law by custom by “acts & facts those acts to aid” what theatre of extreme wretchedness? Annotation still in progress. It seems that to have a natural state in any way tolerable there sd should be an entire equality in the intellect & corporeal community. And then the torpid, savage state exhibits its fairstfairest tints Annotation still in progress.

MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 3), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Written 26 December 1806–c. 22 May 1807. Malden, Newburyport, Boston, and Concord, Massachusetts. 14 MS sheets, bearing considerable damage due to burning, foxing, and water; folder also includes many MS scraps with either no text or too little text to discern or transcribe. This Almanack opens with MME calling attention to it as “the record of virtue … of the history of a soul.” She reflects on her recent behavior, cataloging her errors and penitence and vowing to “do better” and to be worthy of divine grace. Tensions in her life at this time are reflected in many passages describing her unease with the terms of the property sale of the Malden estate of which MME was more than three-fifths owner. This Almanack reflects her reading of Alexander Pope’s Dunciad, the writings of Anglican bishop Joseph Butler, and the sermons of eighteenth-century British theologian Robert Robinson. Moreover, on what the editors speculate is 30 January 1807, this fascicle documents MME’s apparent refusal of a marriage proposal from an unidentified suitor. Other personal matters recorded here are the continuing serious illness of MME’s sister in Newburyport, Hannah Emerson Farnham, who died from tuberculosis on 27 March 1807. A month later, MME traveled to Boston when her nephew, John Clarke Emerson, died at age seven on 26 April. Ralph Waldo Emerson transcribed several of this fascicle’s pages in his MME Notebook 2; substantive differences between his transcriptions and MME’s text are encoded in this interface display.

Malden 18061806 Cross-written vertically in the middle of the page in darker ink.

1806-12-26 December 26 1806 . Never was the a date mandated issued from the hand of royalty more important than the above. It is related to days & ages beyond this sphere. It is the record of virtue—the beginning of a portion of the history of a soul—struggling with weakness & ignorance and opposite appetites to the pure state of Heaven! St. Stephen’s, or Boxing, Day is traditionally celebrated on December 26 in Great Britain and much of Europe, but the significance of this date in this passage seems personal. On this day after Christmas, MME begins a new Almanack, the record of virtue…the history of a soul. Hand of royalty may allude to 1 Peter 2:9, in which Christians are deemed royal: But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light. But more likely, perhaps, is that MME suggests that these Almanacks, the written record of a self-educated American woman, are as significant as any royal decree. God of infinite power & love aid the being before thee to honor thee & herself in this little history. Bless her with no common & ordinary portion of thy wisdom—all else is dust and ashes! MME alludes to Genesis 18:27: And Abraham answered and said, Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, which am but dust and ashes. This day so dark—so incumbered hath been filled—yes filled with devotion—zeal—patience & joy.

27 Morn. The morning dawns with rapture on me— What was I a few weeks since? With what abhorrence I recall social duties w’hwhich led to weakness. The passions agitated me—but it is no more—the cold moon beams have drank it—the air—the light of the far distant orbs have scattered it—have purged my mind —a cloud of wittnesses MME alludes to Hebrews 12:1: Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us. has beheld my divorcement from sense—my ascent from earth. Have seen me laugh at age & poverty & destitution. But this moment of transport must give place to humbler graver purer services

Night. “Little end of the horn.” Little end of the horn is a colloquialism meaning when a ridiculously small effect has been produced after great effort and much boasting (Bartlett, Dictionary, p. 403). Governed my temper.

28. Sab.Sabbath morn. It has been the employment of ages to account for moral & phisialphysical evil in a world created by infinite benevolence. And it is by not unnatural nor impious. Were there no misteries in the “ways” of God, there would be no infinite Being. MME may allude to many biblical verses that reference the ways of God. See, for example, Job 49:19 and Isaiah 55:8-9. She may also have in mind Alexander Pope’s Essay on Man, which includes the lines Laugh where we must, be candid where we can; / But vindicate the ways of God to Man; or to John Milton’s Paradise Lost, which includes a similar phrase in book one: I may assert eternal Providence, / And “justify the ways of God to men (Pope, Essay on Man, p. 14) (Milton, Paradise Lost, p. 2). And finite existance would look forward without the nameless charms of hope & curioitycuriosity. Freedom of will—the inestimable gift of moral agency and capasity to obtain the favor of God must alone solve the difficulty & account for the origin of sin. That evil damaged speculation may conjure a thousand labyrnths is thetre damaged —so it may find in the construction of the earth a multitude of deformities—but the earth remains a witness of the power wisdom & goodness of God operating by general laws the benefit of the whole; and man as a religious & accountable creature a lasting monument of the eminent goodness of his Maker. The defects of nature are the first & immutable lessons of futurity considering the world the creature of a good God. — they bespeake the order & extent of a progressive & diversified univerce. We are an inferior chain in the link of beings at present—governed in some measure by the nesisity of exterior causes, yet free to all the purposes of reward & punishment. To those who comprehend nothing beyond their senses who behold nothing of progress & endless diversity in the works of God find a easy soultionsolution to every inexplicable feature in providence by the imputation of Adam’s sin. And that the first proginitors introduced the habit of sin is undoubtedly true. To those incapable of looking farther, and we are not obliged to look beyond (no plan could be more easily digested, than that of imputation. MME may be commonplacing on these Almanack pages, but research has not located any definite sources for this lengthy discussion of various concepts relating to Christian theology. For my own trials, I can find nothing I wish altered—can contrive no state so favorable to, & preparatory for the pure joys of a Heaven than the pains & exertions of earth.

Eve one damaged apparently trifling) habit it consequences—ask for damaged virtue it worth? Think of God!!

29. Today saw my father & Sister Ripley. How unexppected! How calm the pleasur—how sweet it’s remembrance. She is a growing xianchristian— Dreadfull eve. I sinned.

30 Papa returned Erred a little—

31. Closed the year cheerfully. Jan 1-7, 1807 Interlined with a caret in darker ink; possibly in non-authorial hand. Began it with the most elevated devotion—a moment and I made a foolish bargain, thothough I added to my estate yet I had rather be without it than to have descended. MME refers often in this Almanack to a property settlement of the Malden estate of her paternal grandmother, also named Mary Moody Emerson, which included a home and three acres, in which MME lived with her aunt and uncle Ruth and Nathan Sargent. In 1796, at age twenty-one, MME inherited a parcel of this property (accounts differ on the size of this portion) and then leased it to the Sargents for the duration of Ruth’s life, so that the couple continued to reside there with her. In December 1801, MME sold one-sixth of the property for one hundred and fifty dollars to Samuel Wait, who married Ruth Sargent the following month, Nathan Sargent having died in 1798. In 1807, Wait and MME sold the estate for three thousand dollars to Samuel Tufts, three-fifths of which sum ($1,800) were MME’s proceeds from the sale. An added component of this transaction is that Ruth’s sister, Rebecca Emerson Brintnall, whom MME likely refers to as “Mrs. B.” in this Almanack and who also lived in the Malden home, had for the consideration of one dollar in December 1801 purchased from MME and Silas Moody the rights to “the sixth part of all the real estate … (viz) the southwest chamber with a privilidge [sic] in the cellar, garret, yard, and pump, with full liberty of passing to and from said premises, also the east part or half of the garden front of the house as the fence now stands” (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 4-5); (Corey, History, pp. 648-49); (Registry of Deeds, p. 169 pp. 446-47). MME’s reference to a twenty dollar gift to “Mrs. B.” may indicate a small payment to this aunt as consideration for her small share of the property settlement. Concord historian George Tolman characterizes MME as “having lost her temper” over the terms of the sale, “as if she had been defrauded,” an exaggeration of the mixed sentiments she expresses on the subject in this Almanack. In Tolman’s view, MME “got more of the purchase money than she was entitled to,” and he blames MME’s “utter ignorance of business methods” and “curiously distorted notions of the matter of finance and business” as the reasons for (in his view) her injured feelings (Tolman, Mary Moody Emerson, pp. 5-6). Middlesex County property records reveal simply the details of the transactions themselves, i.e., the parties and sums involved and the dates of these transactions. Additional research has not shed light on MME’s emotions about the sale at this time, nor do they confirm Tolman’s conclusions.  2. Is it possible I sd should err so from warmth of feeling— 3. Worked. 4 sab.sabbath eve. Fatigued beyond devotion—inrapturing duties—lessened the pains of the destitute & sick. ChhChurch in the afternoon— thoroughlytho roughly MME clearly writes “tho” (or “tho’”) and “roughly” as two separate words, but since the word(s) can, in the context of this Almanack passage, be sensibly read as “though roughly” or “thoroughly,” the editors provide both options. awake to worship— I ask no more. 4 To give so much pleasur to beings whom I tho’tthought incapable of any is pleasant. It is with no comon measur of gratitude I behold servants & their children, the poor & dispised brighten as I approach. It was what I never calculatedthought—to benefit—to riot in the bestowment of the “mite” was all I considered—it’s consequent pleasures are dearer than all the joys of fancy. 5 What a morng.morning what a descent—angry at a poor old man because he was loath to let me have my money. Ridiculous. How did I urge it on my Father to do more for me—that every adventitious gift hitherto was trifling, I asked I needed I hungered for so much more. MME refers often in this Almanack to a property settlement of the Malden estate of her paternal grandmother, also named Mary Moody Emerson, which included a home and three acres, in which MME lived with her aunt and uncle Ruth and Nathan Sargent. In 1796, at age twenty-one, MME inherited a parcel of this property (accounts differ on the size of this portion) and then leased it to the Sargents for the duration of Ruth’s life, so that the couple continued to reside there with her. In December 1801, MME sold one-sixth of the property for one hundred and fifty dollars to Samuel Wait, who married Ruth Sargent the following month, Nathan Sargent having died in 1798. In 1807, Wait and MME sold the estate for three thousand dollars to Samuel Tufts, three-fifths of which sum ($1,800) were MME’s proceeds from the sale. An added component of this transaction is that Ruth’s sister, Rebecca Emerson Brintnall, whom MME likely refers to as “Mrs. B.” in this Almanack and who also lived in the Malden home, had for the consideration of one dollar in December 1801 purchased from MME and Silas Moody the rights to “the sixth part of all the real estate … (viz) the southwest chamber with a privilidge [sic] in the cellar, garret, yard, and pump, with full liberty of passing to and from said premises, also the east part or half of the garden front of the house as the fence now stands” (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 4-5); (Corey, History, pp. 648-49); (Registry of Deeds, p. 169 pp. 446-47). MME’s reference to a twenty dollar gift to “Mrs. B.” may indicate a small payment to this aunt as consideration for her small share of the property settlement. Concord historian George Tolman characterizes MME as “having lost her temper” over the terms of the sale, “as if she had been defrauded,” an exaggeration of the mixed sentiments she expresses on the subject in this Almanack. In Tolman’s view, MME “got more of the purchase money than she was entitled to,” and he blames MME’s “utter ignorance of business methods” and “curiously distorted notions of the matter of finance and business” as the reasons for (in his view) her injured feelings (Tolman, Mary Moody Emerson, pp. 5-6). Middlesex County property records reveal simply the details of the transactions themselves, i.e., the parties and sums involved and the dates of these transactions. Additional research has not shed light on MME’s emotions about the sale at this time, nor do they confirm Tolman’s conclusions. The universe fades before me I ask nothing but nearer conformity to Him I love supremely. Angels & princedoms—I press in imajanation nearer to the throne of my Priest my King and Saviour than you! MME may allude to Hebrews 8:1: Now of the things which we have spoken this is the sum: We have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens. The richighest joys are those of communion. God may be better his own Almoner than I, if I feel vanity or the soil soil of littleness! There is an awfull—a sublime and unspeakable duty of self preservation in the constitution of man—immortal man, who is to live with a holy God forever—before which all publick & social duties diminish (only as connected with this one infinite object) and perish with the dust when the earth is burnt. 7. After all that I sinned. But I’ll hope & struggle & hope & struggle Papa consents that I sd should sell the place. MME refers often in this Almanack to a property settlement of the Malden estate of her paternal grandmother, also named Mary Moody Emerson, which included a home and three acres, in which MME lived with her aunt and uncle Ruth and Nathan Sargent. In 1796, at age twenty-one, MME inherited a parcel of this property (accounts differ on the size of this portion) and then leased it to the Sargents for the duration of Ruth’s life, so that the couple continued to reside there with her. In December 1801, MME sold one-sixth of the property for one hundred and fifty dollars to Samuel Wait, who married Ruth Sargent the following month, Nathan Sargent having died in 1798. In 1807, Wait and MME sold the estate for three thousand dollars to Samuel Tufts, three-fifths of which sum ($1,800) were MME’s proceeds from the sale. An added component of this transaction is that Ruth’s sister, Rebecca Emerson Brintnall, whom MME likely refers to as “Mrs. B.” in this Almanack and who also lived in the Malden home, had for the consideration of one dollar in December 1801 purchased from MME and Silas Moody the rights to “the sixth part of all the real estate … (viz) the southwest chamber with a privilidge [sic] in the cellar, garret, yard, and pump, with full liberty of passing to and from said premises, also the east part or half of the garden front of the house as the fence now stands” (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 4-5); (Corey, History, pp. 648-49); (Registry of Deeds, p. 169 pp. 446-47). MME’s reference to a twenty dollar gift to “Mrs. B.” may indicate a small payment to this aunt as consideration for her small share of the property settlement. Concord historian George Tolman characterizes MME as “having lost her temper” over the terms of the sale, “as if she had been defrauded,” an exaggeration of the mixed sentiments she expresses on the subject in this Almanack. In Tolman’s view, MME “got more of the purchase money than she was entitled to,” and he blames MME’s “utter ignorance of business methods” and “curiously distorted notions of the matter of finance and business” as the reasons for (in his view) her injured feelings (Tolman, Mary Moody Emerson, pp. 5-6). Middlesex County property records reveal simply the details of the transactions themselves, i.e., the parties and sums involved and the dates of these transactions. Additional research has not shed light on MME’s emotions about the sale at this time, nor do they confirm Tolman’s conclusions. I teaed at Parson’stook tea at the Parson’s. Never felt more depressed because I found marks of human nature smale marks upon me. Oh grave grave when wilt thou open!

8. Dullish day but promises to end well—precousprecious day for I retrace no error—remember with delight the figure of porcupine age—of my poor guest of no omission. Ages hence and this day will be splendid compared to the lively ones Take from me oh my Father health, knowledge food & home frendship & reptutation—only leave me in the full possesion of advancing virtue—conformity to tThee. I love thee. I know it—and yet I am not every thing I sd should be—love Thee in all thy manifested perfections—respect those laws which I think thro’ow me at a distance from thy immediate agency, and bewilder my researches—if governed by general laws and my disasters to be retrived by no other method, I submit without a murmur.

9. There is a faith in our character the most cheering w’hwhich amid discouraging events keeps us up. Tho’Though I have sinned by the provacation I reced received sinned very much, passionatly yet I feel that my penitence and restitution is accepted that I shall get on in many respects better, that it spoke not the temper of my life but accident. Still my soul shrinks back at the retrospect & loathes life—a capasity to sin so badly— My God pity me. I want humility by nature & of late by habit. Ah the dismal story of Sir Balaam but too well paints the radical defects of human nature. MME likely refers to Alexander Pope’s Moral Essays, which contains four ethical poems. Sir Balaam appears in Epistle III, in a poem that describes the fate of the Profuse and the Covetous (31). The last line of the poem is And sad Sir Balaam curses God and dies (46). Pope’s satire focuses on the biblical prophet Balaam who as recounted in Numbers 22-24, once obedient to God, becomes tempted by money to curse God (Pope, Epistle III). Oh immense power of circumstances—give me absolute destitution if that increase virtue. The most lasting & fervent desire on earth is to be placed among my acknowlacknowledged superiors in talent & virtue. How sd should I grow—how exult! Did they dispise me, I sd should associate with more zeal with God himself

10. Positive overbalance of devotion virtue & pleasue. Read the most of the Dunciad. Enjoyed much higher the elegant sermon of Robinson. In 1728, Alexander Pope published anonymously his Dunciad, a mock heroic satire denouncing political and literary dullness. As reflected in earlier Almanacks, MME continues in this fascicle to enjoy reading Robert Robinson’s sermons.

11 sabsabbath morn. I cannot but respect the conclusion of some sceptics when they rest on this conclusion that God exists and their own idintity. Thou existest oh Father of spirits and I exist! And here I find endless cause for exultation. Whether the material world be or appear is indifferent Philosophical skepticism traditionally withholds judgments such as religious belief. Throughout her Almanacks, MME argues with the theories of noted skeptic David Hume. However, MME may here regard as “sceptics” Rationalists such as René Descartes, who posit both their own and God’s existence through rational arguments, thereby avoiding the need for faith. Hebrews 12:9 refers to “the Father of spirits.” In declaring God’s and her own existence, MME may paraphrase Descartes’s assertion of religious belief based on the reasoning that “because I that have this Idea do my self Exist; I do so clearly conclude that God also Exists, and that on him my Being depends each Minute” (Descartes, Meditations, p. 56). MME further claims to be “indifferent” to the argument between the Rationalists and later schools of philosophy regarding whether or not the material world is as it seems to the human observer. Descartes holds that the physical world does exist apart from human ability to know or understand it: “We must conclude that there are Corporeal Beings”; and, “For if we suppose any thing in the Idea, which was not in its cause, it must of necessity have this from nothing; but (tho it be a most Imperfect manner of existing, by which the thing is objectively in the Intellect by an Idea, yet) it is not altogether nothing, and therefore cannot proceed from nothing(Descartes, Meditations, pp. 96, 38). In contrast, philosophers such as George Berkeley maintain that humans can achieve no certainty about the physical world: “All things that exist, exist only in the mind, that is, they are purely notional. … The only thing whose existence we deny, is that which philosophers call matter or corporeal substance” (Berkeley, Principles, p. 114). —whether those whom I can care or console be, or appear is of little importance while there is an abolute certainty of my virtue by means of these appearances. Thus in feeling one rests contented with these speculations; but when we trace it’s consequences, and find it subverts all rational proof of revelation, especially of the ministy of Christ, and of practical morality we must expunge it with contempt. It is not like many errors which tho’though they strive to cast us from our rock of safty MME may allude to Psalms 71:3: Be thou my strong habitation, whereunto I may continually resort: thou hast given commandment to save me; for thou art my rock and my fortress. in Jesus Christ, yet weaken not our hold on the immutable, the inexpressibly delightfull faith of a God—governing us by instruments of sense no way delusive—revealing himself by means real & tangible and connecting us with a uni- verse: filled with perciepientpercipient bingsbeings of eveyevery grade.gradient

Eve. Tranquil pleasure. Had I a Preacher that was alive! I planned a visit—erred again in tho’tsthoughts vain. This eve. alive to devotion. Ask of my father ages & ages of glory in beholding Him—what does such a request demand in my life? I pray for others—for to do them good but with more zeal that God would Himself do them good and give me to rejoice therin.— And I have ever rejoiced.

16 The four past days wer cold beyond cerculation, and negative existence. If virtue thrivs no matter—those who would leave some vestige of thier footsteps—some labour of their hands—these must inevitably perish—but a history ingraved with that of MartrysMartyrs to virtue—with powers & princdoms—a history that may be coeval with eternity is alone worthy the ambition of ransomed souls. As evidenced in her correspondence and the Almanacks, martyrdom was an important concept to MME throughout her life and one that reflects her Puritan heritage. Several decades after this Almanack was written, she alludes to “the splendid martyrs to great virtues” in a letter to Lidian Emerson and to the “martyrs of virtue” in another letter to her friend Ann Gage. Letters penned more than twenty years earlier to Ralph Waldo Emerson and Elizabeth Hoar reflect similar phrasing as MME continues to align “virtue” with “martyrs” (Emerson to Gage, c. 1847, pp. c. 1847) (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 484, 183, 373). Moreover, many religious and literary books and Christian hymns with which MME was likely familiar include the phrase “martyrs to virtue.” Like other devout New Englanders, MME had been educated in the history of Christian martyrs, who in addition to symbolizing “a vision of the true church,” also represented “the associated virtues of cheerfulness, patience, and fortitude” (Weimer, Martyrs’ Mirror, p. 3). At the time she was writing this Almanack, MME may have especially been thinking of martyrs, since a new edition of John Foxe’s Acts and Monuments of These Latter and Perilous Days, popularly known as The Book of Martyrs (1563), had been published in London in 1807. The common theological “ransom” as “sacrifice” appears in numerous biblical verses, such as Matthew 20:28: “Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.”

19. The eveg.evening of the last day went to Lynn—too high This line is indented for a new paragraph. spirits— Mr White dined here. Saturday went to Mr. Popkins tarried till 7 to my sorrow. Committed levity talking about the fashion. Erred foolishly after my return—yestrdy sabsabbath had more had not had damaged read Eloisa MME may refer to Jean Jacques Rousseau’s Julie; or the New Eloise, published in English in 1761, or to Alexander Pope’s Eloisa to Abelard, published in 1717.

20. Last. night I spoke towtwo sentences about that foolish place when Uncle Wait asked me to give money to Mrs B. w’hwhich I most bitterly lament. MME refers often in this Almanack to a property settlement of the Malden estate of her paternal grandmother, also named Mary Moody Emerson, which included a home and three acres, in which MME lived with her aunt and uncle Ruth and Nathan Sargent. In 1796, at age twenty-one, MME inherited a parcel of this property (accounts differ on the size of this portion) and then leased it to the Sargents for the duration of Ruth’s life, so that the couple continued to reside there with her. In December 1801, MME sold one-sixth of the property for one hundred and fifty dollars to Samuel Wait, who married Ruth Sargent the following month, Nathan Sargent having died in 1798. In 1807, Wait and MME sold the estate for three thousand dollars to Samuel Tufts, three-fifths of which sum ($1,800) were MME’s proceeds from the sale. An added component of this transaction is that Ruth’s sister, Rebecca Emerson Brintnall, whom MME likely refers to as “Mrs. B.” in this Almanack and who also lived in the Malden home, had for the consideration of one dollar in December 1801 purchased from MME and Silas Moody the rights to “the sixth part of all the real estate … (viz) the southwest chamber with a privilidge [sic] in the cellar, garret, yard, and pump, with full liberty of passing to and from said premises, also the east part or half of the garden front of the house as the fence now stands” (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 4-5); (Corey, History, pp. 648-49); (Registry of Deeds, p. 169 pp. 446-47). MME’s reference to a twenty dollar gift to “Mrs. B.” may indicate a small payment to this aunt as consideration for her small share of the property settlement. Concord historian George Tolman characterizes MME as “having lost her temper” over the terms of the sale, “as if she had been defrauded,” an exaggeration of the mixed sentiments she expresses on the subject in this Almanack. In Tolman’s view, MME “got more of the purchase money than she was entitled to,” and he blames MME’s “utter ignorance of business methods” and “curiously distorted notions of the matter of finance and business” as the reasons for (in his view) her injured feelings (Tolman, Mary Moody Emerson, pp. 5-6). Middlesex County property records reveal simply the details of the transactions themselves, i.e., the parties and sums involved and the dates of these transactions. Additional research has not shed light on MME’s emotions about the sale at this time, nor do they confirm Tolman’s conclusions. Not because yy they were improper but they arose from anger. It is difficult when we have no kind of berrierbarrier to command our feelings But this shall teach me. It humbles me beyond any thing I ever have met, to find myself for a moment affected with hope fear or damaged especially anger about interest—but I did overomeovercome & return kindness for the repeated provocations I’ve had. What is it In the context of her continued frustration with relatives over her property inheritance in this Almanack, MME may allude to Acts 10:1-4: There was a certain man in Caesarea called Cornelius, a centurion of the band called the Italian band, A devout man, and one that feared God with all his house, which gave much alms to the people, and prayed to God alway. He saw in a vision evidently about the ninth hour of the day an angel of God coming in to him, and saying unto him, Cornelius. And when he looked on him, he was afraid, and said, What is it, Lord? And he said unto him, Thy prayers and thine alms are come up for a memorial before God. my Uncle has been the means of lessinglessening leasing my porperty— Ridiculous to wound him for that. He was honestly seeking his own. But at last this very night the bargain is closed and I am delighted with my self—my dear self has done well—tho’though I would not help on a bargain yet after effecting all Mrs. B. wished from the men I gave her 20 dollars in future. Never did I so exult at a trifle. Happy beginngbeginning of my bargain—tho’though the sale of the place appears oneto me of the worst things for me or at this time. MME refers often in this Almanack to a property settlement of the Malden estate of her paternal grandmother, also named Mary Moody Emerson, which included a home and three acres, in which MME lived with her aunt and uncle Ruth and Nathan Sargent. In 1796, at age twenty-one, MME inherited a parcel of this property (accounts differ on the size of this portion) and then leased it to the Sargents for the duration of Ruth’s life, so that the couple continued to reside there with her. In December 1801, MME sold one-sixth of the property for one hundred and fifty dollars to Samuel Wait, who married Ruth Sargent the following month, Nathan Sargent having died in 1798. In 1807, Wait and MME sold the estate for three thousand dollars to Samuel Tufts, three-fifths of which sum ($1,800) were MME’s proceeds from the sale. An added component of this transaction is that Ruth’s sister, Rebecca Emerson Brintnall, whom MME likely refers to as “Mrs. B.” in this Almanack and who also lived in the Malden home, had for the consideration of one dollar in December 1801 purchased from MME and Silas Moody the rights to “the sixth part of all the real estate … (viz) the southwest chamber with a privilidge [sic] in the cellar, garret, yard, and pump, with full liberty of passing to and from said premises, also the east part or half of the garden front of the house as the fence now stands” (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 4-5); (Corey, History, pp. 648-49); (Registry of Deeds, p. 169 pp. 446-47). MME’s reference to a twenty dollar gift to “Mrs. B.” may indicate a small payment to this aunt as consideration for her small share of the property settlement. Concord historian George Tolman characterizes MME as “having lost her temper” over the terms of the sale, “as if she had been defrauded,” an exaggeration of the mixed sentiments she expresses on the subject in this Almanack. In Tolman’s view, MME “got more of the purchase money than she was entitled to,” and he blames MME’s “utter ignorance of business methods” and “curiously distorted notions of the matter of finance and business” as the reasons for (in his view) her injured feelings (Tolman, Mary Moody Emerson, pp. 5-6). Middlesex County property records reveal simply the details of the transactions themselves, i.e., the parties and sums involved and the dates of these transactions. Additional research has not shed light on MME’s emotions about the sale at this time, nor do they confirm Tolman’s conclusions.

21 Weary at times with objects so tedious to hear to see—oh the power of vision—the delicate power of the nerve w’hwhich receives impressions from sounds If ever I am blest with a social life let the accent be gratefull. Could I at times be regaled with musick it would remind me that there are sounds— Shut up in this severe weather with carefull infirm afflicted age—it is wonderfull my spirits—hopes I can have none Not a perspectprospect but is dark on earth, as to knowledge & joy from externals, but the perspectprospect of a dying bed reflects lustre on all the rest.

22. The eve is fine but I dare not enjoy it. The moon & stars reproach me—because I had to do with mean fools sd should I take so much care to save a few dollars Never was I so much ashamed—did I say with what rapture I might damaged dispose of them to the poor—pho, self preservation—dignity—confidence in the future—contempt of trifles—alass I am disgraced. Took a momentary revenge on age for wronging me Annotation still in progress.

23. Read Elosia MME may refer to Jean Jacques Rousseau’s Julie; or the New Eloise, published in English in 1761, or to Alexander Pope’s Eloisa to Abelard, published in 1717. —but stupid.

24 A day of penitence—enjoyed more calm & rational enjoyt enjoyment than a fortnight of less exaction.

25. sabsabbath morn. God most holy I praise thee—created by thee a spirit—here is everlasting cause for joy all adventitious advantages are lost.

26. Cold extra.extraordinary one error only.

278 . A spirit, & capable of loving the Almighty—his name—his attributes, give me delight. Bless me even me oh my Father render me capable of higher enjoyment hereafter whether poverty labour ignorance & destitution continue to attend me, or independance knowledge & influence, either that will capasitate me for Heaven more effectually.

28 Is it possible that old man whom I have so long gratuitously served could serve injure me so? Well I was warm, too much so, tho’though it was rather matter of specu lation & sentiment with the justice than anger. I still feel resentment,—to manage it with gentleness is all my concern. If we cannot imitate the Deity in his purity wisdom & glory, we can in his clemency & forbearance. How far these sd should operate against acknowledgedemonstrated guilt I know not. Sd Should I join in familiarity with such wd would it not lessen my abhorrence to guilt?? Sd Should I act from motives of selfish charity and forgive others that I may be forgiven— God forbid.— a charity holier and purer than that I’ll practice. or none. What a singular preservation from sacreficing my property to chance? How truly how delightfull my gratitude to the justice? I wd would not have that accident recalled, tho’though I might, it wd would be seem, do better. And I shall do better—this awful moment w’hwhich divides the polluted past from the spotless, the tremedous future beholds me doing better: It is sacred to the confidence of faith & humiliation. Annotation still in progress.

29. I might, I ought to have done better. I have no ambition. But when oppressed with these objects w’hwhich limit my apprehensions & chill my affections I enjoy the power of hope —that the time may hasten when I shall ripen more rapidly & be ready to depart with honor to myself and xianitychristianity.

30 I walked to Capt Dexters—sick—promised never to put that ring on. Although some have speculated that MME had at some time received a marriage proposal from Charlestown, Massachusetts lawyer and author William Austin, he had married Charlotte Williams on 17 June 1806 and therefore could not be the suitor implied in this Almanack reference (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, p. 101).

31. Ended miserably the month w’hwhich began so worldly. Consigned the day to sorrow—tooth ache—

Feb. 1. sabsabbath eve. One of the most gloomy days—confined to the fire side without devotion.

2. One single sarifice of just resentt resentment damaged and I felt for that happy instant bindi ng my self to the throne of the Author of mercy and truth. And God has in the infinitude of his goodnes obligated Himself to reward every sarifice to obidenceobedience A creature can forgive and rwardreward—but God renders himself in debt to do it thro’through the riches of divine grace—a grace so rich & divine that cold & narrow xianschristians cannot understand— they attribute his gifts to his arbitary elections; and not to those immutable laws of righteouness by which he chooses to act & to which he binds his creatures. Such is the nature of his gov government and the order of the univerce it appears. Still the elections of God are incontrovertible. If we retrospect with awe & delight an incomprehensilleincomprehensible eternity, election fastens on us intuitively. It was the choice of the Eternal that gave to the glowing Seraph his joys & to me my vile imprisonment. In assessing the Calvinist doctrine of election, MME seems to take the position that salvation is not simply arbitrary, but that God has established laws by which all creatures—angels as well as humans—are governed. By “glowing Seraph,” MME may allude to Isaiah 6:6-7: “Then flew one of the seraphims unto me, having a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs off the altar: And he laid it upon my mouth, and said, Lo, this hath touched thy lips; and thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sin is purged.” MME may also have been aware that the Hebrew verb form of the word “seraphim” meant “to burn.” I adore Him—it was his will that gives my superiors to shine in wisdom freindship & ardent pursuits, while I pass my youth—it’s last traces in the verestveriest shades of ignorance and complete destitution of society. I praise Him, tho’though when my strength of body faulters it is a trial not easily descibed

5 Yesterday I pastpassed in devotion on account of a beloved and faulty—— The effect was to open invisible prospects on my own heart. Today I tasted all the agitations of friendship in seeing my dear White & dearer Sarah in letter’s from the estimable & amiable &c &c But so invincible are the laws of matter that a sluggishness gathering at my heart, for some time past, never left me. amid all my convulsions of joy. She is very dear to me.

6. I ask for those assistances which will will most rapidly develop my powers & culture my affections. May it be said that it is as well to ask for eternal life and endless glory as the free gift of God and for immediate possesion, as for all these heavy roundabout means. True, all is a gift—existence is a present full & unspeakable. But as God chooses means of accomplishing the grandest events we must act on that plan. And tho’though I never wish for temptation, knowing my frailty, tho’though I would not for the sake of a long life willingly repass the labours & dangers of that I’ve trod, yet I should not dare to accept of Heaven now onby my own choice; were the remainder of my life to be pastpassed in as dark a manner as formerly. Nor sd should I dare, were it lawfull to redeem a friend from death by my own (tho’though I have not a shadow of doubt of my salvation by the economy of grace) unless I knew they were unprepared. Sweet as the prospect of dying with a name unsullied, and returning to God in the prime of life, yet in looking into an unknown & endless future there is an intuitive hope—a nameless expectancyexpectation of increased happiness that bids us suffer every thing than hazard the loss of any degree of glory—a capasity to enjoy the more immediate presence of the Deity—! Heavens what hazards may await a probationerprobation!?

7. Stupid —my brother came with a Miss Win— possessed—did eveyevery thing—not marredwarned by his letter. Such a visit sits better on recollection than the turbulent ones.

8 sabsabbath eve. Most tedious day & eveg evening .

9. Stupid rather

10. Rode tol.tolerably talked enjoyed a simple scene.

11  Esqr Esquire Green Although the editors speculate that this person may be one of the men identified here, it is also possible that MME refers to a different Esquire Green, who is as yet unidentified. came, enjoyed converse. Went to Parsons a delightfull walk—lost every impression by cold hearts—the sickly frost niped all my pleasurs. But what was truly disastrous got rid of their visiting me rather unfairly.

12. There is a sweet & inestimable repose like sadness, but mine is rather heavirheavier than I could wish. Could a moments mirth or recreation stir my blood I sd should like it. The sadness of my approaching employment would be lightened. The same disastrous objects which are baubles to a light heart, add to the weight of a heavy one. damaged

18071807 Written in center of line, likely in non-authorial hand.

Newyport Feb. 18. 1807 I came here yesterday thro’through Beverly where I tarried with Mr White. Mercifull God, what a scene of care labour & grief do I find myself in. MME went to Newburyport, Massachusetts at this time to nurse her sister, Hannah Emerson Farnham, who died from tuberculosis at age 36 on March 27, 1807. As Phyllis Cole has described, MME and her half sister Sarah Ripley were Hannah’s two main caretakers. MME’s letter of March 4, 1807 to Ruth Haskins Emerson echoes this same language as she pleads, Your sympathy and prayers I have for this scene of sickness and misfortune to this family (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, p. 119), (Simmons, Selected Letters, p. 38). Daniel Appleton White’s correspondence confirms his recent visit with MME in Malden, who then accompanied him from Malden to Newburyport; en route, due to inclement weather, the two lodged overnight in Beverly (Dwight, Memorials, pp. 274-75). Thou bowest me down. I adore & love thee. I commit to thee the interests of my health & sanctification—the interests of my departing Sister—mercifull Father—and the children —! How much I need of thee—how much I expect from thee. I beginn a new life—free—oh mecifilmerciful God—from levity, pride flattery, folly & weakness. Today I remember none—but a depression—and who beholds this scene without grief—they must be stones.

19. A day of freedom from error &c.

20. Alass.

21. Devotion & pleasure.

22. sabsabbath. Worshiped without ardor pastpassed the eve. with Miss B. capable of anger at a trifle. Lost I fear on the whole—mean pleasures & pains.

23. Morn. If strenght of importunity at view of my moral miseries, if pressing on the promises & grandeur of God, inlarge & sanctify I must suceed. I urge my arguments— I despise all his gifts if He does not communicate His sanctifying influence to my spirit. There will aggrandise—if He withholds, & I must continue to use the mean efforts which have so often been difiled with weakness—well—the lowest offices I have welcomed— Yet oh God—this tardy progress—Ifif a useless uninteresting object to others let me but preserve my purity & sense of grand damaged

27. That very hour of the 23 I was angry and impatient with my sick charge— But I veiw not this as others do— When I am sick I hope to be indulged in no improper conduct. Still I felt & did wrong had she been well. 24 was & 25 is forgotten. 25 was most precious when I went to bed—so was yesterday—thothough tedious to induerendure. So is today—dolerous & heavy at heart as confinement without exertion is depressing. But I adore & love God—and every dark path is welcome. I rejoice that others are in health & prosperity. The personal concensconcerns of my—I leave most confidently with God—were they brighter It hey would be brighter—and—the general laws of nature which are the appointments of God would operate on so yeilding a subject as myself. But whether I should be in reality happier?—as—“ worth conscious worth should absolutely reign & other joys ask leave ” —

March. 3 The cause of order of truth are the cause of God—so is gentleness—contempt of trifles, —then, saving truth, I have defiled the univerce God most holy let me tremble—in my best moments I ask as the richest gift—a temper awed and contrite 28 I erred— 1t First followed low— 2 at night unlovely & sdamaged of this morng morning. I who would fear & hope nothing beneath the favor of God have expressed anger at being in damaged damaged ded.— Vanity to— Let this day be ask damaged

4. Walked yesterday after such a resolution—to benefit a friend in shoping— Heavens! How minute the benefit—and how terrible the consequences—sport with a resolution made in favor of advancement! Mr P. visited & prayed with— lost devotion—injured the feelings of the sick and the well. Lost temper. I bend beneathe the terror of retrospect of late months. Oh God I love thee—lay hold of thy strenght—& yet oppose thy designs of love and mercy towards me. Were full capasity of sin—moral agency not put to the sarcedsacred uses of immortality! God knows I never intended to impose on Him nor others—yet I may deceive others. Want of charity—how painfull— I need humility—that most firmly places me at my most revered Masters feet where I do most love—obedience raises me by his hand to walk on the waves with him MME alludes to Matthew 14:25-31: And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea. And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear. But straightway Jesus spake unto them, saying, Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid. And Peter answered him and said, Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water. And he said, Come. And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go to Jesus. But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord, save me. And immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt? —charity—merifulmerciful Power) This mark is not clearly a close parenthesis, nor is there an open parenthesis on a preceding line on this page; but it does not seem to be functioning as any other sensible mark of punctuation or text. gives me to lean on him MME may allude to Proverbs 3:5: “Trust in the LORD with all thine heart; and lean not unto thine own understanding.” next

5. Papa came last eve— good day till night I sinned— Where is my penitence. 6 Well till eve—govenedgoverned my temper—most delightfull frame more than last—ah could I retrive it.— but social life, tho’though on religion, marred it.

6 Well till I painted a defect

7. Sat. eve. Most rich devotions but marred by vain tho’tsthoughts today. How is it possible that repeated resolutions can be so trifled with. I sport like a fool with my price Have mercy upon me oh God of mercy! I will begin to do better— Heavens, when I should hav e damaged

8. Trifled with a few moments and lost devotions—lost perhaps the succeeding day by a cold—awfull possibility. Had a tooth out in the eveg evening. Mr White bro’tbrought good news.

10. Devotional forenoon—painfull afternoon, but lost no ground.

11 Washing day & fatigue—ended most happily remote from all human influence.

12 Noon. What a day—so sacred—penitent for my past trifling— I swear in the name of Him who is my Mediator to renounce every pleasure & connection which wd would interrupet my communion—marr the grandeur of my prospects—and defile the purity of the xianchristian light. That character must be misguided who professing Christ is not humble.

Night most dolerous day erred from—& suffered from the most unpardonable of all causes—human influence— —descended to be hurt—yes, I never suffer from human causes, any injury to my feelings for the persentpresent, but I must have crept, wheren when, had I been all I might & ought—I should have soared like the eagle & basked in the rays of light joy & serenity.

13. Heavens—borne on the full tide of existence—one fatal moment levelled me with ordinary life— How must my enymy have exalted over a weight in the scale of deformity—it was mere levity & littleness. Surrounded in every instant of my journey by little means—less virtues & less vices—oh! Oh! till then what a day! —tho’though smale it made way for greater.

14 What a day of sucess—and tormented with error after all—broke resoluteon. — I might have done better tho’ though  whatt I erred from weakness not principle. We talk of grace—but what grace like that wh ich saves us by sanctifying our powers by inveterat ate habits of obedience. Grace is not powerfull in principle if not apparent in habit.

15 sab.sabbath noon. I have been weake for many moments. God most holy I plead thy promises— I bring the arguments of my misery—do more for me—crushed by exteriors—appear for my spirit—if I cannot serve thee—love thee and fear thee I do not wish for any mode of existence. If I cannot glorify thee in life let me die to honor thee die and perceive thee—know order & forever & unceasingly obey it. Perhaps my pride suffers—perhaps were I larger these failures would not pain me so— While mortal I shall sin— I do not wish to be other than human—for then I sd should be withoutout of the pale of xianitychristianity —blessed province w’hwhich binds the redeemed nearer the throne of the Creator! Perhaps, here Paul gloried in infirmity. MME may allude to 2 Corinthians 12:9-10, where Paul, speaking of God, explains: And he said unto me, My grace is sufficient for thee: for my strength is made perfect in weakness. Most gladly therefore will I rather glory in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may rest upon me. Therefore I take pleasure in infirmities, in reproaches, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for Christ’s sake: for when I am weak, then am I strong. MME may also allude to 2 Corinthians 11:17-18 and 22-30: That which I speak, I speak it not after the Lord, but as it were foolishly, in this confidence of boasting. Seeing that many glory after the flesh, I will glory also. …Are they Hebrews? so am I. Are they Israelites? so am I. Are they the seed of Abraham? so am I. Are they ministers of Christ? (I speak as a fool) I am more; in labours more abundant, in stripes above measure, in prisons more frequent, in deaths oft. Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes save one. Thrice was I beaten with rods, once was I stoned, thrice I suffered shipwreck, a night and a day I have been in the deep; In journeyings often, in perils of waters, in perils of robbers, in perils by mine own countrymen, in perils by the heathen, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils among false brethren; In weariness and painfulness, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness. Beside those things that are without, that which cometh upon me daily, the care of all the churches. Who is weak, and I am not weak? who is offended, and I burn not? If I must needs glory, I will glory of the things which concern mine infirmities.

16— Good but for dinner & tea—lost defiled the temple of the divine Spirit!

Sab.Sabbath noon. This The four last days—gained & lost alternately—forgot the claims of others—recovered them— Thursday H‑‑‑h had a most distressing turn—possessed myself after a moment with great success— What a humbling scene was her appearance—left her not thro’through night, Mrs Hay watched. How delightfull is it to depart—to be where we behold the divine govt government more clearly. I envy almost her pain & distress—they are the corrections of God ere He embraces his chosen! How much I lotallot on this scene! I feel easy in mind I commit my coursdamaged cares

Eve Mercifull God! what is the death of a sister or all the friends I have compared to offending Thee, to possessing a principle of disobedience —of unlovliness—of smalness—of vanity—of persumption—all my cares & worldly interests vanish— Mercifull God, where art Thou when I am greedy of social life—afflict me, crush me into the lowest cavern of the earth but perservepreserve me from defiling my spirit

27. I said to White the pardon of one’s sins was a foundation petition—it was nothing without other gifts— God keep me from persumption— I talk of honors—but they are those of gift—the love of God and a full conformity to his will whether I labour or suffer. Power & influence I despise—but the honor that cometh from God MME may allude to John 5:44: How can ye believe, which receive honour one of another, and seek not the honour that cometh from God only? —his favor his loving kindnesses I covet as the only gifts worthy of existence— Yet each day each hour I offend against the grandeur of my calling, & reason, & sentiment. Talked about a chicken in warmth because another was in an arrorerror. Dear Hannah. how delightfull, & profitable will be her change—penitent & hoping in the mercy of God—her case is sure. I am not so much affected as perhaps I ought. I respect the bondslaws of nature but must not affect their influence there was no trial of them as I weakly expect I cannot easily forget the tranquility of the seernun well In the whole perhaps no feeling, like those of indifference, & superiorty to human influence is more happifying in life I I never remember to have had to do so much with my heart I lie low— I seffersuffer.

12 sabsabbath eve Worshiped rather gloomily. This eve I beginn to be awake— I have usesaid words only of late— I now fear my backsliding has been more dangerous & deeper than I was awearaware of. Oh silent retirement! It is a duty to aim at and to arive at full persuasion of divine favor; yet at the same time and committantconcomitant sd should exist an habitual fear of sin—a constant degree of anxiety if all be done—and attained. TheesThese I have sported.— Oh God appear for me at this time of destitution & guilt—of doubt and perplexity! Any thing any speedy death rather than falling short of any measuer of grace intended for me—or favor—or disgrace to come on me. First I must set about the distruction of sin, in tho’tthought word & deed. One indulged and all is lost Heaven is forfeited and everlasting consequences follow. Day filled with dilligence—but trifled with fancy. What dangerous infatuation

13. Rode to Medford. Day of unusual uselessness & gloom—damaged

14 Company. weak to interest them. Gratefull to God this eve. what of this holy heavenly exercise if all has not been done that ought that might. In the context of this self-critique, MME may allude to 3 John 1:8: “We therefore ought to receive such, that we might be fellowhelpers to the truth,” or to Romans 15:1: “We then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves.” There is no apolygy if I do not achieve hights in piety—for I love it—in benevolence for I am goodnatured—in humility for I am culpable. Fool talked as if I cared about my gown merely to speake to that weeke woman— Out of benevolence it will not do to injure the cause of truth. In sympathy for others I oftnoften speake the language of the world

15. Rich retirements. With what avidity have I entered into the scriptures. Called by the will of God & sanctified! As her discussion of the doctrine of election following this underlined passage may imply, MME likely refers to Romans 8:30, which in the King James version uses the word justified instead of the very common New Testament word sanctified: Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified. The doctrine of election as far as we have to do with it sd should induce the holiestholier zeal gratitude & conscrationconsecration.. In walking today I sinned by worldly tho’tsthoughts.

Night. It is an awfull symptom if we cannot in the presence of God promise to renounce every indulgence of eating, sleep dress, recreation, reading study & frendshp which appears suspicious! Ah, what awfull hazards attend us e’re we enter on our rest. The only and happiest way to be rid of fears and a thou thousand perplexing calculations is to ascend at once —to gain deep impresions of the persence of God the awfull responsibity of man & the granduer & reality of future glory. Humility once deeply imbibed and the heart will be secured even if the appearance should be gracefull. WhtherWhether a wish to appear gracefull—or rather rich agreable to every eye is suspicious or not I dare not pronounce and reject at a time when things may appear in a wrong direction. It seems evident that society sd should be sometimes entered—not to disgust refined people—appearances & manners must be agreable.

16 I groan with anguish offor the passionate the worldly the weak the disgracefull past with discouragement at the present—with entieeentire discouragement of every thing to gain—to acquire to enjoy. Yes and all I intend is to remembur constantly that I am nothing—do nothing—feel nothing—deservedesire nothing—but then even now as the essence of faith my death would be most rich—full of hope — God is the same— I adore Him for the rapture of the Arch Angel and the bliss of my neighbour And I promise in the strenght of my Him who is intimately related to me that my life henceforth sha ll be a mirror of purity meekness & charity!

17 Pain prevaild—cause low health—effort of walkingworking & enjoyed it—went to the grave yard. Unable to pray—bowels swell— God is here MME asserts divine omnipresence with a phrase commonly used in Christian hymns and sermons and derived from many biblical verses, including Psalms 139-7:10: “Where can I go from your Spirit? Where can I flee from your presence? If I go up to the heavens, you are there; if I make my bed in the depths, you are there. If I rise on the wings of the dawn, if I settle on the far side of the sea, even there your hand will guide me, your right hand will hold me fast.”

18 A day of payerprayer Although no records indicate an official holiday or a fast day at this time, MME may refer to April 19 as a day long commemorated in New England as the anniversary of the Battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775, which are regarded as the first military engagements of the American Revolution. Late in the nineteenth century, April 19 was officially designated “Patriot’s Day” and has since that time been an official holiday in Massachusetts ((Purcell, Sealed, pp. 40-41); (General Laws)). & humiliation—unable to attend—or with what delight would I have pastpassed the day in tears & penitence

19 sab.sabbath eve. Enabled to attend with some degree of zeal to publick worship. Begun a race whose hazards bring grains from my heart. What have I dared to do by my sporting—my formality—my contempt of other’s failings—my persumption perhaps in religious hope—. A humble gentle spirit is all I ask— I seek it in preference to the joys of Angels—as a nessecary temper for my probationary state. Oh, never could any one who had my dangers wish eagerly for life or prosperity. I am certain some vigorous measures must be taken with my diseased soul— More prayer more zeal & constant vigilance. One error of ridiculing I hate & promise better.

26 There must not one day go without some sacrifie labour or charity, or instance of strenghtening some one virtue. In retrospecting I find the cause of my backsliding to have been oftener from a relaxed state of the mind—a weshwish to amuse inliven or instruct has led me to social intercource. Now I da dare (tho’though trembling) to resolve to allow now moemore this relaxed state of mind—it is of a kind to be abhorred like that dropsical disorder which overruns in weeak & good feelings—communicative &c &c and much more painfull as sterility is than suppleness. Ah, nothing but one great object aimed at will extirpate this herd of swine—that of fellowship with the presence of God. In this pursuit—in this acquisition—will die away every mean & sinister pursuit—and even the miserismiseries of former disgrace.

Night—one sacrifice? none appeared. One effort—as many as could be made with a diseased stomach perhaps. Any self denial? A little silence. Oh I will now do a trifle however remote

21. Morn. How rich the depths of divine love displayed in the econymy of the gospel And how simple and grand! Yes, behold a perfect Being—consider in the slightest manner his phicicalphysical & moral perfections —and it is the depravity of our hearts. the meanness of our vertues themselves—and how grand and simple is the idea of a Mediator! And the truth that no one virtue was ever perfected by man is a wonderfully stronge proof in favor of a Medium thro’through whom man can be united to the infinitely perfect God. In view of this provision I cast my polluted disordered soul into the arms of divine love

22 Perfect morning till noon recevd received F. H. & P. Cook—wrote to Sarah—visited Mrs Odinn.— No sattisfaction since 12 ’oclko’clock—effort, self denial as far as called—walk without vain tho’tsthoughts.

23 Morn At a nearer review of yesterday I abhorr it after 12. I repent of yesterday. Littleness meanness, for one in League with God. Henceforth the picture I’ll image shall be girded loins a bright lamp MME alludes to Luke 12:35-36: Let your loins be girded about, and your lights burning; And ye yourselves like unto men that wait for their lord, when he will return from the wedding; that when he cometh and knocketh, they may open unto him immediately. She may also allude to the parable of the wise and foolish virgins in Matthew 25:1-12: Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom. And five of them were wise, and five were foolish. They that were foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them: But the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept. And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him. Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. And the foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out. But the wise answered, saying, Not so; lest there be not enough for us and you: but go ye rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves. And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage: and the door was shut. Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not. fervent devotions. My condition in life is singular, & placesresses me on the throne of my Master with peculiar strenght. My future life shall represent some prominent featuers of my Examplar. Oh God if I do not grow, cover me with his blood and take me to thyself. It is my duty (however it may be at times averse to my inclination) to make this prayer) if I love God and estimate future glory—it is the very essence of glory to make no compromise with it’s negative

Night No thotsthoughts indulged—and not a deed. Exertion & a good degree of vigilance in my work. The only way to improve in reverential devotions is to maintain a livly state of the spirit. How slothfull how criminal have I been. of late months!

24. Most dolerous thro’through inability to be devout. Penitent & faultless. Bless God. damaged 1807 ennui 1807 is written in darker ink than rest of page, and ennui is written in pencil. Both are possibly in non-authorial hand.

14. I groan with ennui. I am not well and my mind cannot operate.. Mr White slept here last night— I go to NP. Poor Sister H. is going! Mercifull God pity us.

I returned the 11 of ApApril & in this MMSmanuscript is inserted some pages of the history of this time to this day 254 of ApApril . Based on MME’s comments about having “inserted some pages” from the previous days into this Almanack after her return to Malden from Newburyport, as well as darker ink beginning on this line of the manuscript page, the editors surmise that this page includes entries for 11 February, followed by 24 and 25 April, and early May 1807. MME had returned from Newburyport on 11 April and apparently resumed writing on this Almanack page, where she had left off on 14 February prior to her departure. Pages ever to be remembered with anguish as mean & imperfect—but on some too what awfull resolutions Today spent in much intreaty for pardon & mercy for the new, the humble, the zealous, ardent life I am commecingcommencing. Yes eveyevery thing of late years seems slothfull & indevout to what I would be. My life resemblant of the Lord of Glory! Mercifull God pardon me and bless me with me with the elictionselections of thy love that I may attain eminence in humility —& be forever a trophy of thy love.

25 Morn. dont be fool enough my soul to regret sore eyes These sentences before your mind and bid defiance to sense & knowledge. God is here. MME asserts divine omnipresence with a phrase commonly used in Christian hymns and sermons and derived from many biblical verses, including Psalms 139-7:10: “Where can I go from your Spirit? Where can I flee from your presence? If I go up to the heavens, you are there; if I make my bed in the depths, you are there. If I rise on the wings of the dawn, if I settle on the far side of the sea, even there your hand will guide me, your right hand will hold me fast.” I must exist shortly in other modes. I am immortal. If granduer and every virtue dont follow, it is because I am stupid

May 548 I came here yesterday from Boston where I was unsuddenly called time enough to close the eyes of John Clarke. MME has come to Boston to be present at the death of her seven-year-old nephew John Clarke Emerson, son of her brother William and his wife, Ruth Haskins Emerson, who died of tuberculosis on 26 April 1807. The scene was in teresting—he died at the age of 7 with more ideas of religion and more appearance of mind than many grown persons. The grief which the secnescene caused my brother & sister and the tears of the relatives bro’tbrought no symptom of grief into my appearance. The loss of one whose constitution was like his was no subject of regret. And Oh, how useless the tears of nature at a scene so unimportant compared to those which constantly agitate the moral system! True I felt interested and smiled to see him depart so consciously. I tarri MME originally wrote tarri at the end of this line and neglected to complete the word on the next line. The manuscript reflects an interlined tarried here, with a caret for position, written in darker ink than the rest of the page, indicating her later correction of this partial word. tarried 10 days— Good God! my soul is bowed down and crushed— I erred—folly vanity impatient indignation had thier turns—at first—but I became reflective and took less interest in what pastpassed. And I did fail; after a fortnight of watching fasting and every holy charity. I faild. It will imbitter memory. Tho’Though the tnortenor of my time was deevoted —yet at moments I fail’d

9. A day most decidedly painfull & disappointed. Destined to devotondevotion humiliation &c— Health forbad wakefullness—dissipated & stupid. Mr Rogers called to my mortifmortification I am seeking great things but with littl e This line is indented for a new paragraph. ardor. I dont know how but I feel at times my existence so smale and so swallowed up in the divine agency and will that I am not sensible of any distinct desires. Every thing seems so trivial compared to death that I lose my selection of objects at moments. Is there so weake a creature!

10 sabsabbath Morn. Never so sick a day of the kind—worshiped in pain Mr Bulk. E. & wife sleep here

11. Wasted & enjoyed ‘p a day. Vain tho’tsthoughts—low devotions—nothing gaind but hope. I am stupid— Oh & forget my new resolves.

12. Most painfull afternoon obliged to read a novel— Seem to lose instead of gaining— An hour of tranquil converse with death and heereafter has set me to rights.

18 Since the 12 never were more dolerous days passed by a xianchristian Ague—took physick laid abed—perspired & revived. HeadHeard Dr Osgood preach yesterday afternoon & rose for a few moments Slept, I grevegrieve, for the last time in the old house. MME refers often in this Almanack to a property settlement of the Malden estate of her paternal grandmother, also named Mary Moody Emerson, which included a home and three acres, in which MME lived with her aunt and uncle Ruth and Nathan Sargent. In 1796, at age twenty-one, MME inherited a parcel of this property (accounts differ on the size of this portion) and then leased it to the Sargents for the duration of Ruth’s life, so that the couple continued to reside there with her. In December 1801, MME sold one-sixth of the property for one hundred and fifty dollars to Samuel Wait, who married Ruth Sargent the following month, Nathan Sargent having died in 1798. In 1807, Wait and MME sold the estate for three thousand dollars to Samuel Tufts, three-fifths of which sum ($1,800) were MME’s proceeds from the sale. An added component of this transaction is that Ruth’s sister, Rebecca Emerson Brintnall, whom MME likely refers to as “Mrs. B.” in this Almanack and who also lived in the Malden home, had for the consideration of one dollar in December 1801 purchased from MME and Silas Moody the rights to “the sixth part of all the real estate … (viz) the southwest chamber with a privilidge [sic] in the cellar, garret, yard, and pump, with full liberty of passing to and from said premises, also the east part or half of the garden front of the house as the fence now stands” (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 4-5); (Corey, History, pp. 648-49); (Registry of Deeds, p. 169 pp. 446-47). MME’s reference to a twenty dollar gift to “Mrs. B.” may indicate a small payment to this aunt as consideration for her small share of the property settlement. Concord historian George Tolman characterizes MME as “having lost her temper” over the terms of the sale, “as if she had been defrauded,” an exaggeration of the mixed sentiments she expresses on the subject in this Almanack. In Tolman’s view, MME “got more of the purchase money than she was entitled to,” and he blames MME’s “utter ignorance of business methods” and “curiously distorted notions of the matter of finance and business” as the reasons for (in his view) her injured feelings (Tolman, Mary Moody Emerson, pp. 5-6). Middlesex County property records reveal simply the details of the transactions themselves, i.e., the parties and sums involved and the dates of these transactions. Additional research has not shed light on MME’s emotions about the sale at this time, nor do they confirm Tolman’s conclusions. Came damaged Cocd—and unexpectedly the sensations of life and hope of devotion and happiness returedreturned. I can scarcly realise so great a change.

“Proposition as a man grows in goodness the love of God will expand—the more God is loved the more beneficdamaged will the individual become; the only firm & lasting foundation of benevolence. The sense of the divine presence may be realised, fixed in the mind, & embodied in the heart; & when thus bro’tbrought as it were, into contact with the tho’tsthoughts & sensations, who can doubt the salutary influence it musdamaged have on the benevolent affections” Butler Annotation still in progress. If a man love me &—a xianchristian turns all his attention to render his duties just, complete, beautifull & strongly expressive of the inward esteem from w’hwhich they flow; and he endeavours to give his morality a refinement & delicacy suited to the nature of that grand & noble virtue from w’hwhich it proceeds. MME quotes from Robert Robinson’s essay The Scripture A Good Book, written by Divine Inspiration, published as part of Seventeen Discourses on Several Texts of Scripture. Citing John 14:23, Robinson argues, If a man love me, he will keep my words. He that hath my commandments and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me. Glossing this verse, he adds, The other is the affecting manner in which he connects together love and obedience: If ye love me, keep my commandments. At the sound of this word if, the Christian starts; all the tenderness and gratitude of his soul move to meet his duty; he conceives a horror for disobedience, because it make his love suspected; he turns all his attention to render his christian duties just, complete, beautiful, and strongly expressive of the inward esteem from which they flow; and he endeavours to give his morality a refinement and delicacy suited to the nature of that grand and noble virtue, from which it proceeds (Robinson, Scripture, p. 76). How intirely independant on circumstances and frindship in it’s ordinary uses, are these precious moments of inexplicable happiness, but never of devotion From [“Propositio]n . . . proceeds,” these lines are written upside down from the rest of the page.

19 Mrs Thoreau came—enjoyed too much surprise, pleasure & hope from seeing her, consistent with my profession & prospects I never realised dying more than this night—and my confidence is unshaken but I would rejoice. If the strong & noble mind of an heathen often rejoiced—how ignoble, how stupid, how dead to glory must I be! I fear no sentence from my Judge—for He can pronounce none but I shall feel to be right— I cannot depart from God, for his presence is universal and in that I feel secure. He made yonder stars and he made me.

20. I walked to Parson’s— Quite engaged in taking care of the Doctor. Most desultory tedious day.

21 Set apart for anguish unremitting. Wd Would I could have felt it—but have not been so free from ennui this fortnight. I leave my petition for pardon & grace with God. Thy will for my life and my death, my time & eternity—my graces and the pardon of my guilt. Do all for me according to the propitiousness of thy nature and the extent of thy love.

22 All comfortable. constant reading. But whatever I read or think I have no cause to value myself damaged My body incites pity and many actions of my mind abhorrence—my hope for here and hereafter is in God. I should exult in God. The sight of the Heavens transport me. It is natural to exult in such an Author.

Night. It is the part of a brave mind to bear up and oppose its’ strenght against those worst of evils, those which it has bro’tbrought on itself—how much more then damaged damaged the part of faith to hope.

MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 4), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Written 1809. Waterford, Maine. 2 MS sheets with minor evidence of damage and first four pages missing. This brief Almanack fascicle is unusual in its formal nature, uncharacteristic pagination, and undamaged condition, all of which and its contents suggest that MME seems to have considered this piece of writing a draft essay in response to current events. In this fascicle, MME contributes thoughtfully to a theological controversy being waged in 1808-1809 between Unitarians and Calvinists over the newly founded Andover Theological Seminary in Andover, Massachusetts. MME responded directly to contentious articles on the theological divide that were published in the Panoplist and the Boston Monthly Anthology in 1808–1809.

MME numbers the first three pages of this brief Almanack. Since this page begins with “5” (encircled and positioned on a line by itself in the top right corner) and begins in the middle of a sentence, the editors presume that four preceding pages are no longer extant. degree of liberty and freedom of will (which does not appear philosophical or scriptural to the calvinistic Inquirier) that I should look for the belief, the sublime and godlike belief that human misery will find an universal remedy. To him, who views every man as unconnected with a federal head—born innocent in the most pofitperfect sense—free in the most perfect manner, the scheme of eternal anguish may be more consistent with the manifest attributes of God and the nature of things. But to the consistent Calvinist, who believes in a God without succession of ideas—to whom the future of every possible existence was always present—always and nessecarily connected with His will and agency—who from a formed the whole ofplan of the creation and redemption from a perfect view of all it’s consequences; to such a believer, whose views are thus extended—a final restoration becomes a kind of intuition. In the native depravity of human, fallen nature, in its connection with a first reperesentative, and it’s misterious and aggrandising relation to a Second by whom came all are made alive—in the nessisity of a foreign and divine agency to conversion, are found supports of the restoration from scripture of an unanswerable nature, without adverting to those numerous select passages which support this belief— And in truth, I know not where This numeral is encircled and positioned on a line by itself in the top left corner of the page. they are, nor what they are. This Almanack reflects MME’s reading and commonplacing of several works concerned with the theological controversy and doctrinal debates that emanated from the founding of Andover Theological Seminary in Andover, Massachusetts in August 1808. This institution was organized by two groups of religious orthodoxy in New England, the “old Calvinists” and the “Hopkinsians,” adherents of Jonathan Edwards’s student, Samuel Hopkins, whose views differed from traditional Calvinist doctrine on several issues. According to religious historian Henry K. Rowe, Hopkinsians regarded themselves as the “Consistent Calvinists” ; they “maintained the doctrine of divine sovereignty, but they modified the plight of man. They rejected the Old Calvinist doctrine of the imputation of Adam’s sin . . . and maintained that every man’s sin is his own personal responsibility. They made less of human depravity and more of actual sinning. They did not believe that God had closed absolutely the door of hope, because there is in man a certain natural ability to obey God’s law. And Christ had died for all men, not as a penal satisfaction to an outraged deity, but as an expression of his universal benevolence. And man should rely on the atoning Christ and not on any outward means of grace” (Rowe, History, p. 17). As Rowe and others have explained, in founding the Andover seminary these two antagonistic groups ultimately overcame their differences in order to provide an orthodox institution to educate and train conservative clergy, which they were motivated to do in light of the, to them, radically divergent position taken by Harvard College with the appointment of liberal theologian Henry Ware as Hollis Professor of Theology (Rowe, History, p. 9). The founding of Andover and the publication of The Constitution and Associate Statutes of the Theological Seminary in Andover (1808) precipitated a debate published in several issues of the Monthly Anthology (associated with liberal Boston theologians, including William Emerson, MME’s brother and former editor of the Monthly Anthology, with whom she was living in Boston during this controversy) and The Panoplist (identified with more conservative Calvinists and Hopkinsians) over 1808-1809. This and subsequent pages of this Almanack reflect MME’s reading of these articles, as, for example, with the Monthly Anthology’s assertion that according to its creed, all Andover Seminary professors must swear to be “consistent Calvinists” or lose their positions, a requirement that the Anthologist reviewer regards as mendacious and bigoted (Article 38, pp. 604, 606-13). On this Almanack page, she likely has in mind several passages from the Constitution and Associate Statutes, including the statements that “God’s decrees perfectly consist with human liberty; God’s universal agency with the agency of man; and man’s dependence with his accountability”; and that “every professor must be . . . an orthodox and consistent Calvinist.” She may also refer to the “Creed” (32) to which Andover professors were required to affirm: They must believe in the trinity, that God creates man in his own image, and that “the enjoyment of GOD [is] his supreme happiness; that this enjoyment is derived solely from conformity of heart the moral character and will of God; that Adam, the federal head and representative of the human race, was placed in a state of probation, and that in consequence of his disobedience, all his descendants were constituted sinners . . . . [so that] every man is justly exposed to eternal damnation; so that, except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of GOD; that GOD, of his mere good pleasure, from all eternity elected some to everlasting life, and that he entered into a covenant of grace to deliver them out of this state of sin and misery by a REDEEMER; that the only REDEEMER of the elect is the eternal SON of GOD.” Additionally, the creed required professors to subscribe to the view “that our salvation is wholly of grace; that no means whatever can change the heart of a sinner, and make it hold; that regeneration and sanctification are effects of the creating and renewing agency of the HOLY SPIRIT . . .; that by convincing us of our sin and misery, enlightening our minds, working faith in us, and renewing our wills, the HOLY SPIRIT makes us partakers of redemption” (Andover Constitution, pp. 35, 51, 32-34). MME may refer to herself as the “calvinistic Inquirier” as she examines the above and other tenets of this creed, but in a broader sense, writers on both sides of the debate regard the free inquiry into divine “truth” as central tenets of their doctrine and view their opponents as “bigots.” Even as she follows the debate between liberal Boston Unitarians and conservative Calvinists and Hopkinsians, MME appears to depart from both in asserting “the sublime and godlike belief that human misery will find an universal remedy,” or universal salvation. By “all are made alive,” MME alludes to 1 Corinthians 15:22: “For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.” This is the first time I ever combined the motives of a belief, which at all times has existed in a timid and vague manner. On the calvinistic plan, the belief of the contrary cannot convert the sinner, nor injure the regenerated. The perpetuity of the moral law and the immortality of the soul are strong arguments in favor of an eternal exilement from a holy Govonor of the moral world. But Jesus Christ hath placed us under grace—and the grandeur of redemption by a divine person, at the same time that it argues—that it proves—the immortality of the soul, argues as strongly that the curse due to the breach of an immutable law is removed from the human race as a condemnatory sentence. As a rule of conduct it was honored by the chistian law Giver—and will to all moral agents continue an eternal rule of conduct. And the impenitent Sinner will suffer the vengance due to it’s personal violation in a degree beyond our present conceptions, and worthy the justice of God. The absolute decrees of God which the Calvinist adheres to, places eternal punishment as one of the first magnitude. Now the sin which was to be the cause of this punishment MME continues to examine the distinctions between the Hopkinsians and traditional Calvinists, both of which groups accept the cardinal doctrine as stated in The Constitution and Associate Statutes of the Theological Seminary in Andover that our salvation is wholly of grace (Andover Constitution, p. 33), i.e., that God’s grace in providing his sacrificial son Jesus has atoned for human sinfulness. In rejecting the doctrine of imputation, Hopkinsians believed that each sinner is responsible for his/her own depraved nature, a position with which MME seems in this passage to align herself in asserting that the “curse” of Adam’s original sin is removed from the human race as a condemnatory sentence to hell. Hopkinsians regard all individuals as moral agents responsible for their own rules of conduct. They accept the Calvinistic tenet that sinners will suffer the vengance, but believe such damnation results from their own sinful nature and behavior rather than as inheritors of Adam’s. In asserting that the curse . . . is removed from the human race as a condemnatory sentence, MME advocates more strongly for a belief in universal salvation than do either the traditional Calvinists or the Hopkinsians. By the Calvinist’s absolute decrees, MME may refer to the creed, drawn up by the Hopkinsian Associate Founders, to which professors of the newly organized Andover Theological Seminary must subscribe. Although this creed recognizes that in consequence of his [Adam’s] disobedience all his descendants were constituted sinners, they are also by [their own] nature . . . personally depraved (Andover Constitution, p. 33). where must it have been—among the decrees? If the Deity were plainly exhibited in the coulerscolors which these conclusions draw, what human soul could dwell on the portrait, and va- This numeral is encircled and positioned on a line by itself in the top right corner of the page. lue their existence? One really interested in the honor and character of God, however safe they might feel themselves, could not be happy, while the only Source of thier happiness was surrounded, not with clouds and darkness MME quotes from Psalms 97:1-3: The LORD reigneth; let the earth rejoice; let the multitude of isles be glad thereof. Clouds and darkness are round about him: righteousness and judgment are the habitation of his throne. A fire goeth before him, and burneth up his enemies round about. By terrific light, she may refer to the conversion of St. Paul, who as related in Acts 9:3-8, was temporarily blinded by a heavenly light en route to Damascus. but with the most terrific light. At least it appears to me so, but the case is otherwise, for among that class of christians, are some of the most happy and sublime spirits. These seem to be so dazzeld with the divine splendors as to looselose the remembrance that what is justice in man, benevolence &c, must be of the same kind in God. If they plead that the over plus of happiness in the universe verifys the divine benevolence; to some, who follow the idea of the everlasting misery of the damned, it will not be wholly sattisfactory—unless, as was before observed, their existence is preferable to nonexistence. The calvinistic belief includes a secret and revealed will In all the reigions of truth (and this sentiment is in some form there) and speculation, thier could not be a stronger support of the belief of a final restoration of the human nature to it’s pristine grandeur, and to the still higher destination of belonging—of being incoperatedincorporated into the interest and honors of the Son of God. MME alludes to Deuteronomy 29:29: “The secret things belong unto the LORD our God: but those things which are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law.” By “the belief of a final restoration,” she may refer to the Calvinistic doctrine set forth in the creed in The Constitution and Associate Statutes of the Theological Seminary of Andover, “that the souls of believers are at their death made perfect in holiness, and do immediately pass into glory; that their bodies, being still united to CHRIST, will at the resurrection be raised up to glory” (Andover Constitution, p. 34).

Apart from speculation, I humbly confess myself dark & ignorant—and altogather removed from condemning the Calvinist who reaches the pinnicle of hopkinsianism. It is possible they may have discovered the incognitatheof man’s condition—and that truth has never been awarded to any Sect but thiers—were this the case—it does seem to those not initiated that they the uninitiated are the objects of charity—and that there is no necessecary conmection between truth & bigotry. Both the Monthly Anthology and the Panoplist writers accused the other of bigotry and mendaciousness. The Anthologist’s liberal theological position regarded the restrictive creed required of Andover Seminary professors to be Hopkinsian (rather than strictly Calvinist, as the Panoplist claimed) and also “bigoted,” because it excluded other theological approaches or thinking, and mendacious because the Panoplist characterized the creed as Calvinist: “We think it requires no common intrepidity for any man to stand forward and assert the complete and absolute identity of Calvinism and Hopkinsianism. If it were only said that Calvinists, if they were consistent, would be Hopkinsians, and if they were true to their principles, they ought to go to all their consequences with the Hopkinsians, there would be some plausibility in the proposition. But to risk their whole cause on their ability to show, that the Hopkinsians maintain only the principles acknowledged and defended in the writings and standards of Calvinism, we think can proceed only from absolute desperation.” The Anthologist similarly criticized the strict adherence to the creeds required of its professors by the recently founded Andover Theological Seminary: “We think that any man, who is not a bigot to his own opinions, may rejoice in the foundation of an institution, even though by those who differ from himself, where these and all other opinions are to be fairly and freely examined; and yet with perfect consistency condemn a seminary, from which all freedom of inquiry, at least in the instructors, must be for ever excluded” (Defence: Of the Review, pp. 198, 195). Continuing to insist that its “Creed is strictly Calvinistic(Review February, p. 416) and that the liberal Anthologists were the hypocrites, the Panoplist responded: “The very men, who affect this indifference [to doctrines of revelation], and maintain its necessity in religion, are among the greatest bigots to their own modes of thinking, and commonly the most illiberal in their opposition to those, who differ from them” (Review March, p. 477). MME may refer to herself or the author of this review as “uninitiated” into the “truth” of the Hopkinsian position; in either case she seems to advocate for truth over bigotry. But a mind less partial to this sect than mine, would be ready to compare them to comets, whose light was splendid— but terrific—whose excentriceeccentric revolutions while they portended destruction to the order of their system—might be among the happiest means of agitating and supplying with new light the whole planetary world! MME may be commonplacing from Jane West’s Letters to a Young Lady: ‘Heresies,’ as the venerable Bishop Horne observes, ‘however defeated, however triumphantly answered, are only conquered for a time. They seem to make their periodical revolutions in the church, like comets in the heavens, now disappearing, and now appearing again in their erratic course.’ Can this be wondered at? It is the spirit of the mystery of iniquity, which always speaks; and when the old embroidered suit of popery is worn thread-bare, it will dispute in the quaint garb of puritanism. Theological controversy, considered in its best light, I mean as keeping alive a zeal for religion, is even then a most humiliating proof of human imperfection, and shews that we are still at an immense distance from possessing that peace which Christ bequeathed to us (West, Letters, p. 2:92).

Wateford 1809 MME had expressed her restlessness in Boston to Mary Wilder Van Schalkwyck White in the spring of 1809, writing that I intend going to Waterford & indeed expected to have been there almost by this time, but my brother persuades me from one time to another to put it off and thinks Boston the best place on most accounts. And (I dont exactly know how to account for it) I am so indecided, so indifferent as to the place of my abode, that I form no plans and seem to be the most at loose ends of all the world (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 42-43). Her sisters, Phebe Bliss Emerson Ripley, with her husband Lincoln Ripley, and Rebecca Emerson Haskins, with her husband Robert Haskins, lived in Waterford, and MME resided there primarily with the Haskins. According to Phyllis Cole, MME preferred the more rural independence of Waterford, where “Baptists and Methodists abounded,” and which therefore provided a greater degree of intellectual freedom than she had heretofore known when lodging with her brother William, a Unitarian minister in liberal Boston. She remained here through the entirety of 1810 (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, pp. 130-131).

MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 5), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Written 6–10 October 1810. Waterford, Maine. 2 MS sheets, undamaged. This short fascicle begins and ends in mid-sentence, indicating that it is a fragment of a longer Almanack manuscript. These pages include an extended discussion of chance and free will as both are manifestations of a preordained divine plan. MME discusses slavery and “human misery” but also expects that the promise of eternal life should comfort all who are afflicted. She pronounces ancient and modern philosophers “proof of the immortality of the soul” and discusses their contribution to natural religion.

Continued Oct 6 1810. As indicated by this note at the beginning of its first page, this Almanack is evidently a fragment of a once longer fascicle. reunion to Gods certain govt government. Can it be in the nature of things that some events are left to take place by no fixed rules—what is called chance—contingency—arising from the freedom of man’s will— Wd Would these interfere with those which are elected from the foundation of the world MME alludes to Peter 1:20: Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you. — Would they form links which would go into the chain of Gods providence or form another chain independent. The latter could not be. If by the ordination of God, any link could exist, any event left to human agency could be formed. He wd would incoporateincorporate it into His genealgeneral plan. His wisdom & omnipotence might do this. If the existence of all matter this moment has no dependance on the existence of matter the last moment, why has any phisical or moral event any dependance on similar or contiguous ones? Annotation in progress. If so, God may be carrying on in different parts of the earth, or in the same, by various modes, either by his immediate agency—or the volantary agency of Angels Devils & men? But that moral actions are independant on each other is false; for the whole illegible all religious habits depends on the laws of association. Hence I cannot but beleive phisical events are under somthing of the a similar econymy.—somthing that in the nature of things, by the arbitary appointment of God, makes one thing the efficient cause of another.the mode by which God produces events—and that the upholding the creation is not an effect like the a constant creation. Were this not true, the advocates for transubstantiation would have, it seems, a stronger argument than any I knowhave heard of a speculative kind. Annotation in progress. But to return to the independant chain, were it in the nature of things that God could create any intelligent bimgbeing or any inanimate independant of Himself, in the continuance of its existence, or its agency, would the effects of such a bimgbeing correspond to the unity of design, which appears in the works & revelation of God. It wd would not—but this chain w’hwhich He might at any moment controul, does not appear to militate against what we call unity of object, as it appears impossible that This numeral appears in the far left corner of the margin and appears to function as a page number. that such a chain can exist—a chain denotes somthing intire—whole of itself—therefore those events which appear independant as to divine agency cannot constitute an independant chain of events, because theyhow could they become essential parts of the main chain of events which constitute the being of the world. Are they independant solitary events and not of connected with the general tide, to appearance? Can any effect exist without a cause— And where can the efficient Cause be found but in God? Besides, it is not the illigitimate effects which induce sceptiscism. It is the same and even course of nature—the regular succession of one thing to another. It is the immutability of the Agent and the nessisity of his constant influence which blinds to His operation. Annotation in progress.

10. This is the 3d day in w’hwhich existence has been more dull & perplecedperplexed than is common. I’ve sacrificed to what I tho’tthought duty to my soul & Mr H. has gone without me.

sabsabbath  MMorning . 7. Page one of this Almanack is dated 6 October 1810; the reverse side of the first leaf contains a brief entry dated “10” of presumably the same month and year. Then page three begins with “7,” followed by a Sabbath evening “7” entry on page 4. MME often resumed writing on Almanack pages at a later time and may have done so with the entry of “10 October” on page two, giving rise to an apparent inconsistency in the date order of this fascicle’s pages. Of all the subjects whwhich ever ocupied the human mind is the character of God—espicially that branch of it w’hwhich relates to his govt government of this earth, & in that point which represents it as the end of our creation. After the richest promises of good to the chhchurch. God says I will be glorious! MME likely alludes to Isaiah 49:5: And now, saith the LORD that formed me from the womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob again to him, Though Israel be not gathered, yet shall I be glorious in the eyes of the LORD, and my God shall be my strength. It is this of all other relations raises our existence in value! It opens a field of day where Angels may forever wander! If When the cold Fanatic does not darken it with metaphisical flounderings, the simpel Lover of God exults with the purest self love and elevated devotion on this sublime Theme. Created for thy glory MME may allude to Revelation 4:11: Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created. —oh reason & cause for existence how transporting! Enlivened by it the deepest dungion would not lessonlessen my happiness— What a motive to press into every instant absolute unmixed virtue! But is there such a virtue on earth. Only at the moments when the soul is ocupied with God: What darkens such a moment! The idea of human misery—ah that poor wretched negro suspended on a gibbet for a crime which self pervationpreservation taught— MME may refer to the general “human misery” of the institution of slavery, or she may have in mind a specific slave who was executed for attempting to run away or to assist another slave in doing so. Two local newspapers at this time carried a similar story, which MME may have read: On 7 September 1810, the Salem Gazette reported that “A Black Man in the republican State of Georgia has been condemned to Death, and is to be executed on the 18th of this month—for what?—for endeavoring to effect the escape of a Slave!” On 19 September 1810, THOMAS’s Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette published a similar report but more specifically described that this man “has been condemned to be hanged in Georgia” (Bloody Code); (Summary). Lord God most mercefull hasten oh make no tarrying.

8. MMorning. Ah, I shall never behold in this life the hand or the machine, which would divest me of littleness & perplexity. I am unworthy for whom Thou s dst shouldst showe it. Unworthy to take the hallowed vendviand of benevolence into my attainted lips. Annotation in progress. And tho’though the feeblest promotion of the gospel of Jesus is the richest of any its sacred depaortments—yet I believe, I think it better— I feel a desire to shrink from the observation of even children— —to lie low, & lie still— Oh the dear condition of lying where I could behold the favorites of God—how wd would my faith grow at their influence—how my humulityhumility.

sabsabbath eve 7. Page one of this Almanack is dated 6 October 1810; the reverse side of the first leaf contains a brief entry dated “10” of presumably the same month and year. Then page three begins with “7,” followed by a Sabbath evening “7” entry on page 4. MME often resumed writing on Almanack pages at a later time and may have done so with the entry of “10 October” on page two, giving rise to an apparent inconsistency in the date order of this fascicle’s pages. The lives & writings of the Philosophers before & after Christ form one of the richest features of the divine govt government— They are a proof of the immortality of the soul—of natural religion—that original righteousness of Adam, which tho’though lost as to any power of salvation, yet it’s ruins remain—a grand and eternal mounument of divine art & goodness. Thier virtues and vices at once bespoke the condition of human natuer. Tho’Though those were of the most splendid kind, yet these proclaimed with indisputable clearness that man without revelation—without an influence beyond himself is incapable of virtue. Thier shreds & fragments were but the mutilated members of Annotation in progress.

MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 6), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Written c. 8 December 1810-8 January 1811. Waterford, Maine. Six MS sheets, with slight damage evident due to burning, scorching, and water or mildew. MME provides only one definite date in this Almanack, on page 9, which is dated 4 January 1811. Based on contextual evidence and knowledge of MME’s whereabouts at this time, the editors speculatively date this Almanack’s span as the months shown above. This Almanack opens with MME’s commentary on comparative religions and religious histories, as she contrasts the “truth and divinity” of “genuine” Christianity with “all other religions,” including the “mohammed legends,” although she notes Edward Gibbon’s suggestion that the Koran has retained its purity through the ages as compared to the bowdlerizing of Christian texts. On later pages, she continues to discuss the history of the early Christian church. In addition to Gibbon, her reading at this time includes John Locke, Johann Lorenz Mosheim, Jonathan Edwards (with whom she appears to debate the issue of free will), and William Wollaston. As is typical for her, MME derives tremendous pleasure from these intellectual pursuits, finding “every day . . . somet[hing] new in books” and describing “reading with a delight which nothin[g it] seems could inspire but novelty in knowledge.” Interestingly, she asserts that “Philosophers & men of genius . . . acquired glory from their pens while the Hero and Stats[man] have been forgotten,” a conclusion that is reminiscent of a similar statement in Almanack folder 40, written in 1821. She comments on the recent death of author Anna Cabot Lowell, with whom MME was acquainted, as well as on the illnesses of her sisters Rebecca Emerson Haskins and Sarah Ripley. As in other Almanacks, at this time MME engages in self-castigation and, on occasion, wishes for death because it will deliver an “absence of sin.” On the last page, MME reminds us of her abiding interest in science by alluding to “the laws of motion and gravitation laid down by Newton.”

1811 Written in the center of the line, likely in non-authorial hand. Since editors’ research suggests that pages 1-9 in this folder are dated December 1810, this date is possibly incorrect for this Almanack page; this assigned dating may reflect this folder’s reconstructed pagination, by the Emerson family or others, after MME’s death. In the religion of Jesus Christ we find an internal evidence of it’s truth and divinity when compared with all other religions and with all the corruptions which have been attached to it. It is gauerdedguarded by the foreknowledge of its Author, from those very aceptionsacceptions MME likely has in mind a word no longer in current use: The action of receiving or taking something presented; acceptance, reception; spec. favourable reception, approval (acceptions). which lie against subsequent impostures. In the mohammed legends are laws agains proscriptions of food and sleep—and rules of prayer and fasting. The christian religion attacks the heart of man and moulds it to a divine image, and the conduct easily conforms to the few simpel rites w’hwhich are arbitary— Arbitrary indeed they scarsly are—so adaopted to be signs between God & man—so expresive of the wants of man And—there has not arisen one beastly heresy—nor one profane corruption been added to the sacred ark of revelation, but within it’s holy pages are prepared the antidotes, either in the misterious form of prophecy, or the plainer character of line and precptprecept . Annotation in progress. It is said by the invidious Gibbon that while the Vatican has been so disfigured that were the Apostles to revisit it they would not know it, the lofty dome of St Sophia retains the representation of the humble tabernacle of Medina. And that while chistian commentaries have so disfigured the text as wd would oblige their original authors to study thier own writings, the koran remains the infallible code of religious & civil legislation. In this blending of sacred & civvil interests it is true Gibbon finds the cause of the permancy of mohammedan ism. MME alludes to several discussions in Edward Gibbon’s History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire: If the Christian apostles, St. Peter or St. Paul, could return to the Vatican, they might possibly inquire the name of the Deity who is worshipped with such mysterious rites in that magnificent temple. . . . But the Turkish dome of St. Sophia, with an increase of splendour and size, represents the humble tabernacle erected at Medina by the hands of Mahomet; and From the Atlantic to the Ganges, the Koran is acknowledged as the fundamental code, not only of theology but of civil and criminal jurisprudence; and the laws which regulate the actions and the property of mankind, are guarded by the infallible and immutable sanction of the will of God (Gibbon, History, p. 6 pp. 308, 257, 258). But in a more impure source it may be found, it’s precepts accord to the passions of man, and allow their eternal gratifiation here & hereafter. The genuine religion of Jesus Chist retains it’s permanancy amid every innovation and rises to the eye of the faithfull believr more sublimely from the furnace of persecution and the more dangerous mutalations of it’s pretended friends. It is founded on the character of God—it is stands a monument of his power, unconnected with every human institution, and in defiance of every earthly and sensual passion. The various commentaries, and opposoingopposing sects which have risen from its intelligible, as well as from it’s misterious departments, are but so many proofs of the it’s divine origin; as well as it’s passing thro’through human mediums. That it is not inviolate to the Spoiler who dares to mingle it with his unhallowed impostures, or the daring Robber who o ften in socinian rashness, or stupid quakerism dares commit sacrilidge on the whole fabrick, is often affords constant exercise for the faith & patience of the Saints. I feel poor in purse—oh who that felt immortal could say yt that! To morrow—I may take possesion of an eternal inheritance MME may allude to Hebrews 9:15: And for this cause he is the mediator of the new testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance. tomorrow I may be an admirer of martyrs and Angels. Oh the possibility alone of death sd should do every thing. Oh then how can I ever be in possesion of pardon for sins like nr damaged mine— How poor & inconsistent—tonight contemplating the time when I shall inspect the employments of seraphs—in the morning looking back to infancy and longing with eagerness that I had then found a grave, w’hwhich wd would have saved me from the sins of my life— I had then been among the redeemed— I had felt interested in my species, and adored the Lamb . MME refers to Jesus as described in John 1:29 and other verses of the New Testament: The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. But I have lived to injure the spirit of yt that religion I love. True, I may drink into it more deeply—but never, never can I live so as to promote it— Oh hide me from dishonoring it! Oh keep me, Thou whom I love, from delusion and folly and I’ll praise Thee forever.

8 M.Morning God! eternally active—what an idea—His conduct! His agency is it only in the material world?— oh there it only exists mechanically—it is in the intellectual & moral world of man I pant for it’s operations—the world of vegetable & animal life is but the faint, tho’though lovely picture of His vital agency in the world of spirits. Oh today may some new idea of that world unite me (if I may so say) to the fountain of wisddamaged

9 sabsabbath eve. Sister H. unwell. I went to chhchurch—walked—cold wind barren— Yet what an internal feast—objects, w’hwhich in other years appeared dismal are now gilt with the bright beams of imdamaged nothing more. Still somthing either of health or divine influence must be the cause. It is true every day gives me something new in books. I am reading with a delight which nothing it seems could inspire but novelty in knowledge, Moshiems’ history How kind to this family and to it’s Mother is God! Shidamaged damagedheld May the blessing be sondamaged I have often tremblingly said at the hearing of the difficulties w’hwhich speedily entered the chhchurch—how little at any time has religion done for society—alass how little to what might be expected for communities and individuals! I dont never said it loud. But at the history of the first ages, it flashes on my mind, the wisdom of God in erecting his cause amidst the dangers w’hwhich surrounded it on every side. MME refers to Johann Lorenz Mosheim’s Ecclesiastical History, Ancient and Modern (1755), which was published and translated in multiple British and American editions in the nineteenth century and in which Mosheim describes the persecutions by Roman authorities suffered by early Christians. Oh how astonishingly does it add to the gloyglory of the christian to have held on his away against the world—human passions and all sublunary things. Had these been propitious—love of novelty would soon have added to the chhchurch the whole world—and the pure sublime nature of xianitychristianity would never been developed. It was not religion that caused blood & carnage—it was the guilt of man, roused into actions by this wonderfull counteracting scheme. And thro’through what difficut— paths has it made it’s way! The fire & sword without—and more poisonous philosophy and heretical divisions within. Truely the xianchristian religion afford a theme of wonder to highest intelligences.

11. M.Morning Philosophers & men of genius have in every departmnt have acquired glory from their pens while the Hero & Statsman have been forgotten. How unspeakeably more sublime was the life of Jesus! He spake as never man spake MME alludes to John 7:45-46: Then came the officers to the chief priests and Pharisees; and they said unto them, Why have ye not brought him? The officers answered, Never man spake like this man. and his words illuimeillumine the moral world with the same identical beams of light with w’hwhich they first shone! How foolish the story of Jesus Chist writing a letter to Abgarus king of Edessa. The holy Gh.Ghost was the penman of damaged God. MME alludes to a Judeo-Christian legend, mentioned in Johann Lorenz Mosheim’s Institutes of Ecclesiastical History Ancient and Modern, which she is reading at this time (Mosheim, Ecclesiastical History, p. 1 pp. 56-57). The legend holds that Abgar V, being ill, wrote to Jesus and asked to be healed; Jesus responded that after ascending to heaven, he would send one of his disciples to cure the king and then preach to his people. In a standard account of this legend, Eusebius quotes from these legendary letters and describes the subsequent mission of Thaddaeus, who comes to heal King Abgar and then converts many of the city’s inhabitants (Murray and Murray, Abgar, pp. 2-3).

16 sab.sabbath noon. Never knew a more anxious hour. I have damaged illegible had done better. Oh God th damaged damaged damaged damaged a wonderfull econymy in nature may illustrate the imprtance of the impovement of so insignificant a being as myself to the moral world—but oh to me—tho’though I do not apprehend but a very trifle of the nature of existence—yet it may be dear to me as any Angels in Heaven. If there is any possible or established connction between means & endsasking & finding, I’ll seek that the dark cloud of ignorance be removed in a measure consistent with my condition & my hopes as a believr in a divine relation & agency. Edwards speaking of these connections says. “The supposed connetion betwen antecedents & consequ ents let it be ever so sure & nessecay does not does not prove that it is in vain for a man to attempt to open, his eyes—his aiming—& the use of means being the effect of his will does not breake the connection nor hinder the success.” May not the free will of a moral Agent be a link in the chain of events of theeach of which is ordered by God—and yet the freedom not the less than if any temporey motive—or accident had induced the will to act. In short, it seems that the will of a being with a moral capasity is nothing more than an instrument of the divine govt government of the most misterious kind in living to issue the most stupendous schemes according to the Edwards’ system. MME may allude to Matthew 7:7: Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you. She also commonplaces from Jonathan Edwards’s Freedom of the Will: The supposed established connection between these antecedents and consequents, let the connection be never so sure and necessary, certainly don’t prove that it is in vain, for a man in such circumstances to attempt to open his eyes, in order to seeing: his aiming at that event, and the use of the means, being the effect of his will, don’t break the connection, or hinder the success (Edwards, Freedom, p. 288). By Edwards’ system, MME likely refers to Edwards’s advocacy of theological determinism, which views free will as incompatible with human dependence on divine will. And such in some measur it certainly appears. B damaged for myself, I never remember to have met with the difficulty in the scriptures in a way to perplex. When the Eternal declares his soverignty and electing conduct, I see and rejoice in the security of such a Governor—when his promises and threatnings are addressed to moral agents objects of his elections, and the engines of his govt government, I fear and tremble at human responsibility— I feel myself, beyond the possibility of doubt, an agent—one on whom He will p damaged the riches of His grace. Those who would repose damaged these subjects—and find a ndamaged damaged Annotation in progress. representing God as the only Agent in the univerce, if these represntations tend to impeach the divine beneficence—or to lessen those impessions of an indefinable kind, with which from infancy we are accustomed to contemplate the Deity, as the Source only of wisdom, powepower holiness and love—as forever hating and counteracting evil. Now if these impessions are disturbed—our supreme happiness is lessened—we had better I had almost said revert into Manicheanism—or plung into a universe without a Particular Providence, in the sublime faith that in future revelutionsrevolutionsrevelations, the soul would realise all those perfections with which it had delighted to surround the idea of God the Creator—all those organizations which would remove the present guilt & diorderdisorder. of True, the loss of a perpetual and minute agency over beings so frail and vulnerable to most exquisite sufferings is a loss which can only be felt by the solitary and seniblesensible soul—but nothing to that which gives the grand and indescrible emotions with which the it meditates a Being counteracting rather than decreeing evil—or those things which for the present are evil— things contrary to His Nature and revealed will. Still these ideas may be superficelsuperficial—these reasonings—be rather feelings arising from short and vague appehensions. “Pure spirit, viz. God is only active”—an eternal infinite activity! MME quotes from John Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding: Pure spirit, viz. God, is only active; pure matter is only passive; those beings that are both active and passive, we may judge to partake of both (Locke, Human Understanding, p. 1 p. 322). What a wonder! What may not be it’s damaged provision for all the phenomena of the phisical intellectual and moral world! An ordination of damaged damaged yet He is just & righteous MME may allude to any of several biblical verses that refer to a “just” and “righteous” God, including Psalms 7:9: Oh let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end; but establish the just: for the righteous God trieth the hearts and reins; Deuteronomy 32:4: He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he; and Romans 3:26: To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus. therfore man must be guilty —miseries are here unaccountable on other grounds—thothough they bespeake his immortality and probation—yet can never account—could indeed never exist, those w’hwhich do not arise from guilt but from some hidden incognita of human depravity.

3. M. Morning Ah what a delightfull support under such views to contemplate God—if fear & awe arise—well. But the degree of moral ndamagedsity w’hwhich must exist from such an infinite Existence raises and soothes the soul—oh what a support. If there is no succession of existence—or ideas—or time or whatever called in the eternal Mind—then foreknowledge must imply * infallible nessity. Still I cannot perceive that thenthis foreknowldge or damaged is nessecery to the divine tranquility—or that if guilt and human misery sd should arise in opposition to His attributes and original plan it sd should be called or represented disapt disappointment lea damaged to misiry &c. Such alone may be the perogative of God, to behold with ineffable joy every event in earth & heaven tending in it’s nature to the subversion of His throne He does but prepare for his mercy & efficiency great er trophies perhaps— Annotation in progress. hence the chief of sinners are have salvation amid the ’gratulations of Angels. MME may refer to St. Paul’s self-description in 1 Timothy 1:15: This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief. Or she may refer to Luke 15:10: Likewise, I say unto you, there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner that repenteth. But surlysurely the indefinable nessesity w’hwhich attends my actions takes not one indamaged from my guilt nor lessens the joy of any virtue—it inspires the hopes with w’hwhich I go forward—oh thro’through all eternity God I trust, my soul approaching himself.

4. Pain preponderated damaged damagediht my mind awakes. It is at first sight ines damaged damagededamagedt of divine damaged Whether the process to atheism (is natural or as a judgment) to atheism may be doubtfull. That it is not always nessecary is certain, for the mutalated and meagre forms of christianity prove. And it is possible in the wide range of that immense variety w’hwhich fills the moral world, there are those who having climbed to the throne of God by the noble scaffolding of revelation renounce the means but keep hold of the atetributes of a first and glorious Cause—but surely to no end of practice or consolation—it is not in the nature of things—it must surlysurely have arisen from a depraved infatuation. The case was far otherwise with those Thiests, who debarred by the ordination of the Romish econymy, and stranger to any revelation, rose to some faith in God by the contemplation of His works, and the instincts of reason, or a diviner light from above which they knew not—yet it guided them, and has left their failings & virtues to be a perpeptual monument of the divine spirit Their vices tooto preach loud as thunder the need of damagedore distinct revelation. Annotation in progress. It was for superior minds to rise amid the darkness and misery of this little orb, and believe in a higher order of things and beings—but little minds set adrift from the ark of revelation must of course be lost and confounded at the ocean of events and scenes of confusion and misery which surround thier little wreck & despondent atheism takes place. There is one circumstance in the history of corruptions that is worthy of damagedtdamaged damaged It does seem the Author has not hit on the strongest proof of this delightfull doctrine, which the nature of things affords. The accumalation of knowledge—the nature of ideas, those which have no relation to matter—are better ones. Annotation in progress. But the gospel alone brings immortality to light in futurity and as it exists in the nature of man. Christ—the divine Christ wd would not have died, it is not reasonable to believe, for beings composed of matter—whose essence was nothing more than other inanimate matter. The whole body of scirpture presumes another being distinct from matter, tho’though vieled in matter, and for the present, dependant for many of it’s effects apparently on matter. “Man made in the image of God,” probably indicates a spiritual & immortal nature—the prototype of this image must have been the Soul of Jesus Christ— Somthing like the Shekinah of God—the Angel of His presence —! MME alludes to Genesis 9:6 : Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man; or to Genesis 1:27: So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them; and to Isaiah 63:9 : In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the angel of his presence saved them: in his love and in his pity he redeemed them; and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old. But on this gran d & misterious subject it is not for me to speculate. What Wollaston quotes from Plut. that the immortality &c and the doctrine of Pro.Providence stands &c does not appear solid, unless by immortality be intended future existence— Admit this, or that the soul is naturally immortal—and tho’though it argues strongly a superintending Govoner—yet does not prove it— It may enter into the design of a moral govt government of free agents that their actions should take their own course in general—that it is the province of Omnipotent Power to overrule the chaos of human affairs, after they have taken what may be called a natural course. MME appears to be considering assertions made by William Wollaston in his Religion of Nature Delineated concerning the nature of immortality, the doctrine of providence, and divine intervention in human affairs: There must be other ways above my understanding, by which such a Being as God is may take care of private cases without interrupting the order of the universe . . . intelligent, active, free beings must be under a government of another form. . . . I conclude then, that it is as certain, that there is a particular providence, as that God is a Being of perfect reason. Wollaston additionally posits that Divine Providence and the immortality of the soul must stand and fall together, in support of which conclusion he quotes Plutarch, If you take away the one, the other will follow and Heraclitus: It is the same thing to think there is no God, or if there be one, that he does not govern the world; or if he does govern it, he is not a good and just governor (Wollaston, Religion, pp. 199, 200, 208). He will create a new Heavns & earth wherin dwelleth MME alludes to 2 Peter 3:13: Nevertheless we, according to his promise, look for new heavens and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness. damaged damaged interpose by an agency altogather new & illustrious. Thdamaged damaged on morals & nat.natural religion say a great deal of damaged damaged t damaged t damagedakes one sick to hear damaged them—because they are dishonest—they derive their fine things from revelation and deny the source.

Jan. 4 1811. Ah I enter with little hope on a new divirsion of time God have mercy and save me from the past—let it close my present life, if my heart becomes no more the seat of sympathy truth & meekness. At a glance of Edward’s system of conversion it does appear that he misrepresents (not willfully) the mode by which God governs the chhchurch & world. Moral agents as well as Materials ones would be be a ponderous machine—meighty indeed and requiring an omnipotent Cause to wield—but does not strike the illegible unprejudiced mind so grand, as to consider God as governing the universe by instruments indowed with more freedom than he allows—or a different kind—it’s origin I would not insist should be likea “self determining power”—because Edwards combats the idea so plausibly, and perhaps solidly for, perhaps, mind whatever be it’s nature, must have a direction a pronpesitypropensity to act one way rather than another—this it seems enters into it’s essence—habit or education and grace, or an influence of a different kind from that exerted in its first creation, athe this first direction, or propinsity—which now appears damaged in a lapsed disordered state. If the first act of the will be perf ect—and it must be, or exist nessecailynecessarily, then it must related to it’s cause, and cannot have a self determining power unless it resolves to have such a power, before it has any power. and can give itself the power. A greater or different kind of freedom than the hopkinsians allow is probably the case or our ideas would degenerate into Aristoteainsm & Annin damaged damaged like making God the soul of the world—no individualty Annotation in progress. damaged damaged to give us a Whidamaged 1811 Written to the left of the center of line, possibly in non-authorial hand. create machines—a power to do what we please with our holdamaged —or a power to do what we please—but no will—or disposition. That there is a misterious nessisty in some at least of our ationactions appears certain—and I tremble when this moment tempts me to think that the weaknesses which I sometimes commit I can account for on no other principle—my very pride—my reason—my habits & prayers are opposed to them—my sins are less unaccountable —every good gift, eveyevery virtue I rejoice to desire from God—my sins make me long to depart and know that I am forgiven— but my egotism—my purile wordy empty vainities confound me— I sometimes find their cause in my situation—and ask to be dilivereddelivered. — but others wd would find me as guilty as I have been. Oh had I never failed but when not gaurdedguarded by prayer—how happy— Were grace the gift of prayer, it does seem I had increased— But is it not the will of God that I should be a poor mean creature—a proof how little means of grace can do without his agency? Well his will not mine be done on me and by me. MME may allude to Jesus’s model of obedience to divine will as reflected in Matthew 26:39: And he went a little further, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt ; or in Matthew 26:42: He went away again the second time, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it, thy will be done. If I am miserable a sense of his agency operating it will sweeten the portion.

5 Sab.Sabbath Eve. Were there not that provision for particular cases I would still pray I wd would venture to pray that there might be such a provision. Were not God omnisient—could I not make that transporting petition— cast me not away from thy presence take not thy holy spirit from me .— MME quotes from Psalms 51:11: Cast me not away from thy presence; and take not thy holy spirit from me. yet I wd would so strive to conduct that whenever God should place me where I might be in his presence I sd should be prepared for it. Since I last wrote I have been agitaed by bad news from C— of the sickness of my sister. Oh were it not for prayer— God will restore her and make this an era of grace & prosperity to her & my parents. This care I expect to hear again

6 sab.sabbath eve. I did not hear. Blessed be God she is better. A glance at Edwards today, and the moral vertue of atonement, appeared before me under his influence—mdamaged may be a being not capable of forming habits of vertue himself—and the moment he believes it may be the moment of departnig from God—left wholly to himself and we know not the extent of his misery and guilt. Annotation in progress. Ah wonderfull and Joyous condition of any created being whose destiny refers him to his Creator in the most absolute and unconditional dependance—that Creator the first Cause in the universe of every effect—the Alpha & Omega— MME alludes to a phrase repeated often in Revelation: 1:8: I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty; 1:11: Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea ; 21:6: And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely ; and 22:13: I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last. the Originn of wisdom & goodness—how simpel—how natural the riliance—the branch florishes no longer than adhering to the vine . MME alludes to John 15:4: Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in me. Angels hence derive their honors and virtues—how much more freedom and power than man ever had is uncertain—perhaps they fall when they affect independance. Ah my God whatever others enjoy of strenght and merit— I ask I desire nothing but what comes from thy agency.

8. Yesterday A letter from Mr WhiteMiss Ann Lowel is dead! How sublime the future of such a mind! Conspiuous for talent & acequsitionsacquisitions—frends & fortune not unknown to affliction of the most interesting kind—damaged how impressive her exit. How grand does the fate of the poorest xianchristian become at death—then how much more in case the most splendid! I wrote to A.B. I feel more my nothingness when surviving the eminent. Oh could I die for some who is wdamaged full. I am grievously stationary—yet as an intellectual & religious being related to the will & agency of God how interesting how alarming my situation. If according to the laws of motion and gravitation laid down by Newton hold univrsally, there is not the least assignable part of an atom, but what has influence every moment thro’through ou t the whole material world univirse, to cause every part to be affected otherwise than it would be were it not for that particudamaged lar moral existence. MME quotes from Jonathan Edwards’s Freedom of the Will: If the laws of motion and gravitation, laid down by Sir Isaac Newton, hold universally, there is not one atom, nor the least assignable part of an atom, but what has influence, every moment, throughout the whole material universe, to cause every part to be otherwise than it would be, if it were not for that particular corporeal existence. And however the effect is insensible for the present, yet it may, in length of time, become great and important (Edwards, Freedom, p. 322). Tho’Though insensible the effect at present.

MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 25), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Written 9 October 1855, 16 January 1858, and 27 July 1858. Orange, Concord, and Boston, Massachusetts. Single undamaged MS sheet, with four horizontal folds to form a small parcel, with the mistakenly dated annotation “M M Emerson 1844” in the hand of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Perhaps the latest extant example of Emerson’s reading and writing practices from this lengthy manuscript series, this brief Almanack includes entries from both 1855 and 1858, when MME was in her early eighties. Poignantly, she characterizes herself at age 83 as “the same infirm frail hungry skeleton mind.” In these years she continued to exhibit a robust engagement with theological as well as intellectual and reformist concerns, among them the power of enlightened conversation on higher truths. Decades before the Transcendentalists had privileged spontaneous discourse as an act of individual and social reform, MME similarly pursued conversation with others, both in person and in these Almanack manuscripts, where she routinely engaged in dialogic exchanges with both the authors of her reading and the readers of her Almanacks. Although she did not attend them, MME was also interested in Transcendentalist writer, journalist, editor, and protofeminist Margaret Fuller’s Boston Conversations for women (1839-1844), a partial transcription of which Elizabeth Hoar provided MME in 1841 (Simmons, ed., The Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson, 426). MME also participated in at least one occasion of Transcendental discourse in late November 1858, at an Amos Bronson Alcott Conversation on “Private Life.” Also present at this Conversation at Bush, the Concord home of Lidian and Waldo Emerson, were Henry James, Sr., Henry and Sophia Thoreau, second generation Transcendentalists Ellery Channing and Franklin B. Sanborn, and abolitionist Mary Merrick Brooks, among others. James evidently advocated the cultural roots of crime, provoking MME to defend vehemently the moral law. James later observed of their verbal battle that MME “had the flavor to me of primitive woods wherein the wolf howls, and the owl has never been dislodged; and I enjoyed the novelty of her apparition in those days too much to mind the few scratches I got in making her better acquaintance (quoted in Simmons, ed., The Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson, 545; Shepard, ed., The Journals of Bronson Alcott, 310). Despite this pronounced vitality, December 1858 also marked the end of MME’s independent, nomadic boarding life. That month MME moved to Williamsburgh (now Brooklyn), New York, to the home of her niece, Hannah Haskins Parsons, where she would remain until her death, on May 1, 1863. In the first entry of this brief Almanack, dated from Orange, Massachusetts, MME commonplaces and reflects enthusiastically upon German philosopher and theologian Friedrich Schleirmacher’s commentary on Jesus of Nazareth, as quoted in John David Morrell’s Philosophy of Religion (1849). Honoring and seeking to follow the ways that her divine redeemer “dwells in God by his nature and love,” she faults her self-perceived failures to live fully in a “world … designed for the glories of martyrdom!” “Not yet awake to sacrifices,” she admits. Writing again in January 1858, MME reiterates a sense of her own spiritual failings but also reaffirms her alliance with divinity through the ministrations of Jesus. Directly addressing both father and son, she prays for their joint intercession in the reform causes that animated the last decades of her life. “Aid the sab [sabbath] Schools have mercy on the children and youth,” she enjoins; “look on thy coloured people Behold their sufferings.” In a separate and similarly reformist notation, perhaps written later in July 1858, MME quotes from Swedish writer and activist Fredrika Bremer’s protofeminist propaganda novel, Hertha (1856). In depicting the striving life of her protagonist, Hertha Falk, Bremer claims Swedish women’s right to assert their own personal independence upon reaching maturity, to gain an education, to own property and choose a profession, and to actively engage in political and social advocacy. Illness and an early death abbreviate Hertha’s pursuit of these goals; her chief achievement for the next generation of young women is founding and teaching in a non-traditional school dedicated to young women’s acquisition of self-reliance, self-knowledge, personal vocation, and highest duty to community—through readings and conversation. Hertha names the school “Practices in Language and Conversation” (306). MME’s quoted lines are from the first journal entry in which Hertha discusses her school’s progress; she began by reading aloud Sophocles’s play Antigone. Discussing Antigone’s principled decision to bury her brother Polynices, even at the risk of her own life, Hertha characterizes the Greek noblewoman and martyr as that glorious woman, who, faithful both by word and deed to the law of conscience and duty, defies the strong command of the tyrant, the slavish usages of society, … and stands fast in death, appealing to “The law infallible; unwritten law supreme which, / From to-day dates not, nor yet from yesterday; but / From eternity, the moment known to no man. … ” This glorious image of the heroine of conscience, may lead my young girls to understand more fully the ideal of the Christian woman, not merely (as is now so common) onesided in humility, which so easily becomes slavish, but also in heroism (Bremer, Hertha, 308). The full narrative background for MME’s quotation from Hertha offers suggestive clues as to its appeal for her. From her fiery defense of an inviolable moral law during the Alcott Conversation later in 1858, to numerous elaborations on its virtues in daily life, to its role in supporting reform causes in her writings, MME honored and attempted to live and act by this ethical code. She perhaps even identified with this fictional but “glorious image of the heroine of conscience” who embraced the “unwritten law supreme,” a model to Hertha’s students and to Bremer’s readers of the “ideal of a Christian woman” whose strength derives from fearlessness rather than an unquestioning and “onesided” meekness. An hybridic Almanack-letter from 1858, written on August 25, her 84th birthday, to nephew Waldo Emerson usefully contextualizes this brief 1858 Almanack, particularly in regard to MME’s commonplacing on the moral law and its meaning for a protofeminist, Christian reformer. The bulk of this document is dated and reads—without salutation—like an Almanack entry, yet three closing sentences more properly align generically with correspondence: complementary closing remarks and a final statement that this “scroll” is to serve in place of the “old Almanaks” that Waldo had been requesting in vain. What cannot be known now is whether MME removed for circulation her birthday Almanack entry from an ongoing 1858 Almanack no longer extant in its entirety (to which folder 25 may also belong), or whether MME chose to respond to Waldo’s requests for old journals by penning a themed Almanack for her nephew—a gesture she had offered up previously for Waldo as well as for his brother Charles on the occasion of their birthdays. Other Almanack-letter hybrids pose similar questions, but in this case, at the manuscript’s close, MME both repeats the preceding commonplace extract from Hertha and provides commentary that may indicate that this 1855 and 1858 Almanack presents a rare instance in which MME explores what it means to write and speak as a “heroic” figure in the company of other protofeminist women such as Bremer, her fictional protagonist Hertha, and Margaret Fuller. Not atypically, however, in her remarks about her commonplace extract, MME also brings a male figure into this pantheon of heroines of women’s rights: Napoleon Bonaparte, with whose birthday she mistakenly finds synchronicity, believing that he was born on August 24. MME begins her Almanack-letter birthday tribute with an extended discussion of “the image of a beautifull being just budding into existence.” In addition to closing off MME’s “usual joy” in this holiday, this distracting newborn female “is a stranger” to MME, or perhaps either a figment of her imagination—“or only a kind of painting an influx of images of delight to eye & ear, fancy.” This new being is possessed of a shining, but “deep root of ambition.” While ambition is typically “abused in our sensual world from its noble destiny,” MME implies that the stranger’s aspirations fulfill their righteous calling. Affirming that “the torch of revelation” ensures that “virtue in its mere moralities cannot florish and grow without toils & sacrifies of early study and experience,” MME once again upholds the value of Hertha’s (and her own) “unwritten law supreme,” the moral law, before adding her fondest hope, that this young entity might “learn that solitude affords the purest joys, w’h cannot be explained by the host of learned men.” But who is this “beautifull being just budding into existence,” and why is she the focal point of MME’s birthday writing? Is she an MME of youthful potential? Is she some actual but unnamed young acquaintance of virtue and promise? Or is she suggested by the fictional Hertha, since MME is apparently reading Bremer’s novel at this time? MME’s lifelong pursuit of vocational self-cultivation in the solitude of her beloved home in Maine, Elm Vale, likely influences this solicitous wish for her nameless birthday spirit, but MME herself questions the impetus for her musings. “But what kind of excitment has led me into this persumption?” she asks. “Is it Margarets restless demon?” (Simmons, ed., The Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson, 588, 599). As Nancy Simmons suggests, MME’s “restless demon” is presumably the (now deceased) Margaret Fuller, an intellectual woman whom MME admired for her brilliant mind but whom she also criticized for what MME viewed as her “paganism,” particularly in regard to “our divine Savior.” The two women’s sole disastrous meeting, in 1841, in Newburyport, Massachusetts, left MME with the frustrating sense that Fuller had withheld her vivid intellectual gifts during their fraught and even combative conversations (Simmons, 551, 523). If indeed MME had Fuller on the brain at the time of this manuscript’s writing, we can add the American Transcendentalist to the list of possibilities for the identity of the “beautifull being,” who may perhaps serve as some idealized vision suggested by Fuller’s ambition and intellect, but one also sanitized of her infidelity. Once again, Bremer’s Hertha offers intriguing possibility. In the early, aspirational stages of planning, Hertha discusses her school’s goals in terms that closely resemble Fuller’s own objectives for her Boston Conversations for women. Writing to Sophia Ripley in August 1839, Fuller hoped that these Conversations would enable “well-educated and thinking women” to “ascertain what pursuits are best suited to us in our time and state of society, and how we may make best use of our means for building up the life of thought upon the life of action. Could a circle be assembled in earnest desirous to answer the great questions. What were we born to do? How shall we do it?” (Hudspeth, ed., The Letters of Margaret Fuller, 2:86, 87). Hertha describes her aspiration for her own school in similar, albeit more religious and less elite, ways. She dreams of a school, guided by conversation, in which young girls, out of whatever class of society they may be, which have awoke to a consciousness of a higher want and for whom the spiritual cell in which they have lived has become too limited, may acquire the true knowledge of themselves and of their vocation, as members of society; may teach themselves to reflect and to answer the questions “What am I? what can I do? what ought I to do?” (Bremer, Hertha, 283). While Fredrika Bremer was not privy to private correspondence between Fuller and her supporters as Fuller undertook the first of four years of formal Conversations with women (and once with men) in Boston, Bremer had traveled to the United States in 1849, publishing her correspondence about that trip in Homes of the New World: Impressions of America (1853). Although Fuller was in Italy in 1849, Bremer not only toured extensively with Fuller’s close friends Marcus and Rebecca Spring but also spent dedicated time in Boston and Concord, where she became well acquainted with Waldo and Lidian Emerson, Elizabeth Hoar, Sarah Alden Bradley Ripley, Bronson Alcott, Ellery Channing, Theodore Parker, and other Transcendentalists and abolitionists. She attended and criticized rather sharply several Alcott Conversations (Homes, 1:173-175, 232-234), but she heard much from these new friends about Fuller’s “genius for conversation” and “ability for awakening enthusiasm in the minds of her friends. … The ‘Conversations,’ which she at one time gave in a select circle at Boston,” Bremer observes, “are spoken of as of the highest interest. Mrs. Emerson can not sufficiently praise her fervent eloquence and the extraordinary affluence of her mind” (1:169, 170). Given the depth of Bremer’s immersion in the Transcendental world of Boston and Concord, it seems possible that she would have well understood Fuller’s goals for the Boston Conversations and may have even considered Fuller a model for her fictional Hertha. What seems quite likely, however, is that in some fashion in both this Almanack and related Almanack-letter hybrid, MME connected the activist words and deeds of Bremer, Hertha, Fuller, and perhaps even herself. While these networks of association and subsequent questions are ultimately speculative, they continue to illuminate MME as a woman and writer who strived for meaning and purpose well into her eighties. In this Almanack, the octogenarian MME, who rarely comments overtly on the cultural life of and expectations for nineteenth-century women, has in this instance potentially evolved in her thinking on devout women, for whom virtue often meant self-effacement and humility, and on her doubts about her own potential for courageous martyrdom. Earlier Almanacks document the tension between MME’s ambitions and gendered cultural and religious expectations (see, for example, folder 41, dated 1822, and the editors’ discussion of this subject in “Mary Moody Emerson as Reader and Reviewer”). Considered together, this Almanack-letter of August 1858 and her 1858 Almanack commonplace writing suggest that MME’s novel reading may have held the potential to forge a link between her long-held piety and dedication to a Christian and philosophical moral code; ongoing intellectual ambition; and incipient protofeminist claims for women’s right to education, vocation, and legal independence.

Orange Oct 9 ’55 The date line is positioned flush right. “Christanity is a monotheistic belief w’hwhich distinguishes itself eseny essentially from all others by the fact, that every thing in it is referred to the redemption completed by Jesus of Nazareth” Schleimacher! MME quotes from John David Morell’s Philosophy of Religion, in which Morell quotes Friedrich Schleiermacher: Christianity is a monotheistic belief, belonging to the practical form of piety, which distinguishes itself essentially from all others by the fact, that everything in it is referred to the redemption completed by Jesus of Nazareth. Blessed truth! But blessed be God! there are original connetions apriori in human nature w’hwhich leads to God the intuitions! These live—but the shadow of death & missery darken them when man loses his nature by corruption. Then the blessed Jesus is revealed and reinstats his right to the very eternal attributes. Then how unspeakable the redemption! How lovely how divine the gift of the antient divinity of this being, who was with God MME alludes to John 1:5: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. the first of creation, and dwells in God by his nature and love! Halleui His blood has another voice but agony. One Cause is clear—an example for martrydom of every kind. This world was designed for the glories of martrydom! Yet dare I name it—when my very age and breakings give me so much ease Not yet awake to sacrifices

1858 Jan. 16. Dear Elridge’s The 3d year and the same infirm frail hungry skeleton mind. Yet I pray with earnestness that God would end this divine gift of loving Him this richest this only true gift of love to Him and alliance with Him by His divine representative if I am deluded & not regenerated to love him with heart & mind that is the spark of reason w’hwhich centers in the absolute the ineffable the first incomprehensible Caus of all that exists. I pass Angels & seraphs and seek a vivid apprehension of thee—without this what were existence to one so helpless, so frail so incapable of virtue & happiness. And the help thou laid on one mighty to save—to sympathise with human life what a world of treasure is for man. Oh let the ChhsChurches partake

597 Written in green pencil in top left corner, likely in non-authorial hand. “From today dates, not nor yet from yesterday; but From eternity, the moment known to no man;” MME quotes from Frederika Bremer’s Hertha: From to-day dates not, nor yet from yesterday; but / From eternity, the moment known to no man (Bremer, Hertha, 308), which derive from the protagonist’s well-known defense of divine eternal laws in Sophocles’s Antigone: For their life is not of today or yesterday, but for all time, and no man knows when they were first put forth (Sophocles, Antigone). Whether the lines in Hertha are Bremer’s translation from the original Greek or whether they are the work of Bremer’s translator, Mary Howitt, is not known. Clearly, this was an important passage to MME, since she also quotes it in a letter written to Waldo Emerson on her 84th birthday, 25 August 1858, in which missive she attributes the lines to Sophocles. For a discussion of this letter and suggestive context for MME’s regard for both Bremer and Hertha, see the Introduction to this Almanack folder. This quotation is partially encircled and demarcated from the remaining lines on this page. this day of his influeneinfluence. Blessed Jesus make haste to come and reign on this confused guilty world Aid the sabsabbath Schools have mercy on the children & youth. God of mercy whose purposes are wise & perfect thothough Eclipsed look on thy coloured people Behold their sufferings. Deliver me with thine own Hand!

Tues. July 27 The words “Tues. July 27” are indented. M M Emerson 1844 Ezra Ripley The remainder of the page is blank, with the exception of “Ezra Ripley,” which is written upside down from the rest of the text and at the bottom of the page; and the lines “MM Emerson 1844,” which are written vertically in the middle of the page in a non-authorial hand, which the editors believe is likely that of Ralph Waldo Emerson. The editors also believe that the date of “1844” is almost certainly erroneous, given that this Almanack is otherwise dated 1855 and 1858.

MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 31), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Written c. 7-9 November, 1826. [Waterford, Maine]. One largely undamaged MS sheet, folded twice to form a three-sectioned packet. (Note: The editors speculatively date this Almanack as above and have also determined that this sheet was almost certainly originally contained in Almanack folder 8 but removed from that folder and included in a letter Emerson sent a week later to her nephew Ralph Waldo Emerson. In keeping with our editorial policy of publishing the individual Almanack folders in conformance with the Houghton Library filing system for these manuscripts, we have published this sheet here as folder 31; it will also, however, be published in its original placement in Almanack folder 8.) In this Almanack, MME conveys her thoughts about the immortality of the soul and its engendering of “moral character,” prompted by her discussion with a Unitarian clergyman she had recently met while traveling who had relayed his skepticism about the “souls immor. [immortality].” Based on her remarks about this man in letters later this month to her nephews William Emerson and Ralph Waldo Emerson, he can be identified as a Reverend Peters. Deliberating on their conversation, MME remains steadfast in believing the soul to be immortal, a conviction that thereby gives “proof that there is a God & that man is to live in higher state.” Jesus, she maintains, has “restor[ed] . . . immotality to man.” Her correspondence this year with Waldo Emerson, and her concern over his frail health at this time, further contextualize MME’s focus on the subject of immortality in the fall of 1826. In late November, Waldo went to South Carolina and then to Florida in an effort to alleviate increasingly serious symptoms of tuberculosis; his journal commentary reflects self-castigation for low spirits as well as his attempts to seek some spiritual benefit from the physical pain. His first sermon, delivered several times between October and December of this year, addresses the prospect of compensatory afterlife for those who have lived ethically. As the letter mentioned above to Waldo’s elder brother, William, indicates, MME had attended Waldo’s sermon, and in another letter to Waldo, she proposed that her reading in his 1826 journal (much of which is devoted to sermon drafts) “has resusitated me.” Later in November, in a letter written days before he set sail for his health, she directs similar praise to Waldo again: “Your scatterd pages of [sermons] I shall [here] pick up like gems.” Evidencing here—as in the preceding letter—their manuscript exchange practices, she describes enclosing with this correspondence an Almanack leaf, as Waldo has asked her to do: It tells “the old old story—but friendship will pardon—besides—you will see that what you have requested is not worth the having. I love to look back on the dark moments of doubt—for they [rake] up truth . . . Please to return it as it belongs to others. . . . I should not give you these pages but the [lyre] of your clerical character flatters me that they will not be dispised.” Although MME’s notion of immortality in this Almanack is similar to the views Waldo has articulated in his sermon, in this Almanack MME disputes his view—perhaps purposely engaging him in theological debate—that we undertake a moral earthly life for the sake of earning a blissful eternity. Even if there were no afterlife, MME insists, we should “cling” to a “moral governor” and exult in every living moment of adhering to what is “agreable to His will.” Whether or not the soul itself is immortal, the spiritual and intellectual products of human existence, she believes, will live on after death: “Oh yes let us live to day—& though doubts of being no more should intrude let us crush them with becoming immortal by living in & with & for God while we do live. He lives—’tis enough give the reins to hope—virtue can never die—the thoughts w’h grasp at God can never perish—they are already passed into infinity!” Finally, this Almanack reveals that MME continues to hold firm in her faith when confronted with another religious skeptic, this time “an idolised friend,” likely sister-in-law Sarah Alden Bradford Ripley. “The dark demon of doubt,” she reports, has been “shaken off,” and she asks God to allow her to “die in the strenght of such an illusion” if in fact her faith is mistaken (MME to William Emerson, 5 November 1826, and MME to Ralph Waldo Emerson, 12 and 19 November 1826, both in Ralph Waldo Emerson additional papers, ca. 1835-1891, Houghton Library, Harvard University, bMS Am 1280.220 [67-116] and [847], respectively; Ralph Waldo Emerson, Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks, vol. 3, ed. William H. Gilman et al. [Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1963], x, 46, 48; Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Complete Sermons of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. Albert J. von Frank et al., vol. 1 [Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1989], 41-42, 60-62; Selected Letters of Mary Moody Emerson, ed. Nancy Craig Simmons [Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1993], 220).

No.November 7. This date is indented on a line by itself at the top of this page. that—is it the mountain air? Oh it is the will of God w’hwhich gives to objects their adaptation—surely then who adapts the sentiment of Himself to the ardors of the soul—to this nameless excitment of existence. Oh deleteddge of life deleted doing —riding seeing—for nothing but ere sorrow bro’tbrought me to the joy deletedact Could I have benefited the sick or poor who better than these joyous emotions. One converstionconversation of a day long interested deeply—found with some sattisfaction that I could reason—that the old school of unitairianism afforded advantge over calvinism—in yt that day too was shocked to learn that Mr‑‑‑ said he had doubts of souls immorimmortality. A dreadfull moment passed—& I asked my Antagonist who related the unitarian doubt opinion—if there were no immortal.y immortality what would be our interest here? “Why there would be no great use in moral character” MME refers to her recent conversation with a Rev. Peters, an unidentified clergyman whom she had met while traveling. In letters to her nephews William Emerson and Ralph Waldo Emerson, she provides additional details about their discussion: I was much interested in talk with the bearer of this letter in the course of a whole day. He seems not bigoted nor unwise. In speaking of the results of unitarianism (which of the old school I was vindicating) he bro’t proof that the tendency of the new was to doubt of the immortality of the soul. It was a proof w’h tho’ it did not weaken my faith, shocked me—but a dark & frightfull moment passed (Emerson to William Emerson, 5 November 1826); and I would tell you of a conversation I had with a cal. clergy man from N Y in the stage. I would not have missed it. I have made some scrawls of it in my day book w’h I inclose (Emerson to RW Emerson, 12 and 19 November c. 1826). This restored me—& I declared that if there was a noralmoral govenor like the God we had believed in it were alone desirable to cling to Him—to individuate ourselves with Him—to enjoy the short moment of existence by adherence to all we thought agreable to His will. Oh, this sentiment is proof that there is a God & that man is to live in higher state Intellect—moral priniples—feelings all declare that this dreaming buzzing reptile state is preparatory to another. If in a large corrupt busy City where the multitude seem born for the great pageantry of the aristocratic this persuasion is justled—sickned—it revives with order in solitude. The very exhibition of the fanatics last sab.sabbath gave the lie to infidelity Research has not yet located the source of this apparent gathering of “fanatics” on 5 November 1826.

Noon 1016 Written in green pencil in left corner of top margin, likely in non-authorial hand. Oh yes let us live to day—& tho’though doubts of being no more should intrude let us crush them with becoming immortal by living in & with & for God while we do live. He lives—ti’s’tis enough give the reins to hope—virtue can never die—the thoughts w’hwhich grasp at God can never perish—they are already passed into infinity!

Night. Jesus the restorër Written above the second “e” in this word are two parallel marks that seem to be functioning as a diaresis. While MME does not commonly use this mark in her Almanacks, the editors have determined that it does not result from bleedthrough, nor does it seem to be a stray mark or splay from her pen. of immotality to man. Those who forget—deny or forsake him may well be left to doubt of it—to lose it perhaps. Man ruined—fallen from his original charactre & destination lost sight of his divine origin & end. Hence the worth & majesty of this restoration—the danger of disputing it—the pride & persumption

8 M.Morning Christianity w’hwhich an idolised freind told me in her fervor was progressively got up—& seems to think she had its history could cannotnot be thus traced. MME likely refers to her “beloved” friend Sarah Alden Bradford Ripley (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, p. 86). Aptly describing her unique intellectual and emotional bonds with the younger woman, in a letter to Bradford approximately dated 1815, MME characterized herself as Yours head & heart (Emerson to SA Bradford, c. 1815). Although Bradford’s tenuous Christian faith had reached, from MME’s perspective, a crisis point by the 1826 date of this Almanack, from the earliest days of their friendship in 1812, the influence of deism on Bradford’s incipient steps in what would become a lifelong engagement with scientific and botanical research prompted her to express amazement that MME could seek friendship from one who was, in her own words, without the pale of Christianity (qtd. in Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, p. 155). By the early 1820s, however, Bradford’s exploration of German philosophy and her cynicism about Unitarian history and its unsavory politics led to her active intellectual questioning of what she considered unrealistic Unitarian notions about a benevolent divinity and the inevitability of human progress and perfectibility. Biographer Joan Goodwin suggests that Bradford’s increasing skepticism about both Christianity and Unitarian theology was compounded by the depressing constrictions common to many married women in the nineteenth-century—frequent childbearing, onerous household responsibilities, and a curtailed life of the mind. Bradford also held a naturalistic view of death, refusing either to sentimentalize it with heavenly visions or to make scientifically unsupported assumptions about an afterlife, adds Goodwin; by 1826, Bradford had lost her mother, father, favorite brother Daniel, and other close family members (Goodwin, Remarkable, p. 115). Despite her antipathy toward Bradford’s religious cynicism, however, MME always valued their friendship and admired Bradford’s spirited intellect. The most wonderfull circumstance of evidence both ex.external & in.internal is that it antisapated all the improvements of& development of the reason & faculties of men

9. M.Morning Restored to Heaven—by devotion & faith—& the dark demon of doubt w’hwhich levity & sin insensibly culteredcultured is shaken off—that must be an immortal principle w’hwhich is capable of hanging so strongly on invisible Being —& yityet He is visible—known & felt—that must be an immeterial substance w’hwhich is capable of so high illusion—if it be an illusion— Oh my God let me die in the strenght of such an illusion. If there are terrors in thy more immediate presence, let me go and Thou wilt support me thro’through

MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 36), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Written c. 2 September-11 October 1814. Boston, Massachusetts. Two largely undamaged MS sheets, folded into quartos of four leaves each. MME begins this Almanack with severe self-criticism and describes the preceding interval (likely the summer of 1814) as “the darkest 3 months I ever had,” a cryptic comment that may allude to the secular temptations of Boston life; the poverty of her widowed sister-in-law, Ruth Haskins Emerson; and the perils of war. Her bleak outlook continues throughout these pages, with extreme statements about her spiritual impoverishment, such as asking God to “forgive me the crime of breathing,” and, by the last page, arriving at the conclusion, “Life how contemptible.” This Almanack also offers a firsthand glimpse of what it was like to live in Boston during the War of 1812. As military troops massed in the city and residents feared imminent attack by the British, MME notes that many families were fleeing, although she describes herself as “calm” and stimulated by the frequent social and religious activities this Almanack documents. Later she refers to “the Nation in arms & bleeding.” Her reading at this time includes Henry Grove and Dugald Stewart. Biographical and family references indicate MME’s concern for the straitened financial circumstances of Ruth Haskins Emerson and her six children; cherished friend Sarah Alden Bradford visits MME in mid-September and again in early October; and in late September, MME’s stepfather, Ezra Ripley, pays her a “calm visit.” That month, MME also enjoys the Reverend Joshua Huntington’s anniversary sermon at the Boston Female Asylum, prayer meetings, and lectures.

2. The darkest 3 months I ever had. Yet in God I rejoice. His glory the ultimate end of my existence. Oh joy! for me, so useless oh why do I exist here and hereafter? Yet if dying thus disd disappointeddistressed, I sd should adore Him; the first Cause, and last end This morng morning I threw myself down again after rising. And I felt more of my union to the Head of human nature than ever I remember. My miseries weakness, folly & disgrace appeared annihilatted before His wisdom strenght and glory. A pall—oh, mere death of pleasure thrown over life is blessed—but I live in the view of future disgrace as well as past—yet bless God for my existence—the heart wriths with anguish I acknowlege— But convinced that I was made to be incapable of happiness with so depraveed and proud a heart— Oh God forgive me the crime of breathing—it would, I know, be a greater to strangle. I rejoice I did not bring myself into. existence. I shall one day be a ray of light in the crown of my Saviour—Jesus Christ.

3 MMorning Sat. I rode with Ruthe & Charles to Dorchester yesteday. Mercifully preservd from injuring them or the horse—Which weak nevesnerves led me to fear. Dined at JugdeJudge Paine’s enjoyed theittho’tthought relaxeation benifical— But do not know. Poor creatuer whether I relax or am austere. So poor, so deformed—that an apathy takes me—indifferent to pleasing strangers I like—but oh to feel no object—to feel no tie to drag of me thro’through this mire of life. Oh death how sweet! And Thou wert sweet yesterday; when I contemplated with full pleasur the fairstfairest sight of earthly pleasure in the form of the lovely Williams engaged to a promising youth—surrounded with hope & joy. This morning I read a “few sentences of the certainty of morality! I used to choose that the will of God (whom I love) should be the fountain & origin of all morality— But my ideas have alwys been confused—as led to faith & piety before the theory of morals. But could it not exist in the eternal and have no relation or obligation to man were man only a body without any attributes of spirit. Where would be the what is falsly called the moral sense —where any congruity between the eternal obligations of right conduct and thea creature without any principles inherent, w’hwhich are adopted to morality? All application of religion must thus be miraculous. In this Almanack, MME is reading several philosophers who debate the origins of human morality; in this passage she appears to be distilling and choosing among the conflicting ideas presented by eighteenth-century philosophers Henry Grove; Dugald Stewart; and (via Stewart) Francis Hutcheson and Anthony Ashley Cooper, third earl of Shaftesbury. In System of Moral Philosophy (1749), chapter one of which is “Of the Importance and Certainty of Morality,” Grove contends (in a sense that MME also honors in this passage) that God bestows upon humanity a moral sense; similar to the perception of beauty and antecedently to any reasonings of ours, on the superior convenience, or healthfulness of the beautiful; we are alike formed with regard to moral characters. She appears to reject, however, Grove’s notion that human morality derives from a sense perception, a response that may reflect her reading of Stewart’s critique of moral sense perception, particularly in regard to Shaftesbury and Hutcheson, both of whom, in his estimation, erred ironically in the manner of John Locke: notwithstanding his [Hutcheson’s] hostility to Locke’s conclusions concerning innate practical principles, he adopted his opinions, and the peculiarities of his phraseology, with respect to the origin of our ideas in general. I already observed, that, according to both these writers, it is the province of sense to introduce ideas into the mind; and of reason, to compare them together, and to trace their relations;—a very arbitrary and unfounded assumption, undoubtedly, as I trust has been sufficiently proved in a former part of this argument; but from which it followed as a necessary consequence, that, if the words right and wrong express simple ideas, the origin of these ideas must be referred, not to reason, but to some appropriate power of perception. To this power Hutcheson, after the example of Shaftesbury, gave the name of the moral sense; a phrase which has now grown into such familiar use, that it is occasionally employed by many who never think of connecting it with any particular philosophical theory. Stewart closes his critique by quoting Plato: It seems to me, that for acquiring these notions, there is not appointed any distinct or appropriate organ; but that the mind derives them from the same powers by which it is enabled to contemplate and to investigate truth (Grove, System, p. 2 p. 448) (Stewart, Philosophical Essays, pp. 43-44, 49).

Eve Indured existence—lost temper, but strove to press on. Disd DisappointedDiseased bodily perhaps—hard to bear up with sense of weakness so great. Oh better than pride—

4 sab.sabbath M.Morning AOh content to live an Exile from all that is great and happy. To live to sin & suffer. God’s will. Rejoice today at the cross of Jesus, take the pledge of his love—the seal of a covenant of mercy and forget my disgraces— Oh of what moment all that passed as a ball that is destined by its nature, perhaps, to perish—surely ordained to give place to better scenes? Oh nothing but what widens the distance between God & the soul.

9. friday Eve.. SineSince the Sab.Sabbath eve. The Inhabitants hav suffered much from fear of the Enymy assautingassaulting the Town within a few days! Many families are flying I am calm & the same. MME refers to the fear of Boston residents that the city would be invaded as the War of 1812 continued. During the fall of 1814, British troops in Maine and Connecticut had ravaged homes and businesses, causing many residents to flee. In the following weeks, Boston officials held meetings to discuss preparations for defending the city, with local troops parading through city streets to demonstrate their readiness. Despite such preparations, the city of Boston was never attacked. MME’s correspondence at this time also reflects these concerns as well as her characterization of the garrison like appearance of this Town, the incessant echo of martial musick (Defence) (Invasion of Connecticut) (Penobscot) (Ellis, Ruinous, p. 225) (Simmons, Selected Letters, p. 79). Oh for a heart to sympathise To me the joys & sorrows of my Country make little change. My heart aches for the depredations—but alone in the Univece with God I ask but his will, his glory.

11. SabSabbath yesteday unprofitable & today worse crime of ill feelings Weak with indisposition but weaker at heart.

13. A sad day read but not with avidity. SA.B. gave me a medicine before she went this morng.morning

15. Yesterday sadersadder uncharitable tho’tsthoughts. Today Pro. MR MME may abbreviate an internal note regarding her physical health at this time. I found I had not erred. Health returns.

16 MMorning . Too vehement in a good cause this breakfast. The children could not understand— I sd should remember a certain Martyr who in his zeal to espouse the cause left his closet and lost his faith. Annotation in progress.

18. sabsabbath E.Eve How pecious were such evegs evenings But my brain is marble & my heart corruption. Yesterday sinned today repeated it. Mercy. mercy. Frowns of Providence on us. The Nation in arms & bleeding. MME refers to the fear of Boston residents that the city would be invaded as the War of 1812 continued. During the fall of 1814, British troops in Maine and Connecticut had ravaged homes and businesses, causing many residents to flee. In the following weeks, Boston officials held meetings to discuss preparations for defending the city, with local troops parading through city streets to demonstrate their readiness. Despite such preparations, the city of Boston was never attacked. MME’s correspondence at this time also reflects these concerns as well as her characterization of the garrison like appearance of this Town, the incessant echo of martial musick (Defence) (Invasion of Connecticut) (Penobscot) (Ellis, Ruinous, p. 225) (Simmons, Selected Letters, p. 79). Oh for a situation to lose myself.

19 Good day for me enjt enjoyment prvailedprevailed.

20 How constantly employed— How much talk for others— Yet what a destitution of solemn feridfervid existence.

21 M.Morning This hour! I dont ask even for critical knowledge of scripture itself. Truth in all in its majesty, charity in its richest luster, & holy meekness need no aid from language and science. Give me Almighty God these and my union to Thee is everlasting whatever be the various meanings of words. God, it seems, has a large family to employ and some he places to dig the earth and some to groupe in the intricaiesacies of etemolygyetymology and alphabets.

Noon “Incomprehensible causes of the phenomena of w’hwhich we are conscious, in the simple art of thinking, perceiving & knowing”— Happy sublime incompehenibityincomprehensibility. pages1 —proof of a soul, whose essence like to it’s great aArchetype, is covred with a mysterious veil which mortality can never pierce! Yet I dont reject with Steuart, the hypothesis, which supposes the mind originally provided with a certain portion of it’s destined furniture, independantly of any intercoure with the material world. MME quotes from Dugald Stewart’s “Essay First: On Locke’s Account of the Sources of Human Knowledge.” Contending that philosophers err in attempting to explain phenomena inaccessible to empirical observation, Stewart argues that human experience can only account for aspects of the universe, the human mind, and their operations: I can see no good reason for supposing that Locke did not believe that our ideas of primary qualities are really resemblances or copies of these qualities, when we know for certain that, till our own times, this has been the universal doctrine of the schools, from Aristotle downwards . . . . Even Leibnitz himself, while he rejected the supposition of these ideas coming into the mind from without, expresses no doubt of their resemblance to the archetypes which they enable us to think of . . . . [T]hat is to say, he retained that part of the scholastic doctrine which is the most palpably absurd and unintelligible; the supposition, that we can think of nothing, unless either the original or the copy be actually in the mind, and the immediate subject of consciousness. The truth is, that all these philosophers have been misled by a vain anxiety to explain the incomprehensible causes of the phenomena of which we are conscious, in the simple acts of thinking, perceiving, and knowing; and they seem all to have imagined that they had advanced a certain length in solving these problems, when they conjectured, that in every act of thought there exists some image or idea in the mind, distinct from the mind itself; by the intermediation of which its intercourse is carried on with things remote or absent. The chief difference among their systems has turned on this, that whereas many have supposed the mind to have been originally provided with a certain portion of its destined furniture, independently of any intercourse with the material world; the prevailing opinion, since Locke’s time has been, that all our simple ideas, excepting those which the power of reflection collects from the phenomena of thought, are images or representations of certain external archetypes with which our different organs of sense are conversant; and that, out of these materials, thus treasured up in the repository of the understanding, all the possible objects of human knowledge are manufactured. What inconsistency! (might Voltaire well exclaim) (Stewart, Philosophical Essays, pp. 23-24). Although MME approves of the focus on faith and values Stewart’s sublime incomprehensibility, she rejects Stewart and Locke’s insistence that knowledge arises only from human experience Nurse from childhood, but this sentiment (not opinion) had a vague hold of me.

Night. Whether is the most wretched, the prophane under the sanction of a dissolute religion, or the prophane under the auspices of a divine religion? Each a proof of human depravity

22 Went to Action without impt importimprovement Dr Farnworth tead here. I am smale But infinitely worse sinned amid the pleasur of morning

24. Attended Female Asylum Sermon. Felt poor w’hwhich I did not use to. Bless God for the institution. Oh may it may be maintained these hard times. The Boston Female Asylum, one of the earliest examples in that city of the “first wave” of early American women’s benevolent reform efforts, was established in 1800 to care for orphaned and destitute girls; notably, women served as its its board of managers, director, and governess. The anniversary sermon, characteristically delivered the Friday before the last Tuesday of September, functioned as a fundraising event, raising $212.45 in 1814; the Reverend Joshua Huntington of Boston’s Old South Church delivered that year’s anniversary sermon. MME’s remarks suggest that she was unable to contribute as significantly as she might have done in previous years, but her fond hope for the Asylum’s future came to pass. Beginning as an institution that offered basic educational, domestic, and religious instruction for girls while placing them in domestic service positions until the age of 18, over time it reinforced its benevolent mission. After name changes and mergers in 1910 and 1923, in 1960 its institutional descendant, the Boston Children’s Aid Society, and the Boston Children’s Friend Society merged to form Boston Children’s Services, an organization that now figures as a component of The Home for Little Wanderers, an agency supporting diverse and robust services for young people in the city up to the age of 22 as well as their families (Reminiscences of Boston Female Asylum, pp. 9010, 18-24, 71) (Boylan, Origins, pp. 17-24, 19) (Hart, Preventive, p. 163) (Home).

25 sat Eve Appt day of much py piety—but seldom felt so badly. I had error &c to repent of— But oh God of mercy— Crush me not I committed others broke a mental resolution in great part thro’through the prevalence of bad temper about some extavagance. Oh let the world go—let lone other conivers connivers & attend the dreadfull beam in my own eye. MME alludes to a common parable, delivered by Jesus, in Matthew 7:3-5: And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother’s eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother’s eye; and in Luke 6:41-42: And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother’s eye, but perceivest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Either how canst thou say to thy brother, Brother, let me pull out the mote that is in thine eye, when thou thyself beholdest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, cast out first the beam out of thine own eye, and then shalt thou see clearly to pull out the mote that is in thy brother’s eye.

Sab.Sabbath M.Morning 26. If the body is not the same in any particle after 7 years is it not proof of the immetiriality & spiritual nature of soul that peronpersonal idenity continus?

Noon Highly interested in Mr Hs sermon on the war. Ah me I feel alone and in prison pages1 ignorance so profound of all that ajitates the intellectual religious & political world! I taste this day the consciousness of existence—but oh how “bare”! Could I aid this little family—so embarressed—But alike destitute in wisdom frendship & property. But the wants beyond sight gripe the most with me. I have when more ignorant laughed at poverty—without any provision for a home beyond the week. I taste . . . week.: After the death of her husband William in 1811, Boston’s First Church granted Ruth Haskins Emerson the use of its parish house for several years and $500 annually for a period of seven years to support herself and her six children (Cabot, Memoir, p. 1 pp. 28-29). Nonetheless, the family was in straitened financial circumstances. Ruth Emerson auctioned her husband’s books (Rusk, Life, p. 30), and Waldo and Bulkeley Emerson were required to share an overcoat in cold weather (Cabot, Memoir, p. 1 p. 29). Moreover, the war-time blockade in Boston and the influx of quartered troops further inflated the price of food and other staples. After leaving the parish house, the Emersons lived for a while in Bennet Street (Rusk, Life, p. 40), perhaps staying for a time with the Haskinses on Rainsford Lane; in November 1814, when war approached, they moved to Concord, where RHE remained until March 1815 (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 93 n1).

Night How rich this conscousness I have not read nor prayed today— So long sinesince this vivid state of life

28. Eve. Low low day tho’though fine health & spirits yet low in cares w’hwhich bend me to earth. I wake with new life and hunger for some relation to my soul. I feel a stranger yet somthing like delusion flits before me. Oh God most true and glorious cushcrush not always a creature w’hwhich loves & seeks Thee amidst. Oh I praise Thee for this health, this freshness of consciouness. Yet un-fit to uniterpteduninterrupted acq.t acquaint only with beings weake & afflicted like myself How can I lose the grasp the clay clod fettresfetters with w’hwhich I’ve been bound to these 40 years! Oh the worm is better than these good days of physical not moral life. We expect to go to Concord— I never was more uncertain where I shall go whether to Malden with the care of that poor delerious Aunt, or Wateford but this I only ask a change for heart improvtimprovement Infantry, artillery, and rifle regiments from neighboring cities gathered in Boston at this time; MME and Ruth Haskins Emerson were advised that the city would shortly be invaded. Because of imminent danger and inflation in expenses associated with a town quartering soldiers, they moved to Concord, at the invitation of Ezra Ripley, in November 1814, where Ruth remained until March 1815 and MME a little longer. Before their departure, however, MME wrote both Ann Brewer and Phebe Emerson Ripley in hopes that she and the young Emerson brothers might reside in Waterford, rather than removing to Concord, as Ruth preferred. In Malden, MME’s Aunt Rebecca Emerson Parker Brintnall Waite may have needed assistance due to her ongoing mental instability, the condition of her husband Samuel Waite (who died in January 1814), or a hip condition, which MME describes at the time of her uncle’s funeral (Rusk, Life, p. 39) (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 80-81, 82 n2, 90 n2, 91, 93 n1).

29. Father came on tuesday calm visit and kind in him. God most mercifull bless my family My parents brothers & sisters. Oh could I add to their happiness. How sweet the feeling of gratitude for the least attention. Today I went to Acton prayer meeting at Baptist society. MME likely refers to one of several Baptist Society churches that existed in Boston at this time and that had appointed September 29, 1814 as a day of FASTING, HUMILIATION, and PRAYER . . . to seek the Divine interposition in favor of our country at this alarming crisis, a reference to ongoing hostilities during the War of 1812 (Columbian Centinel). Disappointed in the spending of whole day But this return of health is most swetsweet.

Oct. 1. Yesterday what high life in mind yet what a poor day dist disappointment fatigued casecare. Went to lectuer at B.S. MME likely refers to one of several Baptist Society churches that existed in Boston at this time and that had appointed September 29, 1814 as a day of FASTING, HUMILIATION, and PRAYER . . . to seek the Divine interposition in favor of our country at this alarming crisis, a reference to ongoing hostilities during the War of 1812 (Columbian Centinel). A smale smale portion of enjoyt enjoyment for me in this world— but more than deservd. I bless God for a low condition and feeble acquisitions— If His will.

4. This morinigmorning opened full of charms—a few moments & I heedlessly decievd O— MME may intend this letter to be a symbol or an abbreviation, but since it does not resemble her common symbol of a large circle with an inside mark resembling a period (⨀), the editors have transcribed the letter as it appears. S.AB. was here last night. She is an uncommon girl I Iwish S.R. wd would have her. Sarah Alden Bradford and Samuel Ripley married in October 1818 (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 117 n1). Darkness was to brooded over the day—but it did not Retirement was salutary for prayer. This eveg evening attended Mr H‑‑‑’s prayer concert. Prayer concerts dated back at least to the eighteenth century in Europe and Great Britain, where they generally accompanied religious revivals and other missionary efforts. In the early republic, American churches held such services in times of great deliberation over a national or spiritual crisis. Given the ongoing state of war with England during the fall of 1814, MME could refer to a number of prayer concerts held in Boston at this time. See, for example, “A Word in Season to the Christian Public,” in the Boston Daily Advertiser for 29 November 1814, which announces a special concert in prayer to seek divine guidance for the nation’s leaders (Word in Season) (Hamilton, Old South, pp. 261, 411). Rich views of prayer. But unusual sensibility to waste & desolate.

5 Another mornegmorning blasted by ennui— Oh day of privation & prayer. God most holy hear prayer. Sinned by attention to trifles.

7 M.Morning In our contempt of character for their wants, whom do we dare accuse? Do we hate—oh it is the work of God, those for whom Jesus died—those whom he fashioned. Yet in a wrldworld of sin & selfishness & deformity how tempted to disgust & irritability.

11. I tremble at my health— Oh for all I can do. I never eat without fear that I shall eat too much, whenor that I shall suffer from faintness. Life how contemptible. There have been times & years when I shunned means, external, of good feelings—when I tho’tthought the very essence of virtue consisted in resisting ill propensities instead of lulling them. I have been foiled so often now I am glad to quiet an irritible tempre with a novel when getting dinner. Ah me I cry for mercy pardon salvation. The sermon I heard sab.sabbath was pressing the importance of feeling the present to be the best situation—precisely the one for us. Annotation in progress. Now when we compare ouselves with other times & find there are temptations w’hwhich do not press in other places it seems a duty to fly from there. A duty to ask for deliveance from temptation. Oh I am for flying—laying at feet of merymercy crying unclean—shouting grace grace— But oh preserve me from illusive views of morality its nature—that of religion!

MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 37), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Written c. 23 July 1812-November 1813. Boston and Concord, Massachusetts; and Waterford, Maine. Originally fourteen MS sheets, eight of which have been almost entirely excised and rendered as vertical fragments on which little discernible text is extant, and one of which has been excised such that only a third of the top portion of the page remains. The page order of this once bound Almanack can no longer be determined beyond a reasonable speculation. The editors have therefore ordered these pages based on several factors, including a review of the physical condition of the manuscript leaves, evident dates, and MME’s discussion of historical and biographical incidents. The several pages of vertical fragments in this Almanack have been placed as follows: Those leaves contiguous to the verso or recto of a manuscript leaf are presented in the page order necessitated by this material connection. The remaining eight fragment pages are placed at the end. Moreover, on these partial pages, the editors do not offer multiple options for unclear text but report the single, most likely reading. This Almanack reflects MME’s reading of John Foxe’s Lives of the Martyrs and Edward Taylor’s Rule and Exercises of Holy Living. She also discusses the writings of moral philosopher Joseph Butler; and she enjoys a new biography of Martin Luther, whom she reveres for his courage and faith. MME’s attention at this turbulent political time is drawn to multiple scenes—from the local, where she notes the public execution of two criminals in Boston; to the national, as the continued war of 1812 raises fears for a potential military invasion of the city and many residents prepare to flee; to the global, as she laments Napoleon’s recent invasion of Russia. This Almanack also presents the constant flux of MME’s emotional state at this time. She characterizes “the winter with my soul” and worries that her improved spirits may “blind my mental vision from the ‘nakedness’ of my soul.” Three summer months in 1812 are cast as a “dark sad dream, with the fewest gleams of light ever held”; later that year, MME postulates that she “never remember[ed] more gloom on every thing” and derives “no pleasure” from friends or lectures.

excised months excised Sheet of excised they ligexcised astoni A portion of the top of this page has been excised, and little discernible text remains on these lines; no Tolman transcription is extant for the excised lines of this page. excised of them—have no ideas—perceptions—dull obstuse— Oh are these the elements which man uses as instuments of man’s distruction—what a sublime harmony—the light & air mingle—illumine & kiss the waters—waft the the verdant mantle which inrobes the earth earth—how unlike the inhabitant (human) of this citidal? Ah how I loathe my turtle shelll at moments when I peep out & find the world in arms—the world of theology, science & litirature in arms—but oh better than to mingle & looselose one ray of pure sympathy—humble piety

23. A day of publick fast acctaccount of war. In response to the U.S. declaration of war against England on 1812-06-18June 18, 1812, governors throughout the country appointed specific days for observance and reflection. In Massachusetts, Governor Caleb Strong proclaimed 1812-07-23July 23, 1812 a day of Fasting, Humiliation, and Prayer; many sermons were delivered on this occasion, including that of William Ellery Channing at the Federal Street Church in Boston (Declaration, pp. 2-3) (Miscellany, p. 1) (Channing, Sermon). I pray for others—myself have nothing to looselose—oh the—grave— I cant well lose one. sab.sabbath

26. I’ve seen the beauties of nature— I’ve gazed—but incapable of feeling—wd would I had this mean palpitation when the least accident happens thro’through my inattention. No quietness fires & fills me— Last monday after working I walked with Abby F. to Mr Barret’s. Mori momento.

26. N.Noon What overwhelming beauty in nature. Bro.Brother S here Sentiments of love, friendship & grandeur beam from them.

Boston Sep. 26. sab.sabbath eve. If the editors are correct in speculatively dating this Almanack page as 18121812, then this reference to “sabbath” falls on a Saturday rather than a Sunday. Either MME is mistaken about the date, or her use of “sabbath evening” may refer to the day prior to as well as Sunday itself. Been absent a long three months— In her calendar for MME’s whereabouts in 1812, Nancy Craig Simmons suggests that MME spent July through some portion of September in Concord, Massachusetts (Simmons, Selected Letters, p. 46). Seems more like a dark sad dream, with the fewest gleams of light ever beheld. Never was more disd disturbeddistresseddiseased mentally morally worldly. But I could feel noon revive my health & soul as heretofore. Today an unusual day of py piety & self dedication. Oh what resolutions! Self denial & silence & solitude oh it is sweet to live alone with God. God almighty assist me to perceive somthing of Thee—sinned this very day— Shun. idle thotsthoughts

excised excised excised it brings hiexcised & find excised thee proexcised I do not excised respect. A portion of top of page has been excised; little discernible text remains; no Tolman transcription is extant for the excised lines of this page. Mr Holly preached—affected metaphors & paradoxes—had heard those far fetched flights of his before. A reverie has followed me all day.

28. Day of stugglestruggle nothing done— Am I well?— no life, thothough I eat & sleep & walk. Oh were it optinonaloptional, I’d give up the game of life & own beat—defeated in all—once conjectured I was pursuing knowledge—moral perfection—dared to think of greatness of mind—was ignorant of the meaning of poverty & ignorance & destitution. Ah sweet illusions of bouyant spirits. But now now is the time for faith, patience & courage—for oh to be bourne along in apathy without room for activity. Br. D. called &—I went to Mr. T. Haskin’s.

29. Walked to Cambridge—not an idea of the soul—bitter regret at self.

30 Sad gloom. Mr Putnam teaed with me bro’tbrought a letter from sister S. full of gratitude for O. MME may intend this letter to be a symbol or an abbreviation, but since it does not resemble her common symbol of a large circle with an inside mark resembling a period (ʘ) and typically abbreviating the word “world,” the editors offer the possibility that this letter may instead abbreviate an unknown word. Yesterday I tho’tthought how unfit it was to seek for pleasuable emotions— Oh how ill deserving them! Let it suffice to notch another mark on the day book of my prison.

Oct 1. In anguish—mind is most certainly weakened. Oh what was it 15 years since—even 7. If it is truetruer that I am humbler it may be only that I find none to dispise—myself appopriates all disgust.. Oh, here is a field for admiration of the plan of redemption! Wd Would to God I might believe adore & rejoice. What a sermon by Chan. this afternoon—concluding his history of Christ’s sufferings. Father into thy hands I commend my spirit and give up the gh.ghost . MME refers to Luke 23:46: And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost. Oh how transporting was the idea of death! How diid every worldly motive die away. How unworthy indeed of such a Saviour—what crimes of selfishness pride & levity! Oh had this day been what it should in solemnity in silence in dress, how composed this hour at Chh.Church

2 Another

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570 Written in green pencil in left corner of top margin, likely in non-authorial hand. part to go out.” If there is no God—and these things exist without Him, oh I can fear nor hope for nothing, sooner death the better. Yet apart from these fine resolves there is a “quantum” of fear in every one’s frame w’hwhich will be operated on, if not by one thing, another—whether phisical or mental I know not— Nervous, probably, that misterious fluid looses it’s elasticity—becomes the the medium of cold, & abject humours—dark & dreary images. But it is not age w’hwhich quenches this light of the soul—gives the shorn fancy to night; but bad humours; those of the stomach, w’hwhich Paley describes as the seat of happiness. MME references a tradition dating back to Hippocrates and Galen, the medico-philosophical theory of the humors (the four bodily fluids of blood, phlegm, choler, and melancholy), and their influence on human temperament and physiology. In his popular Natural Theology (1802), William Paley argued that human reason may glean the existence of intelligent divinity via empirical evidence of the earth’s design. Expanding upon the notion that bodily humors govern happiness and melancholy, he proposed that happiness is both divinely granted and grounded in the senses of taste, hearing, and sight; the stomach is the seat of taste, and Paley attributed dullness of the senses as one of the chief complaints of old age, a proposition MME may dispute here (Paley, Works, pp. 1:330, 331). In his Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy, Paley notes, If any positive signification, distinct from what we mean by pleasure, can be affixed to the term ‘happiness,’ I should take it to denote a certain state of the nervous system in that part of the human frame in which we feel joy and grief, passions and affections. Whether this part be in the heart, which the turn of most languages would lead us to believe, or the diaphragm, as Buffon, or the upper orifice of the stomach, as Van Halmont thought. . . it is possible, not only that each painful sensation may violently shake and disturb the fibres at the time, but that a series of such may at length so derange the texture of the system as to produce a perpetual irritation, which will show itself by fretfulness . . . It is possible also, on the other hand, that a succession of pleasurable sensations may have such an effect upon this subtile organization as to cause the fibres to relax, and . . . to preserve that harmonious conformation which gives to the mind its sense of . . . satisfaction (Paley, Works, pp. 3:24-25). This after.afternoon at B. St.Brattle Street Mr H. preached a solemn sermon of said that one impure angry prophane word one licentious unjust act effaced the impressions of many years.

No.November 1. sabsabbath M.Morning Sins of other years return, for these, for these my SeaveourSaviour died. MME may allude to the wording of popular Christian hymns, including two by John Wesley: Christ Our Righteousness includes the lines This all my hope, and all my plea, / For me the Saviour died; and stanza nine of Invitation of Sinners to Christ reads Murderers, and all the hellish crew, Blacken’d with lust and pride, Beileve [sic] the Saviour died for you, For you the Saviour died (Wesley, Hymns, pp. 40, 63). Oh did He die for me? Then why I am a poor & naked & blind & miserable. It cannot be too much to ask to go & be with him—so low & pollutted—ca’nt deserve be capable of glory it seems— Oh merit I renounce thy name

Eve. Usefull—giving, causing pleasure to others—inexpresible pleasure—but oh a pure & sanictified heart

2. Seen friends that is relations &c &c united—called at Judge Parkers heard towtwo sermons of Mr C‑‑‑s the most affecting sublime & practiical I everheard Although we have located news articles mentioning Rev. William Ellery Channing, who may be “Mr C,” and Judge Parker, we have not located any information to help us identify the specific sermon to which MME refers. But a day of the stillest gloom & nothingness— Oh never surely did creature so little exist.

5 M.Morning Yesterday & day before unwell, saw & fashionable people much amused by the mere fashionist—was flattered by Miss Cabot’s call & her flattery— I flattered too in return, mori memento of human life! I see her no more. Today life & animal spirits return—they will but blind my mental vision from the “nakedness” of my soul. But to console me I’ve only to recall the darkness & ill & meanness of poor abject spirits. Poetry! oh it’s charms can be no more to me than the flowrs w’hwhich may grow on my grave. Will there be a hand to plant one sod? Nature itself may spare me a bud plant of her own, may give it to the rude winds to scatter, & foster it with the hoary tempest—for nature I’ve loved—reverenced—she has lifted my soul to her Creator—thothough ignorant of her powers, honour & secrets, yet have ever felt her charms. “The glory of God is the end of virtue in a xianchristian & the glory of the heathen Virtuous is the end of the latter.” MME quotes from Joseph Milner’s A History of the Church of Christ (1794), in which Milner distinguishes between Christian and non-Christian virtue, specifically that of Roman governor Pliny the Younger: The truth is, virtue in Pliny’s writings, and virtue in St. Paul’s, means not the same thing. For humility, the basis of a Christian’s virtue, the pagan has not even a name in his language. The glory of God is the end of virtue in the one, his own glory is the end of virtue in the other (Milner, History, p. 163). Here, Milner echoes 2 Peter 1:3 regarding Christian virtue: According as his divine power hath given unto us all things that pertain unto life and godliness, through the knowledge of him that hath called us to glory and virtue. How infinitely wide the ends, how infinitely grand the first!

7 sabsabbath eve. Attended ed Mr. Hunt’s &c—when he prayed that we might have deep & increasing views of religion &c I could not hope— I do know that I shall in the come cer.certainly fall into pride, levity selfishness as I do continually—that others do who believe in the constant influence of the spirit. Yes the most eminent saint, I know, told me she resolved not to go out on that account. But she never betrays her Master as I do. MME may refer to a new friend, eighteen year-old Sarah Alden Bradford, a parishioner in her late brother’s church. In correspondence in the early years of their acquaintance, MME reveals her great fondness and admiration for the young woman, whom she refers to as my latest freind & sweetest freind and thou soother of my dark life. Soon she would praise Bradford’s devotion, discipline, and erudition, comparing her to the learned Elizabeth Smith (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 65, 69, 82-3). Oh how low & vile— Yet more, I had much to do for others Oh my God sd should I not forget all but Thee— I for self wd would out— I am reading the lives of Martyrs How sublime their faith! Yet the suprstition is painfull along with the account. Satan makes use of it, if he operates at all to tarnish the chhchurch in its best days. Hideous forms of it’s persecuting spirits have often defiled the it’s veyvery bosom of the ChhChurch But the deadly spawn of infidelity was gendered in Hell and sheds misery on the world without one beam of hope to soothe even the imaJanation. As evidenced in her correspondence and throughout the Almanacks, martyrdom was an important concept to MME throughout her life and one that reflects her Puritan heritage. Here she may refer to two works by Joseph Milner, History of the Church of Christ (1794), which she is reading earlier in this Almanack, and his recent (1807) edition of John Foxe’s Book of Martyrs (1563). Both books describe and denounce the superstitious “idolatrous” nature of the early Christian church and its hierarchy, particularly the beliefs in transubstantiation, purgatory, relics and images of saints, and the divinity of Mary, the mother of Jesus. Milner also describes that the corruptions of superstition, with respect to the immoderate honours paid to saints and martyrs . . . were afterward improved by Satan into idolatry itself, and he equates the loosing of Satan with the desolation of the church (Milner, History, pp. vi, 47, 195, 384, 423) (Foxe, Martyrs, pp. 12, 159, 248, 309-10, 313, 346, 350, 439, 739). MME’s concern with religious superstition at this time is also evident in counsel offered to young friends and relatives a few years after this Almanack was written: Avoid superstition when speaking of religion and conversion, she advises Ann Sargent; similarly, she reminds her nephew, Edward Bliss Emerson, to be vigilant against veiwing the holy and sublime duty of prayer with superstition (Emerson to Gage, 29 January 1816) (Simmons, Selected Letters, p. 97).

10. Today Attended Tildens funeral— Today Mrs C‑‑‑ came to board—a little life & health. Yesterday most stupid. No sentiment of God. MME may refer to attending the funerals of acquaintances Nathaniel T. Tilden and Judith Cooper Huntington, both of whom had recently died. Tilden’s funeral was held in Boston on 1812-11-1010 November 1812, while Huntington’s took place the next day, on 1812-11-1111 November 1812, also in Boston.

11 Attended Mrs. H‑‑‑s funeral—tead with Mrs Lee MME may refer to attending the funerals of acquaintances Nathaniel T. Tilden and Judith Cooper Huntington, both of whom had recently died. Tilden’s funeral was held in Boston on 1812-11-1010 November 1812, while Huntington’s took place the next day, on 1812-11-1111 November 1812, also in Boston. erred by vainity pride & timidity—yet was consious of life—it is well to know that there is life.

12. Frigid sort of day. Putnam tead here.

13. Oh I hate to eat, for I perform—nothing—suffer nor enjoy nor feel nothing for piety, truth sympathy. Yet it is mean to grudge myself the foood w’hwhich God prepares —for it is He supports Angels. But I am all animal—all eat & sleep.

15 sab.sabbath M.Morning Yesterday Day of full appt appointment no soul—oh it is winter with my soul—no flower of hope visits it—if it comes it is blighted —the soil cold & barren nourishes it no more. It is best. I am not capable of greatness glory—fail incessantly. Oh I will rejoice only in the gifts of love. Could I receive something—some gift of love for immediate use—oh it wd would be a land mark to encourge me to puruepursue the dreary journy voayge—oh a light house of hope for the future. But God is my wittness, MME may allude to Romans 1:9: For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers. I prefer a solem pure & holy path howverhowever same, to those of danger, howerhowever adorned with beacons of event & granduer.

16. Health glows my mind struggles in it’s irons, heartheat palpitates, eye balls stare busy, agitated, activity oh precious gift when circumstances & edu

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8 MME may have written “18” or “28” to date this entry, but with no additional context on this line to validate whether this numeral is indeed a date, and with no certainty as to this page’s original placement in this Almanack, we cannot offer more than the speculation that this numeral may be a date, and if so that it is possibly some time in 1812-11November 1812. M.Morning The excised the re- excisedn—for exciseder on excisedent nor excised This day excised seen for excisedily. Oh excised The quexcised is the excised & a pacexcised vary a These lines are written on the left side of the page. excised

these shawdows— I clasp them—but a little areand they are gone. Yet I rejuicerejoice in feeling for others—in this perfidy’sperfidies especally, it was for her sake at that time. Oh were she all I need, how wd would life brighten. But I, sick of the recurence of the same dull ideas look forward with deiredesire, only to death. Oh there are characters who possess virtues & qualities never known till in the world of knowlegde & glory. They are jewels in the moral world of the highest order— Oh if Angels could envy, here wd would be temptation. Ah I am not indeed of that discription. How much better (descipicable as that best is) than I am, do I appear.

Dec. 2. Why sd should I grudge myself my food & clothes & sleep—the certainty of death is a charter from every fear—live while we live— MME quotes a phrase from Seneca’s letter to Lucilius, which appeared frequently in literary works and sermons: We are not to be solicitous of long Life, but that we may live while we live (Savage, Collection, p. 61). tomorrrow we may be forever free from the grossness of a putrid carcase. Tomorrow and far from pecking at some straggling fact, the books of eternal wisdom may be in my sight.— InstiadInstead of loathing a feeble & distracted mind w’hwhich often wanders after some glimspglimpse of truth, w’hwhich one day has obliterated, the presence of God will be felt, and truth will forever be the law of my soul. Now it is doubtfull whether the seeds of knowledge are peserved in a soil congenial, & w’hwhich will reproduce them, or whether they only will rot in an exanimate soul, or be scattered by the delirum of hopes & desiesdesires to no purpose?

Noon. The highest point of perfection a creature can touch in either world is to lead so holy a life as to bring good to others without a visible influence And that of wisdom in this world to shrink from the fame of piety—but it is the very nature of piety to feel its own misery and tremble at hypocrisy. Oh the veery moment of it’s fame seems to me the moment of it’s soil.. A vain man is naked & hungry & thirsty in the most complete sense—and every body may administer to his wants. Many biblical verses refer to those who are naked, hungry, and thirsty. MME may allude to 1 Corinthians 4:11: Even unto this present hour we both hunger, and thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted, and have no certain dwelling place; or to Matthew 25:34-45: Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: for I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in: Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me. Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we saw thee an hungred, and fed thee? or thirsty, and give thee drink? When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee? Or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee? And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me. Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: For I was an hungred, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not. Then shall they also answer him, saying, Lord, when saw see thee an hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee? Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me. Blessed be God for the meager events of my life and the feebleness of my exertions for I am but a nest of pride & vanity. This line is positioned flush right.

10. Oh a spectator of the holy & exalted, and my soul wd would mingle with God in the profoundest resignation & joy that a it had seemed good. MME may allude to Luke 10:21: In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit, and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes: even so, Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight. It is well to be ware of the delusion of feelings—what are called frames— And in every ssubject there may be delusion. In the speculations of the most prolific brain on the deepest, are often errors of immense size, obvious to the plainstplainest sense— In every science, in every department of philosophy, save experimental (poor sensible manual experiment) there has been found deceptions & errors from the wildest to the most desipacabledespicable kind. Then where is certainty and what are its surest limits? Why not in feeling? We all know whitherwhether we are at ease, whether suffering the nameless pangs of restlessness, ill humour and dreaded apathy, or thesetasting the indiscrible joys of sympathy, benvolence & activity. Here is experiment in the very essence of the soul & surerr than those of matter—for some say, there is no body. In consciousness there can be no delusion, even where no body nor & spirit in the world. And when concsious of motionsthe perfections of God, without raticiconationratiocination, the joy is certain & infablibleinfallible—so of every other sentiment which inraptures & ennobles. If Butler meant these feelings, when he said somthing (I almost forget) about weakening the priciples of action, then I wont believe him, tho’though I seldom pass a week without trembling at his verdict—without desiring to do, to act, without the aid of feeling. And mayhap the purest virtue is independent. But of what nature is vertue without consciousness of it? Does the Martyr, the Reformer the Missionary act without feeling a stronge persusionpersuasion of the truth for w’hwhich he suffers. Does he go thro’through incalculable sufferings guided only the cool dedutions of reason & the connection of truth? Probably Butler meant the proscription of feelings w’hwhich only swims in the fancy—never warm the affections nor subdue the passions In this lengthy discussion, MME apparently commonplaces from what she admits to be potentially a memory—rather than a recent reading—of Joseph Butler’s Sermons. MME’s equation of “feelings” with “frames” does not accord with Butler’s or other philosophers’ use of the latter term, and Butler’s commentary about the dangers of “feelings” such as human passions and emotions, self-interest, self-deceit, and even compassion (when it results from an erroneous pleasure that others’ sorrows are not your own) may have confused MME’s thinking. In his Analogy of Religion, with which MME was familiar, Butler asserts that veracity, justice and charity, regard to God’s authority, and to our own chief interest, are not only all three coincident; but each of them is, in itself, a just and natural motive or principle of action; he also argues that although correctly governed self-interest and even anger can lead to virtuous or principled action, both self-love and particular affections . . . considered only as passive feelings, distort and rend the mind; and therefore stand in need of discipline (Butler, Analogy, pp. 152, 153). This commentary perhaps added to MME’s sense of the ways in which self-interest and self-deception, when not governed by reason and self-reflection, could interrupt the correct workings of Butler’s theory of principles of action that guide or produce virtue for the self and others (Butler’s Moral). Adding to the difficulty of understanding this passage is that Butler’s ambiguity on these subjects has led to considerable debate among philosophers and historians; thus, it is understandable that MME too may have been perplexed about the various interpretations of his meaning in these works.

10 M.Morning Which is best for hereaftur, to reflect on pangs of discontent & agonies of desire after immprovemtimprovement, or a life of quiet serene virtuous stupidity.? Oh let me suffer, but let me pant after a new heart—let me dispise my life— MME likely alludes to Job 9:21: Though I were perfect, yet would I not know my soul: I would despise my life. long that light might break onin it’s prison. TdayToday in this Town are to be executed towtwo criminals. Samuel Tully and John Dalton had been convicted of murder and piracy of the schooner George Washington and were scheduled for execution in Boston in 1812-12December 1812. Tully was duly hung on 1812-12-1010 December 1812, but Dalton received a reprieve at the last minute, while standing on the gallows. His execution was rescheduled multiple times before he was awarded a full pardon on 1813-06-1313 June 1813. Tully was the first person to be executed in Suffolk County in the fifteen years prior (Report on the Trial, pp. 33-34) (Remarkable Incident, p. 167). Oh that I could see thier prison and behold thier last moments. God in mercy sanctify this event to the multitude. On the other hand how glorious & grand and awfull is the fate of Russia! A people convictedcommuted for their rights & warring with the eneymy of the world! MME refers to the Napoleonic wars, which had been ongoing in Europe and Russia for several years. In 18121812, Napoleon had invaded Russia; that fall, many news accounts reported on the important and deadly Battle of Borodino, near Moscow, which had occurred in early September and which resulted in thousands of casualties on both sides and ultimately proved disastrous to Napoleon’s army. Various news and historical sources of the time characterized Napoleon as the enemy of human nature and the enemy of the world (London, Oct. 3, p. 3) (Cobbett, Cobbetts, p. 658). God of nations behold them and give the victory to thy glory! Would to the Being who possesses all existence and holds all it’s relations in his hand I could imbibe a larger view of his operations.

13 sabsabbath eve. A humble penitent day I carelessly misrepresennted. May this dark day warn me. I felt glad I was so little, so obscur that I might corrupt no one as I sd should in case of prosperity been still more boisterous. The eveg evening of the 10 guilty of vanity & egotism with the F‑‑‑s. The 11th teaed with Dr G. & party at Mr. T. H.s felt devout & pyfullpietyfull &c alone—conversed with his Reverence—think him not much that way. Recd Received a 100 # for the 1t time altogather Yesterday shopped. As Nancy Simmons has noted, throughout her writings, MME denominated money in British terms of pounds and shillings, not dollars and cents; and she typically abbreviates “pound” with the symbol “#” (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. xlvi-xlvii, 237, 287). This in addition to fluctuating denominations in early American currency make it difficult to speculate with any certainty on the value of MME’s reference here to one hundred pounds. One hundred dollars (versus American or British “pounds”) in 18131812 would have been roughly equivalent to $1,840 in 2014, the most recent year for which data is available (Measuring Worth). Oh most gloomy

14 Eve. More sick of myself when elated by animal spirits, especially if those arise from socity than when drooping undir illest incidents I see the whole extent of my weakness.

15 M.Morning Nothing less than divine instinct can push that mortal forward to whom life is unfrutfullunfruitfull of pleasur to himself & profit to This line is positioned flush right. others—when the sight of his own carcase “unearthed” gives him weariness—when his invincible weaknesses sap the richest of all enjoyments—solitary commerce with God.

16 M.Morning When no great object gives reality, or appears to give it to the farce of human life the means of supporting existence are much too dear. And when we take into view religion itself, w’hwhich at more changes the whole face of the univerce, how often are we obliged to labour without the delighfull conviction that the means we are using tend to the end or have the least reference to it. This is cold, sceptical & not true—but if moments of dist disappointment assail the least, well may years be mine.

19 sat eve. Why antisipate tomorrow? Darkness & apathy will not some time assail tomorrow.? If humility & dist disappointment were the same then I might feel the appoachapproach of all I need.

21. Eve Teaed at Father H‑‑‑’s—most bustling day—injured Wm s feelings from selfishness. Verily I am guilty in all.

29 Eve. The next morning I was taken ill of a heavy cold & pastpassed 2 sad days in bed—looked eagerly for a fever & all it’s intersting consequences—but none came & I droned thus till tonight I am well. Ah my God forgive my ingratitude for life—my disspingdespising my life—oh and for eternal commerce with God!

30 I walked to Mrs. Johnsons to see Lydia. Fine weather—but sad & slow were my spirits. Never remember more gloom on every thing. It was always that the morrow promised somthing—but they cheat me no longer. The lecture—the friend of tomorrow will give me no pleasur & leave me all my weakness— At tea tonight I was quite active—fye fye

31. I close a year with other emotions yh than heretofore. Then at Malden—at Wd Waterford how solemn how full of hopes The remembrance of the departing year was then tender—it was like parting with a friend whose socity had been highly interesting; at times painfull, & the memory severe, but whom I was to meet again with unmixed delight in other scenes. Now the idea of the last year is rather like a dream—itsa portrait of some dull unfeatured thing, than a wakefull real-reality. Ah see what it is to outlive the hope of improvment—of ascent. The very memory of these hopes now prove sometimes painfull—for they were illusive. Oh swetsweet illusions when the seare, wan form of my poor Aunt, and my penny saving Uncle seemed to me no hindrances, but helps to mount—when hurrying away the table, the hours flew too fast. Where is now her fled spirit—where the years I pastpassed in the hope of knowledge—the brighter hope of God! I cannot renew the race. God Almighty I sit down—be it thine—oh be it thine from the fullness of grace, from the infinity of thy knowlege, power & goodness to bless me. Oh antedate thy gifts of eternal life—oh give me a solemn humble temper. I have been reading or rather poring over Luther’s life. What an eternal wittness of the agency of God with that of man! His sorrows misgivings & concessions to Rome discover the natural workings of man. His daring courage, his miraculous faith (without the show of miricle) bespeake the agency of God without a doubt. How much richer a gift, how much more adapted to the condition of man was the reformation by apparent (and in some reality) by human methods than by miricle! The formation of Luther’s mind was ordained by God as a means of it, yet how many causes natural & coporeal were in the chain! MME may refer to George Campbell and David Hume’s Lectures on Ecclesiastical History (1807), as well as to two new works on Martin Luther that were published in 18131813: Ernest L. Hazelius’s Life of Dr. Martin Luther together with Extracts of His Writings on Various Subjects; and a new edition of the Augsburg Confession, to which was appended Life of Dr. Martin Luther . The Confession lays out several of the Protestant reformers’ concessions to the Roman church, including those on the doctrine of salvation, and it notes Luther’s “courage,” a human attribute that MME also honors in her consideration of the “corporeal” causes and “human methods” underlying Luther’s development as a reformer. Hume and Campbell contended that Luther regarded the intrepidity, with which he had been enabled to brave so many dangers, and the success with which his enterprise had been crowned . . . as miraculous (Campbell and Hume, Lectures, p. 456; original emphasis). Luther’s stance on miracles rejects the belief that Catholic saints could intercede and aid in an individual’s salvation; for Luther, miracles and natural wonders were a form of divine revelation distinctly inferior to the Word (Augsburg Confession, p. 72) (Soergel, Miracles, p. 28).

Jan. 1. 1813. I did feel at midnight. Long life might pass with abstracted solemn emotions, unwearied. I bless God for the numbers who enter on this year with hopes & pursuits high as glory—pursuits for the ChhChurch—for others—for the publick—instruments by which God himself turns over the affairs of the world. If deep retirrment cannot be the xian’schristian’s lot, happy the man who loses himself for others in stations of high responsibility. But as human nature is what it is, most rich is the path of deep obscurity and exertions for others in the depths of darkness. Oh rapture of faith—it is then fruition, & the Subject of such grace has far less reason to doubt of the influence of God, than the fervid Reformer, who is often left to wander from truth, for reasons of infinite wisdom. But it is persumption for me, who never willingly (at least these some years) gone all lenghts for others, to talk about high born destinies. Oh I never shall go far. MME may allude to Sirach 43:30 (The Book of Ecclesiasticus) in the Apocrypha: When ye glorify the Lord, exalt him as much as ye can; for even yet will he far exceed: and when ye exalt him, put forth all your strength, and be not weary; for ye can never go far enough. She may also allude to Psalms 139: 7-10: Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence? If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: if I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea; Even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy right hand shall hold me. Some hidden cause in the chain of which connects Heaven with earth forbids beings cast in my mould to rise. Yet I see at the same time my guilt with my weakness. And this is the great secret which can here never be unravelled—the endless web of Providence will display it in full perfection.

2. sat. eve. Appt.Appointment strong py piety & some pleasure in labours. Yesterday was pastpassed in the above contems contemplations in instruction to the stronge care of sick—w’hwhich ended in fervid attendance in lecture for foriegn mission— Yet no sattisfaction—imperfect weak in all. At ChhChurch nerves weak— Established in 18111811 for the purpose of supporting Christian missions and translating the bible, the Foreign Mission Society of Boston held its annual meeting in the great hall of the Massachusetts Bank on 1813-01-01January 1, 1813 at 3 pm. Reverend Abiel Holmes subsequently delivered the Society’s annual sermon at the Old South Church later that evening. Occurrences in December of note and of potential commentary for the society included the recent, devastating $50,000 loss of its East Indian Mission Printing Office due to a fire as well as to the Society’s $1,000 pledge of funds for translations and distribution of the bible in Asia (Foreign Mission) (Holmes, Discourse). distressed about fire at home & terrified at the appehenionapprehension yt that I had injurid Ann by misjudging one hour in her repose. Research has not yet determined MME’s reference to a fire at this time, which editors speculatively date as 1813-01-022 January 1813. Oh little totty fears. What slavery equal to this. Is it not more desiabledesirable to bear up against great ills than to suffer ideal ones? Oh how wd would some grand pursuit consume this smoke & chaff. Yet how grand is my object—nothing less to stand complete & perfect—to realise somthing of the Being & attributes & gov.government of God! MME may allude to Colossians 4:12: Epaphras, who is one of you, a servant of Christ, saluteth you, always labouring fervently for you in prayers, that ye may stand perfect and complete in all the will of God; or to James 1:2-4: My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations; Knowing this, that the trying of your faith worketh patience. But let patience have her perfect work, that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing. Given her admiration for the writings of Samuel Clarke, she may also have in mind his Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God (1704). I feel sure that no Angel can more desire this—then again I’m uncertain how whether this desire arrises only from situation—tremble at the guilt I have at the bottom of heart. Oh God most holy, I come to Thee as a poor condemned unworthy creature—thy infinity thy power, thy faithfullness are engaged for the poor & helpless. Dost Thou refuse to save me— I know thy character—I will asirbeascribe righteousness to Thee , MME alludes to Job 36:3: I will fetch my knowledge from afar, and will ascribe righteousness to my Maker. But Thou art the God of the bible and canst cast me off. My soul faintith for thy salvation! MME alludes to Psalms 119:81: My soul fainteth for thy salvation: but I hope in thy word.

3 sab.sabbath M.Morning When crushed with little crimes this morning I recurred to that holy sensibility with w’hwhich I am born to enter into the more than nights of the servant & the beggar. MME may allude to The Tale of the Little Beggar in One Thousand and One Arabian Nights, in which several members of a community mistakenly think they have killed a beggar, whom they move to various locales in an attempt to hide their perceived crime. By the early nineteenth century, these popular stories had been translated into English and published in several British and American editions. Oh here let me praise God without an intervening misery—here I must own that—I perceive his elating love to me. Oh gift never never estimated till the worth of love is realised in eternity. It may console me when I turn abhorrent from a fastidious & temper, so open to disgusts & severity. God of love let me recieve a longer measur of charity—more extensive at thy toll excised of excised I excised weexcised forexcisedexcised in excised alexcised thexcised The remaining lines on this page have been excised.

hope for new life— Yesterday a day of appt appointment with some zeal. Saw Taylors “holy living” for the first time. Do expect to profit by it. Am surprised to find how peevish I grow Bless God my eyes are open. Oh wearied apathy how long forever will God forget me? MME alludes to Psalm 13:1: How long wilt thou forget me, O LORD? for ever? how long wilt thou hide thy face from me? Went today with L. P. to hear Mr Ch.

Feb. 1. Feel holy purposes— Oh God whatever others do—do Thou for me all for me. Make me gentle, patient charitable—covering the failings of others—with a deep sense of my own sins and our awfull accountability. Oh if they are deficient how dreadfull excisedtr- excisedo The remaining lines on this page have been excised.

excised An indeterminate number of lines have been excised from the top of this manuscript page. I am calm & hopefull. I know God will support me on the tedious irksome road—be with me in labour & poverty & commune with me in ignorance & destitution. I appeal to Him if I do not love him better than all the pleasurs I have an idea of. Oh what but His agency carries me on—without hope object or plan but a sole desire to fill with all the little power I have& force the remaining days of life with the same little labours w’hwhich have heretofore marked my prayeres

23 Yes He cheered the road howevr cold & disgreable the curcumstances it was cheerd— And how still how solemn yet sublimed this eve. after a day of crying babes— At the beginning of 18131813, MME was in Boston, staying with and helping Ruth Haskins Emerson with her six children, aged twelve and younger. By the end of February she has returned to South Waterford, Maine and taken Bulkeley Emerson (age six) and Charles Chauncy Emerson (age five) with her. Bulkeley remains only a short time, but Charles’s visit extends through early October. In Maine, Lincoln Ripley and Samuel Moody Haskins had been born in 18121812 and 18131813, respectively (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, p. 141) (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 50, 77, x). The editors speculatively date this Almanack page as 1813-02-2323 February 1813, in which case the “crying babes” are likely these Haskins children. waking perplexity—how rich the tranquility. How strange too, that after towtwo years of much in every veiw to be lamented—some what to wonder at—more to loathe—defeated pusuitpursuit of knowledge &c now to return to labour—to secnesscenes of careecare instaed of ease & reading & sentiment & hope— Ah rich is the provision of God. My sister is most gloomily situated—how little the consqunces only in a moral veiw—how immense. God of merymercy what mayst Thou not do for me? How different from the past—a soul, Just touching on this world for a day how lightly sd should it touch— And most lightly have I dwelt— I’ve parted with freinds to the grave— I came away from three or four who do feel interetedinterested—but no bright streak remains to gild my lonely horison— Two years prior, in 1811-05May 1811, MME’s brother, William, and her intimate friend, Mary Wilder Van Schalkwyck White, had both died. MME had spent much of the past several months living with William’s widow, her sister-in-law Ruth Haskins Emerson, not only helping care for her six children (all under age 12 years) but also keeping house for the paying boarders whom Ruth had taken in to alleviate her financial situation. At the time of this Almanack passage, MME has returned to South Waterford, Maine, taking two of her nephews there for an extended stay. Although it is likely Ruth to whom she refers as “gloomily situated,” her sister Phebe Emerson Ripley in Waterford was ill at this time (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 60, 64-64, 71) (Dwight, Memorials, pp. 380-81) (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, p. 134). Oh a richer glory than freindship ever offered her warmest votary I seek Much deleted have I suffered from socitey, little as I’ve seen, “Oh the dark days the years around” MME alludes to a few stanzas, and quotes one line from another stanza, of Edward Young’s lengthy poem, Resignation: By Resignation; all in that A double friend may find, A wing to heav’n, and, while on earth, The pillow of mankind. and That peace, which resignation yields, Who feel alone can guess: ’Tis disbeliev’d by murm’ring minds, They must conclude it less. The loss or gain of that alone Have we to hope or fear; That fate controls, and can invert The seasons of the year. O! the dark days, the year around, Of an impatient mind; Thro’ clouds, and storms, a summer breaks, To shine on the resign’d (Young, Resignation, pp. 161-62). DeerDear was the smile of Lydea—the modest learned Sarah—the Miss Pains not always uninteresting— And Mr McKeen seldom failed highly to interest— White too! But dearer is the converse of the unstained soul.

24 PastPassed the day in ease at Mr Ripley’s— Oh how low This line is positioned flush right.

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25 “Another day is done” MME may quote Gavin Turnbull, whose poem The Clubs. A Satire opens as follows: Now jowing bells, with solemn croon, Proclaim another day is done, And fowk wha due decorum keep, Forget their cares in silent sleep; While jovial sauls that fear nae ill, Keep up noise and riot still (Turnbull, Poems, p. 30). of activity so intense that every nerve throbs. yet the gloom of these little painfull labours could not be shook off— Nor is it need.— God I rejoice in— If he keeps us low He has good reasons. His better children live largely. Were sin felt as it sd should be, sorrows wd would lose their weight. Oh how many sins wd would not be, were the heart lower— Again, how much of God wd would be unseen were things done for others sake. This Day I know I have lessened the sum of human labour & pain. This is saying much—proof of my famine of influence.

26. Active, but torpid mind. Wd Would I could repent

27. Day appappointment & labour & care & weakness— Yet this eve oh inexpresible rich. Seek alone in py piety for ideas of a seperate state—relations to Christ—endless duration. Oh pursuits wrthyworthy of a soul immortal.

28. sabsabbath M.Morning Taste all I ever did or, perhaps, ever can of delight in God— Oh if He is all I beleive, how enrapturing existence—hastening to be incoporatedincorporated into His essence, if so we dare to speake. These prison walls will open & all the soul to love & sympathy. The labours or the air ofr God himself I wd would hope if I dared, give my mortal spirits to “cast thier load.” MME quotes from Night IV: The Christian Triumph from Edward Young’s Complaint: As when a wretch, from thick, polluted air, Darkness, and stench, and suffocating damps, And dungeon-horrors, by kind fate, discharg’d, Climbs some fair eminence, where ether pure Surrounds him, and Elysian prospects rise, His heart exults, his spirits cast their load; As if new-born, he triumphs in the change; So joys the soul, when from inglorious aims, And sordid sweets, from feculence and froth Of ties terrestrial, set at large, she mounts To reason’s region, her own element, Breathes hopes immortal, and affects the skies (Young, Complaint, p. 71).

March. 1, Whether so smoothe a tranquility was the effect of smale vision or large is questionable. Yet wondered in vain tho’tsthoughts.

2. 3 O’k After Noon How delightfull the scenery— And all this snow, yet the air not chillid And how much dearrdearer the scenery w’hwhich opens on the soul in eternity This fatigue these employments bouy up rather than depress the spirits. Nothing to fear—the past tho’though a dark blank or sullied with follies at best, it seems, yet I hurry away from by eviryevery ardent moment. God is present— God is past— God is future— What few flowers I saw sweeten benevolence in retrospection and the place I’ve left—my family—my Country my kind kindred Share my prayers and wishes. And dear Charles my kin

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excisedonexcised what excised where excised hast to excised courage excised thee. Evexcised ions— excised love of fexcised happinexcised morrowexcised lost—vexcised only to Goexcised did those excised falshood to excised next day excised foe wd would desirexcised to give up lifexcised future expeexcised have paid excised before I lefexcised

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MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 38), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Written c. 1813. Boston, Massachusetts, and/or Waterford, Maine. One undamaged MS sheet. This brief Almanack is undated, but based on the type of paper used and the style of MME’s hand, the editors speculate that it was written some time in 1813. The Almanack opens with an extended discussion of the monuments—“from the humblest Pagado to the Loftist [Loftiest] Mosaleum”—that memorialize science and the arts, with “a momument of his religion” then becoming what the “Soul of man” should bestow to fellow pilgrims. She advocates that “every christian pen,” regardless of one’s position in the church hierarchy or in the congregation, should leave behind a valuable record, “an Ark of Safty,” of her religious journey for subsequent “Sojourner[s]” and “to warn succeeding Passengers of the dangers of the Voayge” “on the ocean of life.” These and other sentiments in this Almanack suggest that MME may be self-consciously justifying her reasons for writing and for doing so prolifically. Research on the annotations for this Almanack is ongoing; the editors speculate that MME could be commenting on a recent sermon delivered at the dedication of a new church or a new minister in her area.

If we should inquire, from look into eveyevery tempel from athe humblest Pagado to the Lofty LoftistLoftiest Mosaleum and its foundation we shall find some strong characteristics which mark athe priciples of it’s institution and piontpoint to a Founder in characters so ligiblelegible that they do withstand the all destroying hand of time mouldering hand of time. Hence wethe value of antiquity, and the indistructible nature of fxiedfixed & permanent and strongly, at least, clearly defined principles whether in arts or sciences, and indispensably so from the nature of things in the reigeion what constitues the sentiments of the soul and the priniple of action— Above all and connected therewith would the Soul of man leave behind him a momument of his religion of his connection with the Supreme Cause of all things ofThis alone of all his possisionspossessions he can carry with him into another state and of this surely he would leave some memorial more durable than the mounmentsmonuments of science which with the sceince w’hwhich bestowed them will pass away with the fashion of the earth and give way to a new and better order of Nnature & art. But if his sentiments which stamped his soul for immortality were the result or effect of a religion revealed from God by and acknowledged to be reveald in a way the most extraordinary at which Angels themselves wonder, itis it not reasonable to wish to leave some erect some edifice to its peculiar to its character and illustrative of it’s design. If the untutureduntutored Indian throws a stone to mark to future travellers the ravages of the Tygress, Annotation in progress. would not the Redeemed Believer wish that every every christian pen should give some signal to the thotless Sojourner that there are dangers to be avoided andon the ocean of life and that there has been prepared an Ark of Safty to secur a safe & gloriou arrival in the Haven of a better world. If one opportunty seems better than another to make lasting impessions it is at the dedication of a place of religious worship. The Inquirer of Should an Inquirer ignorant of chistianty read this sermon would the not the question be made to be perplexed to know why so noble find some hints of a being and of his dying for us. Would he not wish to know somthing of the character of this being and be still more perplexed to know what he should die for us. Would he find the least clue to this inquiry? Would he not rather find that the people for whom this costly BuldingBuilding was erected were possesed of natures againwhich were opposed to sin? And that sin was a kind of phantom which abstract being ap—apparently without a “local habitation.” Annotation in progress. He would imajane that this tempel was sacred to notwithstanding the title of the sermon, and a few inexplicable touches of eloquence, sacred to Reason and some of it’s exclusive admirers. and Advocates for human perfictiblity. As we are passing down the current of time we would fain thrwthrow out a signal to warn succeeding Passengers of the dangers of the Voayge. Even the rude Indian adds his mite to the rocky beacon which marks the prey of the Tygre. Annotation in progress. A religion without a Founder, a Priest, an alteraltar, and sacrifice may interest some rarely constructed minds, to whom the Universe is temple and the homage of nature are rites, but to the Poor, the multitude, the weeping Penitent, the agonising Malefactor, the Prisoner on whom nature sheds no genial ray, the are left to darkness and guilt. If christianity is perfect—is full in all its influence if it has done all—if all is known of its influence

MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 39), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Written c. 28 September-9 October 1813. Waterford, Maine. One undamaged MS sheet, which has been folded three times, vertically and horizontally, to form a small parcel. This brief Almanack begins and ends in mid-sentence, with quite poetic language throughout, in addition to frequent allusions to literary works, including a poem by Felicia Hemans. MME’s five year-old nephew, Charles Chauncy Emerson, has been staying with her in Maine for the past several months. MME notes his departure in early October; although she has enjoyed his visit and his “devotedness to me,” she expresses relief to be able to return to her “devotions” and to be “freer—disentangled.” She forecasts the oncoming “bleak & barren winter” and notes “the dreary aspect of nature,” notwithstanding that “each decaying vegetable” and “sombre cloud” are also her “companion[s].”

a 678 Written in top right corner in green pencil, likely in non-authorial hand. to His will and elections without the midiummedium of external deeds. These are indispensable when practicable—but what mixed motives—at least, what mixed tho’tsthoughts—what exultations, not so pure as adoration & prayers of charity. Annotation in progress.

28. Devotional tranquility like the wengewing of Heaven MME may quote from Felicia Browne Hemans’s poem The Song of a Seraph, whose second stanza begins Now the angel-songs I hear, / Dying softly on the ear; / Spirit, rise! to thee is given, / The light ethereal wing of heaven (Hemans, Poems, p. 58). persidespresides over these days. I feel unwothyunworthy to sit at the table of of God’s favored honored children— I ask for the crumbs—spirit of contrition & meekness. MME may allude to various religious works that discuss a christian’s worthiness both to sit at God’s table and to eat the crumbs that fall from it, as reflected in this excerpt from an article published in a New England religious periodical in 1801: Do you think yourself worthy to come to the table of the Lord? The answer was, No, I know I am not; but the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters table, and this, sir, is what I wish to be permitted to do. I think it my duty to confess Christ before men; and as unworthy as I am, I have a desire to commune with him at his table (Waterman, Letter II, p. 62). Her allusion to eating the crumbs that fall from the table is from Matthew 15:26-27: But he answered and said, It is not meet to take the children’s bread, and to cast it to dogs. And she said, Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters’ table. Bless Him more for gratitude foron their account than for any of thy gifts. I am uncertain whether I go to B.— but time & place make so little change that it interests not. Sweet wd would be the prospect of keeping chamber in health—but I’ll ease the burdens of others if possible—feel sure the bleak & barren winter will carry me on my Journey, however feebly.

29. Nothing can exceed the dreary aspect of nature—but every leaf w’hwhich wriths in the blast has a charm—each decaying vegable—every sombre cloud is my companion—like them borne down the tide of time by the great laws of nature w’hwhich are but the varied will of God, richly resigned to that will in whatever form it carries me x x Interlined in pencil above exclarrisementéclaircissement, likely in non-authorial hand. forward to the grand exclarrisementéclaircissement. Oh blessed state of conscousness—umemployed almost—but like the seperate spirits dilivered from passions & wants. Fancy is quiet—terrestrial cobwebs are brushed—and then soul seems to inhale a glimsp of the pure sky of truth —when the flowers of imajanation MME quotes a common phrase found in several literary works at the time, suggesting that it is in common use. For example, in his Miscellanies, Oliver Goldsmith asserts that though good versification alone will not constitute Poetry, bad versification alone will certainly degrade and render disgustful the sublimest sentiments and finest flowers of imagination (Goldsmith, Miscellanies, p. 405); writing about Plato’s labyrinth of argument, Henry Kett describes that the philosopher scatters around us the flowers of imagination (Kett, Elements, p. 355). are writ into the woof of life and render lovelier the x Interlined in pencil above xeampelexample, likely in non-authorial hand. xeampelexample of x Interlined in pencil above christaity likely in non-authorial hand. christaity —but now they are but tricking a lifeless form. Old age is but like a rotten vegetable—better be removed and anon blush in the rose and emblamembalm the air with the fragrances of the lilly

4 So narrow is the sphere of my existence that this morning is the most affecting I’ve known I’ve parted with Charles the only being who is attached to my society w’hwhich His tears & reluctance were noticeable. I rejoice he is gone MME had returned in early 1813 to her home in Waterford, taking her nephew Charles Chauncy Emerson there for an extended visit; on 3 October [1813], she writes to her brother Samuel Ripley that she has parted with my idol Charles (Simmons, Selected Letters, pp. 50, 77). it is surely better for me—my devotions have been long inturrupted—my mind weakned by too much indulgince to him—he became hellish. How long have I cherishd his affection for myself & with how much care—thinking I might thro’through that medium more strongly impress his mind with piety. I may have rendered him more affectionate But all is questionable—but that in a few days he will forget the pleasurs I procured him-–his devotedness to me and the scenes which here delighted him. So passes all earth born cares & affections. Oh I am freer—disentangled— Oh how glad I did not go when every thing invited me—ah if there be on this district one hole to cover me, let me not stir till nessecary. And oh Thou Author of every pang w’hwhich agitates the heart—of every glowing affection— I have yielded my ewe lamb MME alludes to 2 Samuel 12: 1-4: And the LORD sent Nathan unto David. And he came unto him, and said unto him, There were two men in one city; the one rich, and the other poor. The rich man had exceeding many flocks and herds: But the poor man had nothing, save one little ewe lamb, which he had bought and nourished up: and it grew up together with him, and with his children; it did eat of his own meat, and drank of his own cup, and lay in his bosom, and was unto him as a daughter. And there came a traveller unto the rich man, and he spared to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to dress for the wayfaring man that was come unto him; but took the poor man’s lamb, and dressed it for the man that was come to him. oh visit me with thy self—solemnise my whole soul—occupy it only with those scenes w’hwhich are eternal.

5 I walked 4 or 5 miles yesterday afternoon— Rich were the machinery of clouds & air—the memory of my connection with my boy was pleasant—for tenderly—too tenderly had I watched his motions. Joy & gratitude awake with the light—and one of the motmost pleasant images which struck my imajanation was that of my coffin—the finest veiws of nature are accompanied with the solemn event of death.

Noon This tranquility, this pause as it wrewere in natuer, betokens her dissolution—her resurrection. Ah grandeur of man thou act not in Courts, in turmoils in wealth & external honor.

9 sat. M.Morning That every effect proceeds in a sense, from a first Cause is the sentiment of nature—and begets resignation— But this soother of human care is enraturingly displayed in the whole Sacred Volume. Oh this day appt let me not taste too much of hope & faith & fervor. A humbling contrite heart. This correts motivs

MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 40), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Written March–c. 20 August 1821. Hamilton, Boston, and Concord Massachusetts; Connecticut; and [Augusta, Maine]. 2 MS sheets, undamaged. This fascicle represents an intriguing example of the materiality of MME’s Almanacks as well as the wide expanse of her commonplacing. The front and back pages are graphically rendered as “patchwork covers,” with blocks of text written diagonally in various positions around the page and leaving a blank triangle shape in the center. On page 2, a “mood chart” runs vertically down the right gutter and records MME’s terse descriptions of her emotional state on specific days, which we speculate run from 22 March through 11 April 1821. Commonplaces in this fascicle reflect her reading of many figures, including Aristotle, Plato, Socrates, Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid, Francis Bacon, Philip Doddridge, Germaine de Staël, and Friedrich von Schlegel. Ralph Waldo Emerson transcribed one of MME’s commonplaces from this fascicle, with no substantive differences. This and the last page of this Almanack are inscribed in patchwork fashion, with triangular-shaped blank spaces in the middle of the text, forming covers for this booklet.

568 Written in green pencil in left corner of top margin, likely in non-authorial hand.

The obligation of the precepts containd in new testestament continus so long as the reasons on w’hwhich they were founded continue, & ceases when the observation of any particular precept is inconsistent with another of a more general nature, or of greater importance for for promoting the essential branches of virtue. Doddridges lectures MME is quoting Philip Doddridge, Lecture CXCII, in The Works of Rev. P. Doddridge: The obligation of the precepts contained in New Testament continues so long as the reasons on which they were founded continue, and ceases when the observation of any particular precept is inconsistent with another of a more general nature, or of greater importance for promoting the essential branches of virtue (Doddridge, Works, p. 5:286).

If one of our Socinian writers had said this, I should have tho’tthought it a latidunarianlatitudinarian sentiment of a most dangerous nature. Dod can hardly swallow it now.

His “demonstration” is thus, “1. Many precepts are delivered in such manner, as that they must nessecerily admit of some exception, in order to reconcile them with each other, & with the natural law of God, founded on the mutual & immutable relation of things. 2. The law of Moses which is deliverd in as general & universal a stile as the precepts of Christ was in some instances violated without any crime by those who were still in general under the oblgations of that law” MME quotes from Lecture CXCII of Philip Doddridge: 2. Dem. 1. Many precepts are delivered in such manner, that they must necessarily admit of some exception, in order to reconcile them with each other, and with the natural law of God, founded on the mutable and immutable relation of things … 2. The law of Moses , which is delivered in as general and universal a stile as the precepts of Christ, was in some instances violated, without any crime, by those who were still in general under the obligations of that law (Doddridge, Works, p. 5:286).

damaged the damaged original intellectual damaged series of great value to which the Romans lay undisputed claim No Tolman transcript is extant for this text. MME is quoting and paraphrasing Friedrich von Schlegel, Lectures on the History of Literature, Ancient and Modern: The classical period of Roman literature, then, reckoning from the consulate of Cicero till the death of Trajan, included no more than one hundred and eighty years. Within the same period also the science of jurisprudence, the only original intellectual possession of great value to which the Romans can lay undisputed claim, received its first development, and began to assume the appearance of a science (Schlegel, Lectures, p. 1:159).

I think the only “forms” worthy of Plato were those abstracted from matter. Tho’Though Bacon says “he lost the advantage of his opinion that forms were the true object of knowledge, by grasping at those which were abstrcdabstracted from matter & not as determined in it.” whence he turned to theological opinnopinion & thence infected all his nat.natural phi.philosophy Did he expect to find forms in theology MME is misquoting Francis Bacon: But it is manifest, that Plato, in his opinion of ideas as one that had a wit of elevation situate as upon a cliff, did decry ‘That forms were the true object of knowledge;’ but lost the real fruit of his opinion, by considering of forms as absolutely abstracted from matter, and not confined and determined by matter; and so turning his opinion upon theology, wherewith all his natural philosophy is infected (Bacon, Advancement, p. 72). Au. August 20

Numa Pompilius gaind from Egerian greece MME likely refers to Numa Pompilius’s reputed consort and advisor, the Italian water nymph Egeria. For the insurance of easy deliveries, pregnant women made sacrifices to Egeria (Numa Pompilius).

Time an affection of motion of w’hwhich God is Author That kind of life which the best & happiest men lead occasionly, in the unobstructed exercise of their powers belongs eternally to God in a degree that should excite admiration in proportion as it exceeds comprehension. MME is commonplacing Aristotle’s Ethics and Politics, Comprising his Practical Philosophy, Translated from the Greek as translated by John Gillies: The Divinity … ever is what he is, existing in energy before time began, since time is only an affection of motion, of which God is the author. That kind of life which the best and happiest of men lead occasionally, in unobstructed exercise of their highest powers, belongs eternally to God in a degree that should excite admiration in proportion as it surpasses comprehension (Gillies, Aristotle’s Ethics, p. 1:155). He began with proving pop.popular covictsconvictions in ye the exercise of moral & intell.intellectual nature virtues happiness is energy directed in true virtue—totally different from yt that w’hwhich regards morality founded solely or ultimately on feeling; whether a moral sense, sympathy or any other modification of merely sensitive nature; liable to gross abuse Familiar with the correct geometry of his times, he descerned the concatination of trithstruths w’hwhich, being linked indissolubly together unite the most distant & aparent extremes. MME is commonplacing Aristotle’s Ethics and Politics, Comprising his Practical Philosophy, Translated from the Greek, as translated by John Gillies: He began by proving that the happiness of man consists in the exercise of the moral and intellectual virtues; or, in his own technical language, that happiness is energy directed in the line of virtue.…This system is totally different from that which regards morality as founded solely or ultimately on feeling, whether a moral sense, sympathy, or any other modification of merely sensitive nature; an absurd doctrine, liable to gross and dangerous perversion; and which has often been employed to justify, and even to produce the wildest practical errors; and Familiar with the correct geometry of his times, he discerned the concatenation of truths, which, being linked indissolubly together, unite the most distant, and seemingly unconnected extremes (Gillies, Aristotle’s Ethics, pp. 1:290, 131).

Aristotle said all our direct knowledge originates in perceptions of sense MME is commonplacing Aristotle’s Ethics and Politics, Comprising his Practical Philosophy, Translated from the Greek, as translated by John Gillies: It is the doctrine of Aristotle, a doctrine long and obstinately disputed, but now very generally received, that all our direct knowledge originates from sense (Gillies, Aristotle’s Ethics, p. 1:46). No Tolman transcript is extant for this text.

damaged is unanimously agreed by all astronomers, that several 1000s years must pass before any such situation of the stars, as they would imajine can twice happen; and it is very certain that the state in which the heavens will be tomorrow has never yet been since the creation of the world Rollin MME is quoting Charles Rollin: Now, it is unanimously agreed by all astronomers, that several thousands of years must pass, before any such situation of the stars, as they would imagine, can twice happen; and it is very certain, that the state in which the heavens will be to-morrow has never yet been since the creation of the world (Rollin, Ancient History, pp. 2:186-187). No Tolman transcript is extant for this text.

Hamilton, 1821-031821. March I read for the first time the solution or rather the proposition of that coulercolor is not in mind but the substance whic h reflects it. For many long years pestered with the damageds & Addison hypothesis. And tho’though I dare not say as Reid ha s said that the rose is red when no one sees it yet I have said it to myself. “The dissimilitude of our sensations & feelings to external things is the innocent Mother of those frightfull progeny—that terminates in saying that there exists nothing but ideas & impressions— that there are no causes nor effects; no substances material or spiritual; no evidencee even in mathematical demonstration; no liberty nor active power; nothing existing in nature but impressions & ideas following each other without time or place or subject.” He says too that the expectation of the connection of two events is not an association of ideas but a precsience of mind” MME is commonplacing from Thomas Reid, An Inquiry into the Human Mind, on the Principles of Common Sense: The progeny that followed, is still more frightful; so that is surprising, that one could be found who had the courage to act the midwife, to rear it up, and to usher it into the world. No causes nor effects; no substances, material or spiritual; no evidence even in mathematical demonstration; no liberty nor active power; nothing existing in nature, This but impressions and ideas following each other, without time, place, or subject … The dissimilitude of our sensations and feelings to external things, is the innocent mother of most of them … Now, this can with no propriety be called an association of ideas, unless ideas and belief be one and the same thing. A child has found the prick of a pin conjoined with pain; hence, he believes, and knows, that these things are naturally connected; he knows that the one will always follow the other. If any man will call this only an association of ideas, I dispute not about words, but I think he speaks very improperly. For if we express it in plain English, it is prescience, that things which he hath found conjoined in time past, will be conjoined in time to come. And this prescience is not the effect of reasoning, but of an original principle of human nature, which I have called the inductive principle … the best models of inductive reasoning that have yet appeared, which I take to be the third book of the Principia and the Optics of NEWTON, were drawn from BACON’s rules. The purpose of all those rules, is to teach us to distinguish seeming or apparent connections of things in the course of nature, from such as are real. MME also references Reid’s explanation of Joseph Addison’s theory that light and colours, as apprehended by the imagination, are only ideas in the mind, and not qualities that have any existence in matter (Reid, Inquiry, pp. 191, 192, 434, 437, 179).

24 And he calls this prn.principle not the effect of reasoning but an original priciple of hu.human na.nature w’hwhich he calls the inductive prin.principle The best models of inductive reasoning those of Newtons prinipiaprincipia & opticks drawn from Bacon. The purpose to show us real & apparent connections of things in Nature.”

27 M.Morning How ridiculous to represent enthusiasm as a disease—That light of the soul—that spark of glory which will continue to burn on thro’through eternity I mean a stronger portion of feeling—perception—existence than belongs to the dull & weake. It is heroism in the Soldier—self renunciation in the Statsman—self devotion in the Martyr—adoration & fruition of existence in the Recluse. Oh it is the appetite of hunger in the soul for knowledge virtue & immotality. That it does not find fuel enough in this clayey world to feed it MME’s positive conception of “enthusiasm” may be inspired by or responding to Germaine de Staël, whose Influence of Literature upon Society she is reading at this time. In this work, as well as in three chapters dedicated to “enthusiasm” in Germany, de Staël links “a reflected enthusiasm, and a pure exaltation of mind” (De Staël, Influence, p. 1:275), and she asserts that “enthusiasm is connected with the harmony of the universe: it is the love of the beautiful, elevation of soul, enjoyment of devotion”; similar to MME, she also relates this emotion to “men [who] take up arms indeed for the defence of the land which they inhabit . . . inspired by the enthusiasm of their country”; and she asserts that “if the soul be really moved within us, if in the universe it seeks a God, even if it be still sensible to glory and to love, the clouds of heaven will hold converse with it, the torrents will listen to its voice, and the breeze that passes through the grove, seems to deign to whisper to us something of those we love (De Staël, Germany, pp. 2:328, 339, 341-42). In contrast to De Staël and MME, some post-Enlightenment figures, such as Thomas Reid, whom MME is also reading at this time, assert that “imagination . . . or the most frantic enthusiasm” can be a product of “delirium” (Reid, Inquiry, pp. 46-47).

22 Thurs 23 appt rejrejoiced 24 equal 25 sabsabbath 26 TolTolerable 27 forgot 28 doditto 29 poor 30 toltolerable 31 toltolerable ApApril 1 sabsabbath Low 2 rode 3 dull 4 doditto 5 Fast ri.ride 6 good 7 doditto 8 sabsabbath 9 sad 10 gay 11 sad These lines form a vertical list in the right gutter of the page; this list seems to function as a “mood chart,” describing MME’s temperament between 22 March and 11 April 1821. No Tolman transcription is extant for this text.

The RevwerReviewer of S. says that S. says that too much stress has been laid on nature of mind— I dont think so. Yet there is fine stuff in the following—the proper use of the doctrine is not to demonstate that the soul is naturally & phi.philosophically immortal, but to refute the objections that have been urged against the possibility of its seperate state from body” Stuart. Now I would ask what is so good an argument for its’ seprate exit.existence as being independant of matter? — And if it is not matter it must be spirit as these are all w’hwhich belong to man, in some of their organisations But S. does not think our knowlege of mind able to afford us any positive argument; for we know nothing but that its’ qualities are essentially different from matter so is its’ nature.— And he thinks the theory of Berkly better than materialism as the latter only contradicts our perctionsperceptions “There are various circumtances w’hwhich take place render it highly probable that the union between soul & body w’hwhich damaged takes place in our present state so far from being essential to theour exercise of our powers & faculties was intended to limit the sphere of our information & to keep us ignorant of the nature & govt government of univers in this early stage of our existence. Indeed when we reflect on difference between operations of mind & qualities of body it is more wonderfull that they can be united than to suppose the former to exist MME is quoting and paraphrasing an 1821 review of Dugald Stewart’s Outlines of Moral Philosophy, for the use of students in the University of Edinburgh (1818), from the Christian Spectator: And in the first place, too much stress he says has been laid on the argument derived from the nature of mind. The proper use of the doctrine of the soul’s Immateriality, he says, is not to demonstrate that the soul is physically and necessarily immortal; but to refute the objections which have been urged against the possibility of its existing in a separate state from the body. In short, he does not think our knowledge of the nature of mind is sufficient to afford us any positive argument on the subject; for we know nothing of the nature of mind except that, since its qualities are essentially different from the qualities of matter, the nature of the one is probably different from the nature of the other; and consequently the dissolution of the body does not necessarily imply the extinction of the soul, but the presumption is in favour of the contrary supposition. So confident is he however, that the nature of mind and body are essentially different, that he considers even the Ideal theory of Berkeley as more philosophical than the doctrine of materialism, in as much as the former only contradicts the suggestion of our perceptions, while the latter contradicts the suggestions of our consciousness. The latter part of this article is too good to be passed over without presenting to our readers almost the whole of it. There are various circumstances which render it highly probable, that the union between soul and body, which takes place in our present state, so far from being essential to the exercise of our powers and faculties, was intended to limit the sphere of our information; and to prevent us from acquiring in this early stage of our being, too clear a view of the constitution and government of the universe. Indeed when we reflect on the difference between the operations of mind and the qualities of matter, it appears much more wonderful, that the two substances should be so intimately united, as we find them actually to be, than to suppose that the former may exist in a conscious and intelligent state when separated from the latter (New Publications, p. 246).

As with the first page of this Almanack, this one is inscribed in patchwork fashion, with triangular-shaped blank spaces in the middle of the page. This page is inscribed in patchwork fashion, with triangular-shaped blanks in the middle of the text.

The Antients better skilled in morals than phi.philosophy accurate study of nesseceery to meta.metaphysics nothing more unsettled than unconnected than moral code of Antients— Rank & talents often confounded by many of G.Greek phi.philosophers love of study & first duties classed togather. In their enthusiasm for faculties of mind, they allowed them a place of esteem beyond every thing else—neglectd heart. MME is paraphrasing Germaine De Staël: The ancients were better skilled in morals than in philosophy: an accurate study of the sciences is necessary to rectify metaphysics: but nature has placed in the heart of man a guide to conduct him to virtue: nevertheless, nothing could be more unsettled and unconnected than the moral code of the ancients … Rank and morals were confounded by many of the Greek philosophers: the love of study, and the performance of the first duties, were classed together. In their enthusiasm for the faculties of the mind, they allowed them a place of esteem beyond every thing else: they excited men to the acquirement of admiration; but they never looked with an eye of penetration into the heart (De Staël, Influence, p. 1:121).

Is the fire caught from H.Heaven to be employed in lghtinglighting a faggot to keep the cold from the wasted & numbed figersfingers of poverty MME is quoting from Charles Robert Maturin’s gothic novel Melmoth the Wanderer: Is the fire caught from heaven to be employed in lighting a faggot to keep the cold from the numbed and wasted fingers of poverty (Maturin, Melmoth, p. 4:115).

Old maids may realize the publick spirit of Plato’s republick—no female attachment. We have not been able to ascertain MME’s source for Plato’s Republic in this particular Almanack, but because she extracts several excerpts from Gillies’s translation of Aristotle’s Ethics and Politics on its front and back covers, she may allude to his extensive discussion of the Republic and women’s role within it. Gillies objects to Plato’s premise that guardian women and children be shared by guardian men, believing that men are the injured party in this relation (Gillies, Aristotle’s Ethics, pp. 2:85-86, 98-94, 98).

Ari. says “all will is free will, since nothing can be more free than what is voluntary—” MME is quoting from John Gillies’s translation of Aristotle: With Aristotle, all will is free-will; since nothing can be more free than that which is voluntary (Gillies, Aristotle’s Ethics, p. 1:289). Now why are they voluntary more than others? to me, renders all void, as to perfect freedom—but to all the purposes of reward & punishment.

After Charlemange MMSmanuscripts collected with opretuityopportunity He learned greek in age MME is commonplacing from Friedrich von Schlegel’s Lectures on the History of Literature, as indicated by other passages in this Almanack: “After the time of Charlemagne, the multiplying of manuscripts was a work pursued with the most zealous and systematical application”; and “The Greek language was certainly not unknown in Germany, at least between the time of Charlemagne, who learned Greek himself in his old age” (Schlegel, Lectures, pp. 1:282,285).

The Countries whose present languages are of Roman Origin, the latin not truely then considered as dead—till the 9 or 10 Cent.Century Men considered it as alive—used in rilegion & clertiescloisters . MME commonplaces from Friedrich von Schlegel’s Lectures on the History of Literature: “Besides, in the countries whose present languages are of Roman origin, the Latin, in those days, was scarcely considered as a foreign or even as a dead language, but rather as the old and genuine language of the land, preserved in its regularity and purity by the men of learning and education, in opposition to the corrupt and vague dialects of the common people—the vulgar tongues, as they were called. In those countries the Latin language ceased not to be a living one till the 9th or 10th century. . . . But it is evident that the delusion under which men lay in considering the Latin language as still alive, many centuries after it was really extinct, was very much prolonged by the perpetual use of that language in all the observances of religion, and in all the societies of the cloisters. It sustained daily altercations, but was never altogether laid aside” (Schlegel, Lectures, pp. 1:278-9).

Plato & Socrates prefered conversation to witingwriting—they felt that their ideas belonged more to imitation than analysis. wanted inflamaedinflamed ima.imagination as the present WritersModern & metaphymetaphysicians want to secure their works from poetry. MME is paraphrasing Germaine De Staël: Socrates and Plato preferred speaking to writing; because they felt, without exactly rendering to themselves an account of their talents, that their ideas belonged more to imitation than to analysis. They loved to have recourse to that impulse and elevation of thought which is produced by the animated language of conversation; and they searched with as much diligence for something to inflame the imagination, as the metaphysicians and moralists of our days would employ, to secure their works from the smallest appearance of poetic. For deriving their inspiration from poetry, De Staël praises Alexander Pope, John Milton, Thomas Gray, Oliver Goldsmith, John Dryden, Edward Young, William Shakespeare, Henry Fielding, and Samuel Richardson (De Staël, Influence, pp. 1: 143, 318-327).

Abelard Roscelint meaning that As in the common degreee of the intellectual qualities there is no abilities; so in the common degree of the moral, there is no virtue. MME is quoting Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments: As in the common degree of the intellectual qualities, there are no abilities; so in the common degree of the moral, there is no virtue (Smith, Theory, p. 1:25).

Aristotle held that matter might exist without forms but forms could not without matter That there is found In mounfulmournful tho’tsthoughts & always mymay be fundfound A power to viturevirtue ‘friendly!’ Words MME is quoting Dugald Stewart’s Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind: The chief difference between the opinions of Plato and Aristotle on the subject of ideas, related to the mode of their existence. That the matter of which all things are made, existed from eternity, was a principle that both admitted; but Plato farther taught, that, of every species of things, there is an idea of form which also existed from eternity, and that this idea is the exemplar or model according to which the individuals of the species were made; whereas Aristotle held, that, although matter may exist without form, yet that forms could not exist without matter (Stewart, Elements, p. 1:93). MME also quotes from William Wordsworth’s poem The Wanderer in The Excursion: Being a Portion of the Recluse, a Poem: But we have known that there is often found / In mournful thoughts, and always might be found, / A power to virtue friendly (Wordsworth, Wanderer, p. 34).

MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 41), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Written c. October 1822. [Boston, Massachusetts]. One largely undamaged MS sheet, folded to form a quarto of four leaves, the second page of which has been almost completely excised. The editors speculate that this Almanack was written in October 1822, based on internal evidence; its resemblance to Almanack folder 40, which is dated 1821; and MME’s 1822 correspondence with Ralph Waldo Emerson, which discusses similar topics. In this Almanack, MME refers to her reading of Scottish Common Sense philosopher Dugald Stewart’s Outlines of Moral Philosophy and remarks on his “doctrine of immateriality of soul.” In a rare commentary on gender roles and a woman’s short-lived influence on her male protégés whose education will supersede hers, MME singles out the woman who is “admire[d] . . . as a kind of moral comet who has apparently passed the limits of nature and order”—likely references to women such as Elizabeth Montagu and Germaine de Staël, both of whom she admires, and about which our annotation for this passage explains in greater detail. Although she disdains this kind of “celebrity,” MME laments the day when “age has striped [stripped] the learned female of every grace” and thus limits her usefulness. Her reference in this discussion to “children [who] are outshining her” should certainly be read in light of nephew Ralph Waldo Emerson’s graduation in 1821 from Harvard College and his commencement of a teaching and literary career, while seeking a clerical position; indeed Waldo’s first publication, “Thoughts on the Religion of the Middle Ages” was published the following month, in November 1822 in Christian Disciple and Theological Review. As MME notes, “the rising generation have made new discoveries for which she is no compititor.” Recent visits with others cause MME to appreciate her “solitude & independance,” but another social encounter, with Waldo’s Harvard schoolmate Charles Wentworth Upham afforded stimulating conversation as well as another unfortunate reminder of the overweening intellects of the “rising generation.” The unfavorable comparison that Upham is not “half so interesting” as Waldo may serve as compensation for their bittersweet dinner conversation.

not best for women to blend these pursuits so 569 Written in green pencil in left corner of top margin, likely in non-authorial hand. much with men. Nature points at different duties & feelings. And tho’though we admire a woman this armed cape & piecap-a-pie for antient & modern love as a curiosty—as a kind of moral comet who has apparently passed the limits of nature and order, we do not wish the same kind of celebrity for ourselves or others. And when age has stripedstripped the learned female of every grace, how can the learning which the men possess as their peculiar right interest them? For women, they do not wish to shine, only as they excite envy, and save the abstract love of knowledge, which (perhaps a linguist is has not often much to do with) what has she to console her retirement with? Her children are outshining her—& tho’though indebted to her for accomplishments, are not linked to her by the holiest of all ties, those which last when knowlege passeth. The rising generation have made new discoveries for which she is no compititor. MME’s comments about Elizabeth Montagu and Germaine de Staël in letters and Almanack fragments in 1821 and 1822 may indicate that she refers to one or both women in this discerning passage. In an Almanack-letter hybrid conjecturally dated September 1822 to Elizabeth Hoar and that may have originally been included in this Almanack folder, MME adds a postscript in which she excitedly queries Ralph Waldo Emerson about Montagu’s 1769 defense of Shakespeare, An Essay on the Writings and Genius of Shakespeare Compared with the Greek and French Dramatic Poets, a well-received volume published in several subsequent editions and multiple translations. This commentary about Montagu perhaps sheds light on MME’s truncated remark about Shakespeare and Charles Chauncy Emerson on the reverse of this Almanack leaf. MME’s reference here to antient & modern love may also suggest Montagu’s defense of Shakespeare against charges by Voltaire and others that the renowned British dramatist’s virtues fell short in comparison to classical Greek and “modern” (17th- and 18th-century) French authors. As regards de Staël, whom MME also admired, MME cites her often in an 1821 Almanack as well as in another Almanack-letter hybrid of this date. The latter and this current Almanack passage reflect MME’s sense of the conflict between a woman’s own ambition versus nineteenth-century cultural and religious expectations for female humility. Imagining de Staël’s relinquishment of her own publick existence that her son might be decked with unfading honors, MME envisions that for the learned female, the humbler deciple of meekness will shine in light when the meteors are gone, a sentiment that suggestively compares with this Almanack’s metaphor of the intellectual woman as a kind of moral comet who understands that her young male protégés will surpass her (Emerson to RW Emerson, c. 1821). Finally, then, in invoking the compensatory notion that secular knowlege passeth, MME likely borrows the wording if not the sense of Ephesians 3:19: And to know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge, that ye might be filled with all the fulness of God. Oh my God one profound sentiment of thy consoling presence is wothworth all all of Angel knowlegede.

P.M. D. Stewart says, in his outlines it is not the proper use of the doctrine of imme.immateriality of soul to show that it is phisically & nessesirlynecessarily immortal, but that it may refute the objections to its being able to exist in a seperate state from body.” “our knowlegde of nature of mind too feeble to afford us positive knowlegde argument. One evidencee of a future state is the foundan foundation w’hwhich are is laid in the priciples of our constitution for a progressive & & unlimited improvt improvement Another is “the natural apprehension of the mind when under remorse. On the moral attributes he calls them benevolence & justice—for the damaged he thinks we have a stronge argu.argument apriorapriori from the exquisite pleasure our benivolent acts give us & the approbation we feel at others beneficence. MME is quoting from and paraphrasing an 1821 review of Dugald Stewart’s Outlines of Moral Philosophy (1818): And in the first place, too much stress he says has been laid on the argument derived from the nature of mind. The proper use of the doctrine of the soul’s Immateriality, he says, is not to demonstrate that the soul is physically and necessarily immortal; but to refute the objections which have been urged against the possibility of its existing in a separate state from the body. In short, he does not think our knowledge of the nature of mind is sufficient to afford us any positive argument on the subject; for we know nothing of the nature of mind; Another evidence of a future state which Mr. Stewart mentions, is the foundation which is laid in the principles of our constitution for a progressive and an unlimited improvement ; Another evidence of a future state is the natural apprehensions of the mind when under the influence of remorse ; We would now call the attention of our readers to the chapter on the moral attributes of the Deity. So far as they are discoverable by the light of nature, they are according to Mr. Stewart, Benevolence and Justice. For the Benevolence of the Deity, he thinks we have a strong presumptive, a priori, argument, inasmuch as the exquisite pleasure which we know by our own experience accompanies the exercise of benevolence, the peculiar satisfaction with which we reflect on such of our actions as have contributed to the happiness of mankind, and the peculiar sentiment of approbation with which we regard the virtue of beneficience [sic], it would seem, render it difficult to conceive what other motive could have induced a Being completely and independently happy, to have called his creatures into existence than that of benevolence (New Publications, pp. 246, 247, 248, 250).

11. Yesteday day appt appointment peace. When I reflect on the dangers of vanity & pride & froth—deception as to pleasing—dependance on those who are pleased with any efforts— Oh how gratefull am I for solitude & independance—even were they not means of highest happiness—were not the spirit of socity generally, different, if not hostile to the spirit of gospel. Oh prison of prisons to the soul is that condition of asking leave to breathe—to feel happy from the smiles of others. Happier too than if loaded with that science—those langauges which exist only for others—which are either used for getting bread or applause—the last more degrading than the first employ.t employment. MME’s somewhat cryptic comments on these two days seem possibly indicative of previous criticism she’s leveled at her friend Hannah Farnham Sawyer Lee, who with her sister Mary Sawyer Schuyler were members of a literary coterie in Newburyport, Massachusetts, with which MME often spent time when visiting there. In letters to various correspondents over the years, MME referred to Lee as her elegant Newburyport friend but also remarks that she does not take seriously all of Lee’s comments; on occasion, MME also finds that Lee appeared guilty of egotism of a refined & proud kind (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, pp. 117, 260, 269).

132 Strange that very yesterday I went with Mrs Lee to dine— But very safely, for verry faculty was locked & they slept sweetly. MME’s somewhat cryptic comments on these two days seem possibly indicative of previous criticism she’s leveled at her friend Hannah Farnham Sawyer Lee, who with her sister Mary Sawyer Schuyler were members of a literary coterie in Newburyport, Massachusetts, with which MME often spent time when visiting there. In letters to various correspondents over the years, MME referred to Lee as her elegant Newburyport friend but also remarks that she does not take seriously all of Lee’s comments; on occasion, MME also finds that Lee appeared guilty of egotism of a refined & proud kind (Cole, Mary Moody Emerson, pp. 117, 260, 269). This morning the presentiments of Gods favor—of dying—of improvement—awaken rapturos delight. But oh what of them—are they not the birth of phisical humours—do they santifysanctify?

13 Sab.Sabbath N.Noon What a walk & enjoyt enjoyment this morning heard at B. S.Baptist Society a stranger. Upham dined here—dont think him half so interesting as one of his clasmates. As to the leeaninglearning of the Apostles I never tho’tthought of it— Their being inspired with languages did not acquaint them with the literature of the Country, whose language they spoke, because it was merely the instrument of conveying certain instructions. MME refers to several passages from the biblical book of Acts in which early Christians spoke, as Jesus of Nazareth had prophesied in Mark 16:17, with new tongues. See, for example, Acts 2:1-4: And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance; Acts 10:43-46: To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins. While Peter yet spake these words, the Holy Ghost fell on all them which heard the word. And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost. For they heard them speak with tongues, and magnify God; and Acts 19:1-6: And it came to pass, that, while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul having passed through the upper coasts came to Ephesus: and finding certain disciples, He said unto them, Have ye received the Holy Ghost since ye believed? And they said unto him, We have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost. And he said unto them, Unto what then were ye baptized? And they said, Unto John’s baptism. Then said Paul, John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying unto the people, that they should believe on him which should come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus. When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Ghost came on them; and they spake with tongues, and prophesied. I never tho’tthought any thing damagedt before—old & stupid that I am till this dinner damaged I was fortunate in giving it this direction. damagedles to Shakespear I dont love to hear Charls

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MS Am 1280.235 (385, folder 44), Emerson Family Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University. Undated. MME’s Location Unknown. One intact sheet folded vertically to create four pages, with three additional horizontal folds that would have rendered it suitable for storage, dispersal, or portability. In this Almanack, MME commonplaces widely from Joseph Priestley’s Doctrines of Heathen Philosophy Compared with Those of Revelation (1804) and Henry Kett’s General Knowledge, Introductory to Useful Books in the Principal Branches of Literature and Science (1805). The audience for the two sources might vary—Kett’s two volume work serves as a basic reference appropriate for college students or general readers, whereas Priestley’s Doctrines resembles the more specialized nature of MME’s mature reading—but in both cases her selections evidence MME’s interest at this time in classical history. More significant, however, is her method of commonplacing in this Almanack. Unlike her more routine practice of selecting, distilling, arranging, and commenting on one or a number of sources, here MME excerpts her sources at length and nearly verbatim, without independent inquiry or intellectual exploration. Moreover, in the case of Priestley’s Doctrines, she follows and renders his titles and sub-headings. The publication dates of these sources, the introductory nature of Kett’s General Knowledge, and MME’s commonplacing practice in this Almanack lead the editors to speculate that this is an “early” composition, anywhere from the early 1800s to the 18teens.

Plato’s reasons fofor a god the works of nature—diviner of season—consent of all nations— He called intect.intellectual ideas only intelligible & wrthyworthy of envis.envisioning-– the visible were only shadows of them & changeable –-their mestireous doctrine of ideas is what we call abstract ideasthythey personified them—hence the origin of trinity. His ideas of God were good—represented him (not as the stoics) incapable of executing venganevengeance — Beginning midle end & surpottersupporter of all things— The charetercharacter of the gods the best introduction to a body of laws. The humble follow him—but the elevated who think they can stand fall -–the wicked punished after death. God is altogether simple he cannot deceive—takes care of the smalest beings—for he cannot be a wise Dr Doctor who attends to the whole body & ntnot to parts. Plato attrubeteattribute every art pleasur & law to the inspiration of God to good men He was a pantheist—the stars have souls because thythey perform thier motion with order— He distinguished the crime of impiety into three kinds 1 atheism— 2 that the gods take no care of human affaiersaffairs— 3 that they are easily appeased by sacrifices— In some cases of the 2 crime the punishment was 5 years imp t imprisonment

of the soul The words “of the soul” are on a separate line and centered. They are preceded above by two centered horizontal blank lines drawn across the page. Plato as had all the heathen had the most exalted notions of the soul —it was the man—the body but its’ servant—its’ attendant In truth, the soul of each is immortal, and goes to the other gods to give account of itself actions—it existed before the body was produced & it is the chief agent in