A1r

A
Present
for
Young Ladies;

Containing
Poems, Dialogues, Addresses,
&c. &c. &c.
as Recited by the Pupils of
Mrs. Rowson’s Academy,
at the Annual Exhibitions.

By Susanna Rowson.

Boston:
Published by John West & Co.
No. 75, Cornhill.
18111811.
E. G. House, Printer.

A1v A2r

Advertisement
By the author.

I have been frequently solicited by the
friends of my pupils, and my pupils themselves,
to have the following Bagatelles printed. In compliance
with their request I now commit them to
the eye of the public.

They were written for the amusement and information
of very young minds. Let not the
old and learned look at them with a critic’s eye.
My chief pleasure arises from being being loved, esteemed
and applauded by a few; the chilren
whom I have educated, and the friends who are
satisfied with my endeavours to please, constitute
those few. Conscious of meaning well, I leave
to the wit, the scholar and the critic to astonish,
correct, or satirize; and rest content with the
feelings of a heart, grateful for the many blessings
it possesses, and devoid of envy for the superior
excellence or happiness of another.

2 linesomitted A2v
B1r

A
Present for Young Ladies.

The Sage.

’Tis said in days of yore, when mortals pray’d

To heathen deities; that Jove survey’d

From his high throne the discontented clan,

That strange, eccentric, murmuring, biped man;

And wishingwishing for amusement, gave permission,

For each complainant to prefer petition;

Stating minutely what they wish’d or wanted,

And promis’d that their prayer should be granted.

Soon as aurora with her golden eye,

Peep’d through the eastern chambers of the sky,

A multitudinous throng together press’d,

All eager to be heard and have their ’plaints redress’d:

And sure their strange petitions might beguile

The sternest, coldest cynic of a smile.

B B1v 6

“Give me”, cries one, “uncounted hoards of pelf,

Ships, houses, lands, and money in profusion;

Heaps of ore and mines of treasure,

I’ll grasp it all; oh, endless pleasure,

Laugh at the widows’ tears the needy man’s
confusion,

And centre all in self, dear idol self.

Another push’d the sordid wretch aside,

And pressing forward with ambitious stride,

Looking contempt on the surrounding crowd,

And even to Jove himself he scarcely bow’d.

“Give, mighty power”, he cried, “the grov’ling reptile
gold,

Be it my fate the staff of power to hold,

To have millions depend on my smile or my frown,

And legions to move at my nod;

I’d reign o’er the universe, grasp at a crown,

And be on earth a demigod.”

“Dear”, cries a pretty miss, “do stand away,

You frighten me to death, I vow you do,

Make me forget, all that I had to say;

Good Mr. Jupiter, now tell me pray,

My eyes are black, could you not make them blue?”

“Lord”, cries miss Formal, “do miss let me speak;

You would have every thing, I see it plain.

Oh, mighty Jove, I have grown old of late,

My hair is grey, there’s wrinkles on my cheek,

Could you not make me young and fair again?”

B2r 7

Then such confus’d petitions, pensions, places,

Fine hair, fine teeth, fine shapes, and pretty faces

Jove turn’d away disgusted — and admir’d

A Sage, who from the noisy throng retir’d

Had stood aloof, express’d nor wish nor want,

Content to take whate’er the gods might grant.

Delighted, he the modest Sage survey’d;

“Come hither, friend, the power smiling said,

Hast thou no wish, no prayer to prefer?”

“None”, cried the Sage, “the human heart may err,

And ask for things improper; be it thy will

With misery to the brim, my cup to fill,

’Tis mine to take it, if by thee ’tis sent,

My duty is submission and content.

If to my lot one blessing be assign’d,

Grant me a free anand independent mind,

Ability to earn the bread I eat,

A heart to own, that bread tho’ coarse, is sweet.”

Pleas’d with his humble prayer great Jove assented,

Nor does the story say the Sage repented.

Thus far the bard a simple tale has told,

In artless language drawn from days of old;

But something still remains. The Sage’s prayers

Express her heart, his humble wish is hers.

Except that in her prayer she would include,

That first of blessings heaven taught gratitude;

And words to speak how much she feels is due,

Of that unbounded gratitude to you.

B2v 8

The Bee—a Fable.

Delivered by a Little Miss Nine
Years Old.

Ladies and Gentlemen, will you allow

A very little girl, who scarce knows how

To make her curtsey in a proper way,

To tell a story which she heard one day?

It chance’d once on a time, no matter when,

For all strange things they tell us happen’d then;

A little Bee on a sun shiny day,

Crept from the hive, among the flow’rs to play.

A wise old lab’rer of the hive espied

His sportive gambols, and thus gravely cried,

“To work as well as play should be your pride.

Come learn of me, for wisdom is a treasure,

And you shall mingle profit with your pleasure.

Observe this bed of clustringclust’ring flow’rs, behold

Their velvet leaves all powder’d o’er with gold,

And see, within the cups of crimson hue,

The precious drops of rich nectarious dew.

This golden dust, this precious dew collect,

Now in the early morning, nor neglect

To bear it to the hive, a valued store,

Against the time when chilling torrents roar,

And Boreas howls, and rains and snows decenddescend,

And bees must on their hoarded stores depend.”

Now this young Bee was a good little creature,

Had much good sense, industry, and good nature;

B3r 9

She sipp’d the dew, scraped off the golden dust,

That turned to liquid sweets, and in a crust

Composed of this, the ambrosial treasure clos’d

But as she work’d, a drone who had repos’d

For many a morning in a lily’s bell,

Addressed her thus; “Poor thing, tis mighty well

That you have strength and spirits thus to labour,

I vow you are a valuable neighbour;

To labour thus from morn to eve for others;

For trust me little slave I and my brothers,

When we have spent the summer sweetly here,

All winter will regale on your good cheer.

For I’m too delicate, too blythe, too gay,

To waste in toil my summer hours away;

I was not form’d for labour, I was made

To rest on thyme beds in the myrtle shade;

I do protest, were I obliged to bear

That yellow dust away, and take such care,

That not a grain is lost; that I should die,

Fainting beneath the fervor of the sky.

But you were formed for toil and care by nature

And are a mighty good industrious creature.”

“Winter draws nigh, replies the little Bee,

And who is wisest we shall quickly see,

My friend, who warn’d me to beware in season

Or yours, who left you in dispite of reason

To bathe in dew, flit over beds of flowers,

Heedless of coming cold, or wintry showers.”

When winter came, the little Bee was well,

Secure and warm, within her waxen cell.

B3v 10

The drones half starv’d, came shiv’ring to the door,

And forc’d an entrance, they could do no more;

The lab’rers rose, the encroaching tribe drove forth,

To brave the horrors of the frigid north;

Shrink in the rigor of a wintry sky,

Lament their idleness, to starve and die.

While the good litle Bee, next coming May,

Hail’d the returning sun, alert and gay,

Led forth an infant swarm in health and ease,

A bright example unto future bees.

My story’s ended; but methinks you say,

Is there no moral, little girl, I pray?

Yes, there’s a moral, hear it if you please,

This is the hive, and we’re the little bees;

Our governess is the adviser sage,

Who fits us for the world’s delusive stage,

By pointing out the weeds among the flowers,

By teaching us to use our mental powers;

To shun the former, and with nicest care,

Cull from the latter all that’s sweet and fair,

Extract their honey, keep their colour bright

To deck the chaplet for a winter’s night.

Have we succeeded? judge, you will not wrong us,

I trust we have no idle drones among us;

Or is there one or two, how great their shame,

Whilst here, we’re striving for the meed of fame,

And catch with transports of exulting joy,

The approbating glance from every eye;

To feel they cannot hope to share our pleasure,

To know they slighted wisdom’s offered treasure,

B4r 11

To feel that those kind friends, who dearest love
them,

Will blush and pity, while they can’t approve them.

Oh dear, I would not for the richest gem,

That India can produce, feel just like them.

Nor lose the joy we hope to feel this day,

To hear our friends and patronesses say,

All is done right and well; and truly these

Dear chilren, are a hive of thriving bees.

And should you thus approve, you’ll make of me,

A very proud, and happy little Bee.

Introductory Address.

For 18071807.

“’Tis education forms the infant mind,

Just as the twig is bent the tree’s inclined.”

If this is true, how careful should they be,

Who train the twig, to form the future tree?

Nor is there aught a parent can bestow,

For which a child more gratitude can owe,

Than education! when with studious art

The teacher stores the head, and mends the heart.

While in each acquisition we improve,

To gain our friends’ applause, our parents’ love,

We are taught we shall not always tarry here,

Bade to press forward to a nobler sphere:

When if we have improv’d the talents given,

Tenfold will be our great reward in heaven.

B4v 12

Is it not well for us that we have friends,

Knowing how much our future peace depends

On what we are taught in youth, who kindly grant

The means to attain those graces which we want?

Dear friends, behold our works, look round and say

Has your expense, our time, been thrown away?

Ah! if it had, how great had been our blame,

The slighted means, would dye our cheeks with
shame;

And we throughout our future lives should mourn

The golden hours which never can return.

But while the needle’s various arts we have pli’d,

The imitative pencil strove to guide,

History’s interesting facts delighted,

Nor were the poets’ magic numbers slighted.

The penman’s nicer skill we have strove to attain,

And hope our efforts have not been in vain.

If you approve us on this happy day,

How light will beat our hearts to hear you say,

Well done good children! go on, persevere;

Yes, for those smiles to our young hearts so dear,

We will, nor slack on any vain pretence,

Since perseverance leads to excellence.

Introductory Address.

For 18101810.

Will you permit a very little maid?

(Who to confess the truth, is half afraid,

B5r 13

Thus to appear before so many friends;

On whom her happiness this day depends.

But pray you do not think that I presume,

It was our governess who bade me come.)

Your kind attention humbly to entreat,

At least your patience, while we shall repeat

Our exercises here, and strive to show

What we have learnt, what done and what we know.

With hearts that palpitate with hope and fear,

We venture in your presence to appear.

If we have been to our own int’rest blind,

Slighting the means to cultivate the mind.

How shall we dare our downcast eyes to raise,

Feeling we merit censure, ask for praise?

If we’ve improv’d each moment as it fled,

In storing treasure for the heart and head,

We come before you now with hearts light beating,

Certain your kindest smiles will give us greeting.

This we must own, our teachers tried their pow’rs

T’improve us, if we fail, the fault is ours.

Pray you look round, methinks you will not say,

Your kindness, or our time, was thrown away.

Usefully ev’ry moment we divide,

The needle is with skill and labour plied;

The pen, and pencil, take an equal turn,

While all with gen’rous emulation burn,

Your smiles and approbation to obtain,

Oh, do not let our labour prove in vain.

B5v 14

My dear companions soon will let you see

How far in learning, they have outsripp’d me:

But I will try before another year,

To be as forward as the oldest here.

Pray you excuse me for my childish prate,

I had forgot, those kind companions wait

To claim your favour; then with candour hear
them,

If worthy, let your approbation cheer them.

Serious Reflections.

A poem delivered 18071807, by a young
lady who had been six years in the
Academy.

Life’s but a shadow, fleeting swift away,

Like gleams of sunshine, on a wint’ry day;

That by their radiance cheer, and gently warm,

But as we feel the soft delusive charm:

Slowly but sure the shades of night arise

And veil the transient splendor from our eyes,

Impenetrable gloom involves the plain,

Till the revolving sun arise again.

So the bright gleams of youth and beauty fade,

Shrouded by death’s impenetrable shade,

Deep shade! long night! where is the sun shall rise,

Bid the same youth and beauty meet our eyes,

Wake our departed friends, disperse the gloom,

And shed a radiance o’er the dreary tomb?

B6r 15

Alas! the scene is clos’d, those we deplore,

Shall greet our ears, shall bless our eyes no more.

Say not my friends this subject is too dull.

It is a theme with which my heart is full;

Then let me speak my thoughts, let me impart,

Reflections which may pain yet mend the heart.

Can none remember? Yes, some here I see,

Who must remember, think, and feel like me;

Bid fancy lead the beauteous visions on,

And mourn companions now for ever gone.

Six years, short space, how swiftly did ye fly,

While wing’d with childish sports ye glided by;

The pleasing retrospect before me lies,

But as each scene in quick succession flies,

My heart retracing every dear delight,

Melts o’er companions wrapp’d in endless night.

Sees Proctor Miss Elizabeth Proctor, afterwards Mrs. Abbot. gay as pleasure’s airy child,

On whose fair prospect love and fortune smil’d.

Sees Bishop Miss Bishop of Medford, afterwards Mrs. N. Parsons. lovely, and as good as fair;

By nature grac’d with talents rich and rare.

Beholds their festive pomp and bridal wreath,

Chang’d for the sad habiliments of death;

Sees them depart from off life’s motley scene,

And seem alas! as though they ne’er had been.

Fair Means Miss Jane Means of Amherst. in whom were innocence and truth,

Combined with beauty’s charm, and opening youth,

And manners gentle as the breath of May,

B6v 16

Means too, has like a shadow pass’d away.

McClure, Mis Ruth McClure. I lov’d thee much and all who knew

Thy good and gentle nature, lov’d thee too.

But thou art gone;—and quickly in thy rear,

Sweet unassuming Noyes Miss Mary Noyes of Newbury-Port. has press’d her bier.

Harris Miss S. Harris of Charlestown. with whom in revels light and gay,

I’ve pass’d the closing eve, or wak’d the day;

Lov’d for thy mild good humour, cheerful mirth

And tenderly esteemed for innate worth;

Thou too art faded, but upon thy breast,

In fairest flowers may the turf be drest,

Nor weed nor brier dare profane the ground,

For in thy mind, nor weed nor brier was found.

Rebecca! Miss R. Bishop, sister to Mrs. Parsons. thou whose grave but newly clos’d

Who snatched from lingering pain art now repos’d

In that calm mansion of eternal peace,

Where tears are wip’d away and sorrows cease.

Thy form, Rebecca, rises to my view

As when this annual day was grac’d by you;

Then your fair sister liv’d, and youth and joy,

Flush’d in your cheeks, and revel’d in your eye.

All now is past, closed are those speaking eyes,

And shrouded in the grave Rebecca lies.

Methinks I hear your voice addressing me,

Say, “what I am, alas! you soon must be.”

Thy virtues then be mine, thy modest worth

Though never vaunted, shone conspicuous forth

B7r 17

To me thy uncomplaining mind be given,

Thy meek submission to the will of heaven,

At least in mem’ry treasur’d they shall be

And when I aim to excel, I’ll copy thee.

But are these dear companions, we deplore

Snatch’d from our eyes to be beheld no more?

No, though from sublunary scenes they’re gone,

Yet in the presence of the Eternal One

Again they live, they join the seraphs’ lays,

And tune their harps to the Eternal’s praise,

And we, my friends, even we who still are here,

Poor emmets crawling on this nether sphere,

One day shall join in the celestial strain

And meet with our departed friends again.

Sure solemn truth, let it awake each sense

Impress our minds, and banish folly hence,

Incite us to be virtuous, pious, wise,

And seek beyond the grave a mansion in the skies.

Dialogue.

Spoken by Three Little Misses.

Lucy

Dear, what a noise these little girls are making;

Children what puts you into such a taking?

Nancy

Why dontdon’t you know, that uncle John is come,

And he has brought our cousin Julia home—

Eliza

The prettiest waxen baby ever seen—

B7v 18

Nancy

And a straw bonnet trimm’d and lin’d with green—

Eliza

With flaxen hair and teeth as if they grew—

Nancy

A new pellise, and pink kid slippers too—

Eliza

With sweet blue eyes, she opens them and shuts
them—

Nancy

A beautiful red trunk, in which she puts them—

Eliza

Dress’d in a stain slip—

Lucy

Do pray be quiet;

One would suppose by all this fuss and riot,

You never saw a waxen doll before;

If she has that and fifty play things more,

’Tis nothing strange.—Indeed, you make me blush,

To hear you talk so much like babies, hush.

Nancy

Dear, you’re so grave and give yourself such airs,

And talk so sensibly; but pray who cares?

For all your serious face, miss, we can see

You love fine clothes and dolls as well as we.

Lucy

I love fine clothes?—I hope not, I’ve been taught,

Not to be vain of things so cheaply bought.

Mamma has told me: child if you are vain

Of finery, it is confessing plain

That you’re a foolish, childish, silly creature.

B8r 19

Eliza

Yes, and she bade you treat us with good nature,

And not to think yourself so good and clever

As to be finding fault with us for ever.

And ’tother evening my father said,

Women were fond of glitter and parade;

Fine clothes, fine furniture, fine coaches, and—

Lucy

You talk of what you do not understand;

Papa was joking—

Eliza

Joking, now I reckon

He spoke as true and serious as a deacon.

Nancy

Why is it wrong to love a pretty doll

With such fine clothes, such hair, and eyes and all?

Eliza

I’m sure if it is naughty to love play,

We little girls are naughty every day.

Nancy

And if it is I think it very hard;

For yesterday mamma received a card,

Inviting her to come and meet a few

Good social friends, and play a pool at loo.

Eliza

A loo what’s that?

Nancy

What? why I hardly know;

They’ve cards, and all set round a table, so

They all put money in a box, and then

Shuffle the cards, put money in again,

B8v 20

And keep on shuffling; sometimes “Pam” they call,

And she who shuffles longest takes up all.

Eliza

Well that’s a foolish play, indeed, for a woman;

But if our mothers spend their time in common;

In play and such like, pray are we to blame

If with our baby things we do the same?

Lucy

I would not waste my time so if I might,

I think we had better learn to read and write.

Eliza

Well dear I love my school, as well as you,

And love my book, love my needle too.

Dear I can hem and sew—

Nancy

And so can I,

And the next quarter I intend to try

To work a sampler—

Eliza

I shall work one too

Upon white canvas all with pink and blue.

Lucy

That’s my dear sisters this is being good,

Industrious and wise as children should;

It will charm all our friends, and the next year,

When as we hope again to meet them here—

Eliza

I’ll prove I have not spent my time in vain—

Nancy

And I shall strive a medal to obtain.

C1r 21

Eliza

O, if I could but get the highest prize,

What joy would sparkle in my mother’s eyes.

But how?—

Lucy

Tis very hard to get, my dear,

One must be very good for a whole year.

Must not be rude, must never tell a lie,

Be neat, polite, industrious, but I

Shall never get it—

Nancy

Do dear let us try,

WontWon’t you?

Eliza

Yes, that I will, nor throw away

One moment more in idleness or play.

Lucy

And if we do our best in such a cause,

We’re certain of one prize, our friends’ appluseapplause.

Dialogue.

For Two Little Misses.

Mary

Do stop miss Lucretia, pray why in such haste

And where in the world are you running so fast?

Lucretia

Pray miss dontdon’t detain me, I’m going to school

And our governess long has established a rule,

She who for three monthes the most neatly is drest,

C C1v 22

Comes the soonest to school, says her lesson the
best;

Shall receive from her hand the reward of a book,

And what’s more, a kind word, an affectionate look;

For ten weeks I’ve been there e’er the bell has
rung nine,

And in one fortnight more, the dear prize will
be mine.

Mary

Well, dear, ’twas but eight a few minutes ago

So you may stop a moment, you’ve time enough
now;

What’s the prize of a book? such nonsensical stuff,

If I want new books, aunt can give me enough,

I abominate reading, it makes one so dumpish,

And as to our governess, la! she’s so frumpish,

“Miss do mind your work, do child sit upright,

Miss your frock is unpin’d, dear how badly you
write.”

Then if I am late she cries, “Miss how you stay;

I believe in my heart you love nothing but play.”

Love play! to be sure I do, so you do all,

Yes it sit’s truth, the great misses as well as the small.

Some primitive miss may protest that she don’t,

And you may believe if youryou please, but I wontwon’t.

Lucretia

Dear me how you talk child, I’m really amaz’d;

Such a parcel of stuff I believe you craz’d.

Pray what do you think our dear friends would
all do,

If all little girls were as giddy as you?

C2r 23

I own I love play; yes, none more admires it,

Yet I cheerfully work when my dear aunt requires it.

I make all the linen for her and my brother,

Indeed, I should blush were they made by another.

To assist in the household concerns, I arise

With the sun, nay, I sometmes make puddings
and pies,

See the sheets and the tablecloths kept in repair,

Help wash, rince, and starch, when when the weather
is fair.

For I’ve heard my aunt say, who lead indolent lives,

Are indifferent daughters, and make wretched
wives.

Mary

Wives! well, ’twere worth while to be married
indeed,

Were one forced to do nothing but work, write
and read,

Why dear when one’s married the principal merit

Is dancing with elegance, betting with spirit,

At whist or at loo, Mrs. Giddy makes light;

If she only should lose fifty dollars a night,

And miss Tattle told me, a lady she knew,

Made nothing of losing a hundred or two.

And d’ye think when I’m married, that I’ll be
confined

At home to make pies or the servants to mind?

No child I shall marry to live at my ease,

Eat, drink, dance, and dress, and do just as I please ;

But la! we’re fine folks to be prating away,

C2v 24

About marriage indeed; come dear let’s go to play.

Lucretia

Play—no, my dear Mary, though I did not choose,

To hasten to school, I should surely refuse,

To spend my time idly, for I have to make,

Full fifty new garments for charity’s sake.

For dear do you know how many children there be,

As good, nay, perhaps who are better than we,

Without any home where to shelter their head

Without clothes, without fire, and sometimes
without bread?

Mary

Dear me! is that true? now indeed I’m asham’d,

But I hope I am not very much to be blam’d;

Though yesterday morning I gave half a dollar

To buy little Pompey a pretty new collar.

And had I have known some poor child as you say

Might be hungry, I would not have thrown it
away.

But see here, the last week when my aunt was
in town,

She gave me to keep for her sake this French crown.

She bade me be sure and not foolishly spend it,

But I’m certain she did not forbid me to lend it,

’Twill buy them some linen, Lucretia do take it,

You buy it, and though I hate work, I’ll help
make it.

Lucretia

How good you are Mary, I blush when I see,

In virtue you rise thus superior to me.

C3r 25

The prize of true merit is surely your due;

And certain I am if our governess knew

How much you deserved it she’d give it to you.

Mary

No; No; It is yours, for my merit is small,

And compared with Lucretia ’tis nothing at all.

My flippancy henceforth I’ll strive to correct;

Strive to be like yourself free, from ev’ry defect.

Lucretia

And I thy benevolent spirit will join,

To the little industrious spirit of mine;

To be good as I can I’ll exert my best pow’r—

Mary

When I’ve nothing to give, why I’ll work for the
poor.

Dialogue.

For Two Young Ladies.

Lucy

Dear sister, good morning, I’m glad we are met,

But pray what’s the matter? you seem in a fret;

Is your task yet unlearn’d, and our governess vex’d?

Is our mother offended?

Maria

Dear, no, I’m preplex’d;

You know that next Wednesday Miss Gay gives
a ball.

Lucy

Well, we both are invited――

C3v 26

Maria

But that is not all;

For I heard brother Tom tell mamma he would go,

On Wednesday with us to the play. Now you
know

We cannot go to both; and it is so tormenting,

Because for the ball I had just been inventing

The sweetest new dress. But la! you don’t mind,

I vow I believe you are deaf, dumb, and blind.

Lucy

Deaf! no, my dear sister, I never need fear

My auricular sense should be lost when you’re
near;

But why thus torment yourself? Though I must
own,

I dearly love dancing, and hop’d to have gone;

Yet I cheerfully could, should our mother desire,

Pass the evening with her by our own parlour fire;

And though fond of the theatre, yet I protest

Should I ne’er go again, it would not break my
rest;

Abroad for true pleasure I never should roam――

Maria

Dear, dear! I’ve no patience! stay always at
home?

You may if you please, but so will not I;

It would mope me to death, I should certainly die.

And pray what would signify all my fine clothes?

I must lay them in lavender, child, I suppose;

A calico wrapper would certainly do

C4r 27

To stay prosing at home with my mother and you;

And then for amusement; perhaps we may drone

Over Gregory’s letters, or Madam Chapone;

Or read about Solon, Lycurgus, Cassander,

Old Numa Pompilius, or mad Alexander.

No amusement in such stupid books can I see,

What’s Solon or Numa Pompilius to me

Were I to read much of such stuff it would craze
me,

I hate such nonsensical trash.—

Lucy

You amaze me.

Dear sister, forgive me, indeed you’re to blame

So lightly to mention our dear mother’s name;

So truly indulgent, I’m sure that from you

Submission and grateful affection is is due;

I feel that our debt to her care is so large,

A whole life of duty would scarcely discharge.

Did we e’er make a wish but was instantly granted?

Maria

Yes; ’twas but last Monday, you know, when I
wanted

A white stain slip, that she flatly refus’d me;

And you too, oh dear! how I could have abus’d ye,

To say our white lutestrings were yet very good,

You would not have another forsooth if you could.

It was cross to refuse me, papa can afford it,

What else can he do with his money, but hoard
it.

C4v 28

He’s rich enough――

Lucy

Sister, I cannot endure

To hear you talk thus; though our father’s not poor,

In youth ’twas his frugal industrious care,

Made him now have enough, and a little to spare.

Then pray, my dear sister, reflect ere too late,

Had he then been profuse, what had now been
our fate?

And say should misfortune, for who is secure,

Deprive our dear parents of wealth, leave them
poor;

Should the ocean a part of his property swallow,

And by fraud, or by fire, all the rest soon should
follow.

Say, sister, could we by our industry earn

Subsistence for them, and thus partly return

Their unbounded kindness to us; could we toil

From morning till night, and yet come with a smile

To wait on their persons, their meals to prepare;

And between us a servant’s employments to share;

Say could we do this?

Maria

Do stop and take breath;

Why sister! you frighten me almost to death.

I work like a servant, sweep rooms, make the beds;

Or patch the old clothes that are dropping to
shreds?

No sister, no! no! you may do as you please,

But I don’t think that you could descend with such
ease;

D1r 29

You would feel some repugnance.

Lucy

Indeed that is true,

I should feel for our parents, myself, and for you;

Yes sister, for you; when I heard you lament,

The time and the money you idly had spent.

Maria

But child this can’t happen; supposing it may,

I’m resolv’d I will never meet sorrow half way,

Why youth is the season for frolic and play,

Let to-morrow bring care I’ll be happy to-day.

And as to that meagre old ill looking dame,

Whose garments scarce cover her skeleton frame,

Madam Poverty, pray don’t bring her to my
view,

With her thin purple lips; her nose pinch’d, and
so blue!

I’m sure should she come our dear parents a nigh,

Tho’ I never could work, I do think I should die.

Lucy

As you represent it, ’tis shocking indeed;

Attend, and the phantom shall quickly recede.

I know of a neat little tight finger’d dame;

In close cap and stuff gown, and Industry her
name,

Her constant attendant Frugality stands,

And Cheerfulness forwards the work of
her hands;

Whoever she visits, of care she’ll beguile,

And make e’en the children of poverty smile ;

D D1v 30

She brings what can never be purchas’d by wealth,

The glow of content, and the roses of health.

And believe me, dear sister, though we are so
blest,

And not to have poverty, unwelcome guest,

Intrude on our dwelling, we both have a part

In the drama of life, and require some art

To act that part well.

Maria

Ah! sister, I find

Your sentiments just, though I thought them unkind.

Direct me, assist me, my sister, my friend,

To find out each error, correct and amend;

I’ll strive to be better, still following you,

And keeping your brilliant example in view.

Lucy

Nay, do not distress me, dear girl, you have merit

Superior to mine; but your volatile spirit,

Pursuing gay trifles in every direction,

Deprives you of time for more solid reflection.

Maria

Well then from this moment indeed you shall find,

I’ll think less of my person and more of my mind.

Lucy

Together we’ll study the peace of our mother.

Maria

And daily correct, and improve one another.

Lucy

And what from superfluous dress we can spare—

D2r 31

Maria

The poor and the widow and orphan shall share.

We need not work much?

Lucy

For ourselves, no, I grant it;

But we may do a little for those who may want it.

Then when one is idle, the other may hint her,

How many poor children want clothing for winter.

We’ll go out but little—

Maria

No, that’s a fix’d plan.

Lucy

And study?

Maria

Yes, study as much as I can.

Lucy

To make much of to-day we will constantly strive,

For we know that to-morrow may never arrive.

Dialogue.

For Three Young Ladies.

’Tis a beautiful morning, come girls let us go

And rumage the shops; there’s an elegant show

Of caps, hats, and bonnets; some trim’d with a
feather,

Some with flowers, some plain, the whole put
together,

Enough to bewitch you; why don’t you make
haste?

D2v 32

Mary

Because I shan’t go, I’ve no money to waste.

Mamma has just bought me a hat for the season,

And a dress for the balls.

Lucy

Lud child, that’s no reason

For staying at home, when the shops are so full

Of fashions, of belles and of beaux.—

Mary

I’m so dull

Dear sister, to me ’tis no pleasure to fly

From shop, into shop, without meaning to buy.

Turning over the goods till they’re nearly destroy’d;

I think that we all may be better employ’d.

Rosa

I think so indeed, now I have a plan,

That ’tis better than yours child, deny if you can.

As we’ve time on our hands, and the morning is fair;

Let us walk in the mall, for a little fresh air;

And when we return, by myself ’tis decreed,

While two of work, that the other shall read.

Lucy

My dear “lady Wisdom”, now pray condescend,

To tell us what book you would please recommend.

Some wise and political treatise perchance,

On the pride of Old England and power of France;

Or Bonaparte, wonderful hero, display,

Holding kingdoms in chains, keeping Europe at
bay,

D3r 33

And striding about to decide all disputes,

Like Woglog the giant in seven league boots.

Or a juggler at cards, who so dextrous and nice,

Can turn all his knaves into kings, in a trice.

So misses your servant; I would not be bound,

To read such dull stuff for a good hundred
pound.

Rosa

Why Lucy, by this giddy rattle I see,

You are wiser by far, than your sister and me,

In political lore; now to me I confess,

Instruction comes best in a fanciful dress.

I like a good novel—

Lucy

Hush child if you do

You must not confess it; your wisdom to shew,

You must rail and look grave, say they’re meant
to mislead.

Mary

And say what you will, coz, they are so indeed.

Rosa

What, all?

Mary

No; not all; some few we may find,

Where piety, learning, and sense are combin’d;

Whose model is nature, whose pictures have art,

To shew life so true, that they better the heart.

But small is the number, while hundreds contain,

A slow subtle poison perverting the brain;

And who through a road wet and miry should wade

D3v 34

To seek for a pearl some rich man had mislaid;

Would surely contract so much soil in the way,

As the price of the jewel would hardly repay.

Lucy

Oh! mercy! oh mercy! dear girls let me go,

You’re so wise, and sententious, so learned, and so

Pedantic; I vow, but it is between friends,

I blush for you both, to my poor fingers ends.

Mary

I am glad you can blush! but pray let it be known,

You blush some for our faults, but more for your
own.

Yet trust me, ’twere better while staying at home,

Read fifty dull novels, than thoughtlessly roam;

Waste your own hours of leisure, and heedless of
care

Destroy that for others you cannot repair;

Besides sister Lucy the truth I must tell,

Were there less foreign fashions ’twould be quite
as well.

Lucy

Why Mary, that sentiment comes out so pat,

I believe in my heart you’re a strong democrat;

Who would talk of the internal strength of the
nation,

Independently great; tho’ we’ve no importation.

Bid us tremble at Britain, who seeks to enslave us;

But honor NapoleanNapoleon, altho’ he dares brave us.

Sell our jewels and plate, and be spare in our diet,

To make up a tribute to keep Woglog quiet.

D4r 35

For should he his seven league boots keep in
motion,

Who knows but he’ll stride o’er the great Western
Ocean
.

Rosa

He come! he ask tribute! why Lucy you joke,

Such a measure would age, and mere childhood
provoke

To link in a band, place on heav’n their reliance,

And hurl at the murd’rous usurper defiance.

Of superfluous baubles myself I’d divest,

My food should be coarse, and as coarse I’d be
drest,

I’d cheerfully yield my paternal estate,

To defend this lov’d land, from the tyrant I hate.

But girl as I am, if ’tis tribute requir’d,

I’d die e’er I’d give him one cent—

Mary

Most admir’d,

Most excellent patriot, tell me for why

Your voice speaks in thunder, in lightning your
eye?

Say where is the nation his power has withstood?

Rosa

He stole regal ermine, and stain’d it with blood;

Oh Mary, remember how Louis has died,

That Louis who fought on America’s side,

That Louis whose crown now encircles the brows—

Lucy

Of Woglog the giant, as all the world knows.

D4v 36

And which of us three has the power or spirit

To snatch off the crown or the head? for the merit

Were equal in either.

Mary

For shame, child, for shame.

I honour Napoleon, I rev’rence his name;

He’s superior to all the fam’d heroes of old,

Invincible, noble, intrepid and bold.

As Socrates wise; as the Macedon glorious;

As a lawgiver sage; as a hero victorious.

Rosa

From such sages and heroes heaven save us, I
pray—

Lucy

And keep from our shores mighty Woglog away;

For he sets the most dreadful examples in life,

And between you and I, beats and locks up his
wife.

Heaven help her, poor soul, she’s an empress ’tis
true,

But I warrant she’s oftentimes pinch’d black and
blue.

Her chains, tho’ of gold, she may keep for all me,

I’m content to be poor, tho’ I may but be free.

Mary

Oh, that’s not a point, child, so hard to be carried,

You’ll be poor while you live, and be free till
you’re married.

But get on your bonnets, we’ll go if you please,

’Tis folly to talk of such matters as these;

D5r 37

Let kings ask for power, and misers for wealth,

Let us only pray for contentment and health.

Rosa

But health and contentment would cease to be
ours,

Should heavenly peace quit America’s shores;

Oh! peace! gentle peace! beneath whose benign
reign,

Best thrives the rich harvest that gladdens the
plain;

Beneath whose auspices fair commerce sails forth,

Brings the gems of the east, and the furs of the
north;

The treasures of India, Arabia’s perfume,

The pearls of Bassora, the spoils of the loom.

Beneficent power, thy pinions expand,

And shed thy best gifts on my dear native land.

Lucy

In this we’re united, for this ev’ry day

From demos and despots I ardently pray,

Some power benign may deliver the nation;

But just now I confess, I’ve no great inclination

For that, or ought else, on my knees to be dropping;

I want to see fashions; come let’s go a shopping.

Rosa

It is better befitting our sex, age and station;

So we’ll leave the more arduous cares of the nation—

Lucy

To the wise and magnanimous lords of creation.

D5v 38

Dialogue.

For Three Young Ladies.

Ellen

Cousin, where have you been? oh, I see by your
looks,

By your haste to get home, and your cargo of
books;

Let me look at your list, one, two, three, four, five,

Six, seven, eight, volumes, as I am alive;

Well how do I envy you, dear do you know,

Mamma for the world would not let me do so,

She calls novels nonsense, devoid of all truth,

Say’s they poison the minds, and the morals of
youth,

Paint life in false colours—

Lucy

indeedIndeed, they do not.

Virtue always is charming though found in a cot;

Caroline

Yes, lovely and charming, and all that is great

And marries a noble, and lives in high state—

Lucy

And oh, what distress the poor heroine proves,

From cross fathers and guardians, the man whom
she loves

Being poor and dependant—

Caroline

forFor titles and pelf,

They make her wed one twice as old as herself;

Then such fainting and dying, ’tis sweetly alarming.

D6r 39

Lucy

And then when the old husband dies, ’tis so
charming;

The lover turns out to be somebody great,

A lord or a duke, with a monstrous estate,

Who makes her a lady and sweetly presents,

Pearls, diamonds and guineas as though they were
cents.

Ellen

Dear Lucy such nonsense can never be true,

For history holds no such scenes to our view.

Lucy

Why don’t it?

Ellen

noNo; surely, when I was at home

And read through the annals of Greece and of
Rome,

I found no such wonderful stories, not I,

Nor was it so easy to faint and to die;

To faint was disgrace, but on some dread occasion,

And none would brave death, but to profit the
nation.

Caroline

Brave death, what is death for the good of the
state?

Lucy

Dear me, an’t it better to live and be great?

Caroline

Yes, all would be great I am sure if they could;

Ellen

But ’tis not a word very well understood.

D6v 40

Lucy

Oh! I comprehend it—It is to be gay,

To have money to trifle and squander away:

To wear finer cloaths than the rest of our
neighbours;

Ellen

To laugh at the being who reasons or labours;

To turn all religion and virtue to jest,

To game, run in debt—

Lucy

cousinCousin, now I protest

You are dreadfully hard—

Ellen

yetYet these I belivebelieve

Are the principal virtues your novelists give.

Caroline

Do pray let me rescue some few from your satire,

Miss Burney, her novels are copied from nature;

And others in excellent writing excel—

Ellen

I’m delighted to hear it, now dear wontwon’t you tell

Mamma, that some few, in a moment of leisure,

I surely may read—

Caroline

withWith both profit and pleasure.

Ellen

But cousin, you know ’tis not often we see,

Girls rais’d from a low to an envied degree,

And acting with judgment—

D7r 41

Lucy

nowNow do not say so;

There was Pamela rais’d but some few years ago,

From a plain country girl—

Caroline

toTo a life full of care.

Lucy

Made the wife of a lord—

Caroline

aA lord’s follies to bear;

And tamely his libertine humours to suit,

Bear slights and contempt, be obediently mute,

Lucy

To be sure! when by silent submission they prove

The extent of their confidence, honour, and love.

Then they share in the honours their spouse may
acquire.

Ellen

Now Lucy how foolish; who thinks to aspire

To titles and honour, whose birth is unknown,

Except in the page of a novel alone.

Lucy

Nay, that’s your mistake, we have proofs here at
home;

Ellen

Pray where?

Lucy

canCan you ask? why in madam Jerome,

Only think what a novel her life might produce,

Ellen

And should it be written pray where is its use.

D7v 42

A woman, a native Columbian, born free,

Weds a foreigner ’scaped from the storms of the
sea.

He leaves her—

Lucy

hisHis brother the emp’ror desired it,

She was not a princess, his honour required it.

Ellen

And acted with honour, the man who complied?

And deserted a lovely, young, innocent bride.

Lucy

She was but a citizen’s daughter, now here

She’s an emperor’s sister—

Ellen

I’d rather, my dear,

Be the wife of a ploughman and live in a cot,

Lucy

Oh, Ellen, how vulgar. I’m sure I would not.

Only think how delightful it sounds to the ear,

A duchess, and five thousand guineas a year,

To spend as she pleases.

Ellen

Well rather let me

Be poor—and remain independent and free;

Or a citizen’s wife, for what title is greater,

A mild unassuming, but well inform’d creature,

Who knows how to manage her house.

Lucy

What makes pies?

Soups, pickles, and sweetmeats! my dear I despise

D8r 43

Such low bred employment, I rather would know

How to manage my husband――

Caroline

ayAy, that you’ll allow

Would be better by half—

Ellen

noNo! no! I would first

Learn to conquer myself—’tis a task child I trust,

You will own asks more energy, prudence and art,

Than had Alexander, or e’en Bonaparte.

Caroline

Oh, hapless Napoleon, he poor silly elf

Would easier conquer the world than himself.

Ellen

He may conquer the world, but I think he would
find

’Twas a much harder task to subdue a free mind.

Every native Columbian should bid him defiance ,;

Spurn his titles and scorn his unhallow’d alliance.

Caroline

I think I should spurn them if offered to me,

I should like to be great; but I’d rather be free;

And with all his fine promises, somehow should
dread.,

That one day or other, he’d cut off my head.

Ellen

My cousin, ’tis virtue alone makes us great,

Religion alone makes us free;—from this state

Of dependence and bondage when’er we arise,

And soar to our primitive region, the skies,

D8v 44

’Tis virtue alone can conduct us—

Lucy

butBut say,

Is the path hard to find; only point out the way.

Ellen

Make religion your choice, your director through
life,

Caroline

Yes Lucy—read Cœlebs in search of a wife.

Ellen

That’s not all, be the character there represented,

Caroline

Only half so good, Ellen, would make me contented.

Lucy

Well novels I’m certain may sometimes be good.

Caroline

And my aunt, though severe, would not be understood

To pass sentence on all, no, where nature speaks
out,

And religion is honoured, that novel no doubt

May be read with advantage;

Ellen

thatThat novel would be

Allowed by my mother a lesson for me.

Such a novel she’d bid me peruse o’er and o’er,

The authors?

Caroline

are Edgworth, and Burney and More.

By each line they have written, the taste may be
formed,

E1r 45

The heart rendered better, its piety warmed,

The judgment corrected—

Lucy

Yes, all that may be;

But they’re not exactly the novels for me.

I love runaway marriages, castles and spectres,

And libertine lovers, and gen’rous protectors,

And fighting of duels—

Ellen

ohOh! pray dontdon’t proceed,

Such novels as that must be wicked indeed.

So let us dear cousins, resolve to read none;

But engross’d by our juvenile studies alone,

Strive to learn all the duties befitting our station,

And our honour’shonours will spring from our friend’s
approbation.

Dialogue.

Spoken by Two Young Ladies.

Harriet

So Mary! my Father has sent for us home,

I wish to my heart that I never had come,

Only three weeks in Boston, and hurried away,

I’ve not been to a ball, and I’ve seen but one play.

Mary

Well Harriet you know when my father consented,

You promised to be with one fortnight contented,

It seems a great while.

E E1v 46

Harriet

To you child it may,

But to me it appears little more than a day.

So many sweet parties to which we’re invited;

And you know at the play we were both so delighted,

Even you must confess, if the truth you would
speak,

You would like to go there ev’ry night in the week.

Mary

Indeed, I should not, I was pleas’d I confess,

It was something so novel, the actors, their dress:

The house, and the music, together combin’d,

Must forcibly strike on an uninformed mind.

Harriet

Oh dear! ’twas delightful, drums, trumpets and
firing;

And who couldcould forbear the brave lady admiring.

Well I thought I should die, when the soldier was
bid,

To fire at the cask where Tekeli was hid.

And when he was fix’d on the old miller’s back,

They thrust the sharp bayonet into the sack.

I wanted to scream.—Then some are so witty,

The men are so droll, and the ladies so pretty,

I cannot go home.

Mary

Nay Harriet you must;

And when once safe at home you’ll be happy I
trust.

E2r 47

Harriet

Be happy! Oh yes—we must rise with the sun,

Eat breakfast most gravely, and when that is done

Look into the kitchen see what’s doing there,

Some custards, a pie, or a pudding prepare:

See the china and glass are all in their places,

Make a cap for mamma, or wash up her fine laces,

Or else in the parlour stuck up at my work,

Why Mary ’tis leading the life of a Turk,

Who is chain’d to the oar.

Mary

Nay surely my dear,

We have neighbours who visit us—

Harriet

onceOnce in a year;

Prink’d out in their best, stuck all in a row,

Quite round our great parlour, they make a fine
show.

One in a half whisper, to her who sits next,

Complains how she’s cheated tormented and vext,

The help are so dirty, so wasteful, so lazy,

Dear ma’m how are yours? mine drive me quite
crazy.

Then the misses all get in a corner together,

First talk of the walking, the riding, the weather;

Of a cap, of a shoe-bow, a bonnet or feather;

Of some miss who is vulgar, or one who is sly,

Then titter and giggle, they cannot tell why.

Mary

Dear Harriet, your satire, though keen, is quite rude,

E2v 48

This journey to Boston has done you no good;

My sister forgets, how sometimes of an eve,

A well chosen book, may the moments deceive.

Harriet

A book! yes, I see us all just after tea,

“Harriet, sweep up the hearth, says my father
to me;

And Mary my darling go up to my room,

And bring down a volume of Rapin or Hume.

Our Harriet shall read.” And then hapless I

Must drag through long chapters so tedious and
dry,

About those who made kings, and those who dethron’d
them,

And pilfer’d the sceptres from those who once
own’d them.

What is all this to me? I’m sure I don’t care,

Who is king, or who queen, who at peace, or at
war.

Mary

Of war my dear sister we know but the name,

Heaven grant we may never be wrapp’d in its flame;

Be my dear native land ever safe from all foes,

Nor Europe’s dread tyrant disturb its repose.

Harriet

Well rail at this tyrant as much as you can,

I think Bonaparte is a brave little man;

So powerful, politic, hardy and bold,

He reminds me of some mighty giant of old.

E3r 49

Like some fam’d necromancer, his wand he round
swings,

And kings turn to mushrooms, and mushrooms to
kings.

Mary

May the wand that’s so potent be ’reft of its pow’r,

E’er it touches the verge of America’s shore;

And the power to wield it be snatch’d from his
hand

E’er such fungus should spring on my dear native
land.

Harriet

Well said dear miss Graveairs! but now for my
part

I envy Louisa the prize of his heart.

Mary

The prize! oh my sister! the fates she should thank

Had she missed it. Poor girl! she will find it a
blank,

Nay worse than a blank, for each column is soil’d,

Till the fair page of nature is totally spoil’d.

Harriet

’Tis easy to say you would not be his bride,

That virtue is spotless which never was tried;

I’m afraid had the offer been mine I had borne

The weight of a crown, though ’twas lin’d with a
thorn.

Mary

The thorn had pierced deeply, thy confidence shaken.

E3v 50

Oh Josephine! slighted, degraded, forsaken,

Thou once wert an empress.—Thou once had
his heart,

And Louisa may one day be, what thou now art.

Harriet

No not if she’s wise, she’ll exert her best pow’rs

To humble this giant, and pay off old scores.

Were I in her place――

Mary

Dear sister no more,

Here, Thomas is waiting, the chaise at the door:

Then come dearest Harriet, our parents expect;

Shall we treat those dear parents with slight and
neglect?

Our neighbours are waiting to hail our return,

Whose bosoms with friendly sincerity burn.

Harriet

I cannot, I will not go home.

Mary

Well then stay;

Enjoy the gay scene that will last but a day;

Think pleasure will wait you wherever you go,

When sickness or sorrow approaches you’ll know

No hand like a mother’s can bind the pain’d head,

No hand like a sister’s can smooth the sick bed;

No voice like a mother’s can calm the sad heart,

No power like a father’s protection impart;

No friend like your Mary. Now Harriet adieu.

going.
E4r 51

Harriet

catching her hand.

Stay Mary—my sister—oh let me go too.

I ask for no pleasure that home cannot give,

I wish but beloved by my parents to live,

I ask for no crown but the praise of my friends.

Mary

Then here my dear sister our short dispute ends,

We’ll be virtuous and useful, be kind and humane.

Harriet

And when I desire to leave home again

May I marry a Bonaparte――

Mary

Nay that’s too hard.

Harriet

Then worse my dear girl, may I lose your regard.

Mary

Now then we’re agreed, that wherever we roam,

To be happy for life, we must seek it at home.

E4v 52

Outline
of
Universal History.

1. History has always been considered
as the light of ages, the faithful
depository and true evidence of past
events. Confined without it to the age
and country wherein we live, and to such
branches of knowledge as are peculiar
to it, we are strangers to the rest of the
world, profoundly ignorant of all that has
preceded, or even at present surrounds
us.

2. The study of history extends our
knowledge, without it, we are liable to
form false estimates of life, our ideas
become either romantically wild, or illiberally
contracted; but the study of history
leads us from ourselves and the objects
immediately surrounding us, to the
contemplation of all that is great and
praise-worthy in former ages. What is F1r 53
the longest life, what the extent of country
an individual may possess or travel over,
what but an imperceptible point in the
expanded universe; and the long series
of ages that have succeeded, each other
since the creation of the world? And
yet to this imperceptible point must we
be limited, unless we call in the assistance
of history; which opens to us a
view of every age, every country, brings
us acquainted with the best and wisest
persons of antiquity; sets all their virtues
and faults before our eyes; and by
the prudent reflections it presents, leads
us to emulate the one, and detest
and avoid the other.

3. It has been thought by some persons
of the opposite sex, that the study
of history is by no means necessary, to
complete the education of women; but
this is surely an erroneous opinion, for
history is the common school of mankind;
equally open and useful to all;
every age, condition, and sex, may derive
advantage from its study. Not only
princes, ministers of state, generals,
magistrates and ecclesiastics; but daughters,
mothers, and mistresses of families,
may there learn useful lessons; and
study as in a faithful mirror, their respective
duties.

4. History is a school of morality; F F1v 54
it condemns vice, throws off the mask
from false virtues, exposes popular errors
and prejudices, dispels the delusive
charms of riches, power, and grandeur,
which are so apt to dazzle the imagination;
and proves by example,
which is ever more efficacious than precept,
that nothing is great and commendable
but honour and probity. It
confirms this great truth, that virtue alone
is man’s real good, and alone capable
of rendering him great and praiseworthy.
This virtue we are taught by
history to revere and discern, even
through the obscurity of poverty, adversity,
and sometimes of disgrace, while
vice is exposed in all her loathsome
hues, though cloaked in purple, surrounded
with splendor, and seated on a
throne.

5. It is the best lesson a teacher can
give a pupil. It at once entertains and
instructs; it forms the heart and understanding;
inriches the memory with
abundance of facts as useful as agreable;
it excites a proper curiosity in the
young mind, inspires a love of literature,
corrects the judgment, and improves
the taste.

6. The Bible is the most authentic
history, and should precede the study of
all others; it is termed sacred history. F2r 55
It is different from all other history
whatever. It is the history of God himself
—the history of omnipotence,
the infinite wisdom, the universal providence,
the holiness, justice, and mercy
of the Supreme Being. This book is the
most ancient in the world; and in it
God has shewn us in a clear and certain
manner, what he is, what we are and for
what end we were created.

7. Other histories leave us ignorant
in all these important points. They disfigure
and dishonour the Godhead by
numberless extravagentextravagant fables. They
give us no insight into the nature of the
world, which we inhabit; whether it
had a beginning, by whom or to what
end it was created; and we learn nothing
of what we ourselves are, what our
original, design or end.

8. Sacred history clearly reveals to
us in a few words, that there is a God
pre-existing before all things, and consequently
eternal; that the universe is
his work, called into being by his word
only, thereby proving that he is allpowerful.
It represents man coming from
the hands of his Creator, a creature compounded
of a body, formed of dust, subject
to decay, and a soul breathed into
him by God himself, spiritual intelligent
and immortal.

F2v 56

9. It describes the primeval, innocent
and happy state of man; his fate
through disobedience, and the twofold
death to which he and his posterity
was condemned. His future restoration
by an all powerful Mediator, who is to
form to himself a kingdom which shall
last to all eternity, and to which all
others shall give place. It is therefore
essentially necessary, that youth of both
sexes should early accustom themselves
to study with serious attention, a history
so venerable, so authentic and important;
it is the foundation of our religion,
it points out our duties, and inspires us
from early youth with a respect for our
Creator and Redeemer; serving as a
check and barrier to that infidelity and
impious incredulity, which has unfortunately
been of late too much disseminated
among us.

10. The omnipotence and wisdom
of our Creator is manifested in the creation,
preservation, and government of
the world; by the facility, with which
he establishes kingdoms, or destroys
them, makes nations flourishing or miserable.
His goodness by the profusion
with which he bestows whatever is necessary,
advantageous, or delightful, upon
all the creatures of his power, even
upon those, who neglect to thank him F3r 57
for his benefits; who do not know him,
who even offend and wilfully blaspheme
his name. His patience in forbearing
to punish his offending children with the
rigour their multiplied and heinous
crimes deserve, his justice in the sure,
terrible, and inevitable destruction, which
is certain at last to overtake the wicked.
His universal providence, in presiding
over, governing, and directing all, even
in the minutest particular.

11. Though the world is supposed to
have existed two thousand three hundred
years before the deluge, we find after the
fall of man, no record of any particular
or extraordinary event previous to that
awful judgment, which involved all living
in universal destruction; but those
preserved in the ark with the pious Noah
and his family. The next great event is
God’s covenant with Abraham, the great
progenitor of the Jewish nation, and the
destruction of Sodom and Gomorroah by
fire from heaven, on account of their
wickedness. Then follows the famine
which occasioned Israel and his family to
remove into Egypt, where their decendants
were oppressed with insufferable
bondage, from which they were delivered
by Moses under the immediate direction
of God, about four hundred years
after they had first enterredentered it.

F3v 58

12. It contains a minute account of the
sufferings, murmurings and miraculous
preservation of the Israelites, during the
forty years they sojourned in the wilderness;
the delivery of the ten commandments
to Moses on Mount Sinai. The
conquest of Canaan; the rise and establishment
of the Jewish empire; its conquest
and captivity by the Babylonians;
its restorationrestoration under the Maccabees.—
Added to which are the prophecies, foretelling
the coming of a Saviour, which
were all fully accomplished four thousand
and four years after the creation of
the world by the birth of Christ. Of
whose pure life, miracles, sufferings and
death, the New Testament contains a full
and authentic account. Also the lives
and writings of the first preachers of the
gospel, who were personal friends and
faithful followers of our Lord. This book
contains such plain and easy rules by
which to form our lives, that the meanest
capacity can comprehend them; and it
is only by following them strictly we can
become worthy citizens of this world,
and candidates for eternal happiness in
that which is to come.

13. About 2000 years before the christian
era, Abraham was born. And from
his son Isaac decendeddescended Jacob, afterwards
called Israel, whose sones were the Patriarchs, F4r 59
and whose posterity have always
born the denomination of the children of
Israel
or Jews.—From his natural son
IshmealIshmael, the Arabians are thought to be
descended who are called IshmealitesIshmaelites.
The famine which raged in the land of
Canaan, in the days of Israel, obliged his
children to remove to Egypt, where being
strangers in the land, and the kings of
Egypt being absolute and tyrannical, they
sunk into an almost insupportable bondage;
it was during this bondage they
built the pyramids, for sepulchres for
the Egyptian kings; those stupdendous
monuments of human folly, some of
which remain entire to this day.

14. They escaped from this bondage
about 1500 years before Christ. They
wandered forty years in the wilderness,
and then engaged in a long series of wars
and tumults with the nations inhabiting
the land of Canaan. About the time that
the Israelites escaped from Egypt, Cadmus
introduced the art of letters into
Greece, and Danaus the art of ship building.
Troy was built a little before this
period; and Sparta, Thebes, and Athens
were founded. The olympic games were instituted a short period after. These
games were celebrated every fifth year;
and the Grecian method of dating their
time by olympiads arose from those F4v 60
games; an olympiad being four complete
years.

15. They were contests in all the manly
exercises, such as wrestling, boxing,
running, chariot racing, &c. They were
instituted in honor of Jupiter, and took
their name from Olympia, a city near
which they were celebrated. The noblest
youths were eager for the prize of
victory, which was no other than an olive
crown, but esteemed as a most distinguishing
ornament. These games continued
while Greece retained any vestige
of liberty.

16. Solomon the son of David, sat on
the throne of Israel 1000 years before the
christian era, and 3000 from the creation
of the world. At this time the states of
Athens and Thebes had set aside monarchy
and become republics, and other
states rapidly followed their example.
About a hundred years before
this period Troy was destroyed and, one
hundred after Carthage was built. It
was in the reign of Solomon that the celebrated
Temple which bears his name
was built. There were 163,300 men
employed in the work, and yet it was
seven years in building. Joshephus the
great Jewish historian informs us, that
the height of the principal tower from the
ground was 1000 feet. The stones of F5r 61
which the building was composed, were
eighty feet long, twenty-four thick,
and sixteen high, and yet were of such
exquisite workmanship, that when put
together they appeared like one polished
rock of marble.

17. When Rehoboam the son of Solomon
ascended the throne, the ten tribes
revolted, and only Benjamin remained
with Judah. Those who revolted having
fallen into idolatry were in less than
three hundred years carried into captivity
by the Assyrians. At this period lived
that great Spartan law giver Lycurgus,
who new modelled the constitution
of Sparta, banished vice and luxury, and
established an entire new form of government.
He persuaded the people to
give up their possessions to the common
wealth; so the citizens being in equality
with each other in regard to riches, superior
merit alone, conferred superior
distinction.

18. About four hundred years after the
division of the tribes, even Judah departed
from the laws and testimonies, and
fell into the idolatry of the nations.
They were swallowed up in the general
conquest of Nebuchadnezzar; their temple
was burnt, the walls of Jerusalem broken
down, and themselves carried captives
to Babylon. About one hundred F5v 62
years before the Babylonian captivity.,
Romulus was born, the founder of Rome,
that vast empire which was afterwards
styled the mistress of the world.

19. The great Grecian poet Homer
lived about the time of the revolt of the
ten tribes of Israel. His poem recording
the wars of the Greeks and the Trojans
was first sung, and we imagine was a
kind of historical ballad. At the time of
the Babylonian conquest lived Draco, the
Athenian law giver, a man remarkable
for justice, but rigid beyond human sufferance;
and Sappho the celebrated Lesbian
poetess who nourishing a hopeless
passion for a young man named Phaon,
threw herself from a promontory, into
the sea; but the fabulists of the time
tell us before she reached the water she
was transformed into a swan. She was
not beautiful; but her wit and talents
have transmitted her name to posterity.

20. Solon succeeded Draco, as law
giver in Athens. His wisdom, mildness,
and extraordinary integrity, were well
adapted to temper the severity of Draco’s
laws. He repealed all his violent statutes
except those enacted against murder.
He reformed the calender, by reducing
the year to such a form as was most
agreeable to the motion of the sun. He
obliged the Athenians to promise to F6r 63
obey his law for the space of an hundred
years, and their strict fulfilment of that
oath rendered the state powerful, wealthy
and flourishing.

21. In the days of Cyrus king of Persia,
and conqueror of Babylon, about 536
years before the christian era, the Jews
were liberated and permitted to return
to Jerusalem. They reparedrepaired the wall
of the city, and rebuilt the temple. When
the foundation of this house of worship
was laid, the youth rejoiced and shouted
for gladness; but the old men and priests,
who had seen the original temple, wept
and lamented; for they said its like can
never be again. In the days of Cyrus
lived Pythagoras, the celebrated Grecian
philosopher, who first held up the doctrine
of the transmigration of the soul,
which doctrine is held sacred in some
parts of India to this day. In this early
period Rome makes but a triffling figure
in the annals of the world. It was an
infant state, just emmergingemerging from obscurity;
but even in those early days
there were some few characters who
gave shining promise of what the name
of Roman would hereafter be.

22. Though there were statesmen,
citizens and soldiers at that period, who
did honour to the Roman name, yet I
must be pardoned if I bring those of my F6v 64
own sex forward. Among the Roman
women who gave us eminent examples
of virtue, fortitude and magnanimity,
stands pre-eminently great Lucretia the
wife of Collatinus; who when other
women of her age and station were found,
revelling, feasting, and engaged entirely
in pleasure, was sedulously employed in
regulating her household, and assisting
in the performance of domestic duties.
And when by treachery despoiled of her
honour, nobly disdained to live, lest her
example should lead the women of future
ages to set a light value on their
good name, and not sufficiently feel the
reproach of living, objects only of mingled
contempt and compassion.

23. Clelia was a virgin as remarkable
for her beauty as her undaunted spirit;
and in the very blossom of youth, being
among the hostages sent by the Romans
to Porsenna, king of Clusium,
who was at that time besieging Rome,
scorning captivity, broke from her
guards, and heading the other virgins,
swam on horseback across the Tyber,
amidst the darts of the enemy. The
senate dreading the effects of this
breach of treaty sent them back to Porsenna,
who charmed with the courage
of Clelia gave her immediate liberty,
and leave to select those of the hostages, F7r 65
of the other sex, whom she chose,
to accompany her back to Rome. “Those
who are still in their childhood”
, said she,
“are least able to bear the horrors of captivity,
liberate them.”
She returned in
triumph with her innocent companions,
and the Romans erected an equestrian
statue to her honour. These are examples
worthy imitation, these prove how
much is in the power of our sex to promote
the honour and welfare of our
friends and country, and let us ever remember
if it is in our power, it becomes
our duty.

24. On the return of the Jews to
Jerusalem they were governed by their
priests; but they soon became corrupt,
and fell into such a state of depravity,
that they erected an altar in the holy
temple, to Jupiter Olympus, and offered
sacrifice in the house of the Lord, to the
pagan deities and idols. Many of the
Jews forsook the religion taught by
Moses and turned to idolatry, some
through persecution, and some from a
love of novelty, from lightness of morals,
or weakness of understanding. When
one MatathiasMattathias being called upon to abjure
the faith of his fathers, he declared,
that though the whole nation departed
from the true religion, yet he would not;
and seeing one of his countrymen about F7v 66
to sacrifice on the altar of an idol, he
slew him according to the law of Moses.
An insurrection among the people immediately
took place, and MatathiasMattathias
found himself at the head of an army.
His sons were the celebrated Maccabees,
Judas the eldest of the five brothers was
a great and successful warrior, and at
length was elected prince of Jewry.

25. This taking in a period of nearly
300 years, it is scarcely possible to trace
events as they passed in other great
nations; but we may just sketch a faint
outline of some of the most remarkable.
The Spartans, beginning to decline in their
successes, and Epaminondas the Theban,
subduing them at the battle of
MontineaMantinea, they engaging afterwards with
the Phocians in the holy war, Philip of
Macedon terminated the contest, for he
sided with the Thebans and the Athenians
were routed; but he used his
victory with such moderation as to make
peace and enter into an alliance with
them. After his death his son Alexander
the Great
ascended the throne; this
was -0364365 years before the christian era.
The ravages and conquests of this Macedonian
hero are well known; he conquered
the Thebans, then the Persians
submitted to his power, and having
pursued his conquest into Asia and vanquished F8r 67
various nations, his courage degenerated
into rashness; and presumption,
cruelty, luxury, and intemperance
degraded his former glorious character.
After his death Greece fell rapidly to
decay, and in the 0331331st year of the christian
era
, became a Roman province, tributary
to Constantine the Great.

26. Of poets Anacreon, Pindar, and
Aristophanes, are the most remarkable,
who lived at this period. Amongst the
philosophers Socrates, Plato, Aristotle,
Epicurus, and Zeno. The great Athenian
orator Demosthenes, lived -0299300
years before the birth of Christ
. Of this
truly great man, nothing is more remarkable,
or more worthy imitation
than his persevering industry in correcting
the defects of nature. This illustrious
orator and statesman was born
in the last year of the 99th olympiad;
he was the son of an industrious citizen,
and being left an orphan at seven years of
age, his guardians embezzled his property
and left him only his talents for
support. These in the early period of
his life were very unpromising. He
stammered in his speech, his carriage
was ungraceful and his voice weak. To
remedy the first defect he accustomed
himself to articulate slowly, and sometimes
to speak with pebbles in his F8v 68
mouth; in order to strengthen his voice
he used to repeat orations by the sea
side, when the waves were agitated by
the wind; his industry was indefatigable,
and he not only conquered, but became
one of the finest orators the world
ever knew. His wisdom and integrity
were equal to his eloquence—and Philip
of Macedon finding it impossible to corrupt
him, or bribe him to betray his country,
said he was of more weight against
him than all the Athenian armies; that
he would willingly make him his friend,
but all the gold in Macedon would not
buy him. The celebrated Alcibiades
lived in the days of Socrates, abutabout 100
years before Demosthenes.

27. From the time of Cyrus, the
great emperor of Persia, whom we have
already mentioned as enfranchising the
Jews from captivity, till after Julius Cæsar
the Roman republic was governed by
dictators, the most celebrated of whom
was Cincinnatus; then by twelve magistrates
called decemvirii; this lasted about
forty three years, when the dictators
again were invested with the chief magistracy,
which continued till the time
of Julius Cæsar, who at first was united
in the triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey.
The former having fallen into the
snares of a traitor, was massacred; the G1r 69
second being driven from Rome by the
successful arms of Cæsar, attempted to
take refuge in Egypt, where he was assasinated
by order of Ptolemy, the brother
of the celebrated Cleopatra. Julius
Cæsar
being now sole magistrate, the
greatest honours were conferred upon
him by the people of Rome; they created
him perpetual dictator, and gave him
unlimited power; but great merit, or
great good fortune, is sure to awaken
envy, and create to the possessor many
enemies. Brutus the bosom friend of Cæsar,
and who had been loaded by him
with benefits, conspired with many others
the death of their benefactor. Cæsar
like all liberal minded men suspected
not treachery till he felt it; he was killed
in the capitol on the --03-15ides of March. He
was accused of perverting the power
committed to his charge, and aiming at
making himself emperor. The conspirators
pleaded love of their country as an
excuse for their barbarity; but it afterwards
proved that ambition was their
leading principle. Octavius Cæsar,
nephew to Julius, was the first emperor
of Rome. And Rome continued to be
governed by emperors from that time
till it was conquered by the Heruli and
Turingians, 0473A. D. 473.

28. Of the great personages whose GG1v70
names grace the Roman annals during
this period, Cincinnatus has been already
mentioned. Next to him come the generals
Camillus, Fabricius, and Regulus;
Fabius Maximus and Scipio Africanus.
This was the golden age of Rome, when
her glorious sons vied in rectitude with
each other; dispisingdespising luxury, avarice,
and its contemptible train of vices. Had
the citizens and magistrates of Rome
continued thus virtuous, thus simple in
their manners, she had never fallen. It
was not the arms of her enemies that humbled
her to the dust, it was the weakness
of her citizens in copying their follies and
their vices. Cato so remarkable for his
evenness of temper, and ardent love of
his country, lived in the time of Julius
Cæsar
. The Roman orator, Cicero, was
the ornament of the same age. Mark
Anthony
was also cotemporarycontemporary with them
who having avenged the death of Cæsar,
forgot honour, and even ambition, and became
a slave to Cleopatra, by whom he
was involved in irretrievable ruin. The
poets Virgil and Horace lived in this
century. The more nothernnorthern nations, the
Helvitie, the Gauls, the Caledonians and
the Britons began to be known about
this time. Upon the island of Britain,
Julius Cæsar made his first descent
about -003536 years before the christian era.

G2r 71

29. The princes of the Maccabean
race filled the throne of Jewry till within
a very few years of the birth of our blessed
savior; when Herod the first of the
Idumean princes, raised himself to the
regal power by trampling on every tie
of gratitude or honour; first dethroning,
and afterwards murdering Hyrcanus the
last of the Maccabean race, from whom
he had received the highest marks of
favour and friendship. Judea was at
this time tributary to Rome, though the
people were permitted an uninterrupted
practice of their religious rights and
ceremonies. Herod was king of Judea,
and AgustusAugustus Cæsar emperor of Rome
when Jesus of Nazareth was born. Before
this the bodies of beasts had smoked
upon the altars of both Jew and Gentile,
and the Supreme Being had been
represented as Lord of Hosts, and worshipped
under various symbolical and distorted
forms. But when the meek and
lowly Jesus appeared, he taught mankind
to address the Creator of the universe,
by the affecting and endearing
epithet of their Heavenly Father. He
taught the evangelical principles of
peace, unlimited benevolence, and forgiveness
of injuries. He bade them reward
evil with good, and do unto all men
as they would that men should do unto G2v 72
them. He taught them by example to
set little value on the goods of this life,
on honours or dignities, for he who was
lord of the universe possessed none of
them. But the Jews rejected him;
they despised his lowly appearance, and
meek unassuming manners. They condemned,
derided, scourged, and crucified
the Prince of Peace; who came to
purchase for them eternal salvation. It
was in the reign of Tiberius Cæsar this
horrid scene was transacted, as if the depravity
of mankind had arisen to such a
height, that nothing but so great a sacrifice
could reclaim them.

30. But all did not reject his holy
doctrine, many thousands, both Jew and
Gentile, followed his precepts, and embraced
the faith disseminated by his disciples.
Many gave testimony of their
belief by sealing it with their blood. After
the death of our Saviour, there were
but two kings in JewryHerod III. surnamed
Agrippa, who persecuted the
Christians, and being smitten of heaven
for his pride and presumption, died a
horrid and loathsome death. His son
Agrippa Minor, before whom St. Paul
made his defence, was the last king. In his
reign the Jews engaged in a long and
destructive war with the Romans; but
the vengeance of God, that justly offended G3r 73
God, whose Son they had barbarously
crucified, pursued this devoted people.
Jerusalem was beseiged by Titus, Vespasian’s
son; the Jews suffered every
calamity which war, famine and sickness
could inflict. The miseries they endured
was so great, and drove them to crimes
so horrid, that Titus resolved to extirpate
the nation. At length Jerusalem
was fired by the besiegers, even the holy
temple was burnt to the ground; and
the whole city itself, by the conqueror’s
order, entirely razed by the plough; so
that according to our Saviour’s prophecy
not one stone remained upon another,
since which time the Jews have been no
longer considered as a nation but are a
wandering people scattered over the face
of the earth.

31. After the decline of the Roman
empire the Franks and the Saxons took
the lead in the annals of modern Europe.
The first having made themselves masters
of Gaul, and the last of Britain, and
about 0601 < x < 0700the seventh century, the Goths
founded the Spanish monarchy. From
that period those three nations seem to
stand pre-eminent; they were the first
converted to christianity, and though
they have since divided into numerous
sects, broaching different opinions, yet
all agreeing in the hope of eternal salvation G3v 74
through the mediation of a merciful
Redeemer. Modern Italy was divided
into several states, and under various
forms of government. Venice is
the eldest of these states, Naples the
next; and Rome became the seat of
papal Government. The pope who was
the head of the Romish church, being
also a temporal prince. And if we take
a view of the world at the time of Charlemagne,
when modern history is generally
accounted to begin, we shall find those
parts of it which have hitherto fallen under
our notice, were generally shared
by three principal empires; the dominion
of the Saracens comprehended Asia
and Africa, from the Ganges to the Atlantic
ocean
; the western parts of the
Roman empire were subject to Charlemagne,
and Greece, Asia minor, and the
provinces adjoining Italy were in possession
of the now reduced Roman empire.
It seems hardly necessary to observe
that in the dominions of the Saracens
mahometanism was professed, the eastern
and western empires professed
christianity.

32. The princes of the line of the
Pharaohs sat on the the throne of Egypt till
Cambyses king of Persia conquered it;
and it continued part of the Persian empire
till Alexander the Great conquered G4r 75
Darius. At the death of Alexander Egypt
fell to the share of Ptolemy, and
remained an independent kingdom till
Augustus Cæsar conquered Cleopatra.
It was a Roman province when the successors
of Mahomet, called Saracens,
expelled the Romans about 0601 < x < 0700the seventh
century
. This people arose from the
basest origin, to be conquerors of a very
considerable part of the world. They
first inhabiledinhabited Arabia Petrea and were
distinguished for their propensity to
thieving. They are a wandering desultory
people, and their conquests and their
religion began with Mahomet, who from
a deceitful hypocrite became one of the
greatest monarchs of his time.

33. He was born at an obscure village
in Medina, his father was a pagan and his
mother a jewess. His parents dying
when he was but two years old Mahomet
was sold to the IshmealitesIshmaelites; his master
employed him first in the household
drudgery, but soon discovered that he
possessed an understanding deserving a
better station, sent him as a factor into
Persia and Egypt, and he acquitted himself
to his own honor. Upon the death
of his master he married his mistress;
and being then wealthy, he relaxed in
his attention to business and gave himself
up to meditation. He became acquainted G4v 76
about this time with one Serguis
a monk, who persuaded him to join
with him in forming a new religion.
Mahomet desirous of distinction and formed
by nature for imposition, entered
into all his plans. He was subject to fits,
and persuaded his ignorant countrymen,
that these were trances in which he received
directions from heaven concerning
his new doctrine; he tamed a white
pigeon so that it would perch on his shoulder,
and seem to whisper in his ear; and
this bird he said was a messenger from
heaven. He retired to a cave near Mecca,
and having kept himself concealed
for some time, appeared again with the
Alcoran; a book abounding with the
grossest absurdities, and the blind multitude
were led by this imposture to declare
that Mahomet was commissioned
by the Most High to declare his will unto
men.

34. Perhaps a more calamitous period
than this is not to be met with in history.
Mahomet had broken down the
altersaltars of adolatryidolatry, and taught the people
to believe in one supreme being; but he
sat himself as a greater prophet than the
lowly Nazarene, and preached persecution
to his deluded followers; he was
a dreadful example of violence, enforcing
his new religion with fire and sword. H1r 77
But when continual divisions, both in
Europe and in the Mahometan world,
seemed to threaten destruction to the
whole human race, a new contest arose
Palestine having been the scene
of the life and sufferings of our Redeemer
was regarded by the christians as holy
land, and all christendom united to expel
the Saracens from it. These contests
were called holy wars, and the persons
engaged in them were called Crusaders;
they wore a red cross on their outward
garments in token of their faith. Deluges
of blood were shed by these mad enthusiasts,
who were at length driven out of
Palestine; but while the Europeans, and
Saracens were thus engaged, the more
eastern nations of Asia seemed threatened
with total extirpation.

35. The Tartars, an eastern nation,
began to rise into notice about the time
that John was king of England. They
had formerly been known by the name
of Scythians, and were at the period just
mentioned a powerful people, and in the
reign of Jenghis Khan began to make
the most ruinous havoc among the human
race. Jenghis Khan was perhaps
one of the greatest and most barbarous
conquerersconquerors that ever disgraced humanity.
He had been a prince of one of the
small states of Tartary; but was deprivedH H1v 78
of his inheritance while but a youth,
which he did not recover till the age of
forty, when he began his cruelties by
throwing seventy of the chief rebels into
cauldrons of boiling water. Nothing
could oppose the impetuosity of his conquests;
he overcame all the neighbouring
princes, subdued and killed the great
Khan himself, to whom both he and the
other princes had been subordinate. He
extended his conquests from remote Tartary
and the confines of China, to Russia
and the Persian shores. He seemed
bent on exterminating the people he
subdued, and employed his army in beheading
100,000 captives at one time.
To give an account of the numbers slain
by this remorseless tyrant during a six
years reign, would seem to tax the credulity
of our readers beyond all possible
bounds. Yet history relates that fourteen
million four hundred and seventy thousand,
fell victims to his ravages.

36. Hulakin his successor pursued
conquest with equal ardour and success,
till by taking the city of Bagdat the Tartars
put an end to the empire of the Saracens,
and became masters of almost
the whole of Asia. In 1301 < x < 1400the fourteenth
century
Tamerlane the Great spread his
conquests far and wide; at this time the
city of Moscow in Russia was taken and H2r 79
pillaged by the Tartars. The descendants
of Tamerlane continued to reign
over this extensive territoyterritory more than 350
years. But the last prince of that family
was dethroned by the Usbeck Tartars.
A little before this the Turks under
Othman or Ottoman the Great
founded their empire in Bithynia. This
prince was succeeded by a race of the
most warlike princes mentioned in history.
In 14531453 Mahomet the second
took Constantinople, which has been
ever since the seat of the Turkish empire.
In the 1401 < x < 150015th century lived the first
English poet of any note, Jeoffery
Chaucer
. Printing was also first invented
in Holland, and at the close of this century
the great Columbus rendered his
name immortal by discovering the new
world, of which we are now the happy
inhabitants. It was in this century also,
that useful instrument the mariner’s
compass was invented—and that destructive
compound called gunpowder
began to be used.

37. There have been many and various
revolutions in the different states of
Europe, during 1600–1799the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
; but they were of
far less consequence than those already
mentioned; merely affecting the nations
where they happened, but of little H2v 80
consequence to the world at large; if
we except the separation of that immense
tract of country, now called the
United States of America, from the
British government. And the horrible
and unparalleled revolutions which within
the last twenty years have not only
deluged the Gallic nation with the blood
of her best citizens and soldiers; but
have shook to the very foundations almost
every kingdom and state of Europe.
Revolutions which must be reconedreckoned
among the most extraordinary that ever
were recorded in th annals of history.
In that short period we behold a kingdom
overthrown, a lawful sovereign dethroned,
and with his unoffending family
massacred. Religion forced to hide her
dishonoured head, monstrous opinions
disseminated, and every tie of morality
or honour trampled under foot. We see
from the ashes of this desolating conflagration
a republic arise to all appearance
beautiful, firm, and salutary in its
effects to the suffering inhabitants of a
ruined kingdom. When, behold an insignificant
individual of a more insignificant
Italian island, by some bravery,
more intrigue, and unparalledunparalleled good fortune
fixed himself at the head of the
government, when by the most plausible
and artful measures he won the H3r 81
confidence of the people, overturned the
republic, usurped the crown, and made
himself an absolute monarch. Then
this seeming fraternal friend, still farther
to blind his infatuated subjects, and
to make his own power more absolute,
re-established in his own kingdom the Romish
religion. Yes the man who in the
early period of the revolution was almost
an atheist, at a later period a Mahometan,
now dared to profess himself
a christian; while his hands were scarlet
with the blood of thousands, systematically
slaughtered, and his insatiate
ambition grasping at every neighbouring
crown, was planning usurpation, rapine
and destruction to the nations round
him. And while his lips professed to
serve the God of peace and mercy, his actions
bespoke a monster devoted to the
powers of darkness.

38. It is out of the reach of human
wisdom to ascertianascertain where the torrent of
licentiousness and profanity which now
inundates the nations where he has sway,
will stop. Never, oh never, may it reach
the hallowed shores of Columbia, to corrupt
her citizens, or banish the becoming
blush of modesty from the forhead
of her daughters. May liberty, sacred
liberty, ever flourish in this fertile soil;
but may it be the chastened daughter of
heaven who brings in her train truth, H3v 82
chastity, and honour, and whose best supporter
is religion. Religion thou first,
thou best good, thou principle of gratitude
and love, that lifts the soul above
this nether world and bids it aspire to immortality.
Thou who canst whisper consolation
to the afflicted, soften the galling
chain of the captive, and shed repose
on the bed of pain and sickness.
What is there this world can offer, that
would compensate for the loss of thee?
Does ambition offer unbounded power;
or avarice inexhaustable wealth, or do
both combine to offer pleasure in every
variegated shape; is there a sublunary
power that can secure to the owner one
hours possession of them? Alas, no!
Empires have been, men of all ages have
abounded in wealth, power, and pleasure;
but where are they now? gone—vanished
as a dream. Swallowed in the gulf
of oblivion; but religion, and particularly
the christian religion, holds out the
most blessed hopes; hopes which all
who truly believe will one day find realities
of joys unceasing, happiness eternal.
Let us then my dear companions,
pray daily that our friends and fellow citizens
may never become apostates to
this holy religion; but that they may
say with the pious Mattathias of old,
though all men beside should abjure
the true faith, yet will not we.

H4r 83

Sketches
of
Female Biography.

I.

While history with a pen dipped in
the blood of millions wet with the widow’s
and orphan’s tears, records the
struggles of contending powers, and
decks the conqueror with such gorgeous
robes as hide the sanguinary stains which
stain his polluted soul; while she relates
the rise and fall of empires, tracing the
steps of those who striding over heaps
of their slaughtered fellow creatures,
mount to the regal seat, and snatch the
diadem from royal temples to place it
on their own. Let us from scenes like
these, of death and horror, turn to the
fair page that registers individual merit.
Biography is equally authentic, equally
instructive, and in general, more interesting
than history; it is calculated at
once to inform the mind, improve the H4v 84
taste, and amend the heart, and by presenting
to our view excellence actually
attained, excites in the bosom, a noble
emulation to equal those who have
gone before us; to young females, the
memorials of exemplary women are peculiarly
interesting. The importance of
women in every civilized society is generally
acknowledged, and their ascendence
in forming the character of the other
sex cannot be disputed; it is not alone
to the nursery, or during the periods of
childhood and youth, but in riper years,
in the cabinet, in the camp, in almost every
station in some way or other their influence
is found to be unbounded. A
woman who to the graces and gentleness
of her own sex, adds the knowledge and
fortitude of the other, exhibits the most
perfect combination of human excellence;
and since innumerable instances
may be produced of female courage, fortitude,
talent, and virtue of every discription,
why should not we start forward
with generous ardour in the pursuit of
what is praiseworthy; and substitute for
the evanescent graces of beauty the durable
attractions of a cultivated mind.

II.

There is no reason why we should stop
short in the career of knowledge;
though it has been asserted by the other H5r 85
sex that the distaff, the needle, together
with domestic concerns alone should occupy
the time of women. That industry
and a proper attention to domestic
economy should have a due portion allotted
them no woman of good sense
will deny, yet when literature, or the study
of the fine arts, can be engaged in,
without neglect of our feminine duties,
why may not we attain the goal of perfection
as well as the other sex. Hypatia
the daughter of Theon, distinguished
for his astronomical knowledge, and who
presided over the Alexandrine academy
in Egypt toward the end of 0301 < x < 0400the fourth
century
, was educated by her father in
the learning of the times and initiated
into the most abstruse sciences. To a
profound erudition she added all the accomplishments
of her sex. She excelled
her father in astronomy; and her talents
recommended her on his death, to
the presidency of the school, a station
which she filled with honour to herself.
The purity and dignified propriety of
her conduct commanded general reverence.
Consulted as an oracle of wisdom
by magistrates, philosophers, and statesmen,
she lived in the society of men with
unblemished reputation. Modest but not
timid, firm but not arrogant, she was
visited and caressed by all; but her merit H5v 86
proved its sterling value, by awakening
the envy of the other sex. A conspiracy
was formed against her, she was
beset one evening returning from a visit,
murdered, her body cut in pieces
and burnt. But posterity has consecrated
her name; her virtues and her talents
from being the admiration, became the
regret of the age in which she had lived.

III.

We need not search in such remote
antiquity for examples of female erudition
and talents; in 1201 < x < 1300the thirteenth century
a young lady of Bologna devoted herself
to the study of Latin and the law; at
the age of twenty three she pronounced
a funeral oration in Latin, which was
thought a master-piece of eloquence.
At twenty six she took the degree of
doctor of law, and at thirty her reputation
raised her to a professor’s chair.
And in 16601660 Lucretia Cornaro of Venice
took a doctors degree, and was admitted
memeber of the university at
Rome. She was particularly skilled in
Greek and Latin languages, and the
mathematics. And the whole of her life
was so pure, chaste, and temperate, that
the academician who pronounced her funeral
oration, extolled her above Pompey,
who conquered three kings, for she
triumphed over voluptuousness, ignorance, H6r 87
and pride, and was perfect mistress
over her own passions, a victory more
praiseworthy and more difficult to achieve.

IV.

In a much later period than any of these
we have mentioned, women of distinguished
abilities and learning, have
appeared in Europe. In 16361636, Susanna
Perwich
was born, who in very
early life made the most rapid improvement
in every accomplishment that might
give lustre to the character of either man
or woman. She was perfect mistress of
music at 14 years old. She also excelled
in needlework, writing, arithmetic,
and every domestic virtue, nor was she
less distinguished for intellectual powers;
she had judgment, memory, invention,
and taste, and to these were added
modesty, gentleness, prudence, and good
sense. She died with fortitude and composure
in the twenty fifth year of her
age. A few years after, that celebrated
wit and author, Madame Dacier, shone
forth among the literary consellations,
a star of the first magnitude. She was
mistress of the Latin and Greek languagages;
translated Plutarch’s lives into
French, also the Iliad and OddysseOdyssey of
Homer.—And much nearer our own
times Mrs. Macauly, whose erudition was H6v 88
self attained, without the aid of preceptors
produced a history of England superior
to many, and inferior to none.

V.

It would be absurd to imagine that talents
or virtue were confined to sex or
station. The human mind, whether possessed
by man or woman, is capable of
the highest refinement, and most brilliant
acquirements. In the reign of
Queen Elizabeth of England a Mrs. Mary
Inglis
attained to such perfection in
the art of writing, that specimens of her
performances are preserved in the library
of Christ College, Oxford. She copied
the Proverbs of Solomon, every
chapter was in a different hand and all
equally beautiful. This manuscript curiously
ornamented with exquisite pen
work, is now in the British Museum.
Mrs. Inglis was not only a fine pen woman,
but sensible, pious, and otherwise
accomplished, and withall an excellent
domestic character.

VI.

It is not the pursuit of any particular
study, or the cultivation of the mental
power, that will interfere with the moral
duties or domestic virtues of a woman,
half so much as frivolity, idleness, or dissipation.
The exercise of brilliant talents
in any profession whatever, does not H7r 89
prevent the practice of virtue, though
virtue gives dignity to every talent. In
1501 < x < 1600the sixteenth century lived Isabella Andriena,
a celebrated Italian actress,
not less respected for her talents and
virtues than admired for her dramatic
powers. She excelled in vocal and instrumental
music, conversed with elegance
in several different languages,
understood philosophy, and the sciences,
and had a fine taste for poetry. The
academicians of Pavia conferred upon
her the honours of their society. Her
works were patronized by Pope Clement
the 8th
. She was an exemplary wife
and mother, her death overwhelmed her husband
with affliction. He erected a tomb
to her memory, which was consecrated
by the tears of all who knew her. The
learned lamented her death in Latin and
Italian eulogies; and the muses hung
around her monument the choicest flowers
of poesy. Mrs. Catherine Clive an
English actress, was also as distinguished
by her virtues as her extraordinary
dramatic powers. Though unfortunate
in the married state, and living separate
from her husband, she preserved an unblemished
ruputationreputation. She was a woman
of cultivated understanding, and polished
manners, economical in her own
expenses, and extensively benevolent to H7v 90
others. She died in the seventy fourth
year of her age, and was interred in
Westminster Abbey where a marble tablet
bears testimony to her worth.

VII.

In enumerating the virtues of the female
sex, their conjugal affection and
fortitude, under the most trying circumstances,
should not be overlooked. They
are generally called the weaker sex,
and perhaps through constitution, habit,
and education in some degredegree they are so;
but there have been numberless instances
of women who have proved themselves
adequate to every trial, that proves
their attachment to their husbands, children,
parents or country. A memorable
instance of this is recorded of Chelonis,
the wife of Cleombrutus, and daughter of
Leonidas, two kings of Sparta. A
faction having deposed her father, and
set her husband on the throne, she refused
to share the regal dignity with the
usurper, and quitting the court, retired
with her father in a state of humiliation
and dejection, sharing his misfortunes,
and soothing his sorrows. But when
the fluctuation of human events restored
her father to the throne and Cleombrutus
was doomed to exile, she attached
herself to the fallen fortunes of her husband;
in vain her father entreated her H8r 91
to stay with him. “No my father”, she replied,
“when you were unjustly depressed
I felt it my duty to sooth your afflictions,
my husband then had every pleasure at
command, and you only the solace of
my affection. The case is now reversed,
you are restored to happiness, and he
is banished, it is impossible that I can
hesitate whether to remain with a happy
king, or follow the wretched father of
my children.”
So saying she put one of
her children into the arms of her husband
and taking the other in her own
accompanied him into perpetual exile.

VIII.

The magnanimity and conjugal attachment
of this Spartan heroine is more
than equalled by Eponina a Roman lady,
whose husband, an ambitious wealthy
man, during the struggles of Otho, Vittillus,
and Vespasian, for the sovereignty
of Rome, imprudently among others
preferred his claim. Sabinus the husband
of Eponina pretended to trace his
lineage from Julius Cæsar. His claims
were disallowed, the army he had brought
into the field in support of them, entirely
routed and himself forced to seek safety
by flight. Knowing how impossible
it would be to elude the search of his
enemies while they thought him alive,
he retired to a country house he possesed H8v 92
a few miles from Rome; where dismissing
his servants, he shut himself up
and setting fire to the house nothing soon
remained but a heap of ruins. When
the news was brought to Eponina, who
had remained in Rome during the preceeding
events, her grief was inexpressible;
she refused all nourishment, and
prepared to follow her beloved husband,
but on the third day of her abstinence,
a confidential servant of Sabinus appeared
before her, and with great precaution informed
her, that her husband still lived
in the subterranean vaults belonging
to the house which had been burnt.—
To deceive his enemies she carried on
an appearance of great sorrow; but in
the mean time prepared to join her husband,
which she did with such secrecy
that no one imagined except the servant
mentioned, but that she had fallen a victim
to grief. Above nine years they remained
concealed, at length the servant
who supplied their wants was traced to
the cavern, the unhappy Sabinus was
loaded with irons, and with his wife and
two children conveyed to Rome. In
vain did Eponina present her children to
Vespasian, and in an eloquent address
entreat him to spare her husband and
their father; he was deaf to her supplications,
when rising with dignity, she cried, I1r 93
“with Sabinus I have been content
to live nine years in the bowels of the
earth, and with him now I am content
to die”
. Her wish was granted and they
were executed together.

IX.

Margaret De Foix, duchess D’Epernon
is not behind these heroines of antiquity
in true magnanimity, and that regard
to the glory of her husband as led
her to prefer death to his dishonour. In
15881588, the Duke D’Epernon was besieged
in the castle of D’Angouleme, his wife
and family at that time being with him,
the commander of the enemy’s forces
found means to seize the duchess, and
with a view to compel the duke to surrender,
placed her before the principal
gate to which his troops laid siege. In
this situation one of the officers by whom
the duchess was led was killed at her
feet, and another mortally wounded.
Calm amidst the dangers that surrounded
her, she was deaf to the remonstrances
of those who urged her to exhort
her husband to surrender, and magnanimously
replied; “I will never give him
such ill counsel, I am only afflicted that
I have but one life to offer for his honour
and safety; how! shall I who would
shed the last drop of my blood to add
new lustre to his reputation, persuade I I1v 94
him to an act of cowardice?”
Then
stretching out her arms to the duke, who
beheld her from the ramparts, she implored
him not to suffer his resolution
to be shaken by any regard to her safety.
The grace and energy with which she
spoke softened the enemy, they deliberated
what course to take, and while they
deliberated, the castle was relieved by a
party of the duke’s friends, the duchess
was rescued, and received from her husband
those honours of which she had
proved herself so worthy.

X.

The courage of which women are capable
has been evinced in numerous instances,
and in none more conspicuously
than in Boadicea, a British queen who
lived while Britain was in subjection to
the Romans. She was the widow of
Prasatagus, king of the Icinii, who at
his death, with a view of securing to his
wife and two daughters the protection of
the Romans, divided his possessions between
them and the Roman governor;
but the rapacity of this officer being not
so easily appeased, he seized on the
whole, and practised on the unhappy
queen and her family the most brutal
outrages. Boadicea having eluded their
power, assembled a numerous army of
adherents, and taking her daughters with I2r 95
her in her chariot, harrangued her army
in a strain of pathetic and manly eloquence
exhorted them to revenge her injuries
and extirpate these base invaders of their
country and rights. Then led them forth
to battle with undaunted bravery. But
her own valour and that of her undisciplined
troops availed little against the
experienced Romans; her army was
slaughtered, and finding herself likely to
fall into the hands of the enemy, she
voluntarily put an end to her own life.

XI.

The last action appears to have more
of cowardice than true bravery in it; but
the only extenuation that can be offered
for such an act, is the barbarity of the
times in which she lived. It is certainly
praiseworthy to brave death in its
most horrid shape in defence of honour,
virtue, or religion; but to dispose of
our lives wilfully, and by our own hands,
is a crime of the deepest dye. This
British queen is in my humble opinion
surpassed in true courage by Blanche
countess of Arundel, who in 16431643, defended
Wardour castle against the parliamentary
army in the reign of Charles
I
of England. At the time the army
drew up before the castle Lord Arundel
was absent. The countess took the command
of the fortress, and when summoned I2v 96
to surrender, declared with heroic
firmness that she would not, that she had
orders from her lord to keep it, and those
orders she would obey. She stood the
siege two days with undaunted resolution,
during which time two mines were
sprung, which shook the castle to its
foundation. In this extremity every female
of the family, headed by their brave
lady, assisted in charging the muskets,
and administering refreshment to the
soldiers; but all was ineffectual, the besiegers
at length forced the gates, and
the castle was given up to rapine. The
countess, her female children and servants
had their lives spared; but the
two sons were torn from their weeping
mother and carried away captive. There
is a monument in the chapel of Wardour
castle
erected to the memory of
this lady, on which, after the enumeration
of her many virtues, is this inscription.
“Who shall find a valiant woman?
The price of her is as things brought
from afar. The heart of her husband
trusteth in her.”

XII.

Women have been represented as incapable
of keeping a secret, and yet history
records instances of their silence
which redound much to their honour.
I will mentioned but two, which may serve I3r 97
in some degree to rescue the sex from
the obloquy attached to tatlerstattlers. Tymicha,
a Lacedemonian lady, who with her
husband, was the first of the Pythagorean
disciples, was with him summoned
before the tyrant Dionysius and commanded
to declare the mysteries of
their sect. Dionysius finding nothing
could be gained from the husband,
threatened Tymicha with the torture in
order to make her discover the secret
which he had such a desire to know.
The dauntless wife observing how much
he relied on the weakness and timidity
of her sex, just as they were about to
bind her to the rack, bit off her tongue
and spit it in the tyrant’s face, who perceived
that courage and heroism were
not sexual virtues. The other example
is that of Leona, an Athenian lady, who
being instructed with the particulars of
a conspiracy against Hippias, was put
to the most cruel tortures to make her
confess; she bore them long with intrepid
firmness; but being in the agonies
of death, and fearing lest the excruciating
tortures she endured should extort
any thing from her, she heroically
bit off her tongue. The Athenians
erected a statue to her memory, on the
base of which was represented a lioness
without a tongue.

I3v 98

XIII.

Though few of our sex are called to
sway the regal sceptre; yet among those
who have filled the important station of
queen, many might be mentioned as examples
of their political abilities;
amongst whom may be reconedreckoned pre-eminent,
Elizabeth queen of England.
Called to the throne at the early age of
25, she filled it with dignity and propriety;
tenacious of the honour of the
British crown, she suffered neither
slight nor insult from the other powers
of Europe with impunity. She was the
patroness of genius, the encourager of
the arts, the mother of her people, and
under her government England is supposed
to have arrived at the zenith of
its glory. Elizabeth was not only a great
queen, but an accomplished woman.
Her learning was deep and extensive,
she spoke and wrote correctly five different
languages. She wrote and spoke
with facility, grace and elegance. In
15641564 she visited the university of Cambridge,
and 1566two years after that of Oxford;
when being greatly delighted with
the exercises of the students, she expressed
her satisfaction in an elegant
Latin oration. She was skilful in music,
and had a taste for poetry; she wrote
many treatises in both Latin and English, I4r 99
and some of her manuscripts are for
their elegance and neatness preserved
in the British Museum. She was a
friend to religion and may be called the
great reformer of the church. Few
monarchs have succeeded to a throne
under more difficult circumstances, nor
have any reigned with more uniform
success and propriety.

XIV.

While we admire the dignified talents
of a queen, our hearts involuntarily
give their tribute of praise, mingled
with a tenderer emotion, to those who
in an elevated sphere blend with the
talents necessary to their station the softer
virtues. Anne of Austria, daughter
to Philip III. king of Spain, and wife to
Lewis XII. of France, was a woman of
considerable political capacity; but is
more to be respected for the tenderness
and care she displayed as a mother, than
for the talents of government evinced as
regent; to which arduous post she was
nominated on the death of her husband,
when her son, Lewis XIV. was only five
years old. In her government of the
kingdom, and in all state affairs, she depended
more on her ministers than
her own judgment. But in the education
of her children she never transferred
to another the duties of a parent. I4v 100
The first lesson of Lewis XIV. who
was afterwards called the Augustus of
France, were received from her lips.
She anxiously guarded him from those
persons whose precepts and example
might corrupt his inexperienced youth;
while with equal assiduity she sought
to form his manners and communicate
to him a portion of that gentleness and
grace for which she was herself distinguished;
neither did she neglect to inspire
him with those magnanimous sentiments
which became his elevated rank;
she taught him to engage the affections
of those around him, and to aspire to
reign in the hearts of his people. Anne
of Austria was estimable for the goodness
of her heart, she sought to shame her
enemies by forgiving them, rather than
deter others from offending her by
the fear of punishment. A woman who
got her bread by ballad singing, had often
posted herself near the palace, to
sing songs which reflected highly on the
queen. This woman was at last committed
to prison, when Anne hearing of
the misery to which she was reduced,
secretly sent abundant relief, to the
wretch, who had defamed and insulted
her. And the last favour she asked of
her son, was to recal a gentleman who
had been banished for writing a libel K1r 101
against her. A cancer was the cause of
her death; she submitted to undergo
a severe surgical operation and never
suffered a groan to escape her. During
her illness she was patient under excruciating
pain, and more attentive to the
ease and health of those about her, than
her own comfort. “For me”, she would
say, “it is appointed to suffer, and I am
content; but I need not communicate a
part of my sufferings to those who kindly
attend me, notwithstanding the loathsome
disorder.”
She was in youth remarkable
for her beauty, in particular
for the colour and fine proportion of her
hands and arms. When near her end,
observing how emaciated her features
were, how her arms were swelled and
discoloured, and her whole frame debilitated;
“see,” said she to those who
surrounded her, “what is beauty but
corruption? the soul only is worth our
care, that will retain immortal youth
when the body is mouldering in the
grave.”
She died universally lamented.

XV.

Perhaps there is no instance where
native talents, aided by gentleness of
manners, have raised a woman from the
lowest obscurity to a throne, more remarkable
than that of Catherine the first
empress of Russia. She was the illegitimateK K1v 102
daughter of a female peasant of
Livonia, and at three years old was left
to the care of the parish, by the death of
her mother. A Lutheran minister pitying
her situation, took her into his house,
to wait on his children. At the siege
of Marienburg she fell into the hands of
General Baur who employed her in domestic
concerns; and from his family
she passed into that of Prince Menzikoff,
where she was advanced to be the superintendent
of his household. In this
situation she was first seen by Peter the
Great
, Czar of Muscovy; who pleased
with her manners, gave her a situation in
his establishment, and soon after privately
married her. From this period Catherine
accompanied the emperor, in all
excursions, whether for war or pleasure;
nor did he undertake any thing of material
consequence to himself or kingdom,
without her advice; by which he generally
was decided. In the year 17111711, when
Peter was engaged in a campaign against
the Turks, when the Czar and his army
were in a perilous situation, Catherine
by her policy and address entered into a
treaty with the enemy, by which the Russians
were rescued from imminent danger
and enabled to make an honourable retreat.
Peter was so sensible of the prudence,
wisdom, and policy she evinced on K2r 103
this occasion, that on his return to Moscow
he publicly espoused her, and placed the
crown upon her head with his own hands.
At the death of the Czar she ascended
the throne, and took the reignsreins of government.
She reigned but three years.
She was in her youth a pretty, but not a
beautiful woman. She possessed good
sense and a brilliant imagination. She
reigned in the hearts of the emperor and
his subjects, by gentleness and complacency.
She never forgot a benefit received;
and evinced her gratitude in a
princely manner. She ever bore in
mind the humble station from which she
had been raised. Humanity and compassion
for the unfortunate, were her
marking characteristics, and in all cases
she appeared the angel of peace mediating
between the emperor and his subjects.

XVI.

The sceptre of Russia appears to have
been chiefly swayed by women, during
the last century. Anne, Duchess of
Courland, Elizabeth daughter to Peter
and Catherine, filled the throne at different
periods; and in 17621762 Catherine II.
having deposed her husband, Peter III.
ascended the throne. This empress may
deservedly be classed among women eminent
for talents, political discernment,
and munificence. To speak of the benefits K2v 104
the Russians derived from the wisdom
of her reign; she extended their
territories, polished their manners, secured
their liberties, and extended their
commercial interest. She founded and
endowed schools and universities, and
encouraged the arts and sciences. She
was the terror of her enemies, the delight
of her friends, and an object of
veneration to her subjects. Engaged in
the government of a great nation, she
found time for the cultivation of her
literary abilities. She drew up a code
of laws, which are the basis of the Russian
constitution; and yet could humble
her genius to write moral tales for the
instruction of her grand-children, whose
education she superintended; being frequently
present at their lessons, and herself
assisting their tutor to form their
minds. The present emperor, Alexander,
received his first lessons from this
accomplished woman, yet the character
of Catherine II. though so brilliant as a
queen, was shaded as a woman. The
premature death of her consort, Peter
III.
and prince Ivan, together with
other errors, serve to convince us, that
perfection is not attainable in this mortal
state; and that if Catherine possessed
the mental abilities of the other sex, if
like them she aimed at, and acquired an K3r 105
almost boundless power, like them also,
she was capable of abusing it.

XVII.

The female character may be deservedly
styled great, when like Elizabeth and Catherine
they can with firmness and propriety
sustain the regal dignity; yet the
union of masculine virtues, feminine softness,
and christian meekness, form the
most illustrious assemblage. It is examples
of this kind that are most beneficial
to youth, and most worth imitation.
The name of christian unites in it all
that is lovely and amiable in nature; it
excludes not accomplishments, learning,
fortitude, conjugal, filial, or fraternal love,
is the only true basis of friendship; it renders
doubly resplendant every virtue, evevery
acquirement. This character we
may contemplate in full perfection in
the youthful, lovely, but unfortunate lady
Jane Grey
. This lady was daughter
to the duke of Suffolk, and lived in 1401 < x < 1500the fifteenth
century
. Beautiful in her person,
engaging in her disposition; the heiress
of two great families, she suffered
not the pleasures of a court to engage
her attention, or corrupt her mind. She
was endowed with a superior capacity,
and uncommon powers of application.
She at a very early age, became mistress
of the Greek and Latin languages, and K3v 106
she also acquired a perfect knowledge of
the Arabic, Chaldee, French and Italian.
She wrote a remarkable fine hand, excelled
in music, and in all the customary
avocations of her sex. Her temper was
mild, her mind devout; and above all
other pursuits, her duty to her Creator
was her chief study. She is styled in
history the delight of all who knew her.
Made the tool of an ambitious courtier,
the earl of Northumberland; who having
obtained her for a wife to his son, attempted
to impose her on the British as their
queen, to the seclusion of the rightful
Queen Mary, daughter of Henry VIII.
She ascended the regal seat as a victim
led to a sacrifice. She felt the injustice
of the action, and though unable to resist,
prepared herself for the end; and
pathetically said, “I look from the giddy
eminence on which I am placed and see
behind me the ax and the scaffold.”
She
was sent to the Tower by Mary, tried
and condemned to death. After her
condemnation attempts were made to
convert her to the popish religion; but
neither arguments nor flatteries, threats
nor promises, could shake the firmness
of the youthful heroine. She passed her
time in her captivity in prayer and meditation,
and in writing letters of pious advice
to her sister. She composed for K4r 107
her own use, prayers full of fervour and
devotion. When led out to execution,
she acknowledged her sentence just;
and refusing help, disrobed herself, knelt
down, and after a short prayer, submitted
to the stroke of the ax. And all this
fortitude, piety, and learning was displayed
before she had completed her
seventeenth year.

XVIII.

Though I cannot quote an example
from the elevated rank you have chosen,
I will mention a young lady equally worthy
imitation. Miss Anne Baynard, the
daughter of a physician, was born in
16721672. Her father finding her docile and
eager for instruction, took great pains
in her education; at the age of twenty-
three she was well acquainted with philosophy,
astronomy, and mathematics.
She was mistress of the Greek and Roman
languages; her compositions in
Latin were remarkable for elegance;
she possessed a comprehensive mind, a
retentive memory, and used to declare
that it was a sin to be content with a little
knowledge. To the endowments
of the mind she added the virtues of
the heart. She was modest, humble,
and of exemplary piety. She counted
human learning as nothing, but as it led
to a knowledge and a love of God. K4v 108
“What is it”, she would say, “to possess the
skill of Solomon in the works of nature,
if we are not led by them to adore the
God of nature? what is it to be skilful
in astronomy and a knowledge of the
heavens, if we never study by our practice
to arrive at those blessed regions?”

She was extensively charitable, being
particularly economical in her own expenses,
especially in the article of
dress, that she might have wherewith
to clothe the naked and feed the hungry;
she was averse to scandal, never
listening to or propagating an evil report;
saying it was enough for her to
discover and amend her own errors. On
her death bed she entreated the minister
who visited her, to exhort all young
people to a love of learning and a practice
of devotion, as a sure means of contentment
in this world, and of opening
the prospect of eternal happiness hereafter.
She died at the age of twenty five.

XIX.

A much stronger instance of early
piety is recorded of Miss Margaret Andrews,
the daughter and sole heiress of
a wealthy baronet. In almost infancy
she gave evident proofs of her love of
mental improvement, preferring reading
and study to childish amusements
and play; she had an utter detestation K5r 109
of falsehood from the first dawning of
reason, nor ever was known to tell a lie
or prevaricate. Her mind was superior
to worldly vanities, she was perfectly indifferent
as to gay apparel, and though
she submitted to wear clothes suited to
her rank, she would remark of any costly
article, how many poor hearts the value
of them would make glad. She was
fond of books of devotion, took great delight
in reading her bible, and having
taste and skill in music, devoted her
voice and talents to the praise of her
Creator. She often conversed of dying,
as of a journey she was sure to take,
and for which she must be prepared;
sometimes when going to bed she would
say to her attendants, “how careful should
I be how I spend the day, when perhaps
this night may be my last.”
Her charity
was extensive, her good will towards
her fellow creatures universal. She died
before she was fourteen. How should
such an example allure the young, the
thoughtless, and the gay, to a practice
of that religion which confers such dignity,
secures such lasting pleasure. The
following inscription was on her tomb.
She was a person rarely paralled, the
delight of her parents, the ornament of
her family. Her bosom was the temple
of purity. The pomp of the world she K5v 110
disdained. To the poor she scattered
blessings, for the love of God was in
her heart; her spirit made but a short
visit to our world, then returned to its
heavenly rest.

XX.

Mrs. Elizabeth Rowe was among
those women who rank high as examples
of talent and literature, united to
exemplary piety. Her mind was very
highly cultivated by her father, from
whom she imbibed that spirit of devotion,
which accompanied her through
life, and supported her in death. At
twelve years old she discovered great
taste for the fine arts, particularly poetry,
which she cultivated with success;
many of her writing being highly valued
by the learned and the pious. She possessed
a most perfect command over
her passions, and a servant who lived
with her twenty years asserts, that she
never saw her angry. She knew not indignation,
except against vice. To firm
principles and an elevated mind she added
the softness and graces of her sex.
Detraction appeared to her an inhuman
vice, she loved to praise, and took a
pleasure in doing justice to merit. She
possessed such fascinating powers in
conversation, that it was impossible to
be in her company without being wiser K6r 111
and better. Humility and modesty were
her marking characteristics. She was
temperate, cheerful, friendly, and affectionate.
As a daughter, wife, and friend
her conduct was uniformly sincere, simple,
and unaffected, her taste for literature
never led her to neglect the duties
and occupations of her sex. She caused
the children of her poor neighbours to
be instructed, she relieved distress wherever
she found it, and her delicacy doubled
the benefits she conferred. While
she lived she lived to the glory of her
creator, and dying left testimony of her
faith in his mercy, and her hope of a
blessed immortality.

XXI.

In every rank of life we shall not look
ineffectually for female merit; from the
cottage to the throne examples may be
found to illustrate this great truth, that
women like men are the creatures of
education and habit. Mary Astell was
the daughter of a merchant, whose circumstances
were far from affluent; in
early youth she displayed such acuteness
and capacity that her uncle, a clergyman,
undertook her education, being
himself her preceptor. When but a
girl she made rapid progress in the
French and Latin languages, logic, philosophy
and mathematics. From having K6v 112
experienced in the study of letters
a fruitful source of independent pleasure,
she became solicitous to impart to others
the satisfaction she enjoyed, and to
raise the general character of women,
and rescue them from ignorance and
frivolity. To this end she wrote several
essays, addressed to the ladies, tending
to the improvement of the female
character. Mrs. Astell employed much
of her time in literary pursuits; she
was extremely averse to the frivolity of
casual visitors, and used to dismiss such
intruders by looking from her window,
when they knocked at the door, and facetiously
saying, “Mrs. Astell is not at
home.”
She was very strict in the observance
of her religious duties, and being
of the Romish church, is thought to
have injured her health by frequent and
long abstinence. Her death was occasioned
by a cancer, which for many
years she entirely concealed from her
most intimate friends, notwithstanding
the anguish she endured. When she
perceived her death approaching, she
gave orders for her coffin to be made
and placed near her bed, as a continual
memento. Her time was occupied in
devotion, and she waited for death in
the full faith that it was but a passport
to eternal life.

K7r 113

XXII.

One of Mrs. Astell’s most intimate
friends was lady Elizabeth Hastings,
whose virtues though exemplary, were
silent and unobtruding. The character
of this lady is given by Sir Richard
Steele
, in the forty-second number of
the Tatler, under the name of “Aspasia”.
“Her countenance,” says he, “is the
lively picture of her mind, which is the
seat of honour, compassion, knowledge,
and innocence. Admired by all who
know her she is without affectation.
She posseses the language and mien
of a court, with all the simplicity and
humility of a cottage. She is an exact
economist without appearing busy, and
strictly virtuous yet shunning applause;
temperate, chaste, and simple in her
habits, she devotes her time, her fortune,
and the powers of her udnerstanding to
the happiness of others. A lingering
and painful disease put a period to her
valuable life; on her death bed she assembled
her friends and her household
around her, and bidding them remark
how the comforts of religion had supported
nerher under the severest torture,
in the most fervent manner recommended
its constant practice to them. Though
her birth was truly noble, it was eclipsed
by her shining qualities; her modesty K7v 114
was so great that nothing offended her
more than to publish her good deeds.
Her piety towards God was ardent and
unaffected, and her benevolence towards
mankind such as good angels are blessed
with.”

XXIII.

In reading the history of England I
was particularly pleased with the character
of Mrs. Margaret Roper, daughter
of Sir Thomas More, who in the
reign of Henry VIII. suffered decapitation;
and I humbly convceive that for
learning, talents and domestic virtue,
she falls not short of any who have been
mentioned. Margaret the eldest of three
daughters was more particularly distinguished
for her taste and genius; she
acquired an early knowledge of the languages,
and made considerable progress
in astronomy, rhetoric, music and mathematics.
She was also eminently pious,
and when her father was under sentence
of death said she had God and his
promises to support her under her heavy
afflictions, or she should utterly fall.
Her last inverview with her father, by
whom she was tenderly beloved, wrung
tears from the guards who were attending
him to the place of execution. After
his death she procured his head, and
caused it to be embalmed; and at her K8r 115
own decease it was by her particular desire
buried in her arms. History bears
testimony to the virtues of this incomparable
woman, as a wife, mother, and
head of a family.

XXIV.

Though virtue in every state is admirable
and worthy imitation, yet it is more
conspicuously lovely in persons of an
exalted rank; because their situation
makes them liable to many temptations,
to which those in a humbler station are
entire strangers; besides which, exalted
virtue in them is like a planet shedding
its benign beams afar, lighting and cheering
even those who are at a distance
from its sphere. Mary, queen of England,
wife to William III. was eminently
distinguished for piety and every
amiable virtue. Her body, says the historian,
was the beautiful temple of a
fairer soul. She was so gentle in her
youth, that in the whole course of her
education she never gave occasion for
reproof. In more advanced life her
whole deportment and conduct gave testimony
of her piety; her conversation
was in heaven, her life was a life of communion
with God. Public and private
acts of religion marked every day, particularly
the sabbath, which she observed
with great strictness, giving a bright K8v 116
example of a solemn unaffected devotion.
She endeavoured to diffuse a spirit of
piety into all who came near her, especially
her own household, whom she
frequently instructed and admonished
with the love and watchfulness of a mother;
distributing among them good
books, and encouraging them in virtue.
Of time she was a diligent improver;
she called idleness the great corrupter
of human nature. She divided her time
between needlework and reading, inviting
her ladies to work with her, and often
employing some one to read while the
rest worked; she uttered no censures
herself, nor ever suffered idle tattling
and scandal in her presence. She made
herself perfect mistress of philosophy,
geography and mathematics. She spoke
three languages correctly, and was so
correct in proportioning her time to her
pursuits, that the lesser cares were never
lost in the greater. She rose early,
and by this mean so lengthened her
day that every employment had its proper
place, all was done in order and nothing
neglected. Her charity was unbounded,
yet to the good only was she
munificent in her gifts. Her reign was
so pleasant to the subjects she governed,
that they called her Mary the Good. She
was a pattern of conjugal virtue, so that L1r 117
on her death, when Bishop Denison
went to comfort the king, he replied,
“how can I but grieve who have lost a
wife who during her whole life was never
guilty of an indiscretion.”

XXV.

The life of one pious person is but
the counterpart of another; and those
lives which deserve most to be had in
remembrance are the most easily recorded.
The uniformity of their tenor render
them barren of incident, and yet
they afford the most solid and valuable
instruction; instruction which comes
home to the bosoms of us all, addressing
us amid our humbler occupations and retired
scenes. To render piety and virtue
alluring we have selected examples
of the first rank in life, and those adorned
with the elegant accomplishments,
and embellished with profound
learning; yet if we look into these we
shall find however learned, however elegant,
however accomplished, the duties
of a child, a wife, a mother, a friend
must be scrupulously fulfilled to form
the finished character, and complete the
christian. Such was the countess of Suffolk
who lived early in 1601 < x < 1700the seventeenth
century
. Her powers of imagination, judgment
and memory were extraordinary;
her mind had been highly cultivated, and L L1v 118
her life was such as did honour to her
instructors, adding to all the moral virtues,
the christian graces. She has said
to have a gordgood memory, but where she
was offended or injured she appeard to
have no memory at all. She felt an unkindness
deeply, but she never returned
one. In affliction she was patient, and
on the death of a beloved and only child,
remarked he had been but lent to her,
and she had no right to murmur when
the loan was recalled. And as this lovely
and accomplished woman devoted her
youth to the service of her Creator, she
was early admitted into his mansions of
glory; she died at the age of twenty-
two.

XXVI.

Thus we may see that neither youth,
beuaty, talent, virtue, nor elevated rank
are a security against the king of terror;
and when we have read of great actions,
profound learning, exquisite beauty, unbounded
wealth, we learn at last that the
possessor died. And is that all? no,
their mortal part sinks to the house appointed
for all living, their immortal
souls ascend to the tribunal of their Creator,
there to be doomed to happiness or
misery, according to the use they have
made of the period allotted them on
earth. What then is the result, is the L2r 119
body or the soul most worthy our care?
How worthy imitation are those women
who have justly appreciated this invaluable
treasure, who in the midst of
the temptations attendant on youth when
accompainedaccompanied, and surrounded
by affluence, chose for themselves the
good part which can never be taken from
them. Innumerable are the instances
of virtue, piety and magnanimity of women;
every page of history abounds
with accounts that do honour to the sex.
In early youth in mature age, in the full
meridian of life we find of almost every
nation exalted female characters. But
it must be allowed that those have attained
to the highest excellence who have
enjoyed the light of revealed religion.

XXVII.

A celebrated female genius of 1401 < x < 1500the
fifteenth century
used to regret the disadvantages
of her own sex, who by their
habits, education and customs of society
were illiberally excluded from the
means of obtaining knowledge. This
was Mrs. Elizabeth Bury, who was
greatly distinguished for her quickness
of apprehension, fluency of expression,
and unremitting application. Her studies
were various and profound, her writings
critically pure and elegant; and
she ever spoke with pleasure and gratitude L2v 120
of the obligations she owed to her
father, for allowing her the means, and
her preceptors for having opened to her
the sources of intellectual enjoyment.
The temper of this lady from her youth,
was contemplative and pious; she extended
her span of life beyond its usual
period by husbanding every moment, and
giving no more to sleep than necessary
to invigorate and refresh nature. Summer
and winter she rose at four in the
morning, and having devoted the first
hour to her Creator she spent the remainder
of the day in useful or scientific pursuits,
in some rational conversation, and
acts of benevolence. She was cheerful
and good humoured, was easy and agreeable
in society, but preferred retirement.
She was of a timid disposition, fearful
of offending her Maker, and in her chamber
and library, had this motto placed in
a conspicuous part, “God sees me,”
and she said it was a great mean of preventing
her forgetfulness of the majesty
in whose presence she constantly stood,
and to whom she must render a strict
account of all her actions.

XXVIII.

Were we to proceed in enumerating
the worthy, the pious, the magnanimous,
the brave and learned, who by their talents,
virtues, and acquirements have given L3r 121
dignity to the name of woman, the
closing day would find the task but just
begun, and the revolving orb bring light
to the eastern horizon, and still find the
account unfinished. But permit me before
we drop the interesting theme to
express my full conviction that what women
have attained heretofore, women
may attain again. Man is no less an enemy
to himeslf than to woman, when he
would confine her attention to frivolous
attainments. The domestic affections
and appropriate virtues of the sex, modesty,
prudence, and conjugal fidelity,
far from being superseded by study and
the liberal sciences, are on the contrary,
both strengthened and embellished. The
habits of reflection, which arise from the
exercise of the understanding, are favourable
to virtue, and the cultivation of
the heart. The mind by seeking resources
within itself acquires dignity and independence;
dissipation and frivolous
pursuits, enfeeble the understanding, and
have a tendency to narrow and harden
the heart. A being restless in the pursuit
of pleasure, who lives only to be
gratified and amused, becomes the burthen
of society, the reproach of one sex
and the scorn of the other. My beloved
companions shall not we eagerly strive
to avoid a fate so pitiable, so deplorable. L3v 122
It is in our powers to become the friends
and rational companions of our fathers
and brothers, it is in our own power to
rise into consequence, and make ourselves
venerated. Others have done so,
why may not we? But there is one obstacle,
shall I name it? I blush to do so,
but it is a truth so glaring that it were
a folly to attempt to hide it; we love
our own ease better than a good name,
we waste the precious hours in listlessness,
idle chat, and childish pursuits,
which should be passed in study, in industry,
in devotion; we forget, ourselves,
forget our Creator, and sink the female
name into contempt. Oh my dear companions,
let us shake off this indolence,
let us aim at excellence in all we do, let
us seek knowledge, let us make the cultivation
of the head and heart our daily
care, and if we fail, let not the failure be
our own fault. All have not mental
powers alike, but all are capable of application,
all cannot rise to excellence,
but every one may by proper exertions
escape insignificance. Let us then endeavour
to deserve well, and we shall
assuredly meet the approbation of the
wise and good, reap the sweet reward of
our industry in the smiles and approbation
of our friends.

L4r 123

Rise and Progress
of
Navigation.

I.

Among the various kinds of reading
which may inform the understanding,
or amuse the mind, none can be more
interesting than those epochs of history
which give an account of the progress
of navigation; which extended the geographical
knowledge of mankind, and
facilitated that commercial intercourse,
which is a fountain of wealth to every
nation where it is encouraged. The
progress of men in discovering and
peopling the various parts of the earth
was at first extremely slow; several
ages elapsed before they removed from
the mild and fertile regions of Asia,
where they were placed by the Creator.
The occasion of their first general dispersion
is known, but neither history
nor tradition afford us any information L4v 124
concerning the course of their migrations,
or the time when they took possession
of the countries they now inhabit.

II.

We may however conclude that their
first migrations were by land. In this
early period of the world men were accustomed
to consider the ocean which
surrounds the habitable globe as a bound
to mark that portion of the earth to
which they were confined. It was long
before they attempted to pass these barriers,
and commit themselves to the
mercy of the waves and winds in quest
of remote and unknown regions. The
arts of navigation and ship building are
so nice and complicated, that ingenuity,
experience, and length of time are requisite
to bring them to any degree of
perfection. It is to navigation that men
are indebted for the power of transporing
the luxuries and blessings of one
region, to supply the wants of another.
The desire of gain was the incentive to
improve this wondrous art. The advantages
of commerce opened unknown
seas, penetrated into distant regions,
and brought men acquainted with the
situation, the nature, and products of
the different parts of the globe.

M1r 125

III.

The vessels produced in the early
ages of the world, were rude and unfinished;
and men were very ignorant in
the method of working them, unacquainted
with the principles of navigation,
and equally so with the virtue of the
magnet in pointing to the pole. The
ancients had no other method of regulating
their course but by observing the
planets and stars. The Egyptians early
applied themselves to commerce, and
opened a trade between the Red Sea and
the western coast of India; but the fertility
of Egypt furnished all the luxuries
of life in such profusion as rendered its
inhabitants independent of other nations,
their attention to it was short of duration;
and it was not till the decline of their
power, that they again opened their ports
and resumed their intercourse with foreigners.
The PheoniciansPhoenicians favoured the
progress of commerce. They were a
people of merchants who aimed at the
empire of the sea; their ships frequented
all the ports of the Mediterranean,
they were the first who passed the straits
of Gades
now called the straits of Gibraltar,
and visited the western coast of
Spain and Africa.

IV.

The commonwealth of Carthage appliedM M1v 126
to trade and naval affairs; they passed
the straits of Gades, visited not only all
the coast of Spain, but those of Gaul, and
penetrated even to Britain. They sailed
along the western coast of the great
continent almost to the tropic of Cancer,
they discovered the Fortunate islands,
now called the Canaries, which was the
utmost boundary of ancient navigation in
the western ocean. -0603Six hundred and
four years before the birth of Christ
, a
fleet from a port in the Red Sea fitted out
by Necho, king of Egypt, sailed round
the most southern promontory of Africa
now called the Cape of Good Hope, and
returned through the straits of Gades to
the mouth of the Nile. The expedition
of Alexander the Great into the east, enlarged
the sphere of navigation and geographical
knowledge among the Greeks.
The revolution in commerce brought
about by the force of his genius, is hardly
inferior to the revolution of empire
occasioned by the success of his arms.
Having destroyed Tyre and reduced
Egypt to subjection, he founded a city
which he honoured with his own name
near one of the mouths of the Nile; so
situated as to command the trade of the
east and west, by the Mediterranean
and the Red Sea. And Alexandria soon
became the chief commerical city in M2r 127
the world. He penetrated into India and
established a communication between
the river Indus and the Persian Gulph,
and the trade to India was by this means
so much extended, that it afterwards
proved a great source of wealth to the
Grecian monarchy in Egypt.

V.

The progress which the Romans
made in naval arts and discoveries, was
still less than that of the Greeks; and
though the necessity of opposing the Carthagenians
first prompted them to aim
at maritime power, they still considered
the naval service as a subordinate
station. When Carthage, Greece and
Egypt submitted to their power, they
imbibed none of their commercial spirit;
but would have considered it a degradation
to a citizen of Rome to have
been engaged in it. Rome being the
capital of the world, merchants of all
nations brought their produce to this
great mart; nor was it till the decline
of the Roman empire, when a taste for
the luxuries of the east began to be acquired,
that a naval intercourse with India
was prosecuted by them. Geographical
knowledge was at that time very
confined in Europe; and though as we
do now, they divided the globe into five
parts called zones, they imagined the M2v 128
intense cold in the frigid zones, and the
fervent heat of the torrid, rendered them
equally uninhabitable.

VI.

When Rome had sunk under her own
magnificence, and the other states of
Europe began to make rapid advances
in improvement and civilization, an
event took place which rendered the
progress of navigation and commerce
more rapid than it had ever been before.
Palestine and the country round Jerusalem,
the scene of the death and sufferings
of the Saviour, had fallen into the hands
of the Saracens, who were followers of
the impostor Mahomet; they treated the
christian pilgrims who resorted thither
from motives of devotion, with the greatest
cruelty. All Europe united to deliver
the Holy Land from the power of these
tyrants. Vast fleets were fitted out to
transport the soldiers of the cross, as
they styled themselves, to Palestine.
These Crusaders many of them blending
a shew of religion with real avarice,
entered into commercial intercourse
with the people of Asia, made settlements,
and excited such a spirit of enterprize
as prepared Europe for further
expeditions and discoveries. In the
year 12691269, one Marco Polo, a noble
Venetian, made a voyage on the Inian M3r 129
ocean
, and is supposed to have
visited Japan. About half a century afterwards
Sir John Mandeville, an Englishman,
visited the eastern world, and
when in a few years after the use of the
magnetic needle was discovered, and the
mariner’s compass invented by a Neapolitan;
men began slowly to relinquish
their ancient habits and prejudices, and
directed by this faithful guide, to venture
out of sight of land. About the middle of
1301 < x < 1400the fourteenth century the Portuguese
began to be celebrated for their skill in
navigation, and a spirit of enterprize
possessed the nation, which in process
of time led to the discovery of a new
and extensive quarter of the globe.

VII.

Early in 1401 < x < 1500the fifteenth century, Prince
Henry
of Portugal distinguished himself
as a most enlightened and accomplished
man; he applied with peculiar fondness
to the study of geography, and he attained
to such a knowledge of the habitable
globe, as inspired the idea of seeking
for unknown regions. This first effort
was made in 14181418; a single ship was fitted
out, but was unsuccessful. The next
a squadron of three ships, discovered the
Madeira islands, and in 14201420 a Portuguese
colony was settled there; her ships
also sailed along the western coast of Africa M3v 130
and ventured within the torrid zone.
In the yesryear 14861486, Bartholomew Diaz advanced
as far as the Cape of Good
Hope
, but did not attempt to get round it.

VIII.

Among those enterprizing men whom
the discoveries of the Portuguese lured
to their service, Christopher Columbus
stands eminently conspicuous. He was
by birth a Genoese, of an elevated genius,
in very early life he made great progress
in geometry, cosmography, and astronomy;
attached to a maritime life when
a boy, at the age of fourteen years
he was a proficient both in the theory
and practice of navigation. By the experience
which he acquired during a variety
of voyages which he made, Columbus
became one of the most expert navigators
in Europe. Naturally of an inquisitive
turn and capable of deep reflections,
he conceived it reasonable to suppose
that the continents of Europe, Asia
and Africa, as far as they were known at
that time, formed but a small portion of
the terraqueous globe; that on the other
side of the vast ocean, which stretched
to the westward, another continent existed
to balance those already known in the
eastern hemisphere; he repaired to Genoa
and entreated the republic to employ
him on a voyage of discovery; but they M4r 131
treated his ideas as chimerical, and refused
him any assistance.

IX.

But this rejection did not damp his
ardent spirit. He made his next overture
to John, king of Portugal; but with
the same ill success. Mortified but not
disheartened, he laid his plan before
Ferdinand and Isabella the then reigning
sovereigns of Spain; but Ferdinand appeared
so cold and languid that Columbus
formed the resolution of visiting
England and applying to Henry VII. to
equip a fleet for the projected expedition;
but before he departed from Spain,
queen Isabella having sent for him to
court, and held a conferrenceconference with him
on the important subject of his intended
voyage; convinced by his forcible arguments
of the great probability of success.
She declared herself resolved to protect
him and her finances at that time being
at a low ebb, she pledged her personal
jewels to raise a sum adequate to the expense
of the enterprize.

X.

Thus encouragedencouraged and supplied with
ships, stores, &c. Columbus on the 1492-08-03third
of August, 1492
, set forward on a voyage
which he had spent his whole life in projecting.
And at a period when the art of
shipbuilding has arrived to such a degree M4v 132
of excellence as it now has, it will hardly
appear credible that the vessels in
which Columbus and his adventurous
crew embarked, were of very inconsiderable
burthens; the one commanded
by Columbus himself was the only one
that had a deck, the other two were hardly
superior in size and burthen to large
boats. With this ill appointed squadron,
did the bold and courageous Columbus
launch into the vast Atlantic Ocean, in
search of unknown lands. He just
touched at the Canaries for a fresh supply
of provisions, and then shaping his
course due westward, he fearlessly opened
a new track in the expanse of waters,
leaving the old world behind him, and
looked forward with eager eye to the point
in which he expected to discry the new.

XI.

But however confident Columbus
might be of the success of his voyage,
those who accompanied him were not
supported by the same sanguine hope;
and when they had sailed above three
weeks in one direct course, and knew
themselves to be more than seven hundred
leagues from the last land they had
seen, their spirits flagedflagged; and from fearing
first, they at last began to murmur,
and insist that the ships should be put
about. But their great commander was M5r 133
not to be moved by entreaties, or intimidated
by threats. He remonstrated, he
alleged the most plausbleplausible reasons for every
uncommon appearance, and continuing
his course still westward, on the
--10-12twelfth of October at day break, they
with inexpressible delight beheld the
island of St. Domingo, one of the Bahamas.
The boats were hoisted out and
Columbus attended by the other officers
rowed towards the shore, when springing
out as the boat touched the beach,
he was the first European who set foot
in the new world.

XII.

Erecting a cross, they prayed that the
religion of Jesus Christ might prosper
among the future inhabitants of this rude
clime. But if the Europeans were astonished
and delighted, what indescribable
wonder must have siezed on the
native inhabitants of the island, when
they saw men borne to their shores in
huge monsters which moved upon
the water, and yet had wings; and from
whose sides at intervals proceeded vivid
lightning accompanied by thunder.
They thought them the children of the
sun, descended to visit the earth, at first
they prostrated themselves before them;
but encouraged by their friendly demeanor,
they soon became familiar with M5v 134
them, brought them provisions, and
were delighted to receive in return glass
beads, little bells, or any other European
baubles. Columbus having in this
voyage visited several of the Bahama
Islands
and settled a small colony in one
of them, he returned to Spain. The islands
discovered by Columbus in this
voyage together with many others are
known by the name of the West Indies.

XIII.

Cautious as Ferdinand was, yet when
Columbus described to him the wonders
of the new world, and represented the
honour which would redound to the
Spanish annals, and annex itself to the
reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, as the
encouragers of enterprize, awakened
in that monarch’s breast something like
ambition to continue the discoveries so
fortunately begun, and a second fleet was
fitted out consisting of seventeen ships,
larger and better prepared for so long
and dangerous a voyage; fifteen hundred
persons embarked on board these
ships, which were under the command
of Columbus, taking with them every
thing necessary to settle a large and
flourishing colony. Columbus continued
his voyages and discoveries, and in
14981498 landed on the continent of America
at the mouth of the great river Oronoco; M6r 135
thus discovering to mankind the
the existence of a new world, and leading
the Spaniards to that immense continent
which has since been the inexhaustible
source of treasure and seat of
their empire in this part of the globe.
But as superior merit ever excites envy
in little minds, Columbus after the
death of Isabella, found his interest at
court begin to decline; and retiring from
a scene where he experienced only chagrin
and mortification, he ended his valuable
life at Valadolid on the 1506-05-2020th of
May, 1506
.

XIV.

Numerous were the adventurers
whom the discoveries made by Columbus
instigated to embark for the new
world
, among others Amerigo Vespucii,
a Florentine gentleman, having made
a successful voyage, after his return
published his adventures, to which he
gave such a turn as to make it appear
that he had discovered the continent of
the new world. This account was written
with elegance; it was universally
read, and the country he pretended to
have discovered began to be called by
his name; and by the universal consent
of all nations, America is the name bestowed
on this quarter of the globe.
The name of Amerigo has supplanted M6v 136
that of Columbus, and we cannot but
regret an act of injustice which having
received the sanction of time, it is now
too late to redress.

XV.

The laudable spirit of enterprize
which first instigated the Spaniards was
now degenerated into avarice and cruelty.
The native Indians were reduced
to servitude, and if any had spirit to repel
these fierce invaders of their rights,
they were treated as malcontents and
condemned to the most ignominious
punishment. The treachery of Ovando,
a Spaniard of rank, to an Indian woman
of distinction, is almost unparalleled.
Anacoana was princess of a territory
called Xaragua, she was highly respected
by her subjects, and a partial
friend to the Europeans. Some of the
Spaniards having behaved in a disorderly
manner, she in right of her authority,
as sovereign of the province, endeavoured
to restrain their excesses by salutary
chastisement. They complained to
Ovando, and accused her of holding her
subjects in an actual state of rebellion
against the Spanish government. Ovando
summoning an army of three hundred
men, and giving out that he was
going to visit Anacoana in the most respectful
manner, passed unmolested to M7r 137
the very centre of her territory. The
unsuspecting princess, to do her visitant
honour, with all the principal persons
in her dominions advanced to meet
him with music and dancing; she lodged
him and his officers in her palace,
feasting them for several days and amusing
them with games and shews. At
length Ovando let it be understood that
he thought it his turn to give the princess
an entertainment, accordingly he
drew his army up in battle array, and
while with a mixture of fear and wonder
the unarmed natives were gazing
on the troops, on a secret signal from
Ovando, they rushed upon them with
drawn swords, siezed Anacoana, massacred
her subjects and set fire to her
dwelling; the unhappy princess was
carried in chains to St. Domingo, and
there publicly hanged.

XVI.

The next great event which gave new
life to navigation, and opened a new
course for commerce, was the discovery
of the South Sea by Nunez Balboa;
this took place in 15131513. Balboa employing
himself and his soldiers on the eastern
side of the isthmus of Darien in
collecting gold, was told by an Indian,
who observed with contempt the value
the Spaniards attached to that metal, M7v 138
that he would find plenty at a place
about six days’ journey from where they
then were. Elated with the hope of
amassing immense wealth, as well as
making some important discovery, Balboa
with a considerable number of men,
satset forward to cross the isthmus, which
at that part is only sixty miles over.
After encountering innumerable fatigues
and difficulties in a march of twenty six
days through trackless woods, they at
length from the top of a lofty mountain
beheld the great southern ocean stretching
in endless prospect below them.

XVII.

In the short space of twenty-six years
after the discovery of the new world by
Columbus, the Spaniards had made great
progress in exploring its various regions.
They had visited all the islands in the
gulf of Mexico, they had discovered the
South Sea, and acquired some knowledge
of the coast of Florida. The English
had sailed along the northern coast from
Labrador to Florida, so that the coast
was in a manner known almost to the
equator. Some few years after the discovery
made by Balboa, a Spaniard named
Grejalva, sailed from the island of
Cuba
, and landed on the coast of Mexico.
On his return he gave the governor,
Velasques, such an account of the M8r 139
beauty of the country, that he projected
subjugating it to the Spanish yoke. Accordingly
Fernandez Cortez was fixed
on to conduct the expedition. He was
a young man of great bravery, and of a
martial genius; with the small force of
six hundred men, eighteen horses, and a
small number of field-pieces, he set forward
to conquer a great and warlike
empire, that was governed by a prince
whose fame in arms struck terror in the
neighbouring nations. History to be
true, was never so improbable and romantic.
The empire of Mexico had
subsisted for ages, the people were neither
rude nor barbarous; their laws were
wise and good, and they were mildly,
yet forcibly admidisteredadministered by their emperor
Montezuma.

XVIII.

Cortez in advancing to the capital of
this great empire, met but little opposition.
Some of the chiefs of the country
instigated by a spirit of revolt against
Montezuma, joined the intruding Spaniards,
whose appearance struck terror
wherever they appeared; the warlike
animals on which they rode, were to
them so astonishing, that the Mexicans
at first supposed man and horse to be one
monster. On their entrance into Mexico
Montezuma sent them a superb present M8v 140
of gold and other valuable articles,
met them with a solemn procession attended
by all the grandees of his court,
and appointed a palace for his place of
residence. But Cortez was eager to
seek occasion to commence hostilities,
for even with the handful of men he
commanded, he aimed at the entire subversion
of the Mexican empire.

XIX.

This occasion was soon found, and
Cortez partly by stratagems and partly
by force secured the person of Montezuma,
whom he detained a prisoner in
the midst of his own subjects. And the artful
Cortez gained such an entire accondency
over the Mexican monarch, that
through him he governed the empire.
At length the Mexicans perceived that
they were on the point of being subjugated
to the Spanish yoke, pressed in a tumultuous
manner to the palace where
Cortez kept the emperor confined, and
demanded his liberty. To quell this insurrection
Montezuma ascended the battlements
to harrangue his irritated subjects,
when he first appeared, the respect
with which they had ever been accustomed
to treat him, awed them
into silence; but no sooner did he begin
to exhort them to retire peaceably, N1r 141
than calling him a pusillanimous wretch
and no longer owning him as their sovereign,
they discharged at him such a
shower of stones and arrows that the unhappy
prince sunk covered with wounds
into the arms of the Spaniards who attended
him. They bound up his wounds;
but humbled by the treatment he had
received from his subjects, and perceiving
he was the dupe of the Spaniards,
he tore off the bandages, and uttering
exclamations of the most dreadful despair,
expired.

XX.

The Mexicans now made every effort
to repel their invaders; they elected a
new king, Guatamozin, and summoned
them, but too late. After several dreadful
engagements, in which the Spaniards
appeared to be endowed with almost
supernatural strength and courage,
the Mexicans were entirely routed and
Guatamozin and his empress were taken
prisoners. At first they were treated
with the respect due to their rank; but
it being intimated to Cortez, that Guatamozin
had hid immense treasures, he
was weak and wicked enough to permit
him to be put to the torture in order to
make him discover them. The inhuman
Spaniards stretched the unhappy N N1v 142
prince with his chief priest on a gridiron
over burning coals. The high priest
in an agony of torture made horrid lamentations,
and seemed to implore permission
to make the desired discovery,
when Guatamozin casting on him a composed
but sorrowful look, said emphatically,
“am I on a bed of roses?” the
faithful servant silenced by the reproof,
uttered a deep groan and expired. Cortez
ashamed of the inhumanity practised
on these defenceless Indians, ordered
the prince to be released; but it was
too late. Soon after this event Mexico
fell entirely into the hands of the Spaniards.

XXI.

While Cortez and his followers were
reducing Mexico, they got intelligence
of another great empire towards the equinoctial line, which was said to abound
in gold, silver and precious stones.
This was the empire of Peru, and this
extensive country, more important than
Mexico itself, was reduced by the endeavours
and at the expense of three
private persons; these were Francis
Pizarro
, Almagro, and a priest named
De Luques. Pizarro sailed for Peru
with two hundred and fifty foot soldiers,
sixty horse, and twelve small pieces of
cannon. With this trifling force did he N2r 143
meditate and actually complete the conquest
of Peru; but it is worthy of remark,
that in all human probability neither
Peru or Mexico would have been
so easily subjected to the Europeans,
had they been at peace and ananimity
within themselves; and as the kingdom
of Mexico had been betrayed by those
who were dissatisfied with Montezuma’s
government, so Peru rent by internal
discord, being divided in two parties in
support of brother against brother, who
each claimed an exclusive right to the
crown, became an easy prey to Pizarro
and his enterprizing colleagues.

XXII.

The cause of these intestine fuedsfeuds
was this; the empire of Peru was founded
by Manko Capac, a man of a daring
mind and great mental powers. By
what means he first arrived in Peru is
not known; but he made the untutored
natives believe that he descended from
the sun, who had sent him to establish
his worship among the Peruvians. He
united and civilized this barbarous people,
he taught them the use of arms
to defend themselves in war, and the arts
of agriculture and manufactures to employ
them in peace. His wife, Mama Ozella,
taught women to spin, weave, and
manage their domestic concerns; and N2v 144
from these illustrious persons who were
styled children of the sun, descended a
race of princes called incas. The twelfth
prince in direct succession from Manko
was Guainna Capac, who having two
wives, the first a daughter of the sun who
was the mother of Huascar, the other a
princess of Quito, which he had conquered,
was mother to Atahualpa. Huascar
in right of eldership, as well as being a
legitimate prince, claimed the kingdom
at his father’s death. A civil war ensued;
Atahualpa’s party were successful,
and Huascar was shut up a close prisoner
in the tower of Cusco, the capital of
the Peruvian empire.

XXIII.

In this feeble disjointed state Pizarro
found the kingdom. Atahualpa was a
weak prince. It had been foretold that
the empire should be subjected to bearded
white men, who came from the place
where the sun rose, and the Spaniards
answering this discription, instead of
opposing the invaders he endeavoured to
obtain their favour. When Atahualpa
advanced to a conference with Pizarro,
the soldiers receiving a private signal,
rushed upon the defenceless prince,
massacred his attendants, and bore him
a prisoner to their own quarters. Atahualpa
offered for his ransom to fill the N3r 145
room where he was confined with gold,
but after he had sacrificed his most
magnificent ornaments, and stripped the
temples of their treasures in order to
fulfil his engagement, they refused to
set him at liberty; but having terrified
him into a renunciation of his religion,
Pizarro inhumanly ordered him to be
strangled.

XXIV.

The Spaniards having thus become
masters of that immense part of the
American continent, which constitued
the kingdoms of Peru and Mexico, gave
a new spur to commerce and extended
the art of navigation. The gold, silver,
and jewels brought from their mines,
were transported to Europe and purchased
with avidity; while the commodities
of Europe were sold at very
high prices in the new settled colonies,
and navigation and commerce went
hand in hand to enrich both worlds.
MagellenMagellan, who sailed to the extremity
of the southern peninsula, passed through
the straits which bear his name, and
crossing the great South Sea, returned
to Europe round the Cape of Good Hope,
was the first person who circumnavigated
the globe.

XXV.

Ninety years after the discovery of N3v 146
America by Columbus, Sir Walter Raleigh
received a patent from Queen Elizabeth
for the settlement of a colony in
north America, this colony he named virginia in honourhonour of the queen. In 16021602
the promontory at the entrance of Masachusetts
bay
now called Cape Cod, was
discovered by Gornold. Several valuable
discoveries were made by Hudson,
who fell a martyr to his enterprising
spirit, being sent adrift in his boat by his
mutinous crew, in the depth of winter,
and was never heard of afterwards. In
16141614 Capt. Smith ranged the coast
from Penobscot to Cape Cod, and made a map
of the country, which he named New
England
.

XXVI.

When Great Britain was convulsed by
civil discord, and her sovereign Charles
I
. was dethroned and executed as a criminal,
a religiousreligious sect arose who were denominated
puritans, at the head of this
sect stood Cromwell, who after the execution
of Charles was chosen Lord Protector
of England
. During his government
the sect increased rapidly, and became
in a manner predominant; but after
the restoration of Charles II. the
royalists considering the puritans as accessary
to the death of their late king,
the sect became obnoxious to government, N4r 147
and consequently were subject to much
persecution. This persecution increased
the number of puritans, for suffering
as they thought for conscience sake, they
imagined it a kind of martyrdom; many
forsook their native land and emigrated
to America, in particular to that part now
called the United States.

XXVII.

Mr. John Robinson a dissenting clergyman
of exemplary character, with a
number of persons of both sexes from
England and Holland, crossed the Atlantic
in a very dreary season, and arrivied
at Plymouth, Cape Cod on the 1620-12-1111th
of December, 1620
. This was the first
settement in Massachusetts Bay; and
in 16811681, William Penn, the founder of
a new sect called the quakers, received a
grant from king Charles II. granting
him the proprietary of a tract of country
called Pennsylvania. In the mean
time verious settlements were made on
the coast by the French and Dutch, till
in a few years thirteen flourishing colonies
were established, all paying submission
to the British government; but
in process of time these colonies feeling
their own consequence, asserted a right
to govern themselves, and having emancipated
themselves from the power of
the British parliament, became united, N4v 148
free, and independent states, and are at
present acknowledged by all the powers
of Europe as an independent government.

Concluding Address.

For 18081808.

It is humiliating to our sex to reflect, that
in those countries where the admiration of
beautiful women is carried to the highest excess
they are slaves, and their moral and intellectual
degradation increases in direct proportion
to the adoration which is paid to mere external
charms; to such a length is this degradation
carried, and of so little consequence are
they deemed in the scale of intelligent beings,
that the voluptuous prophet of Arabia excluded
them from light, liberty, and knowledge,
and from all the joys of paradise.

But in this happy country women enjoy the
blessings of liberal instructions, reasonable
laws, a pure religion, and all the endearing
pleasures of an equal virtuous and social intercourse;
thus favoured by adventitious circumstances,
we feel our consequence increase from
a knowledge of the influence our sentiments,
habits and principles have on the characters of
the other sex. If we feel this consequence as
we ought, if as we are told the power of female
elegance can soften and civilize the manners
of those men with whom they associate,
we shall not be content with captivating or entertaining
them, we may aim at reforming
them; and bringing into action powers the effects
of which may be commensurate with eternity. O1r 149
Female influence may be exerted to
raise the depressed tone of public morals, and
awaken the drowsy spirit of religious principles,
without departing from the refinement of
character, or blemishing that delicacy which
is the brightest ornament of the sex.

Propriety is to a woman, what the great
Roman critic says action is to an orator. It is
the first, second, and third requisite; a woman
may be knowing, active, witty, and amusing,
but without propriety she cannot be amiable.
Propriety is to the character, what proportion
is to the figure, and grace to attitude. It does
not depend on any one prefection, it is a combination
of all excellence, it shews itself by a
regular, orderly, undeviating course, and
would be ashamed of such praise as might be
extorted by aberrations from the right path. It
is not loud in words, it displays itself in actions.
Its love of virtue is displayed by a refinement
of manner, a purity of look and language, a
scrupulous delicacy of conduct. Its sense of
religion by a meek and quiet spirit, a grateful
and contented heart, by the honour paid by
words and actions to the doctrines of Christianity,
by a ready performance of all the good
works of peace and mercy; and the whole tempered
with cheerfulness, heightened by good
nature, and rendered lovely by that habitual
politeness, which makes an intercourse with
our friends and inmates so delightful. Of
what might not a woman of such a character
be capable, how forcibly might her influence
act upon the minds and morals of those men
who moved within the sphere of its attraction.
The profligate who laughs at every sacred institution,
and who would turn with disgust
from the voice of serious instruction or rebuke,
may be awakened to a sense of his folly by the O O1v 150
modest but spirited reproof of a delicate woman,
whose life adorns the doctrines her conversation
defends. And what man is so much a
libertine as to breathe an improper word in the
presence of her whose eyes and lips alike
evince the purity of her thoughts and heart.
Knowing then our influence on those by whom
we are governed, supported and protected, let us
jealously watch over our manners, and scrupulously
regulate our principles; let us mark every
step however inconsiderable whose tendency
is downwards. Corruption is neither stationary
nor retrograde, and she who has departed
from modesty has already progressed towards
vice. Let us then exert our influence
with encreasing energy to discountenance that
laxity of manners, that levity and irreligion
which shews itself but too plainly in the young
and thoughtless of our associates: for if we
cease to resist, we shall be insensibly involved
in the vortex, and ere we are aware sink with
the multitude in the whirpool of immorality
and infidelity. We are seriously called upon
to use our influence to the honour of God and
the well being of society, we are responsible
for the use we make of our acknowledged power,
wide is its extent, indefinite its effects, inestimable
its importance. It invovles not only
the happiness of the present but the principles
of a future generation, and according to the examples
we set, and precepts we inculcate shall
the next generation arise and call us blessed;
or whelmed in the abyss of depravity, execrate
our memories, and at the great day of general
retribution shall their loss be required at our
hands.

These my dear schoolmates are awful
truths, they should not be regarded lightly,
merely assented to and forgotten; they should O2r 151
be ever borne in memory to sitmulate us to all
that is excellent and praise worthy. Let us remember
life is but a short day—but it is a day
in which much work may be done. Activity may
lead to good, but inactivity is possitivepositive evil;
when industry has no definite pursuit, when
the mind and body have no exercise, when ingenuity
has no acquisition either to anticipate
or enjoy, how long, how dull, how miserable is
the day. It is a few short but keen and animated
pleasures snatched from the duties of a
busy day, looked forward to with hope, enjoyed
with taste, and recollected without remorse,
which yield the truest portions of enjoyment.
Let us then be ever usefully employed, and
save ourselves from adding to the number of
those objects of supreme commiseration, who
place their happiness in doing nothing, who live
to no end, and die without leaving a blank in
society.

Concluding Address.

For 18101810.

Many are the prejudices entertained, and the
witticisms thrown out against what are called
learned women; but surely a woman will not
be less acceptable in the world, or worse qualified
for performing her part in it, for having
devoted a large portion of her early years to
the cultivation of her understanding. Few
women are entirely divested of domestic cares,
yet the unmarried, and the wealthy, have surely
many intervals which ought to be devoted
to mental improvement; and the mind of a female
is certainly as capable of acquiring knowledge,
as that of the other sex; but if an enlightened O2v 152
mind must consequently be a conceited one
it were better to remain in ignorance, since pedantry
and presumption in a woman is more
disgusting than an entire want of literary information,
the one often awakens compassion,
the other invariably excites contempt.

Whatever tends to embellish the fancy, enlighten
the understanding, furnish ideas to
reflect on when alone, or to converse on in
public, is certainly well worth acquiring. The
careful and attentive reading of history will enrich
the mind with entertaining topics of conversation,
and render us fit companions for persons
of sense and knowledge, while a perusal of
the best English poets will brighten the imagination,
and give a life to our ideas, which will
never fail to interest and charm those with
whom we associate. Some of my young companions
may perhaps enquire how are we to get
time to toil thought huge volumes of history, or
read with any patience poems that fill five or
six hundred pages? I answer, by order, regularity,
and habitual industry. There is scarcely
any thing of more importance, and yet less
attended to, than a cultivation of this habitual
industry. Every hour as it passes, should have
its appropriate occupation, and by a little skill
we may so manage, as to blend instruction
with amusement; though to weak and indolent
minds the thing appears impossible. The
thoughtless and inconsiderate receive instruction
like a medicine, and nauseate the draught;
but partake of the banquet of pleasure with
insatiate delight. If we were to examine these
different qualities with minute attention we
should find they often differ only in name;
many pursuits, where pleasure is the end proposed,
produce only disgust and pain; whilst
on the contrary those avocations which are attended O3r 153
with difficulty and labour, reward those
who surmount them, with knowledge and honour.
The great advantages of industry are oof
such general utility, that it is impossible to
enumerate them; those who are distinguished
by any extraordinary qualities, are commonly
indebted to industry for their superior excellence.
Perseverance will enable us to succeed
in almost every thing. The first initiation into
any science, the first attempt to acquire any
language, is tedious and laborious; but when
by unwearied assiduity we have attained the
summit, which at first appeared inaccessible,
we shall find the path easy and delightful,
strewed with flowers whose vivid tints brighten
as we proress onward, and refreshed by
streams of pleasure whose source is inexhaustable.

Though it is not necessary for a young womman
to study with that closeness of application
which is essentially requisite in the education of
a boy, yet whatever we pretend to learn we
should have ambition enough to desire to do
it well. There are two sorts of understanding
which prevents youth from arriving at excellence,
the one is a lazy, the other a frivolous
mind; the lazy mind will not take the trouble of
searching to the bottom of any thing?, but will discouraged
by the slightest difficulty stops short,
and is content with a very superficial knowledge
rather than submit to the smallest degree
of trouble. The frivolous, is called off from the
pursuit of knowledge by every trivial occurrence,
pursues straws and feathers with avidity,
and leaves the sterling ore of wisdom, to those
who have patience and perseverenceperseverance to explore
the mine in search of it. Knowledge, says an
elegant writer, is a comfortable and necessary
shelter for old age; but if we do not plant and O3v 154
cultivate it with attention when young, it will
afford us no shade when we grow old.

Order is a great requisite in the distribution
of our time, and in this distribution it is essentially
necessary, it is a bounden duty, to devote
a portion of our earliest hours to the service of
our Creator; though the properly regulated
mind lives always under a just sense of the
goodness, power, and wisdom of God, and conceives
itself ever in his immediate presence; in
all its pursuits seeks his honour, and with an
affection blended with awe sedulously avoids
willfully to offend him; yet that is not sufficient.
The child who looks up to its parent for daily
favours should not be backward in expressing
his gratitude when they are bestowed, or a full
conviction of the parent’s superiour wisdom
when they are withheld. Of this my beloved
schoolmates be assured, we can never be happy
but while we live in obedience to his commands.
Religion is so naturally implanted on the human
mind, that even the most unenlightened savage,
has some fancied being to whom he raises altars,
and addresesaddresses his devotions. Human nature
must be degraded to the lowest state of
profligacy, and the soul be depraved and debased
in the most shocking manner, before the
characters of religious veneration written on it
by God himself, can be entirely effaced. Religion,
an particularly the christian religion, is established
on the surest foundation of reason,
scripture, and truth, and those who impiously
level their attacks against it, will pass away as
chaff before the wind; no person of real virtue
will ever decry religion; it is only those whose
unruly passions are unwilling to submit to its
salutary restraints that will ever attempt to ridicule
or deny its power. If ever, my dear associates,
you listen to such people and adopt their idle O4r 155
objections to the truth, you are undone, your
hearts will soon be corrupted, and having a few
times listened to their blasphemous conjectures,
you will being to utter them yourselves.
It is the christian religion alone which intimately
unites us with the Deity, while we walk under
her light, we are in no danger of losing our
way. She never forsakes us in our distress; she
makes us amends by her consolations, when
death wrests from us those we most dearly
love: she attends us even to the grave—in her
bosom we live, in her arms we expire; while
the soul trembling on the verge of eternity, looks
forward with hope chastened by a deep sense
of its own unworthiness, to that eternal felicity,
that inestimable redemption, purchased by the
blood of a crucified Saviour. My friends, my
schoolmates! this is no fable, no reverie of a
heated imagination; it is a truth, a great, a
solemn truth. How many days have we passed
without reflecting on its consequence? let us
not delay another hour, for alas, the next may
close our eyes in the shadows of death, may
deafen our ears with the cold clods of the
grave. Am I too serious? Is this terror at so
great a distance that present fear is needless?
alas who among us can say with perfect security,
“I shall see tomorrow”? how many as
young, as healthy, as happy as ourselves have
passed from time into eternity without a moments
warning. Have we not had an awful example
in our little community during this
last term? let it impress us with a sence of our
own fragility. Be we then as the wise virgins,
with our lamps trimmed and burning,
that when our master calls we may be ready to
obey. Indeed great would be our condemnation
were we not so, for we have pious friends
and instructors, if we are deaf to the voice of O4v 156
admonition, double is our load of guilt. Our
Preceptress has been urgent to impress this
subject deeply on all our minds, I speak but
her dictates, but my heart give assent to her
reasoning, and hopes aided by the direction of
my revered and pious relation, Rev. Dr. Porter of Roxbury, uncle to the young lady
who delivered the address.
never to disgrace
the education I have received.

Mrs. Rowson would fain express her grateful
sensations, for the support and encouragement
she has received during fourteen years,
in which she has been engaged in the instructtion
of youth; but where gratitude is felt in the
heart, words are but a poor vehicle to convey
its meaning. She has hitherto endeavoured to
prove hers by an assiduous attention to our
improvement, to our health, to our manners
and morals; she will henceforth evince it
(though on a smaller scale) by the most conscientious
discharge of her duty in her cultivation
of those tender plants which may hereafter
be intrusted to her care. She bids her
friends most tenderly farewell—She will no
more meet you on this annual day but the
memory of your kindness will rest upon her
heart, the warm sense of gratitude with which
that heart glows can be chilled only by the
hand of death.

Finis.