Principally on
The Aborigines
North America.

[By Mrs. Elizabeth (Elkins) Sanders]

“With pious awe Their eye uplifted sought the bidden path Of the Great Spirit. The loud midnight storm, The rush of mighty waters, the deep roll of thunder gave his voice; the golden sun, The soft effulgence of the purple morn, The gentle rain distilling, was his smile Dispensing good to all.” Traits of the Aborigines.

W. and S. B. Ives, Washington Street.


Printed at the Salem Observer Office



In making this compilation it has been my earnest
wish to engage the sympathy of the youth of our country
in favour of our Aborigines, in the hope that by being
made acquainted with their character and unmerited sufferings,
an interest would be excited which might rescue
from utter ruin this persecuted and ill fated race. The
digressions were principally made with a view to prove
that colour or climate have no influence over the mind,
and (in conformity with Scripture) to show that the Almighty
is without any variableness or shadow of turning.
The same yesterday, to day, and forever, and that His
tender mercies are over all His works. Could these impressions
be firmly implanted in the mind, we, who bear
the name of Christians, should be freed from those narrow
prejudices, and supercilious feelings, which lead us
vainly to imagine ourselves to be the peculiar favourites
of heaven; and thus to foster our pride by the notice
that, notwithstanding our multiplied offences, we are still
superiour to all who have existed before our era, and to
most of the present inhabitants of the earth.—Whilst we
fondly cling to these unworthy prejudices it appears to
me obvious, that we shall be wanting in a stimulous to
improvement, or to reform abuses.

A2v iv

I have also endeavored to show that the light which
lighteth every one that cometh into the world, is all sufficient,
if rightly improved, to secure his present and eternal
happiness; and that it is the same true and divine
light which the ever blessed Jesus was sent to restore
and confirm; but which had been greatly obscured by
the indulgence of corrupt propensities and passions.

It is a solemn truth, which cannot be too strongly impressed
on the mind, that nations, like individuals, have
their periods of growth, maturity and decline; like them
enjoy happiness and prosperity, or decay and adversity,
in proportion as they improve or abuse the gifts of

From the impartial investigations of some of the best
and most intelligent men, we find that in all the great
nations who have passed away, the arts and sciences
have been cultivated with success, and philosophical investigations
pursued with nearly the same results as at
the present period. Above all, One Supreme Father of
the Universe has ever received the true adoration and
gratitude of mankind, however varied may have been
their forms of worship. It is however painful and humiliating
to find that, notwithstanding much superstition
and ignorance prevailed in former ages, and prevails at
present in heathen countries, respecting the moral attributes
of God, nothing is found so truly debasing and derogatory
to the character of the Universal Parent, as the
dogmas maintained by the great portion of nominal christians,
at the present period.

Notwithstanding the strong desire manifested by many
to support the superiority of the moderns, over the ancient A3r v
inhabitants of the earth, it is demonstrable from the
works which still remain, to attest their wonderful ingenuity
and perseverance both in sculpture and architecture,
that in these we are greatly their inferiors. If in
some instances we have carried to greater perfection
some of the arts, they may serve as a counterpoise to
those in which the ancients excelled; and the progress
made by the Hindoos, and others, in the science of astronomy,
proves beyond doubt that their knowledge, however
obtained, produced the same results, as the most
approved methods or systems of the moderns.

In closing this brief analysis I ask, are we better than
those nations who have been doomed to destruction for
their cruelty, their stupid bigotry, and overweening pride?
Has there ever been in former ages any system of servitude
so truly shocking to humanity, as the slavery to
which we have subjected the natives of Africa? Is not
the land perpetually moistened with the blood of its native
children, and do we not with the most persevering
barbarity persist in forcing them from every place where
they have found rest, and pertinaciously insist that they
are incapable of civilization; whilst we compel them to
quit their cultivated fields, and the beloved homes of their
fathers, and banish them to a wilderness, to which they
have expressed a decided aversion, to gratify an insatiable
cupidity. Influenced by the same spirit, our Aborigines
are represented as heathen, who are unable to comprehend
the sublime doctrines of Christianity, because
they cannot bend their reason to embrace the debasing
superstitions which have been presented to them, and
how before the idols we have set up. Can we then hope A2 A3v vi
to escape the fate of those nations who founded their empire
in blood and perfidy. The agonized cries and groans,
of the miserable victims we hold in bondage, will call
down the vengeance of heaven on our blood stained
country, and the burning tears which furrow the manly
cheeks of our indignant Indians, exasperated almost to
frenzy by their wrongs, will rise up as a memorial against
us before the Throne of God.

The hour of retribution must arrive, and will not long
be delayed, unless we allow the divine influences of our
benign religion to direct our ways, and lying aside all
unhallowed prejudices, and the sins which most easily
beset us, unite as christians, to undo the heavy burdens,
and let the oppressed go free. “We need not search out
the dark corners of the earth”
to reform abuses, or to
overcome superstition, too much is required at home, and
nothing would, in my apprehension, so greatly facilitate
our success abroad, as the glorious example we have it in
our power to exhibit, and thus should we fulfil the divine
behest, and let our light so shine before men, that they
seeing our good works may glorify our heavenly Father.



Eliza. What is meant Mother by the controversy
between Georgia and the Creeks, of
which so much is said in the papers, and who
are the Creeks?

Mother. The Creeks were once a powerful
people who possessed a large tract of country in
Georgia. In a late number of the New York
there is an article, entitled an examination
of the controversy between Georgia and the
, which states “that shortly after the accession
of the patriotic and venerable Washington
to the chief magistracy of the republic, a
treaty was concluded at New York in his very
presence with the Creek Nation. These particulars
are mentioned, that the sanction of that
great and good man to the humane policy of the
government may have its due weight with all
who respect the purity and sagacity of the father A4v 8
of his country. By this treaty the United States
took the Creeks under their protection, guaranteed
to the tribes their land within specific limits;
settled the manner in which offenders should be
punished; and in order to lead them to a greater
degree of civilization, instead of remaining in the
state of hunters, the United States agreed to furnish,
gratuitously, the Creeks, from time to time,
with useful domestic animals, and implements of
This treaty bears date 1790-08-07August 7th,
. “Thus it appears that the United States
at that time offered inducements to the Creeks
to become cultivators of the soil, and to appropriate
it for the purposes of civilized life, instead
of using it as mere hunting ground. If they
yielded to these inducements, the public faith is
pledged to sustain them in that course. Our
government is bound, our national character
plighted, to encourage them in the wise resolution
they have taken, to become civilized men,
and to preserve the remnant of their tribe under
the protection of this republic.”

Caroline. Have the Creeks yielded to the
proposal of our government, and are they now

A5r 9

Mother. The writer of this article proceeds to
say, “the pledge has been accepted, and on our
part it only remains to fulfil it. In 17961796, another
treaty was concluded between the United States
and the Creeks, and they bargained for blacksmiths
and strikers to be furnished by the United
; thus plainly showing their intention to accept
the humane offer of civilization from our
I will, my dear girls, hereafter give you
some accounts of the Creeks, from the very interesting
travels of Bartram, who visited this people
on his tour through that part of the country they
inhabit, and gives a most pleasing picture of the
rural simplicity, and hospitality which prevails in
the Creek Nation. You will then be able to judge
how far they have complied with the requisition
made them by the United States; but I must
now proceed as briefly as I may to state the
grounds of the controversy. “With these obligations
subsisting on the part of the United
, an agreement was entered into with Georgia
in 18021802, by which the United States agreed
to extinguish at their expense, for the use of
Georgia, the Indian title to all the lands within
the limits of the State, ‘as early as the same
could be peaceably obtained on reasonable A5v 10
The consideration given by Georgia,
on her part, was the relinquishment of all claims
to the vacant territory in the West, included
within her boundary.”

Eliza. Why did the United States agree to
extinguish the Indian title to these lands? Did
they suppose the Creeks would ever part with
their native country voluntarily?

Mother. It was certainly wrong to make such
a compromise with the Georgians, as the strong
attachment of the Indians for their native soil
was well known; but since we have become
powerful, little attention has been given to the
rights of the Indians; the Georgians in particular,
appear wholly insensible to the claims of
justice or humanity, and evince a determination
at all events to drive the natives from the small
portion of territory they still possess, though the
Creeks with the expectation of being suffered to
remain in their country, “have at different periods
ceded to the United States 15,000,000 of
acres which have been vested in Georgia, which
State has also received 1,250,000 dollars as an
equivalent for the lands ceded to the United
by it. During the last war a portion of the
Creeks, instigated by hostile emissaries, and influenced A6r 11
by misrepresentations as to the intentions
of the United States with regard to the
Indians, took up arms against the whites, and
were severely chastised by the army under Gen.
. In 18141814, articles of agreement were
concluded with the whole nation, including the
hostile party, by which peace was restored, a
certain portion of Indian territory ceded, and in
the second article the United States guaranty
the integrity of all the Creek territory not ceded
in the first article. This treaty or agreement,
the Creeks considered as definitive, and as settling
the boundaries within which they were to
reside as a civilized people, according to the
promises of our government. In conformity with
that sentiment, shortly after that treaty, they
passed laws constituting it a capital crime to propose
any further alienation of their land.”

Caroline. In what manner were these unfortunate
Indians chastised?

Mother. An account is given of this bloody
transaction in a beautifully written article, on
traits of Indian character, which appeared in the
Analectic Magazine during the late war. “The
punishment of the Creeks has been pitiless and
says this humane and truly philosophic A6v 12
writer, “vengeance has gone like a devouring
fire through their country—the smoke of their
villages yet rises to heaven, and the blood of the
slaughtered Indians yet reeks upon the earth.
Of this merciless ravage an idea may be formed
by a single exploit, boastfully set forth in an official
letter that has darkened our public journals. Letter of Gen. Coffee.
A detachment of soldiery had been sent under
the command of one Gen. Coffee to destroy the
Tallushatches towns, where the hostile Creeks
had assembled. The enterprise was executed,
as the commander in chief expresses it, ‘in style’
but in the name of heaven what style! The
towns were surrounded before the break of day.
The inhabitants starting from their sleep flew to
arms, with beat of drums, and hideous cries.
The soldiery pressed upon them on every side,
and met with a desperate resistance—but what was
savage valour against the array and discipline of
scientific warfare? The Creeks made gallant
charges, but were beaten back by overwhelming
numbers. Hemmed in like savage beasts surrounded
by the hunters, wherever they turned
they met a foe, and in every foe they found a
butcher. ‘The enemy retired firing,’ says Coffee B1r 13
in his letter, ‘until they got around, and in
their buildings, where they made all the resistance
that an overpowered soldiery could do;
they fought as long as one existed, but their
destruction was very soon completed; our men
rushed up to the doors of the houses, and in a
few minutes killed the last warrior of them; the
enemy fought with savage fury, and met death
with all its horrors, without shrinking or complaining;
not one asked to be spared, but fought
so long as they could stand or sit. In consequence
of their flying to their houses, and mixing
with their families, our men in killing the males,
without intention killed and wounded a few of
the squaws and children
. So unsparing was the
carnage of the sword, that not one of the warriors
escaped to carry the heart-breaking tidings
to the remainder of the tribe.’
Such is what is
termed executing hostilities ‘in style’! Let those
who exclaim with abhorrence against Indian
inroads—those who are so eloquent about the
bitterness of Indian recrimination—let them turn
to the horrible victory of Gen. Coffee, and be

Elizabeth. I thought mother that christians
were not so cruel as Indians, but I hope none of B B1v 14
our countrymen, beside this Gen. Coffee, could
have acted so barbarously and so basely?

Mother. It would indeed be highly consolatory
to be assured of this, but though the details
of our warfare against the unfortunate Creeks
appear to have been studiously concealed from
the public eye, we know that a similar outrage
was perpetrated by Gen. Jackson, “who, in 18181818,
destroyed the Chehaw villages, when for the
space of three days the country was ravaged, the
houses burned, the provisions destroyed, the men
slaughtered, and the women made captives.”

Elizabeth. Was it not Gen. Jackson who so
bravely defended the country when invaded by
the Britons?

Mother. Yes he did so, and gained great applause,
but his conduct subsequently has proved
that he was influenced more by passion, and
hatred, than by principle or patriotism. In his
campaign against the Creeks he evinced a total
disregard for justice or humanity—by his own authority,
and in defiance of the award of a Court
Martial, he condemned to an ignominious death
two Englishmen, who had resided for sometime
in the Creek country as traders, on the pretext
of their having incited the Creeks to resent the B2r 15
injuries they had sustained; and a venerable Indian
sage, whom they called the prophet, was put
to death for a like offence, with barbarous exultation.
That Gen. Jackson only wanted power
to become a second Robespiere, we are assured
from his own declaration. Writing to a friend
he hesitates not to declare, that he would without
scruple have hanged a number of our best,
and most intelligent citizens, who during the
late war convened at Hartford to consult on the
best means of defence, and for the restoration of
peace on just and honorable terms.

Caroline. What objection could Gen. Jackson
have to this meeting at Hartford?

Mother. None I believe, except his desire to
prolong the horrours of war, which it appears
was the sphere of action best suited to his feelings
and interest. I have been told he possesses
a large and valuable tract of land which
he has wrested from the Indians. In destroying
the Chehaw villages, which were beautifully situated
in the vale of the Flint river, another considerable
portion of Indian territory was ceded
to the United States, as I have before mentioned,
and the Creeks vainly hoped they should be permitted
to occupy as a civilized people, (relying B2v 16
on the faith of our Government,) the little that
remained of their extensive domain. “Under
these circumstances Troup became Governor of
Georgia by a very small majority of votes, and
in order, it is presumed, to secure his future
election, he determined at any rate to get possession
of the lands which remained in the
posession of the Creeks, for the purpose of distributing
them by a land lottery, that he might
thus have an opportunity of presenting his adherents
with each a ticket. Gov. Troup, influenced
by this desire, sought to drive the government
of the United States into a hostile attitude
towards the Creeks, by insisting on the right of
Georgia to their lands. The general government,
in compliance with its agreement with
that State, endeavoured to persuade the Indians
to cede their land or a portion of it, and appropriations
were made to oaffect that object. The
Creeks, by their acknowledged representatives,
declared their determination not to sell another
acre. At the conference in 1824-11November, Col’s.
and Merriwether, the Creek chieftains,
declared, that in conformity with our recommendations,
they had undertaken to cultivate the
soil, and to breed cattle; that they had no more B3r 17
land than was sufficient for their purpose; and
that upon no consideration, would they part with
another acre. These Georgia commissioners,
acting no doubt with the advice and knowledge
of the Governor, then proceeded to Washington,
where they arrived in 1824-12December, and represented
the inclinations of the Creeks to sell to favourably,
as to procure a farther appropriation for that
purpose, carefully suppressing their declared resolution
not to part with another acre. This was
the commencement of a system of fraud and misrepresentation
highly discreditable to all concerned
in it. Gen. William M‘Intosh, a known and
steady friend of Georgia, was inclined to yield to
the wishes of the State government. He was
the head chief of the Coweta tribe, and the
State authorities, together with the commissioners,
determined to use him and his partizans to
defraud the nation of its territory. In order to
secure the influence of M‘Intosh, he was appointed
agent for the lands which were to be
transferred, and by a separate or additional article
of this treaty, it was stipulated to give 25,000
dollars for a piece of land belonging to him,
called the Indian Spring Reservation—a price,
which to say the least, was very liberal. A summonsB2 B3v 18
was then issued to the Creeks, calling a
meeting at these very springs, M‘Intosh not daring
to trust himself in the midst of the nation,
as he knew he was answerable to the law, making
it a capital offence to propose a further aleniienation
of lands. This law was proposed at Broken
, shortly after Jackson’s treaty in 18111811, by
M‘Intosh himself, and formally re-enacted at a
meeting of the Creeks at Polecat Springs in
18241824, in order to put a stop to the negotiations
concerning their lands. As the Indian Springs
were at a distance from a majority of the tribes,
and the notice to attend was given but a few
days before the time of the meeting, only a few of
the chieftains met the commissioners, and of
these, only two signed the treaty, one of whom,
it is asserted by one of the United States agents,
is not a head chief, or representative of any Indian
town. The other chiefs, four in number,
upon being informed that the object of the meeting
was to purchase their land, refused to give
their consent, and left the council. The negociation
was however continued by the commissioners,
with M‘Intosh and his party, and a treaty
concluded by which all the Creek lands in the
State of Georgia were ceded to the United States. B4r 19
This treaty was signed by M‘Intosh and one
more chief, the other Indian signers not being
chiefs nor representatives of towns, and having
no legal right to sign the treaty on behalf of the
Creeks, which they did at the instigation of
M‘Intosh. It is a strong argument against its
validity, that with the exception of M‘Intosh, and
Etomine Tustunnuggee, none of the Creek chieftains
with whom the Creek treaties have been
usually concluded, appear to have signed or sanctioned
this treaty, so vitally important to their

Eliza. What a base transaction, but I trust
our government will not suffer the Creeks to be
driven from their pleasant homes, which they so
highly value?

Mother. The writer from whom I have extracted
the circumstances I have related to you,
after narrating many other facts in proof of the
fraud and corruption of Troup and his partizans,
“all of which,” he says, “is openly, and unblushingly
defended by the executive of Georgia,
the indecorous style of whose notes to the late
President of the United States, and the Secretary
of War, would be unworthy of observation, did
they not evince the character of the person at B4v 20
the head of that unfortunate State. They prove
(he continues,) “to be entirely regardless of
public opinion and public faith, and show a necessity
of energetic measures on the part of the
constitutional authorities, to preserve the quiet
and the character of the country.”
At the close of
this article the writer proceeds to say, “that in
order to prevent any examination of these disgraceful
transactions by the National government,
this treaty was sent to Washington with
the greatest despatch, on the nineteenth day after
it had been concluded in the western wilderness
of Georgia; it was laid before the Senate of the
United States at Washington, the very last day
of its session. The treaty was concluded on the
1825-02-1212th of February last, and was transmitted to
Mr. Calhoun, and by him handed to the then
President on the 1825-03-022d of March, with his advice of
course for its ratification, as it was fair upon its
face, and accomplished an object which the
United States felt desirous of effecting when it
could properly be done. The next day, having
been approved of by the President, it was sent to
the Senate, and thus committed to that body before
the inauguration of Mr. Adams, who received
it after his accession to the Presidency from B5r 21
the Senate, for his signature, that body having
ratified it. It thus appears, that the managers
of this business transmitted the treaty from the
western part of Georgia with such despatch, as
to prevent those Indians who might be opposed
to the sale of the lands, from being heard at
Washington before its ratification. It is moreover
asserted by Mr. Compere, the resident missionary
in the Creek nation, that the Creeks,
confiding in the benevolence and justice of our
government, were persuaded that the government
would not regard this as a treaty, because
it was not made with the consent of the nation.
If this be the case, and there is no reason to
doubt it, a fraud has been practised upon the Indians,
which it concerns the character of the
country to disclaim.”

Eliza. But mother our government would
not assuredly consent to ratify such a treaty, and
allow the Creeks to be driven from their country
by these rapacious Georgians?

Mother. The President with dignified firmness
disannuled the treaty, when informed of the
fraudulent manner by which it was obtained, and
insisted that the Georgians should discontinue
the survey of the land which they had already B5v 22
begun, and an armed force was commanded to
see the order carried into execution. Nevertheless
the menaces and insults of Gov. Troup appears
to have silenced the spirit of indignant
rebuke, and chastisement, which was at first
called forth to defend the rights of the Indians,
and thus maintain the honor and integrity of the
country; but amid the commotions of faction, and
desire of popularity, our government now appears
willing to aid the Georgians in their nefarious
bargain, and we are told that the Creeks
have consented to sell their country and depart
to a land which has little to recommend it, except
its being so undesirable, that the Indians
may remain there unmolested. Here however
they will come in contact with hostile tribes, and
be moreover subjected to an uncontroled military
force, which under various pretences may perpetually
harass, and finally destroy them—nor
do I hazard any thing by these suggestions, as
the numerous tribes who have thus miserably
perished attest they are not the idle anticipations
of fancy. I have here the talk of an aged Indian
chief, of the Creek nation, to Gen. Jackson, which
is expressive of the strong sense the Indians
have of their wrongs, and their attachment to B6r 23
their country:—“Brother! the Red people
were very numerous. They covered the land
like the trees of the forest, from the big waters
of the east to the great sea, where rests the setting
sun. The white people come—they drove
them from forest to forest, from river to river—
the bones of our fathers strewed the path of their
wandering. Brother, you are now strong: we
melt away like the snow of spring before the
rising sun. Wither must we now go? Must
we leave the home of our fathers, and go to a
strange land beyond the great river of the West?
That land is dark and desolate—we shall have
no pleasure in it. Pleasant are the fields of our
youth—We love the woods where our fathers,
led us to the chase—Their bones lie by the running
stream, where we sported in the days of our
childhood—When we are gone, strangers will
dig them up—The Great Spirit made us all—
you have land enough—Leave us then the fields
of our youth, and the woods where our fathers
led us to the chase—Permit us to remain in
peace under the shade of our own trees—Let us
watch over the graves of our fathers, by the
streams of our childhood—May the Great Spirit
move the heart of our father, the President, that B6v 24
he may open his ear to the voice of his children,
for they are sorrowful.”

Caroline. Oh mother, if Washington had
been President, the Creeks would not have intreated
for justice in vain, he would have been
the friend and protector of the Indians.

Mother. Washington was truly great and
magnanimous, he was ever guided by wisdom
and an intuitive sense of justice, which prompted
him to disdain artifice or collusion, (the steady
purposes of his soul were unchanged by the commotions
of faction or the workings of ambition,)
and the defenceless state of the Indians would
unquestionably have engaged his sympathy and
protection; yet with avaricious and unprincipled
men, the weakness of the Indians is a powerful
incentive to take advantage of their inability to
resist their unjust demands. Men, like Washington,
seldom appear to bless mankind, they
are found like, “angels visits, few and far between;”
nevertheless, we might surely expect
that those who have filled his exalted station,
would emulate those high endowments which
have made Washington the benefactor of his
country and insured for him immortal renown.

Eliza. But why have the Creeks consented C1r 25
to sell their land, after having so repeatedly declared
their resolution not to part with another

Mother. If it be true, it is doubtless in consequence
of their having been made sensible that
they will no longer be protected by the government;
we were informed by the public journals,
some time since, that the troops stationed for
their defence, were ordered to remove, and the
Creeks well knew what to expect from neighbours
like the Georgians. The Creeks may
plant, but will not be allowed to gather the increase
—they may raise cattle, but the Georgians
will appropriate them to their own use—and
should any resistance be made, it will be a signal
for hostile incursions into the territory of the
Creeks, which would without doubt involve in
ruin the whole nation—similar to that, which on
a like occasion, not long since, swept with
destructive violence over the Ricaree Villages,
and blotted them from the face of the earth.
Such too has been the fate of many other tribes,
which might here be mentioned.

Caroline. You remember Eliza, when we
looked at that map the other day, what a long
way the whole nation would be obliged to travel, C C1v 26
and you fancied that you heard the lamentations
of the Creek women.

Elizabeth. Oh yes, I pictured to myself their
sufferings, and their despair on leaving their
habitations,—their fruitful orchards, and delightful
country, to encounter a journey so long and
fatiguing, so replete with hardships—I thought
how many of the aged and infirm would droop
and die in the wilderness, and what would become
of the little children who, unused to hardships,
had passed their days sporting on the
green turf before the doors of their rural habitations.
I reflected how comfortless would be the
place assigned them for their abode, when those
who survived the perilous journey had reached
their destined home, surrounded by hostile tribes,
with no friendly eye to greet them, and I fancied
I heard them indignantly exclaim, after so many
promises broken, “what new pledges can you
give us that we will not again be exiled, when
it is your wish to possess these lands.”
mother, when I speak of this to some they smile,
and appear to think me an enthusiast.

Mother. Unfortunately there are many who
appear to think it vain to oppose the doom of extermination,
which they contend has gone out C2r 27
against our Aborigines, and “which threatens
to leave us at no distant day, without a living
proof of Indian sufferings, from the Atlantic to
the immense desert, which sweeps along the
base of the Rocky Mountains.”
These therefore
behold unmoved, and without an effort to
saye, the accumulated suffering of these unhappy
Natives; and there are others, from whom better
things might be expected, who coolly tell us,
“that in the order of things it is right for civilized
christian men, to take place of the wretched
and barbarous natives,”
and they affect to
sneer at those who compassionate the Indians,
and strive to excite feelings for their misfortunes,
and prevent their final extinction, by exhibiting
those high qualities which formed prominent
traits in the character of those children of nature,
before they were contaminated by the vices of
civilization—Yet we are compelled to pity those
cold and arid minds, who have no relish for those
primitive virtues so honourable to human nature,
and who can so readily sacrifice justice to the
base calculations of self interest. Ridicule rises
in importance, in proportion as its influence is
felt; but when from conscious superiority it is C2v 28
treated with merited contempt, it recoils on its

Caroline. Is it consistent with the precepts
of Christianity to take their land from the Indians?
—has not Christ said, whatsoever ye
would that men should do unto you, do ye also
unto them?

Mother. Christianity appears to have exercised
but little power over the evil passions of
men—Not assuredly because it is not intrinsically
pure, and designed to prepare us for a state of
felicity by enabling us to subdue our wayward
passions, and to be “pure and peaceable and full
of mercy and good fruit.”
That it has failed of
producing this effect, results doubtless from its
unnatural mixture with the history and the institutions
of the Jews. It has been the fate of all
religious systems, however good and holy, in the
beginning, to be perverted and associated with
evil practices, which furnish a pretext, and give
scope to the designs of wicked men, who are
thus enabled to shelter themselves under the
broad mantle of superstition. Nothing can be
so important, as pure and elevated conceptions of
the character and attributes of the Supreme Being;
these will lead us to reject all that can defile C3r 29
or lower the standard of perfection which
we strive to obtain, and thus we shall perceive
that men can at no time be cruel or unjust, without
incurring the divine displeasure; that tribulation
and anguish, are denounced against every
soul that doeth evil; and glory, honour, and immortality
are promised to those who persevere in
well doing. Children are frequently at a loss to
comprehend the reason why they are denied indulgences,
which they think are essential to their
happiness, though as they advance in life they
become sensible, that the restraint to which they
unwillingly submitted, was productive of much
good. In like manner, the wisest are unable to
perceive in many events, traces of that benignity
and justice, which form the essential attributes
of Him, whose tender mercies are over all His
works. Nevertheless, we feel assured, from the
entire confidence we have of the wisdom, and
paternal goodness of God, that when the future
is unveiled to our view, we shall perceive with
exultation that all is essentially right.—The
minds of Children should be early imbued with
pure and undefiled christianity, unmingled with
aught that could lead them astray. This can
only be effected by enlightened mothers, who C2 C3v 30
themselves give an example of disinterested benevolence
and pure devotion. Children will
thus be formed to virtue, and made to feel the
pleasure of doing good; they will be made happy,
and their homes will be the centre of attraction.
To render this order of things complete, attention
should be given to the comfort and convenience
of the domestics, whose rights should
never be infringed—nor should any creature be
injured; more especially, that class of animals who
labour for our benefit, should receive kind treatment,
and never be forced to work beyond their
strength. There are many who ride very fast,
because the motion gives them pleasure, and who
perpetually urge on their horses to their full
speed, without regarding the pain they inflict—
this abuse of the power delegated to us by God,
is highly reprehensible. The belief of the Hindoos
in the transmigration of souls, is very favourable
to animals, whom they fear to injure,
lest they should be condemned to expiate their
offences, in the form of the creature they have in
this life abused.

Eliza. Do you mother think the Hindoos
are right in believing in the transmigration of

C4r 31

Mother. I do not pretend to determine in
what manner people who are unmerciful will be
punished, though I doubt not they will be made
to suffer,—you know that Christ has said, blessed
are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy,
and you should strive to gain this divine benediction
by cultivating feelings of compassion for
every living thing; even those troublesome insects
who annoy us should be destroyed with as
little pain as possible—the great law of love
which binds us to the whole creation, will thus
be fulfilled. Nevertheless, we should not suffer
any advantage to be taken of this kindness of
disposition, or submit to any imposition; this
would be encouraging acts of injustice; for the
being who can tamely yield to injustice or arrogance,
will soon lose that self respect which is
essential to rectitude, and true delicacy of mind.
A fine trait in the character of our Aborigines,
is the kindness and urbanity which prevails in
their domestic intercourse; no harshness is ever
allowed, which corrodes affection, and destroys
confidence; but when they think wrong has
been done, they testify their feelings by coldness
and inattention. This has been too often noticed,
both by early and late writers, to admit of C4v 32
dispute. One of the missionary ladies, in a letter
to a friend, says, you can scarcely imagine how
kindly the Indian girls, who are in our school,
treat our children; we can trust them to their
care with the utmost confidence, very different
from that which is felt when we commit our
children to domestics, even when we rely on
their good disposition.

Caroline. How is it that the Indian children
are so good?

Eliza. I suppose it is in consequence of their
being so kindly treated and so seldom reproved.

Caroline. It must be so Elizabeth, the Indian
children are not obliged to con over lessons
when they wish to recreate themselves, and they
do not fear to soil or injure their dress.

Mother. You are unquestionably right, my
children, the primitive simplicity to which our
Indians are accustomed, affords ample scope for
the developement of those high endowments
which the Great Author of life has bestowed on
the creatures of His power, and those impressions
have not been paralized by the forms of civilized
society. Yet civilization has enabled man to penetrate
into the secrets of nature, and to make discoveries
which exalt our conceptions of the wisdom, C5r 33
and power, and goodness, of God; and
some great and good men have attained a superiority,
which has forcibly pointed out the high
culture of which the human mind is susceptible,
and the glorious destination that awaits them in
the life to come; where they will enjoy that
felicity, for which they are capacitated; but
which in this feverish state of existence has ever
eluded their pursuit. Charlevoix says: “the Indians
were perhaps the only happy mortals on
the face of the earth before they were acquainted
with those objects which seduce and pervert
The observations of Charlevoix, I have
often repeated, as he had the fairest opportunities
of making himself acquainted with the customs
of the North American Indians, and his remarks
so well accord with those, who before and since
his time, have written on this subject, in the
spirit of truth and impartiality. I will now proceed
with some of Charlevoix’s remarks. “The
beauty of their imagination,”
says this intelligent
writer, “equals its vivacity which appears
in all their discourse; they are quick at repartees,
and their harangues are full of shining passages,
which would have been applauded at
Rome and Athens. Their eloquence has a C5v 34
strength, nature and pathos, which no art can
give. They have a clear and solid judgment
and come at once to the point. Most of them
have a nobleness of soul, and constancy of mind,
at which we rarely arrive, with all the assistance
of philosophy and religion. They moreover
treat one another with a gentleness and respect,
unknown to the common people in the most polite
nations. Their care of orphans, widows,
and infirm persons, and the hospitality which
they exercise is admirable. Nothing can exceed
the care which mothers take of their children
when in the cradle. Nothing can be neater
than these cradles in which the child lies as
commodiously as possible. Every one has a
friend nearly the same age with himself, to whom
he attaches himself by the most indissoluble
bonds. Two persons thus united by one common
interest are capable of undertaking and
hazarding every thing, in order to aid and mutually
succour each other: death itself, according
to their belief, can only separate them for a time:
they are well assured of meeting again in the
other world never to part. At first view one
would imagine them without any form of government;
they notwithstanding enjoy all the advantages C6r 35
which the best regulated authority is capable
of procuring in the most enlightened Nations.
They have a natural repugnance to restraint of
every sort, but reason alone is capable of retaining
them in a kind of subordination, not less
effectual, for being entirely voluntary.”
remark is confirmed and illustrated by a late
writer, on the North American Indians, in the
North American Review for 1826-01January, 1826.
“We say the Indians have no government.
And they have none whose operation is felt either
in rewards or punishments. And yet their lives
and property are protected, and their political
relations among themselves, and with
other tribes, are duly preserved. Have they
then no passions to excite them to deeds of violence,
or have they discovered and reduced to
practice, some unknown principle of action in
human nature, equally efficacious and with the two
great motives of hope and fear, upon which all
other governments have heretofore rested? Why
does an Indian, who has been guilty of murder,
tranquilly fold his blanket about his head, and
seating himself upon the ground await the retributive
stroke from the relation of the deceased.
Within the last year, we ourselves, (continues C6v 36
this writer,) far in the interior of the country,
while surveying the initiatory ceremonies of the
Indian Mealay, one of their mystical societies,
saw a Chippewa, whose grave and serious demeanor
attracted our observation. His appearance
led to the inquiry, whether any peculiarity
in his situation impressed upon his deportment
the air of seriousness, which was too evident to
be mistaken. It was ascertained that he had
killed a Potawatamie Indian, during the preceding
season, and that the Potawatamies had made
the usual demand for his surrender. On a representation,
however, that he was deeply in
debt, and that his immediate death would cause
much injustice to some of the traders, the injured
tribe at length agreed to postpone his execution,
till another season, that the produce of his winter’s
hunt might be applied to the discharge of
his debts. He had been successful in his exertions,
and had paid the claims against him. He
was now about to leave his friends, and to receive
with the fortitude of a warrior the doom
which awaited him. He was now for the last
time, enjoying the society of all who were dear
to him. No one doubted his resolution, and no
one doubted his fate. Instructions however were D1r 37
given, to redeem his life at the expense of the
United States.”

Eliza. Do the laws of the Indians allow a
compensation to be given as the price of blood?

Mother. They do so, but, its acceptance, or
rejection, is purely voluntary on the part of the
friends of the person murdered, who are supposed
to be the best judges whether malice or
accident caused the murder.

Caroline. But, mother, is it not strange to
find a sense of justice so much stronger in the
breasts of the uncivilized Indians, than in civilized
christian men?

Mother. I have before observed to you, my
dearest girls, that the primitive simplicity which
prevails among our Indians, is highly favourable
to the developement of those lofty sentiments,
and pure notions of justice and kindness, which
are the gifts of God to man, and the competitions
of interest and ambition which pervert and paralize
these gifts, in a state of civilization, are felt
in a slight degree, where so much liberty and
equality prevails.

Eliza. But, mother, are not the Indian women
obliged to do almost all the labour? do not they
cultivate the ground and raise corn and other D D1v 39
vegetables, for the supply of their families, while
the men are idle.

Mother. The labour required to supply a
family with grain and vegetables is not burdensome,
when we reflect how slight is their task
within their dwellings, when compared with the
labours of women in our lower classes of society.
We learn from the Rev. Mr. Heckewelder, whose
veracity is undoubted, that in hunting, the men
encounter much greater hardships, than any
which fall to the share of the women. The old
men frequently assist the women in their work,
and the young men, when not engaged in hunting,
labour, to recommend themselves to her
whom they love, and to find an opportunity of
communicating their secret wishes to the object
of their affections.

Caroline. If we may confide in Mr. Heckewelder,
why are we so often told that Indian women
are mere slaves?

Mother. Many mistakes are made by people
who are unaccustomed to reflect, and compare,
and when they observe customs which vary from
such as are familiar to them, they are led to imagine
something monstrous and unnatural, and
inveigh against them with great bitterness; without
perceiving any good which may overbalance D2r 39
the evil: this reflection will, I trust, admonish
you to attend, and compare one thing, or custom,
with another, and determine with impartiality
the results.

Thus, notwithstanding so many are ready to
point out what appears degrading in the condition
of the Indian women, there are few who
have borne testimony to the superior privileges
they enjoy. Charlevoix says, “the women have
the chief authority amongst all the nations of the
Illuron language; if we except the Irequois canton
of Onneyouth, in which it is both sexes alternately.
I have been assured that the women
always deliberate first on whatever is proposed
in council, and they always give the result of
their deliberations to the chiefs, who make the
report of it to the general council, composed of
the elders.”
Charlevoix adds; “but in all probability
this is done only for forms sake.”
this is as it may, it evinces a degree of respect and
attention, which we should in vain seek to find
in nations who are styled civilized. Unquestionably
different customs prevail in different
tribes, but we have abundant proof that in all,
women have a voice in the public deliberations,
and their consent is deemed essential in the ratification
of treaties. Our much respected friend, D2v 40
Col. P., who some years since was deputed with
several others, to settle the terms of a treaty with
the neighbouring Indians, informed me, that after
waiting some days at the place appointed, the
Indians at length arrived, with the celebrated
chief Red Jacket at their head, who bore on his
back his child, to relieve his wife from the burden.
The Comissioners, impatient of delay,
asked why it was thought necessary for the whole
tribe to accompany the chiefs? One of the chiefs
in reply, assured the commissioners, that it was
deemed essential to the validity of a treaty, that
not only the chief and warriors should be present,
but that the women of the tribe should
testify their approbation by presenting a
string of wampom. The Colonel assured me
that the Indian women, particularly those who
are young, were remarkable for their modesty,
and sweetness of voice and manner. Their
chief, Red Jacket, addressed the commissioners
in a style of lofty eloquence, and impressive gesture,
quite equal to what our venerable friend
has heard of Indian oratory.

When this country was first settled, many
queens, or squaw-sachems, as they were styled,
were found, possessing equal authority with the
male sachems. We have no means of ascertaining
their laws of succession, as the numerous tribes D3r 41
in New England were so speedily swept away
by the settlers, who appear to have given themselves
little time or trouble in ascertaining the
laws or customs of the natives, except such as
would assist them in supplanting, or reducing
them to a state of subjugation. Wetamoe, the
squaw sachem of Pocasset, appears to have been
most active in defending the country from the
usurpations, of the whites, and was, we are told,
“next to Philip in respect to the mischief that
had been done, and the blood that had been shed
in this war.”
She joined her kinsman Philip,
and was found dead near Taunton river, which
it was supposed she had attempted to cross on a
raft. “Her head was cut off, and set upon a pole
in Taunton, when the Indians who were prisoners
there knew it presently, and made a most
horrid and diabolical lamentation, crying out
that it was their queen’s head.”
The writer Hubbard.
proceeds to observe, “that God himself by his own
hand brought this enemy to destruction. For in
that place, where the last year, she furnished
Philip with canoes for his men, she could not
meet with a canoe to save herself.”

Elizabeth. But was not Wetamoe right in
aiding Philip, and endeavouring to preserve D2 D3v 42
the liberty, and independence of her country?
Instead of being treated so barbarously, she
should I think have been honoured as a heroine.

Mother. Unhappily the first settlers of this
country were unable or unwilling to appreciate
in the Indians, those feelings of independence,
and attachment to their early religious opinions,
which constituted their own peculiar merit.
When the Indians assembled to worship the
Great Spirit, or to deprecate his anger; they
were supposed by the whites to be employed in
magical incantations, to appease the evil spirit,
and dispose him to entangle and destroy the
white people. Did the Indians practice the healing
art, and by their knowledge of simples relieve
pain, and restore the sick, as it was ascribed
to the power of that same evil being, whom they
delighted to worship and obey. Any attempts on
the part of the Indians to resist the encroachments
or usurpations of the whites, were construed
as evincing hostile designs, and were followed
by the most severe and cruel treatment. The
courtesy and hospitable manner with which the
pilgrims had been received and cherished, when
they were strangers and had none to help them,
had no power to mollify them, when by continual
additions to their numbers, and by their knowledge D4r 43
of the arts, they acquired sufficient strength
to subdue their generous entertainers.

Caroline. Were not the Indians extremely
vindictive, and cruel? I have often heard of
their bloody deeds, Mother.

Mother. The Indians, Caroline, were long
ago made sensible that not only their safety, but
their existence depended on their expelling the
invaders of their country. They have been
roused to vengeance, by the injuries, injustice,
and insults of the whites, who have thus been
subjected to a fearful retribution; yet in my estimation
the cruelties of the Indians were tender
mercies when compared with those which they
have suffered from the whites. Even the horrid
death by torture, can bear no comparison with
the protracted and hopeless misery to which so
many Indians were doomed, who were transported
to the Islands and sold for slaves. Neither
rank or sex could claim exemption, and the
wife of the heroic Philip, and the young prince
his son, were sentenced to endure this appalling
servitude, and thus forever exiled from their beloved
country. The greater part of the Indian
prisoners were put to death, and many noble
chieftains, after the strife of the battle had ceased,
were ignominiously hanged publicly in Boston. D4v 44
We are nevertheless assured that a few only of
the white people who fell into the hands of the
Indians suffered death or torture but most of
them were ransomed, or returned unhurt to their
friends, having encountered only such hardships
as were incident to the wandering life and precarious
subsistence to which they were compelled
to submit. The honourable treatment
which female captives received from these untutored
children of nature, should cause the civilized
man to feel with deep humiliation 6-8 lettersflawed-reproduction

Eliza. You say, mother, that it is the duty
of all to seek truth, but I must confess I am mortified
to find our pilgrim fathers who are so
much extolled, guilty of deeds socriminal; what
are we to think when such men are praised for
their piety and christian virtue?

Mother. You must recollect, that christianity
has been very imperfectly comprehended by the
mass of mankind; a better state of things is dawning
upon us, I trust, and pure and undefiled religion,
as it was taught and exemplified by our
divine teacher, will be restored apart from those
corrupt doctrines, which have so long marred its
splendour, and retarded its efficacy. You must
also remember that the descendants of the pilgrims D5r 45
have received from them this goodly land,
and that the fortitude which led them to brave
so many dangers, and endure so many privations
in support of freedom, and what they believed to
be truth, has made them to be viewed through
the medium of prejudice, and invested them with
a lustre, which will fade before the perfect light
of truth. The God of purity and love, as he is
presented to us by Christ; whose tender mercies
are over all His works; who is the same yesterday,
to day and forever, cannot surely be the
same being whom Moses, and many other writers
represent as partial, revengeful, and unjust; and
I should feel myself highly culpable should I suffer
you to believe that men who have allowed
themselves to be rapacious, and cruel, could have
acted thus in conformity with the high behest of
the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Caroline. I can never read those parts of the
Old Testament which relate to the treatment of
the Canaanites without feeling great compassion
for that people, and disgust and indignation toward
the Israelites for their wicked and abominable
conduct; and I shall rejoice to find they
were not authorized to destroy the inhabitants of
Canaan, for were it true, we should be unable to D5v 46
distinguish good from evil—but how came this
to be believed, mother?

Mother. Among all ancient nations it was
common to indulge in a style of writing highly
figurative, more especially when they desired to
veil in obscurity, transactions which would not
bear the light; nevertheless, all nations, however
varied were their forms of belief, acknowledged
and adored one Supreme Ruler of the Universe,
by whose sovereign will and pleasure all the
events of this life were ordained, none having power
to alter, or withstand His decrees. Their ideas
were extremely confused, like many of the present
day, as they perceived both from the light
of nature, and of revelation, that except freedom
of will be allowed to man, he of course ceases to
be an accountable creature; they nevertheless
represented him as bound in the adamantine
chains of fate, thus making God the author of
evil, and themselves the instruments of His will,
to whom sin was not imputed. Unhappily our
ancestors believed that the Israelites, in conformity
with their own hyperbolic representations,
were a people chosen by God, to execute his
vengeance on the Canaanites, whom they were
commanded to exterminate, and possess their
heritage; therefore, as the odious transactions D6r 47
of the Israelites, have been associated with
Christianity, though nothing can be more adverse
to the spirit of our holy religion, they readily
adopted the notion, that they also were favourites
of heaven, and privileged like the Israelites
to destroy the native inhabitants of this land, and
convert it to their own use. Impressed with
these convictions, they appear to have lost sight
of the benign precepts of Jesus, and identified
themselves with the Israelites. Yet I would not
have you imagine that this people were ignorant
of the essential attributes of the high and
lofty one who inhabiteth eternity. David, in his
ascriptions of praise, gives the most vivid and exalted
views of the One only God, and bows before
the most High, confessing His justice and
mercy, in having afflicted him for his manifold
transgressions, and thus afforded him opportunity,
and space for repentance. Throughout the
Scriptures we find the most sublime and beautiful
representations of the Deity, which fully attest
that the unworthy views I have before noticed,
must be deemed altogether hyperbolical, and
calculated to blind the judgment, and stifle the
voice of nature.

Elizabeth. I suppose the Iliad of Homer D6v 48
which we are now reading at school, must be
written in the figurative style you describe?

Mother. You will find the same inconsistencies
in Homer, who is supposed to have been
contemporary with Solomon, and the extravagant
notions which some have entertained of
the religion of the Heathen, would be justified,
could we imagine that Homer in reality, designed
to convey the idea, that gods, and goddesses,
were personally engaged in the strife of mortal
men. Homer, who has been the wonder and
delight of ages, who has, under various forms,
conveyed the most impressive, religious, and
moral instruction, was unquestionably influenced
by the conviction, that every good, and every
perfect gift came from God; he therefore represented,
wisdom, and valour, &c. as personified
in his heroes, and thus designed to impress the
belief of the overruling power, and attributes of
the Olympian Jove. Of this, all must be convinced,
who attend to the noble description given
by Homer, of the power and supremacy of the
Father of gods and men, in the eighth Book of
the Iliad. Here also you will acquaint yourselves
with the manners and feelings, of many
of the celebrated men of antiquity, and will be
assured that they possessed in a high degree E1r 49
all those sentiments and feelings, which superficial
observers imagine are peculiarly our own.
It would, I apprehend, be difficult to produce
any character more perfect than that of Hector,
in all the relations of life. It is in my opinion
impossible to find any scene more highly descriptive
of refined sensibility and noble feeling,
than is the interview between Hector and Andromache.
Every circumstance conspires to
render this parting unequalled. When Hector
relates the prophetical denunciation of the fall of
imperial Troy, when her glories shall be blended
with the dust, and his kindred and people slain,
yet declares, although oppressed, with this weight
of woe, that no sorrow so wounds his mind, as
the sad presage, of the grief and degradation
which awaits Andromache. When to relieve
the fears of his child, Hector unbinds the beaming
helmet from his brows, and places it on the
ground, then lifts him high in air, whilst he feverently
supplicates Him, whose glories fill the ethereal
throne, to protect and bless his son, and grant
that he may guard the Trojans and defend the
crown, when he shall be no more; I am compelled
to acknowledge that this scene surpasses
all I have ever known. Nor must we pass over
in silence the part of Andromache, who in truth E E1v 50
appears worthy of such a husband, in her fulness
of affection, and tender solicitude; and though
oppressed with sorrow, the voice of loud lament
was not heard, nor efforts made to detain Hector
from the embattled plain.

It must be confessed, that in the days of Homer,
all the endearing charities of life were cherished
in their fairest forms, and produced the
purest results; nor will unprejudiced observers,
contend that women are indebted for the estimation
in which they are now held, to the generosity,
and superior refinement of modern nations;
as it is manifest that not only did they receive
those delicate and affectionate attentions, now
deemed essential, but were invested with the
sacred office of priestesses, and officiated publicly
in the temples and in solemn processions,
in honour of the gods. The testimony of Homer
is corroborated by other writers, both sacred and
profane, of which I could cite abundant proof,
but I will mention one only, which is the authority
Sarah exercised over Abraham, in regard
to Hagar and her son, though she has been extolled
for her submission in calling Abraham
lord. You know too well my sentiments to imagine
I would recommend the example of Sarah;
it is only noticed here to show the prevailing E2r 51
manners of that early period; you cannot too
conscientiously guard against all desires that are
unjust or unreasonable, and you should be equally
regardful to receive no wrong treatment from
others, if it be in your power to prevent it. I
can with confidence affirm, that no one will engage
respect or esteem who willingly submits to
impositions. Yet frail beings, conscious of their
own defects, should be kind and forbearing, and
not provoke strife, or aversion, by their perversity,
or unaccommodating temper.

Caroline. I wish to know how it happened,
mother, that Hector was so confident that Troy
must fall?

Mother. Hector was conscious that the Trojans
merited severe retributions, for having received
Helen, in compliance with the wishes of
Paris, and in refusing to restore her and her
treasures, to her lawful lord. You will call to
mind the challenge of Paris, and its acceptance
by the Spartan king, on the condition, that should
he prove victorious in the strife, the beauteous
queen should be his, with the treasure she
brought, and differing nations should part in
leagues of peace. These solemn engagements,
made under the most imposing sanctions, by sacrifices,
prayers, and imprecations: was most E2v 52
shamefully violated by the Trojans; Hector was
therefore convinced, that his people had forfeited
all right to the protection, and favour of heaven,
though he strove to procrastinate their doom.
The character of Hector is always well supported.
Conscious of his own integrity, his confidence
in the Almighty never forsakes him, and though
we find him complying with the religious rites
and ceremonies, common to his country, he refuses
with disdain to follow the advice of Polydamas,
who endeavoured to prevent him from his
intended attack on the Grecian fleet, as the
omens were unpropitious. The reply of Hector
is full of dignity, and indicates a firm reliance on
what he believes to be the will of heaven, unmoved
by inferior auguries. Homer’s descriptions
are truly admirable, and impress the mind
with lofty images, and sublime conceptions of
moral grandeur and beauty. The more you attend
to history, the firmer will be your conviction
of the universal belief of one Supreme Ruler
of the Universe, who rewards the good, and
punishes evil doers, without respect of persons.
The inhabitants of Canaan, among whom the
Israelites sojourned, all appealed to the same
Almighty power to witness their engagements,
to whom also they offered sacrifices and oblations, E3r 53
and addressed their fervent prayers; and
we should rejoice to find the virtues of generosity,
hospitality and good faith, held in the highest
estimation, however blended with vice, or
deformed by sensuality.

I trust, my dear children, you will not be
wearied with this long digression, as it appears
to me to be altogether essential to give you just,
and comprehensive views of the never failing
goodness, and essential perfections of that Almighty
Being, who we are assured “hath never
left himself without a witness—for the invisible
things of Him from the creation of the world are
clearly seen, being understood by the things
that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead.”
These assurances will prevent you from
indulging those supercilious feelings, which lead
many to imagine themselves to be the only people
who are truly enlightened, and favoured by
the most High. Our blessed master, came not
to destroy the law, but to fulfil. He came to
illustrate, improve and confirm, all those impressions
which are written in divine characters on
the heart, and to exemplify in the most perfect
form the doctrines he taught. These views will
silence those, who affirm that if these doctrines
had been essential for our salvation and happiness,E2 E3v 54
God would not so long have delayed to
communicate them to the creatures whom He
formed. You will also be assured that such as
love not their brethren, but destroy and persecute
them, and bind on them heavy burdens, are
unworthy the name of Christians.

I will now close what I have further to relate
of the Creeks, with a description of the character,
customs and persons of the Cherokees,
Muscogulges, Siminoles, Chickasaws, Chacktaws,
and confederate tribes of the Creeks; from
Travels through North and South Carolina,
Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee
, the extensive Territories of the Muscogulges,
or Creek Confederacy, and the Country
of the Chactaws
; by William Bartram, in
17731773. Mr. Bartram was a botanist, and a great
admirer of natural scenery, which led him to be
somewhat enthusiastic in his descriptions, yet his
integrity is undoubted. The fervour of his religious
feelings led him to express without reserve
his admiration of the works of God, in His gifts
to man, and to all created intelligences, without
any desire to limit His benevolence. “This
he says, “as a glorious apartment of the
boundless palace of the sovereign Creator, is
furnished with an infinite variety of animated E4r 55
scenes, inexpressibly beautiful and pleasing,
equally free to the inspection and enjoyment of
all his creatures.”

“ The males of the Muscogulges, Cherokees,
and confederate tribes of the Creeks, are tall,
erect and moderately robust; their limbs well
shaped, so as generally to form a perfect human
figure; their features regular, and countenance
open, dignified and placid; yet the forehead and
brow so formed, as to strike you instantly with
heroism and bravery; the eye, though rather
small, yet active and full of fire, the iris always
black; and the nose inclining to the aquiline.
Their countenance and actions exhibit an air of
magnanimity, superiority, and independence.
Their complexion of a reddish brown or copper
colour, their hair long, lank, coarse, and black
as a raven, and reflecting the like lustre at different
exposures to the light.
The women of the Cherokees are tall, slender,
erect and of a delicate frame; their features
formed with perfect symmetry; their countenances
cheerful, and friendly; and they move
with a becoming grace. This description of the
Cherokee women, will with some variations, apply
equally well to the females of the other tribes.
The Cherokees are taller and more robust than E4v 56
the Muscogulges, and by far the largest race of
men I have seen, with some few exceptions;
their complexions brighter, and somewhat of the
olive cast, especially the adults; and some of
their young women are nearly as fair, and blooming,
as European women.”

Eliza. I recollect in the account given of
Catharine Brown, the Cherokee convert, it was
said, that she was distinguished from the ladies
belonging to the missionary family, only by her
superior beauty and modest deportment, and that
some gentlemen who accidentally saw her,
doubted not her being white.

Mother. I remember that she was represented
to be a most amiable and interesting young
woman; her patience, fortitude, (and the extreme
anxiety for the sorrow and privations of
her people, whose ruin she foresaw,) during a
long and severe illness, which terminated her
life, made a deep impression on all who knew

“The Cherokees, in their dispositions and
manners are grave and steady; dignified and
circumspect in their deportment, yet frank,
cheerful, and humane; tenacious of the liberties
and natural rights of men; secret, deliberate
and determined in their councils; honest, just E5r 57
and liberal, and ready always to sacrifice every
pleasure and gratification, even life itself, to defend
their territories, and maintain their rights.
The national character of the Muscogulges,
when considered in a political view, exhibits a
portraiture of a great and illustrious hero. A
proud, haughty, arrogant race of men, they are
valiant in war, ambitious of conquest, restless
and perpetually exercising their arms, yet magnanimous
and merciful to a vanquished enemy,
when he submits and seeks their friendship and
protection: always uniting the vanquished tribes
in confederacy with them; when they immediately
enjoy, unexceptionably, every right of free
citizens, and are from that moment united in
one common band of brotherhood. They were
never known to exterminate a tribe, except the
Yamasees, who would never submit, but fought
it out to the last, only about forty or fifty of them
escaping at the last decisive battle. If we consider
them with respect to their private character,
or in a moral view, they must I think claim
our approbation, if we divest ourselves of prejudice
and think freely. As moral men, they certainly
stand in no need of European civilization.
They are just, honest, liberal and hospitable
to strangers; considerate, loving and affectionate E5v 58
to their wives and relations; fond of their
children, industrious, frugal, temperate and forbearing.
I have been weeks and months
amongst them and in their towns, and never observed
the least sign of contention: never saw
an instance of an Indian beating his wife, or
even reproving her in anger. In this case, they
stand as examples of reproof to the most civilized
nations, as not being defective in justice, gratitude,
and good understanding; for indeed their
wives merit their esteem, and the most gentle
treatment, they being industrious, frugal, loving
and affectionate. The Muscogulges are more
volatile, and talkative, than their Northern neighbours,
the Cherokees; and though far more distant
from the white settlement than any nation
East of the Mississippi or Ohio, appear evidently
to have made greater advances towards the refinements
of true civilization, which cannot in
the least degree be attributed to the good example
of the white people.
Their internal police and family economy,
at once engage the notice of European travellers,
and incontrovertibly place these people in
an illustrious point of view: their liberality, intimacy,
and friendly intercourse one with another,
without any restraint of ceremonious formality, E6r 59
as if they were even insensible of the use or necessity
of associating the passions or affections of
avarice or ambition. A man goes forth on his
business or avocations, he calls in at another
town if he wants food, rest or social conversation;
he confidently approaches the door of the
first house he chooses, saying, I am come;
the good man or woman replies, you are, it is
well. Immediately victuals and drink are ready;
he eats and drinks a little, then smokes, and
converses either of private matters, or news of
the town. He rises and says I go, the other answers,
you do. He then proceeds again, and
stops in at the next habitation he likes, or repairs
to the public square, where are people always
conversing by day, or dancing at night, or to
some more private assembly, as he likes; he
needs no one to introduce him, any more than
the black-bird or thrush, when he repairs to the
fruitful groves to regale on their luxuries.
It is astonishing, though a fact, as well as a
sharp reproof to the white people, if they will
allow themselves to reflect and form a just estimate,
and I must own elevates those people to the
first rank amongst mankind, that they have been
able to resist the continual efforts of the complicated
host of vices, that have for ages over-run E6v 60
the nations of the old world, and so contaminated
their morals, yet more so, since such vast armies
of these evil spirits have invaded this continent,
and invested them on all sides. Astonishing
indeed! when we behold the immoral conduct
of too many white people, who reside
amongst them; notwithstanding which, it seems
natural, eligible, and even easy, for these simple,
illiterate people to put in practice those beautiful
lectures delivered to us by the ancient sages and
philosophers, and recorded for our instruction.
I saw a young Indian in the nation, who when
present and beholding the scenes of mad intemperance
and folly, acted by the whites in the
town, pressed his hand to his breast, and with
a smile looked aloft as if struck with astonishment,
and wrapt in love and adoration to the
Diety; as who should say, ‘Oh thou Great and
Good Spirit! we are indeed sensible of thy benignity
and favour to us red men, in denying us
the knowledge of white men,—We did not know
before they came amongst us that mankind
could become so base, and fall so below the
dignity of their nature.—Defend us from their
manners, laws and power.’
The Muscogulges
with their confederates, eminently deserve the
encomium of all nations, for their wisdom F1r 61
and virtue, in resisting, and even repelling the
greatest and common enemy of mankind, at least,
of most of the European nations; I mean spirituous
liquors. The first and most cogent article
in all their treaties with the white people, is, that
there shall not be any kind of spirituous liquors
sold or brought into their towns; and the traders
are allowed but five gallons each, wich is supposed
to be sufficient for a company, to serve
them on the road, and if any of this remains on
their approaching the town, they must spill it on
the ground, or secrete it on the road, for it must
not come into the town.
How are we to account for their excellent
policy in civil government; it cannot derive its
influence from coercive laws, for they have no
such artificial system. Divine wisdom dictates
and they obey. We see and know full well the
direful effects of this torrent of evil, which has
its source in hell, and we know surely, as well as
these savages, how to divert its course and suppress
its inundations. Do we want wisdom and
virtue? let our youth then repair to the venerable
councils of the Muscogulges.
The Indians are by no means idolators, unless
their puffing the tobacco smoke towards the
sun, and rejoicing at the appearance of the new F F1v 62
moon, may be termed so. So far from idolatry
are they, that they have no images among them,
nor any religious rite or ceremony that I could
perceive; but adore the Great Spirit, the giver
and taker away of the breath of life, with the
most profound and respectful homage. They
believe in a future state where the spirit exists,
which they call the world of spirits, where they
enjoy different degrees of tranquility or comfort,
agreeably to their life spent here: a person who
in his life has been an industrious hunter, provided
well for his family; an intrepid active warrior,
just, upright, and done all the good he
could, will, they say, in the world of spirits, live
in a warm, pleasant country, where are expansive,
green, flowery savannas, and high forests,
watered with rivers of pure waters, replenished
with every species of game, a serene, unclouded
sky; in short, where there is a fulness of pleasure.
These people, like all other nations, are fond
of music and dancing: their music is both vocal
and instrumental; but of the latter they have
scarcely any thing worth the name; the tambour,
rattle-gourd, and a kind of flute, made of the
joint of reed; on this instrument they perform
badly, it is only young fellows who amuse themselves
on this howling instrument; but the tambour F2r 63
and rattle, accompanied with their sweet
low voices, produce a pathetic harmony, keeping
exact time together, and the countenance of the
musician at proper times seems to express the
solemn elevated state of the mind; at that time
there appears not only a harmony between him
and his instrument, but it instantly touches the
feelings of the attentive audience, as the influence
of an active and powerful spirit; there is
then an united, universal sensation, and peaceful
union of souls throughout the assembly.
Their music, vocal and instrumental, keeps exact
time with the performers or dancers.”

Caroline. What can be the reason that the
Indians feel the force of music more powerfully
than we do?

Mother. They have fewer objects to divert
their attention, and being much abroad in the
open air, have many opportunities of becoming
acquainted with the wonders of nature, and are
thus strongly impressed with the all pervading
presence, and goodness of God—hence their
sensibility is deeply excited. In the early ages,
music was held in the highest estimation, and
exerted great power over the human mind. You
know that Bards, at public festivals, sang the
deeds of their heroes and great men, and it is F2v 64
thus that in many instances historical facts have
been transmitted from one generation to another.
But I will proceed with Mr. Bartram’s description
of their dancing.

“They have an endless variety of steps, but
the most common and most admired and practised
amongst themselves, is a slow shuffling alternate
step, both feet move forward, one after
the other, first the right foot foremost, and next
the left, moving one after the other in opposite
circles, first a circle of young men, and within
a circle of young women, moving together opposite
ways, the men with the course of the sun,
and the females contrary to it; the men strike
their arm with their open hand, and the girls
clap hands and raise their shrill sweet voices,
answering an elevated shout of the men, at stated
times of termination of the stanzas, and the girls
perform an interlude or chorus separately. To
accompany their dances, they have songs of different
classes, some are of a moral character,
and seem to be the most esteemed and practised,
and answer to the purpose of religious lectures.
Some of their most favourite songs and dances,
they have from the Chactaws, for it appears that
these people are very eminent for poetry and
music; every town amongst them strive to excel F3r 65
each other in composing new songs for dances,
and by a custom amongst them they must at
least have one new song, for exhibition, at every
annual busk. Their doleful moral songs or elegies,
have a quick and sensible effect on their
passions; their countenances now dejected, again
by an easy transition, become gently elevated,
as if in solemn address or supplication, accompanied
with a tremulous, sweet lamentable voice.
A stranger is for a moment lost to himself as it
were, or his mind associated with the person immediately
affected, is in danger of revealing his
own distress unawares.
They have a variety of games for exercise
and pastimes: some particular to the male, some
to the female sex; and others wherein both sexes
are engaged. The ball play is esteemed the
most noble and manly exercise. This game is
exhibited in an extensive level plain, usually contiguous
to the town: the inhabitants of one town
play against another, in consequence of a challenge,
when the youth of both sexes are often
engaged, and sometimes stake their whole substance.
Here they perform amazing feats of
strength and agility. The game principally consists
in taking and carrying off the ball from the
opposite party, after being hurled into the air, F2 F3v 66
midway between two high pillars, which are the
goals, and the party who bears off the ball to their
pillar, wins the game; each person has a racquet
or hurl, which is an instrument of a very curious
construction, somewhat resembling a ladle or
little hoop-net. The foot ball is likewise a favourite,
manly diversion with them. Feasting
and dancing in the square at evening, ends all
their games. They have, besides, feasts or festivals,
almost for every month in the year, which
are chiefly dedicated to hunting and agriculture.
The busk, or feast of first fruits, is their
principal festival; this seems to end the last, and
begin the new year. It commences in August,
when their new crops of corn are arrived at maturity;
and every town celebrates the busk separately,
when their own harvest is ready. If
they have any religious rite or ceremony, this
festival is its most solemn celebration. When a
town celebrates the busk, having previously provided
themselves with new clothes, household
utensils, and furniture, they collect all their
worn-out clothes, and other despicable things,
sweep and cleanse their houses, squares, and the
whole town, and all the remaining grain, and
other old provisions, they cast into one common
heap, and consume it with fire. After having F4r 67
taken medicine, and fasted for three days, all
the fire in the town is extinguished. During
this fast they abstain from the gratification of
every appetite and passion whatever. A general
amnesty is proclaimed; all malefactors may return
to their town, and are absolved from their
crimes, which are now forgotten. On the fourth
morning the high priest, by rubbing dry wood
together, produces new fire in the public square,
from whence every habitation in the town is
supplied with the new and pure flame. Then
the women go forth to the harvest field and bring
from thence new corn and fruits, which being
prepared in the best manner, in various dishes,
and drink withal, is brought with solemnity to
the square, where the people are assembled, appareled
in their new clothes and decorations.
The men having regaled themselves, the remainder
is carried off and distributed among the families
of the town. The women and children
solace themselves in their families, and in the
evening repair to the public square, where they
dance, sing and rejoice, during the whole night,
observing a proper and exemplary decorum.
This continues three days, and the four following
days they receive visits and rejoice with their F4v 68
friends from the neighbouring towns, who have
purified and prepared themselves.”

Elizabeth. This manner of celebrating their
thanksgiving appears to me very delightful; but
their fasts have more solemnity and devotedness
than ours—why should Mr. Bartram be in doubt
of this annual festival, being a religious rite? I
can perceive no other motive which could induce
the Indians to observe a fast, which requires so
many sacrifices and privations.

Mother. There can be no doubt of their fast
being commemorated with a view to make atonement
for sin, and in the hope of propitiating the
Deity, and they thus attest their humility and
sorrow for past offences. They after, testify
their gratitude to the great Creator, by enjoying
His bounties with gladness and rejoicing, and in
mutual reciprocations of kindness.

Other writers have noticed these ancient customs
of the Aborigines. The Rev. Dr. Morse, who
performed a tour in the summer of 18201820, under a
commission from the President of the U. States,
for the purpose of ascertaining for the government,
the actual state of the Indian tribes in our country,
says,—“The Indians have two sacrifices in
each year. The principal festival is celebrated
in the month of August. The precise time is F5r 69
fixed by the head chief counsellors of the
town, and takes place, sooner or later, as the
state of the affairs of the town, or forwardness of
the corn will admit. It is called the green corn
dance, or more properly speaking, the ‘ceremony
of thanksgiving for the first fruits of the earth.’

It lasts from four to twelve days, and in some
places resembles a large camp meeting. The
Indians attend from all quarters, with their families,
their tents and provisions, encamping around
the council house, or house of worship. The animals
killed for the sacrifice are cleansed, the
heads, horns, &c. are suspended on a large white
pole, with a forked top, which extends over the
roof of the house. The women having prepared
the new corn and provisions for the feast, the
men take some of the new corn and rub it between
their hands, then on their faces and
breasts: They then feast, the great chief having
first addressed the crowd, thanking the Great
Spirit, for the return of the season, and giving
such moral instruction to the people, as he thinks
proper. On these occasions the Indians are
dressed in their best manner, and the whole nation
attend from the greatest to the smallest.—
The quality of provisions is immense, every
one bringing, in proportion to his ability. The F5v 70
whole is cast into one pile, and distributed during
the continuance of the feast, among the multitude,
by leaders appointed for the purpose.—In
former times this festival was held in the highest
veneration, and was a general amnesty, which
not only absolved the Indians from all punishments
for crimes, (murder only excepted,) but
seemed to bury guilt itself in oblivion. There
are no people more frequent or fervent in their
acknolegments of gratitude to God. Their
belief in Him is universal, and their confidence
astonishingly strong.”

Religious festivals, such as are here described,
were common among all nations; a considerable
resemblance has been remarked between many
customs of the Jews and the Aborigines of
this country, which has induced some, to imagine
our Indians to be the descendants of the lost
tribes of Israel.

Caroline. The description you have last mentioned,
differs somewhat from that given by

Mother. Though these sacrifices and feasts,
were celebrated amongs most of the various tribes
of Indians, we find some variation in the forms
observed; yet they are all allowed to bear the
same sacred character.—I will now give you F6r 71
Bartram’s account of the Creeks, or Muscogulges,
who are under a more strict government, or
regular civilization, than the Indians in general.

“Their country having a vast frontier, naturally
accesible and open to the incursions of
their enemies, they find themselves under the
necessity of associating in large populous towns,
as near together as convenient, that they may be
enabled to succour and defend one another in
case of sudden invasion. This, consequently,
occasions deer and bear to be scarce, and difficult
to procure, which obliges them to be vigilant
and industrious; this naturally begets care
and serious attention, which we may suppose in
some degree forms their natural disposition and
manners; and gives them that air of dignified
gravity, so strikingly characteristic in their aged
people; and that steadiness, just and cheerful
reverence, in the middle-aged and youth, which
sits so easy upon them, and appears so natural.
For however strange it may appear to us, the
same moral duties, which with us form the amiable,
virtuous character, so difficult to maintain,
there, without compulsion or visible restraint,
operate like instinct, with a surprising harmony
and natural ease, insomuch that it seems impossible F6v 72
for them to act out of the common high road
to virtue.
We will now take a view of the lower
Creeks or Seminoles, and the natural disposition
which characterizes this people; whom, from
the striking contrast, the philosopher may approve
or disapprove, as he thinks proper, from
the judgment and opinion given by different men.
The Seminoles are but a weak people with respect
to numbers, yet they enjoy a superabundance
of the necessaries of life, with the security
of person and property. The hides of deer,
bears, &c. together with honey, wax, and other
productions of the country, purchase their clothing,
equipage and domestic utensils, from the
whites. They seem to be free from want or desires.
No cruel enemy to dread; nothing to
give them disquietude, but the gradual encroachments
of the white people. Thus contented and
undisturbed, they appear as blythe and free
as the birds of the air, and like them as volatile
and active, tuneful and vociferous. The visage,
action and deportment of the Seminoles, form
the most striking picture of happiness in this
life; joy, contentment, love and friendship, seem
inherent in them, or predominant in their vital
principle, for it leaves them but with the last G1r 73
breath. It even seems imposing a constraint
upon their ancient chiefs and senators, to maintain
a necessary decorum and solemnity, in their
public councils; not even the debility of extreme
old age, is sufficient to erase from their
visages, this joyous simplicity; but, like the gray
eve of a serene and calm day, a gladdening
cheering blush remains on the western horizon
after the sun is set. I doubt not but some of my
countrymen, who may read these accounts of the
Indians, which I have endeavoured to relate according
to truth, at least as they appeared to me,
will charge me with partiality or prejudice in
their favour.”

“I will now,” (proceeds Bartram,) “endeavour
to exhibit their vices and immoralities, from my
own observations, and knowledge, as well as accounts
from the white traders who reside amongst

“The Indians make war against, kill and destroy
their species, and their motives spring from
the same erroneous source as they do in all other
nations of mankind; that is, the ambition of exhibiting
to their fellows a superior character of
national and personal valour; and thereby immortalizing
themselves, by transmitting their
names with honour and lustre to posterity; or G G1v 74
revenge of their enemy, for public or personal insults;
or lastly to extend the boundaries of their
territories. But I cannot find, upon the strictest
enquiry, that their bloody contests at this day
are marked with deeper stains of inhumanity or
savage cruelty, than may be observed amongst
the most civilized nations: they do indeed scalp
their slain enemy, but they do not kill the females
or children of either sex: the most ancient
traders, both in the upper and lower Creeks, assured
me they never saw an instance of either
burning or tormenting their captives; though it is
said they used to do it formerly. I saw in every
town in the nation of Seminoles, that I visited,
more or less male captives, some extremely aged,
who were free and in as good circumstances, as
their masters; and all slaves have their freedom
when they marry, which is permitted and encouraged;
when, they and their offspring are
every way upon an equality with their conquerors.
They punish adulterers with great severity,
male and female equally alike, by taking off their
ears. Infamy and disgrace is supposed to be
a sufficient punishment for crimes of less magnitude.
They are fond of games and gambling,
and amuse themselves like children, in relating
extravagant stories, to cause surprise and mirth.”

G2r 75

In giving a summary view of the character of
a people, the result of the writer’s conclusions
are frequently at variance with what he has himself
previously stated; hence in estimating the
qualities of the people described, the only criterion
by which we are enabled to form a just
judgment, is by attending to transactions which
came within the scope of the writer’s own observation.
The opinion given by our author in
reference to the habits and dispositions of the
Indians, is abundantly confirmed in the details
he has made relative to his reception and entertainment
by these natives. The situation of
their towns, manner of building, with their agricultural
products, afford a most pleasing picture
of rural happiness and independence. The
country is beautiful and fertile in a high degree.
Oranges, peaches, grapes, with almost every variety
of fruits, are spontaneously produced; and
vegetables of the finest flavour, particularly melons;
and lastly, they have horses, and every
species of game, in great abundance. Orange
groves, intermixed with the most beautiful flowering
trees and shrubs, in many instances, nearly
surround their towns and villages, forming a cool
and fragrant shade.

I will give you, in the words of Mr. Bartram, G2v 76
a description of the town of Cuscowilla, and its
environs, which may give you an idea of many
others, visited by him during this tour.

“After crossing over the point or branch of
the marshes, we entered a noble forest, the land
level and the soil fertile; the forest consisted of
orange groves, overtopped by grand magnolias,
palms, &c., with various kinds of shrubs and
herbaceous plants. We were cheerfully received
in this hospitable shade by various tribes of
birds, their sprightly songs seemed a prelude to
the vicinity of human habitations. This magnificent
grove was a wing of the vast forests lying
upon the coast of the great and beautiful lake of
Cuscowilla, at no great distance from us. Continuing
eight or nine miles through this sublime
forest, we entered an open forest of lofty
pines and oaks, on gently swelling sand hills,
and presently saw the lake, its waters sparkling
through the open groves. Near the path was a
large artifical mound of earth, on a charming
high situation, supposed to be the work of the
ancient Floridians or Yamazees, with other traces
of an Indian town. Here were three or
four Indian habitations; the women and children
saluted us with cheerfulness and complaisance.
After riding near a mile farther we arrived G3r 77
at Cuscowilla, near the banks; a pretty
brook of water ran through the town, and entered
the lake just by.
We were welcomed to the town, and conducted
by the young men and maidens to the
chief’s house, which stood on an eminence, and
was distinguished from the rest by its superior
magnitude, and a large flag being hoisted on a
high staff at one corner. We immediately
alighted; the chief, attended by several ancient
men, came to us, and in a very free and sociable
manner shook our hands, saying at the same
time, ‘you are come.’ We followed him to an
apartment prepared for the reception of their
guests. The pipe being filled, was handed
around; after which a large bowl, with what
they call their drink, was brought in and set
down on a small low table. In this bowl is a
great wooden ladle: each person takes up as
much as he pleases, and after drinking, returns
it again into the bowl, with the handle towards
the next person in the circle, and so it goes
round. After the usual compliments and inquiries,
the chief trader informed the chief, in the
presence of his council or attendants, the purport
of our business, with which he expressed his satisfaction.
He was then informed what the natureG2 G3v 78
of my errand was, and he received me with
complaisance, giving me unlimited permission to
travel over the country for the purpose of collecting
flowers, medicinal plants, &c. saluting me
by the name of Pue Puggy, or the flower hunter,
recommending me to the friendship and protection
of his people. The next day was agreed on
to hold a council and transact the business of our
embassy; soon after a considerable number of
Indians assembled around their chief, when the
conversation turned to common and familiar
topics. The chief is a tall well made man, very
affable and cheerful, about sixty years of age,
his eyes lively and full of fire, his countenance
manly and placid, yet ferocious, or what we call
savage, his nose aquiline, his dress extremely
simple, but his head trimmed and ornamented in
the true Creek mode. The repast was now
brought in, consisting of venison stewed with
bear’s oil, fresh corn cakes, milk and homeny;
and our drink, honey and water, very cool and
agreeable. After partaking of this banquet, we
took leave and departed for the great savanna.”

Eliza. How beautiful must be this country
inhabited by the Creeks, I do not wonder to find
they are so unwilling to leave it; neither can I
perceive any thing barbarous in their manners, G4r 79
or customs, but on the contrary there is much
urbanity, and politeness in their behaviour; this
doubtless induced the Chief to grant permission
to Mr. Bartram, in a manner so pleasing, to travel
over the country, as they were so much in fear
of the encroachments of the white people.

Mother. Their willingness to shew courtesy
to strangers, was unquestionably the reason of
their allowing Bartram to explore the country, as
the accounts given by travellers of the Indian
territory, has uniformly incited the desire of our
people to possess their lands. Bartram’s descriptions
are of a nature to create this desire, in the
breasts of unprincipled men; he gives here a
most magnificent view of the extensive Alachua
, which he says, “is a level green plain,
above fifty miles in circumference, and scarcely a
tree or bush to be seen on it. It is encircled with
high, sloping hills, covered with waving forests
and fragrant Orange groves, rising from an exhuberantly
fertile soil. The towering magnolia,
grandiflora and transcendent Palm, stand conspicuous
amonst them. At the same time are
seen innumerable droves of cattle, herds of deer,
squadrons of the beautiful fleet Seminole horse,
flocks of turkeys, civilized communities of the G4v 80
sonorous watchful crane, mixing together, happy
in the enjoyment of nature’s bounties.”

“Soon after sun-rise a party of Indians appeared
upon the savanna to collect together
several herds of cattle, which they drove along
near our camp towards the town. One of the
party came up, and informed us that the cattle
belonged to the chief of Cuscowilla, that he had
ordered some of the best steers to be slaughtered
for a general feast for the whole town, in compliment
of our arrival, and pacific negotiations.
We soon followed them to town, in order to be
at the council at the hour appointed. Upon our
arrival we repaired to the public square or council-house,
where the chiefs and senators were
already convened; the warriors and young men
assembled soon after, the business being transacted
in public, which was soon terminated to
the satisfaction of both parties. The banquet
succeeded; the ribs and choisest fat pieces of
the bullocks, excellently well barbecued, were
brought into the apartment of the public square,
constructed and appointed for feasting; bowls
and kettles of stewed flesh and broth were
brought in for the next course.”

Caroline. Why mother I had no idea that
entertainments were given by the Indians in this G5r 81
style; they must have had spacious apartments,
to accommodate so large a party.

Mother. In this place Bartram does not mention
the size of the council house, or mode of
its construction; yet shortly after he describes
one in the town of Cowe, belonging to the Cherokees,
which would furnish ample accommodation
for a numerous assembly, to which this undoubtedly
bore a strong resemblance.

“But I will now proceed to furnish the description
of the town of Cuscowilla, which is the
capital of the Alachua tribe, and contains about
thirty habitations, each of which consists of two
houses of nearly the same size, about thirty feet in
length, twelve feet wide, and about the same in
height. The door is placed midway on one side
or in the front. This house is divided into two
apartments, one of which is the cook room and
common hall, and the other the lodging room.
The other house is nearly of the same dimensions,
standing about twenty yards from the
dwelling house, its end fronting the door. The
building is two stories high, and constructed in
a different manner. It is divided transversely, as
the other, but the end next the dwelling house
is open on three sides, supported by posts or pillars.
It has an open loft or platform, the ascent G5v 82
to which, is by a portable stair or ladder; this is
a pleasant, airy, cool situation, and here the
master or chief of a family retires to repose in
the hot seasons, or receives his guests or visitors.
The other half of this building is closed on all
sides, the lowest or ground part is a potatoe
house, and the upper story over it a granary for
corn and other provisions. Their houses are
constructed of a kind of frame. In the first
place strong corner pillars are fixed in the ground,
with others somewhat less, ranging on a line between;
these are strengthened by cross pieces
of timber, and the whole with the roof is covered
close with the bark of the Cypress tree. The
dwelling stands near the middle of a square yard,
encompassed by a low bank, which is always
carefully swept. Their towns are clean, the
inhabitants being particular in laying all their
filth at a proper distance from their dwellings,
which undoubtedly contributes to the healthiness
of their habitations.
The town stands on the most pleasant situation
that could be well imagined, in an inland
country; upon a high swelling ridge of sand
hills, within three or four hundred yards of a
large and beautiful lake, the circular shore of
which continually washes a sandy beach, under G6r 83
a moderately high sloping bank, terminated on
one side by extensive forests, consisting of orange
groves, overtopped with grand Magnolias, palms,
poplar, and others already noticed, and the opposite
point of the crescent, gradually retires
with hommochy projecting points indenting the
grassy marshes, and lastly terminates in infinite
green plains and meadows, united with the skies
and waters of the lake; at present the ground
betwixt the town and the lake is adorned by an
open grove of tall pine trees, which, standing at
a considerable distance from each other, admit a
delightful prospect of the sparkling waters. The
lake abounds with various excellent fish, and wild
fowl: there are incredible numbers of the latter,
especially in the winter season.”

Elizabeth. It appears very strange that the
Indians should be represented by some, as having
no permanent dwelling places, but perpetually
roaming in search of a precarious subsistence;
occupying miserable huts, scarcely capable of
affording shelter, or convenience of any sort;
when Mr. Bartram, and many others, so deserving
of confidence, describe their situation so
pleasant, and desirable.

Mother. This is easily explained; people of
contracted and sordid minds, from having been G6v 84
early instructed to limit the goodness of God to
a small portion of the human race, embracing
those only who belong to their sect or party,
imagine that all who are removed from their own
narrow circle must be ignorant and vile. Influenced
by these impressions, they perversely misrepresent
and distort the gifts and high endowments
which the beneficent Father of the Universe
hath so abundantly bestowed on His
children, without partiality, and thus by these
delusive expedients they persuade themselves
that it is not criminal to wrest from those, whom
they call heathen, their possessions and all they
hold most dear; hence, having forced the Indians
to become vagrants, by depriving them of
the means of subsistence, and reducing them to
a state of desperation; they are stimulated to
conceal their guilty deeds by representing the
Indians as unworthy, and incapable of enjoying
or improving the bounties of nature. Policy,
also influences many to acquiesce in these
misrepresentations, who are desirous of enjoying
spoil thus acquired without disturbance, or feeling
their responsibility to vindicate or relieve the
oppressed Indians. It is generally maintained
that the male Indians are too indolent to bestow
any attention on agriculture, and that a small H1r 85
quantity of corn is produced by the labour of the
women only, as the men feel it to be derogatory
to lend them any assistance; little attention
therefore is bestowed on the rising plants, and of
course they frequently are in great want of this
necessary article of food. It is however only
necessary to refer to the first settlement of the
country, to be assured that corn was raised in
abundance by the natives, who frequently relieved
the settlers from much suffering by their
liberal supplies.

Bartram gives a distinct account of their husbandry,
in closing his description of Cuscowilla.
“They plant” (says this writer,) “but little here
about the town; only a small garden at each
habitation, consisting of corn, beans, citruls, &c.
Their plantation, which supplies them with the
chief of their vegetable provisions, lies on the rich,
prolific lands bordering on the great Alachua
, about two miles distance. This plantation
is one common enclosure, and is worked
and tended by the whole community; yet every
family has its particular part, according to its
own appointment, marked off when planted; and
this portion receives the common labour until
ripe, when each family gathers and deposits in
its granary its own proper share, setting apart a H H1v 86
small gift or contribution for the public granary,
which stands in the centre of the plantation.
The youth, under the supervisal of some of their
ancient people are, daily stationed in the fields,
and are continually whooping and halooing to
chase away crows, black-birds, and such predatory
animals; and the lads are armed with bows
and arrows, and being trained up to it from their
early youth, are sure at a mark, and in the
course of the day load themselves with squirrels,
birds, &c. The men in their turn parole the
cornfields at night to protect them from the
depredations of bears, raccoons,”

Elizabeth. Do you suppose, mother, that all
the natives of this country were as attentive to
the cultivation of their lands, as were those of

Mother. Unquestionably those were whom
Mr. Bartram visited, as he constantly speaks of
the abundance which prevailed, and the fine plantations
which every where met his view, in, or
near, their settlements; nor can we doubt of the
attention paid to agriculture at the period when
this country was first discovered. Mr. Bartram
says, “that in the old Spanish highway across
the isthmus of Florida to Saint Marks, in the bay
of Apalache, they passed through a great extent H2r 87
of ancient Indian fields, now grown over with
forests of stately trees, orange groves, and luxuriant
herbage, the old trader, his associate, informed
him it was the ancient Alachua, the capital
of that famous and powerful tribe, who peopled
the hills surrounding the savanna, when in days
of old, they could assemble by thousands at ball
play, and other juvenile diversions and athletic
exercises, over those then happy fields and
green plains. And there is no reason to doubt
of his account being true, as almost every step
we take over those fertile heights, discovers remains
and traces of human habitations and cultivation.”

Caroline. By what people were those Indians
destroyed who were so numerous and happy?

Mother. I believe both the French and
Spaniards made settlements in this part of the
country, who, like all other nominal christian
settlers, disregarded the ties of gratitude, and humanity,
and sacrificed with merciless barbarity,
the natives by whose kindness, and generous
hospitality, they had been preserved from famine
and disease.

Some years past, in a work entitled Sketches
historical and descriptive of Louisiana, by Major
, member of the New York Historical H2v 88
, &c. who was appointed to take possession
of Upper Lousiana under the treaty of session,
the writer says, “the records and other
public documents were open to my inspection,
and as it was my fortune to be stationed about
five years on various parts of the lower Mississippi,
and nearly six months on Red River, my
enquiries gradually extended to Louisiana in

The author bestows ample praises on the
Natches, as a comparatively polished and civiized
tribe. “They had an established religion
among them, in many particulars rational and
consistent, as likewise regular orders of priesthood.
They had a temple to the Great Spirit,
in which they preserved the eternal fire.”

“The civil policy of the Natches partook of
the refinements of a people, in some degree
learned and scientific; it exhibited penetration
and wisdom, and was calculated to make them
happy. They had kings or chiefs, invested with
absolute power, as likewise a kind of subordinate
nobility, among them.”
It is added, “they
were just, generous and humane, and never failed
to extend relief to objects of distress. They
were well acquainted with the properties of medicinal
plants, and the cures they performed, particularly H3r 89
among the French, appear almost incredible.
What is much more to their praise,
they never deemed it glorious to destroy the human
species, and for this reason seldom waged
any other than defensive war.”

“The Natches had received favourably the
French adventurers; had supplied them with
provisions, assisted them in their tillage, and
in building their houses; had saved them
from famine and death; and continued to possess
the strongest disposition to oblige; and
would still have been eminently useful to them,
had they not been treated with indignity and injustice,
by the commandant of a French fort.
They began to take as might be expected a severe
revenge, but were induced to stop short of
its complete execution, and a treaty of peace
restored confidence, apparently on both sides,
and in reality on the side of the Natches. But
the civilized party, the Christians, were meditating
a plan of extermination. A very strong military
body, concealed its movements so well as to
be enabled to fall suddenly on the habitations of
the Indians, of whom a large proportion perished
in a slaughter prolonged for several days, and
not terminated till the surrender, at the requisition
of the French, of the head of a peculiarly H2 H3v 90
obnoxious chief. The remainder of the nation,
still considerable, continued to be treated with
the most galling injustice, and about six years
afterwards were suddenly ordered to clear away
their huts, for the establishing a French settlement.
Stimulated to madness by this outrage,
they endeavoured to destroy the settlements.
This was revenged by measures which compelled
the Indians to retire precipitately into a distant
part of the wilderness. Thither they were followed,
and their most desperate efforts could not
avert their fate. A few escaped and incorporated
themselves with other tribes; while the remainder
of those that survived the carnage were
taken, enslaved, and at last transported to St.

Caroline. Did the Natches resemble the
Creek Indians?

Mother. It is probable there was not any
great dissimilarity between them, as they were
continguous to each other, and the natives of our
Southern clime bear a strong resemblance in
their habits and dispositions, with the difference
only, which is found between those who dwell
in populous towns, where a degree of refinement
prevails, and the people of the country; yet we
find that all of them had a common object of
worship, and that adoration was paid to the H4r 91
Great Spirit, in singleness of beast.—Fire also
appears to have been held in veneration as a sacred
element, and an emblem of purity, as we
find it to have been both by the Persians and
Hindoos, and other Pagan nations.

From the writings of Stoddard, we learn, that
both the Spaniards and French strove to exceed
each other in acts of barbarity, “which no ordinary
improvement in depravity could rival.”

The wretched policy and want of principle, in
the European adventurers, in destroying the natives,
was soon followed by that retributive justice,
which is not long delayed. Their cupidity
incited them so powerfully to possess lands in
the new world, that they were impelled to practice
on each other, enormities too disgusting to
bear repetition; and thus they alternately were
driven out or exterminated. A just and liberal
policy, in the first settlers, would doubtless have
secured the confidence and affection with their new
friends, and secured to them a peaceful and
happy country. What I have related to you of
the Natches, is taken from the Analectic Magazine,
where Major Stoddard’s work is handsomely
spoken of; and I promise myself much
pleasure in perusing the volume at some future H4v 92
period, as he had testified his aversion to acts of
injustice and barbarity, in strong terms, and
considers the Indians as a part of the human
race, not unworthy respect and commisseration.
His morality is not of that acommodating kind,
which some have the hardiness to maintain, who
boldly assert that our obligations to act with justice
and honesty in our dealings, may be dispensed
with in treaties with our defenceless Indians.

Eliza. Are we not bound to treat the unfortunate
and helpless with more kindness and attention,
than is due to the prosperous and happy?
and does it not discover a base and sordid spirit,
to take advantage of the weak and defenceless?

Mother. You are right, my dear girl, and we
certainly have reason to conclude that those who
advance such sentiments, do right only when
they fear to do wrong; but when measures are
adopted by a government, which accord with
these base and sordid views, and set at defiance
the eternal laws of justice and mercy, the whole
nation is implicated who do not raise their voices,
in contemning this violation of the moral principle.
I have much yet to tell you of the Creek
, but must defer what I have further to
say until another opportunity is afforded us.

Caroline. Pray, mother, allow me to ask, if H5r 93
it be not extraordinary that so little interest is
shown for our suffering natives, when so much
excitement is manifested for the GCreeks?

Mother. We can have small confidence in
the benevolence of those who profess so much
sensibility for the unfortunate Greeks, yet notwithstanding
this display of sympathy, make no
effort to save those Indians whom we have so
deeply injured. We appear desirous of having
it believed, that we would willingly put a stop to
the abominable traffic in slaves, but cannot without
the cooperation of other nations; yet the annual
amount of the sums employed in foreign
missions, which must at best be deemed a very
uncertain good, would go far, it is believed, to
liberate those whom we so unjustly hold in bondage;
but no pretext can excuse our want of exertion
in favour of our unhappy Indians, who are
altogether dependent on us for safety and protection,
as to us alone must be imputed the guilt
of their cruel persecution. I must own that I
am filled with mingled emotions of shame and
regret, when I reflect on the appearance it must
have, in the opinion of foreigners, that whilst we
busy ourselves in futile attempts to remedy the
evils which exist in distant lands, we should allow
of such enormous abuses in our own country; and H5v 94
that whilst we boast of our freedom, and our
liberal institutions, and boldly assert, that the
rights of men are better understood and acted on
in this country, than in any other, we should
evince our entire disregard of justice and mercy,
in our treatment of our fellow men, whom we
have so unworthily subjected.

Eliza. Shall you have leisure this afternoon,
mother, to give us a further account of the Indians?

Mother. Mr. Bartram’s description of the
beautiful vale of Keowe, which he says “is perhaps
as celebrated for fertility, fruitfulness, and
fine prospects, as the fields of Pharsalia, or the
vale of Tempe,”
will give you a high idea of
this enchanting spot.

“We now saw the town of Cowe, the elevated
peaks of the Jore mountains, at a distance,
the Jore village in a beautiful lawn, lifted up
many thousands feet higher than our present
situation, besides many other villages and
settlements, on the sides of the mountains, at
various distances and elevations; the silver rivulets
gliding by them, and snow-white cataracts
glimmering on the sides of the lofty hills, and the
bold promontories of the Jore mountain stepping
in to the Tanase river, whilst his foaming waters H6r 95
rushed between them. Proceeding on our return
to Cowe, we continued through part of the
high forests skirting on the meadows; and began
to ascend the hills of a ridge, which we were under
the necessity of crossing and having gained
its summit, enjoyed a most enchanting view; a
vast expanse of green meadows and strawberry
fields; a meadering river, flowing through
swelling green knowls, embellished with flowers
and fruitful strawberry beds; flocks of turkies
strolling about them; herds of deer bounding
over the hills; companies of young innocent
Cherokee virgins, some busy gathering the rich
fruit, others, having already filled their baskets,
lay reclined under the shade of native bowers of
magnolias, &c. bathing in the cool streams;
whilst others, more gay, were yet collecting
strawberries, or chasing their companions, and
staining their lips and cheeks with the rich fruit.
We cautiously made our approaches undiscovered,
almost to the joyous scene of action, when
some matrons espying us, gave the alarm, time
enough for the nymphs to assemble together.
We however pursued and gained ground on a
group of them, who had incautiously strolled to
a greater distance from their guardian, and finding
their retreat now like to be cut off, took H6v 96
shelter under cover of a little grove; but on perceiving
themselves to be discovered by us, confidently
and decently advanced to meet us, half
unveiling their faces, and with native innocence
and cheerfulness, presented their little baskets,
telling us their fruit was ripe and good. We
accepted a basket, sat down and regaled ourselves
on the delicious fruit, encircled by the
whole assembly of these innocent, jocose, sylvan
nymphs; by this time the several parties, under
the conduct of the elder matrons, had disposed
themselves in companies on the green banks.
My young companion, the trader, by concessions
and suitable apologies for the bold intrusion, engaged
them to bring their collections to his
house; we parted friendly.”

In relating the scenes described by Mr. Bartram,
I omit much which is merely expressive of
admiration, as my design is to give as plain a
detail as I apprehend to be consistent with truth,
and of course my narrative in many instances is
abruptly introduced. This writer appears enchanted
with the beauties of nature, and the
simplicity of rural life, and describes in glowing
language the appearance of the country previous
to his arrival in Cowe.

“This town consists of about one hundred I1r 97
dwellings, near the banks of the Tanase, on
both sides of the river. The Cherokees construct
their habitations, on a different plan from
the Creeks, that is one oblong square building,
of one story high; the materials consisting
of logs or trunks of trees stripped of their bark,
notched at their ends, fixed one upon another,
and afterward plastered well, both inside and
out, with clay well tempered with dry grass, and
the whole covered or roofed with the bark of the
chesnut tree, or long broad shingles. This
building is however, partitioned transversely,
forming three apartments, which communicate
with each other by inside doors; each house has
besides a little conical house, covered with dirt,
called the winter or hot house; this stands a
few yards distant from the mansion house, opposite
the front door.
The council or town house is a large rotunda,
capable of accommodating several hundred
people: it stands on the top of an ancient artificial
mount of earth, of about twenty feet perpendicular,
and the rotunda on the top of it being
above thirty feet more, gives the whole fabric an
elevation of near sixty feet from the common
surface of the ground. But it may be proper to
observe, that this mount on which the rotunda I I1v 98
stands, is of a more ancient date than the building,
and perhaps was raised for another purpose.
The Cherokees themselves are ignorant by what
people, or for what purpose, these artificial hills
were raised; they have various stories concerning
them, which amount to no more than mere
conjecture; but they have a tradition common
with other nations of Indians, that they found
them in much the same condition as they now
appear, when their ancestors arrived from the
West, and possessed themselves of the country,
after vanquishing the nations of red men who
then inhabited it, who themselves found these
mounts, when they took possession of the country;
the former possessors delivering the same
story concerning them; perhaps they were designed
and appropriated by the people, who constructed
them, to some religious purpose, as
great altars and temples, similar to the high places
and sacred groves, anciently amongst the
Canaanites, and other nations of Palestine and
Judea.—The rotunda is constructed after the
following manner: they first fix in the ground a
circular range of posts or trunks of trees, about
six feet high, at equal distance, which are notched
at top, to receive into them, from one to
another, a range of beams or wall plates; within I2r 99
this is another circular order of very large and
strong pillars, above twelve feet high, notched in
like manner at top, to receive another range of
wall plates; and within this is yet another or
third range of stronger and higher pillars, but
fewer in number, and standing at a greater distance
from each other; and lastly, in the centre
stands a very strong pillar which forms the pinnacle
of the building, and to which the rafters
centre at the top; these rafters are strengthened
and bound together by cross beams or laths,
which sustain the roof, which is a layer of bark
neatly placed and tight enough to exclude the
rain, and sometimes they cast a thin superficies
of earth over all. There is but one large door,
which serves at the same time to admit light
from without, and for the smoke to escape when
a fire is kindled; but as there is but a small fire
kept sufficient to give light at night, and that
fed with dry, small, round wood, divested of its
bark, there is but little smoke. All around the
inside of the building, betwixt the second range
of pillars and the wall, is a range of cabins or
sofas, consisting of two or three steps, one
above or behind the other, in theatrical order,
where the assembly sit or lean down; these sofas
are covered with mats or carpets, very curiously I2v 100
made of thin splints of ash or oak, woven
or platted together: near the great pillar in the
centre the fire is kindled for light, near which
the musicians seat themselves, and round about
the performers exhibit their dances and other
shows at public festivals, which happen almost
every night throughout the year.
About the close of the evening, I accompnied
Mr. Galahan and other white traders to the
rotunda, where was a great festival, music and
dancing. This assembly was held principally
to rehearse the ball-play dance, this town being
challenged to play against another the next day.
The people being assembled and seated in order,
and the musicians having taken their station,
the ball opens, first with a long harangue or oration,
spoken by an aged chief, in commendation
of the manly exercise of the ball-play, recounting
the many brilliant victories which the town of
Cowe had gained over the other towns in the
nation, not neglecting to recite his own exploits,
together with other aged men now present, coadjutors
in the performance of these athletic games
in their youthful days. The oration was delivered
with great spirit and eloquence, and was
designed to influence the passions of the young
men present, excite them to emulation, and inspire I3r 101
them with ambition. This prologue being
ended, the musicians began, both vocal and instrumental;
when presently a company of girls,
hand in hand, dressed in clean white robes, and
ornamented with beads, bracelets, and a profusion
of gay ribbons, entering the door, immediately
began to sing their responses in a gentle
low and sweet voice, and formed themselves in a
semicircular file or line, in two ranks, back to
back, facing the spectators and musicians, moving
round and round. This continued about a
quarter of an hour, when we were surprised by a
sudden loud and shrill whoop, uttered at once by
a company of young fellows, who came in briskly
after one another, with rackets or hurls in one
hand. These champions were well dressed,
painted, and ornamented with moccasins, silver
bracelets, gorgets, and wampum, with high waving
plumes in their diadems; they immediately
formed themselves in a semicircular rank also,
in front of the girls, when these changed their
order, and formed a single rank, parallel to the
men, raising their voices in responses to the
tunes of the young champions, the semicircles
continually moving round. There was something
singular and diverting in their step and
motions, and I imagine not to be learned to exactness,I2 I3v 102
but with great attention and perseverance;
they at the same time, and in the same
motion, moved on obliquely, or sideways; so that
the circle performed a double complex motion in
its progression, and at stated times exhibited a
grand or universal movement, instantly and unexpectedly
to the spectators, by each rank turning
to right and left, and taking each others
places: the movements were managed with inconceivable
alertness and address, and accompanied
with an instantaneous and universal elevation
of the voice.
The Cherokees, besides the ball-play dance,
have a variety of others equally entertaining.
The men especially exercise themselves with a
variety of gesticulations, and capers; some of
them are ludicrous and diverting enough; and
they have others, which are of a martial order,
and others of the chase; these seem to be somewhat
of a tragical nature, wherein they exhibit
astonishing feats of military prowess, masculine
strength and activity. Indeed all their dances
and musical entertainments seem to be theatrical
exhibitions or plays, varied with comic interludes.
The women however conduct themselves with
becoming grace and dignity.”

Caroline. Is it not wonderful that the Indians I4r 103
should have such a variety of amusements,
and that they should observe so much order, and
propriety in their entertainments?

Mother. The beneficent Creator of the Universe
hath implanted in the human breast a love
of order and a strong desire for happiness; and
when this desire of enjoyment interferes not with
the serious duties of life, these social meetings
for entertainment harmonize the spirits, and are
productive of friendship and cordiality towards
each other, and we thus testify our gratitude by
enjoying with innocence and simplicity the gifts
of heaven. No people in the state of nature are
without harmless amusements; the natives of the
new discovered Islands, in their public exhibitions,
display great prowess and skill, accompanied
with much order and regularity; the famous
navigator, Cook, says, their movements
and dexterity, are much superior to what is
found among Europeans. Dancing is common
to all nations, and is by some consecrated, by
devotional exercises, expressive of gratitude; it
was so considered by the Israelites when they
rejoiced before the Lord for their deliverance
from the Egyptians, “and Miriam, the prophetess,
the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her
hand, and all the women went out after her with I4v 104
timbrels and with dances. And Miriam answered
them, sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed

Our puritan ancestors denounced all amusements,
however innocent; their extreme scrupulosity,
in this respect, made them view with a
jealous and suspicious eye the joyous disposition
of the Indians; and they were much disturbed
and alarmed on being told, that some whom they
had put in confinement, (from the apprehension
that they might be induced to join their countrymen
in defence of their rights,) had endeavoured
to beguile the tedious days of their captivity,
by resorting to some of their wonted
sports. A military guard was sent to silence
and prevent them from dancing, or pleasing
themselves with music, as such amusements
were deemed to indicate a hostile intention,
though these natives had ever manifested the
most friendly feelings toward the settlers. The
great attention given to things, wholly unimportant
in themselves, and having no connection
with the doctrines or precepts of Christ, which
they professed to follow, led our ancestors most
frequently to neglect the weightier matters of
the law. Some allowance should however be
made for the austerity of the settlers, when we I5r 105
call to mind the disgust they had justly entertained
for the revelry, and criminal indulgence,
of the courtiers in the mother country, whose
revenues were exhausted in furnishing entertainment
for the sovereign and his parasites, which
should have been employed in defence of the
kingdom, and in promoting the happiness of the

Elizabeth. I hope, mother, you have more to
tell us from Mr. Bartram; I should think that
those who read his accounts of the Indians,
would be convinced how much we have wronged

Mother. It is difficult to convince those who
have an interest in being deceived, and the pride
of opinion operates very powerfully on common
minds. Mr. Bartram describes very many towns,
similar to those I have already related; one village
in which they were received and entertained,
in somewhat different style is worth noticing.

“The chief of the village” (says Bartram,)
“conducted us to a grand airy pavilion in the
centre. It was a square: a range of pillars
or posts on each side supporting a canopy composed
of palmetto leaves, woven or thatched together,
which shaded a level platform in the
centre, that was ascended to from each side by I5v 106
two steps or flights, each about twelve inches
high, and seven or eight feet in breadth, all covered
with carpets or mats, curiously woven, of
split canes dyed of various colours. Here being
seated or reclining ourselves, after smoking tobacco,
baskets of the choisest fruits were brought
and set before us.—The fields, surrounding the
towns and groves, were plentifully stored with
corn, citrals, pumpkins, squashes, beans, peas,
potatoes, peaches, figs, oranges, &c.”

“The Muscogulges are said to be ingenious,
sensible and virtuous men, bold and intrepid, yet
quiet and peaceaable. They are supposed to be
most ingenious and industrious husbandmen,
having large plantations, or country farms, where
they employ much of their time in agricultural
improvements, after the manner of the white
people; by which means their territories are
more generally cultivated, and better inhabited,
than any other Indian republic that we know of.
It appeared to me, from observation, and what
information I could get, that the Indians have
rational notions of the soul’s immortality, and of
a future state of social existence; and in order
to inculcate morality, and promote human happiness,
they applaud and praise worthy actions
as commendable, and necessary for the support I6r 107
of civil society, and maintaining the dignity and
strength of their nation or tribe, as well as securing
an excellent and tranquil state and degree
in the world of spirits, after their decease.
And they say the Great Spirit favours all good
and brave men.”

Our brave author enumerates fifty-five towns, besides
many villages, which constitute the powerful
confederacy of the Creeks or Muscogulges,
surrounded by fertility and beauty.

Caroline. Are these the Indians who were
so inhumanly destroyed by Gen. Jackson?

Mother. Multitudes of the Seminoles were
slain by this general, on the pretext of their having
committed some depredations, (though as in
most instances we are not informed what provoked
the aggression,) whilst these Indians were
under the government of Spain, and included in
their territory; and those who escaped slaughter
were driven from their fertile fields and pleasant
homes, by an act of our government, to a sterile
part of the country, where numbers have miserably
perished by famine, and the insalubrity of
the climate, arising from the swampy, boggy
land they have been compelled to occupy. Their
sufferings have been so great, that our government
have been induced to furnish them with I6v 108
some present support to prevent them from perishing.
Many of the Creeks, alarmed by the
fate of the Seminoles, endeavoured to prevent
the ruin which threatened to overwhelm them,
(as it was confidently affirmed, that Gen. Jackson
had avowed his intention to exterminate
their whole nation,) and assembled in some of
their towns, in a hostile attitude, when they
were attacked and all destroyed, by this sanguinary
chieftan, as I have before related.

Eliza. Is this the Gen. Jackson who is proposed
for our President?

Mother. I cannot, without mingled feeliings
of shame and indignation, confess even to you,
that many among us desire to have this man to
rule over them.

Caroline. What reason can be given, mother,
for their preference of such a man?

Mother. In most, it unquestionably springs
from a desire to participate in the arbitrary and
unjust rule, which they believe he will exercise
over the better part of the community. These
people are blinded (by avarice and ambition,) to
their own interest, as well as to the honour and
prosperity of their country. They have not imbibed
lessons of wisdom, from the appalling sufferings
of the French, under their military despots K1r 109
and assassins; nor do they perceive the facility
afforded, under such sanguinary and unprincipled
rulers, for different parties to supplant
and destroy each other.

Eliza. Was it not inconsistent with the justice
and honour of our government, to force
these Indians to quit their native country, where
they might have remained contented and happy,
and drive them to a land sterile and unhealthful?

Mother. It appears indeed wonderful that it
should not have been deemed important, by our
government, to protect the people whom we have
so greatly injured, when so fair an opportunity
was presented. Had the Indians been suffered
to retain this portion of their territory, under the
protection of the United States, they would have
felt bound to defend it against an invading foe,
and would have relieved them from the burthen
of defending a part of the country so much exposed.
Moreover, as it is acknowledged, that
as no people are more susceptible of gratitude
than our natives, they would have become our
firm friends and allies, had they received just
and generous treatment from the United States,
and would thus have greatly diminished the expenditures,
which in war would be found essential
for its preservation. Could the Indians have K K1v 110
relied with confidence on our government, it
would have afforded an assylum for others, who
have been obliged to quit their homes, and thus
have relieved our country from the odium which
is accumulating on us, by our treatment of this
people. We might have expected this justice
toward our Indians, as at the time when Florida
was ceded to the United States, no claim to any
part of it could be urged by any of the states;
and had the natives of our country been allowed
to retain the lands they occupied under the government
of Spain, the difficulties which have
arisen, in attempts to settle the country, would
not have existed. We learn that “the board of
commissioners, in East-Florida, after a session
of three years and a half, have transacted very
little business; and what they have gone through,
is said to be very imperfectly done. They have
cost the United States about 70,000 dollars, being
far more than the lands are worth to the
nation.” N. A.North American Review

In addition to this, immense number of gross
frauds are said to have been practised. This
might have been expected from agents who are
employed to perpetrate acts of violence and injustice.
I recollect to have read in a newspaper,
published in Tallahassee, which is now the metropolis K2r 111
of West-Florida, the following article on
the growth of American cities.

“It was in the month of 1824-04April, 1824, that the
first wagon was seen wending its devious way
through that part of the wilds of Florida, which
now constitutes the middle Judicial District;
the sons of the forest were often arrested in pursuit
of their game, to gaze with wonder at the
strange phenomenon; for there was not a being
among them, within whose knowledge so strange
a vehicle was ever seen to disturb the repose of
their retirement; nor were they sensible that
this was the day star which warned them to
leave the land of their fathers, whose bones for
centuries had mingled with the very soil from
which they raised their bread. The weary party
at length arrived by the way of a gentle rise,
upon the summit of a bold commanding eminence,
at whose eastern and southern base, a
beautiful rivulet meandered its course through a
rich hammock. Our party was not long in selecting
a camping ground, and pitching their
tents about midway of the southern slope, which
might well be taken for the land of the fairies:
to the southward and westward, the country
opened to their view like a magnificent park,
gently undulated and studded with beautiful basons K2v 112
of limpid water; at their feet a crystal
fountain, gushing from the declivity of the hill;
to the eastward, the view was more confined by
the thick foliage of the undergrowth, which served
to screen the view, though not the sound of
a beautiful cascade, which was formed by the
rivulet above described, falling over a ledge of
rocks into a deep glen, which forms almost a
circle of about seventy yards in diameter, and
didsappears at the bottom of the same ledge of
rocks, very near the cascade. In the afternoon,
our silvan party commenced building, and in two
days were enabled to secure themselves from the
weather, in the first house ever built in Tallahassee.
Many obstacles occured to prevent
improvement for some time; among others, the
great difficulty of removing the Indians from
their country; so firmly were they attached to
their native soil, that they would make the most
frivolous excuses for procrastinating their departure,
and nothing but the peculiarly firm and resolute,
yet mild and persuasive measures, adopted
by the Executive, could have removed them
without resorting to military force.”

Caroline. Oh, mother, it makes me feel very
sorrowful to hear of the sad reverses which the
Indians are forced to endure, obliged to leave a K3r 113
land so delightful, and to which they were so
strongly attached, and driven to one so sterile
and unpleasant.

Mother. No one, whose feelings have not
been paralyzed by selfish and sordid considerations,
would have the affrontery to advocate a
system so repugnant to mercy and justice. Yet
a writer in the American Quarterly Review, to
which I have before referred, censures the government
for issuing rations to those Indians,
who were so cruelly deprived of their territory,
as, he affirms, they would sooner have been driven
into their reserve, where, he says, they might
have found great numbers of small hummocks,
good enough for their purposes, though it was of
comparatively small value to the United States,
as it would not be suitable for planters. In
what way the Indians were to have subsisted,
till they could have raised corn from these hummocks,
he has not troubled himself to specify.
This writer, in reviewing the works of those
who have written on Florida, though he allows
that some of them have given correct views of
the country, and “that the travels of William
are especially deserving of attention, as
they contain a great number of most interesting
facts and observations, and will always be referredK2 K3v
to as conveying a good general idea of the
countries through which he passed,”
yet he
boldly affirms, that the notice which some of
them have taken of the Indians “is mere romance,
than whom, he says, a more miserable
and pitiable race can scarcely be imagined.”

It appears somewhat unaccountable that so
many good and intelligent men, who could have
no interest in giving false impressions in regard
to the Indians, should have so well agreed in
their representations of these people, from the
first settlement of the country to the present day,
and it requires stronger evidence than mere assertion,
to disprove the favourable accounts, so
repeatedly given. We are then authorized to
conclude that the author of this article, like
many of the same class, has founded his opinion
of the Indians, from the miserable vagrants who
loiter about our settlements, having no abiding
place, and who, wearied with contumely and oppression,
and unprovided with food or shelter,
seek to drown their sorrows, and steep their
senses in forgetfulness by intoxicating draughts.
The false impressions which it appears the writer
of this article endeavours to produce, respecting
the Indians, was doubtless meant to suppress
all sympathy for this unfortunate race of men; K4r 115
but we must be convinced that little confidence
can be had in one, who openly advocates the
most oppressive and iniquitous measures. I
quote the following sentence, with a view to confirm
the remarks I have made.

“It certainly appears preposterous to ask the
consent of the Indians, after it is determined to
force them into measures, how much soever they
may object. As to the justice and honesty of
the policy, that is a very different question. Under
ordinary circumstancses, it would be considered
ridiculous to enquire whether a company
or an individual might not be forced to dispose
of goods, provided a stonger party chose to purchase,
or desired to possess them. But history
and experience teach us that in relation to the
Indians, ‘we have changed all that.’”

Eliza. Then in conformity with these sentiments,
we may dispense with what is just and
honest, in our dealings with those who are unable
to resist us.

Mother. This is the only construction which
can be made consistently with the general current
of his arguments, we are bound to do justice
toward those only whom we fear to offend,
least they should make reprisals and punish us
for our guilty deeds; sentiments like these, level K4v 116
man with the brute creation, for such as advocate
them can have no rational belief in a just
and perfect Being, who has commanded us, “to
do justice and love mercy.”
I extremely regret
that a review of transactions so base, accompanied
with arguments so devoid of integrity and
benevolence, qualities essential to the dignity of
human nature, and which can alone exalt man
in the scale of being, should have been permitted
to stain the pages of a Journal, by which its
general merit must be worthy the attention, not
only of our own citizens, but of foreign nations:
who will thus be incited to scoff at our boasted
institutions, and declarations of the liberty and
protection, afforded by our government to all
men, whom we have solemnly pronounced to be
by nature free and equal.

Caroline. I trust that no other person has
written in this style, mother?

Mother. Not exactly in the same spirit,
though many have attempted to excuse or extenuate
our treatment of the Indians. A writer
in the North American, in reviewing the histories
and notices of the North American Indians,
whose main design is to exonerate his countrymen
from the odium which rests upon them for
their exterminating warfare against the Aborigines, K5r 117
has endeavoured to discredit those writers,
who have given the most favourable accounts of
them, and is moreover anxious to prove that they
have overrated the amount of the Aboriginal
population at the era of the discovery of this
country. With this view he disregards the accounts,
given by worthy and intelligent men,
who by early and familiar intercourse with the
natives, were well qualified to give correct statements
of their habits and situation, and contends,
“that their own ceaseless hostilities, more than
any other cause, has led to their melancholy depopulation.”
Had this writer given any attention
to the well authenticated histories of our
early warfare with the natives, he would not
have asserted, that the statements made upon
this subject were made in a spirit of exaggeration.
Had he learnt, that multitudes of hapless
victims were perpetually sacrificed to interest
and ambition, during a protracted and
merciless war, and that in the space of forty
years, three important kingdoms were subverted,
and the inhabitants were all destroyed, or transported
and sold for slaves in a foreign clime, in
addition to some smaller tribes, all in this vicinity;
or had he hmade any estimate of the numbers
who dwelt on the shores of the Atlantic, within our K5v 118
present domain, who, within a short time, were
forcibly swept from the face of the earth, he would
not have ventured to impose on his readers conclusions,
hastily made from present appearances
and casual observations. To corroborate the
facts here given, no place is selected, either for
the establishment of cities, towns or villages,
but what was previously occupied by the Indians,
who have left numerous memorials of themselves
in every part of the country. In the same spirit,
the reviewer endeavours to destroy our confidence
in those, who influenced by humane and
generous sympathy for the sufferings of our Aborigines,
have endeavoured to mollify the prejudices,
unjustly fostered against them, by displaying
their noble and good qualities, and representing
the injurious treatment to which they
are subjected; though truth compels him to confess,
that many fine traits of character have arrested
his attention, and engaged his admiration;
and notwithstanding the sarcasm he has levelled
against the admirers of the Indian language, his
own convictions appear to have the same results,
as he owns that, “what has been called the
richness of their grammatical forms,”
cannot be
accounted for, but by supposing them to be
“the wrecks of more polished tongues, acquired K6r 119
in far different circumstances, and almost lost in
the lapse of ages.”
Nevertheless, though this reviewer
has sacrificed much in support of his
theory, he has not been insensible to the feelings
of compassion, nor deaf to the voice of conscience,
and I quote with pleasure some of the
sentiments with which he has closed his discussion.

“But after all, neither the government nor
the people of the United States, have any wish
to conceal from themselves, nor from the world,
that there is upon their frontiers a wretched and
forlorn people, looking to them for support and
protection, and possessing strong claims upon
their justice and humanity. These people received
our forefathers in a spirit of friendship,
aided them to endure privations and sufferings,
and taught them how to provide for many of the
wants with which they were surrounded. The
Indians were then strong, and we were weak;
and without looking at the change which has
occurred in any spirit of morbid affectation, but
with the feelings of an age accustomed to observe
great mutations in the fortunes of nations
and of individuals, we may express our regret,
that they have lost so much of what we have
gained. The prominent points of their history K6v 120
are before the world, and will go down unchanged
to posterity. In the revolution of a few ages,
this fair portion of the continent, which was
theirs, has passed into our possession. The forests,
which afforded them food and security,
where were their cradles, their homes, and their
graves, have disappeared or are disappearing, before
the progress of civilization.
We have extinguished their council fires,
and ploughed up the bones of their fathers.
Their population has diminished with lamentable
rapidity. Those tribes that remain, like the
lone column of a fallen temple, exhibit but the
sad relics of their former strength; and many
others live only in the names which have reached
us through the earlier accounts of travellers
and historians. The causes which have produced
this moral desolation, are yet in constant and
active operation, and threaten to leave us, at no
distant day, without a living proof of Indian suffering,
from the Atlantic to the immense desert,
which sweeps along the base of the Rocky Mountains.
Nor can we console ourselves with the
reflection, that their physical declension has been
counter-ballanced, by any melioration in their
moral condition. We have taught them neither
how to live, nor how to die.”
L1r 121

Eliza. I am pleased to find the reviewer expresses
so much sensibility for the sufferings of
the Indians, and that he acknowledges the strong
claims they possess upon our justice and humanity;
but it is strange, I think, that he should
insist, that their own hostilities, more than any
other cause, has led to their depopulation, when
he tells us, that we have deprived them of their
lands and their forests, so essential to their existence,
and have introduced so much evil and
disorder among them.

Mother. We all know that the Indians are
frequently engaged in bloody conflicts with each
other, though it would, in my apprehension, be
difficult to prove that they are more disposed to
war than other nations. I cannot recollect a
period of any duration, when hostilities have
ceased among the potentates of Europe, and during
the revolution in France, torrents of blood
were shed, both in the field and on the scaffold
and whilst that unfortunate country was under
the dominion of Bonaparte, millions were sacrificed
to gratify the insatiable ambition of this
usurper. France at this period exhibited a
scene of desolation truly appalling, and it seemed
to distant observers that ages would be required
to restore its population; nevertheless, we are assuredL L1v 122
that her numbers have since greatly increased.

Caroline. You recollect, Elizabeth, that Mr.
―― told us, the other day, that the Creeks deserved
to loose their land, because they had obtained
it by conquest.

Mother. However the Creeks may merit punishment,
it does not become us to be their avengers,
unless we be prepared to submit in our
turn to retributive justice; you would not, my
dear girls, deem one guiltless who took and converted
to his own use what had been unjustly
obtained by another; I do not however admit
that any excuse can be given for a people, who
forcibly wrest from its native possessors the territory
bestowed upon them by the beneficent
Parent of the Universe, unless indeed we may
believe they had themselves been compelled to
yield their country to a nation more powerful
and could obtain otherwise no abiding place;
yet as these Indians, after their conquest, incorporated
the people whom they had subdued with
themselves, it is assuredly no small extenuation
of their guilt.

Mr. Bartram describes many wonderful remains,
which attest the ingenuity and improvement
of the native or former possessors. Not L2r 123
far from Little River, a branch of the Savanna,
in a beautiful situation, from an eminence overlooking
the low grounds of the river, we discovered,
says he—

“Many very magnificent monuments of the
power and industry of the ancient inhabitants of
these lands. I observed a stupendous conical
pyramid, or artificial mound of earth, vast tetragon
terraces, and a large sunken area, of a cubical
form, encompassed with banks of earth;
and certain traces of a larger Indian town, the
work of a powerful nation, whose period of grandeur
perhaps long preceded the discovery of the

“I made a little excursion up the Savanna
, four or five miles above fort James, with
the surgeon of the garrison, who was so polite
as to attend me to show me some remarkable
Indian monuments, which are worthy of every
traveller’s notice. These wonderful labors of
the ancients stand in a level plain, very near the
banks of the river. They consist of conical
mounts of earth, and four square terraces, &c.
The great mount is in the form of a cone, about
forty or fifty feet high, and the circumference of
its base two or three hundred yards, entirely
composed of the loamy rich earth of the low L2v 124
grounds; the top or apex is flat; a spiral path
or track leading from the low grounds to the top
is still visible, where now grows a large and
beautiful spreading red cedar: there appears
four niches excavated out of the sides of this
mount, at different heights from the base, fronting
the four cardinal points; these niches are
entered into town from the winding path, and seem to
have been meant for the resting places or look outs.
The circumjacent level grounds are now cleared
and planted with Indian corn; and I think the
proprietor of these lands, who accompanied us
to this place, said, that the mount itself yielded
above one hundred bushels in one season: the
land hereabouts is indeed exceeding fertile and
productive. Some imagine these tumuli were
constructed for look-out towers. It is reasonable
to suppose, however, that they were to serve
some important purpose, as they were public
works, and would have required the united labour
and attention of a whole nation, circumstanced
as they were, to have constructed one of
them almost in an age. There are several smaller
ones, round about the great one, with some
very large tetragon terraces, on each side, near
one hundred yards in length, and their surface, L3r 125
four, six, eight and ten feet above the ground on
which they stand.”

In another place the author speaks of having
“enjoyed a most enchanting prospect of the
great Lake George. At about fifty yards distance
from the landing place stands a magnificent
Indian mount. About fifteen years ago I
visited this place, at which time there were no
settlements of white people, but all appeared wild
and savage; yet in that uncultivated state it
possessed an almost inexpressible air of grandeur,
which was now entirely changed. At that
time there was a very considerable extent of old
fields round about the mount; there was also a
large orange grove, together with palms and live
oaks, extending from near the mount, along the
banks downwards; all of which has been since
cleared away to make room for planting ground.
But what greatly contributed towards completing
the magnificence of the scene, was a noble
Indian highway, which led from the great mount
on a straight line, three quarters of a mile, first
through a point or wing of the orange grove, and
continuing through a stately forest of live oaks,
it was terminated by palms and laurel magnolias,
on the verge of an oblong artificial lake, which
was on the edge of an extensive green level savanna.L2 L3v 126
This grand highway was about fifty
yards wide, sunk a little below the common
level, and the earth thrown up on each side,
making a bank of about two feet high. Neither
nature nor art could any where present a more
striking contrast, as you approached this savanna.
The glittering water pond played on the sight
through the dark grove like a brilliant diamond,
on the bosom of the illuminated savanna, bordered
with various flowery shrubs and plants; and as
we advanced into the plain the sight was agreeably
relieved by a distant view of the forest, which
partly environed the green expanse on the left
hand, whilst the imagination was still flattered and
entertained by the distant misty points of the surrounding
forests, which projected into the plain,
alternately appearing and disappearing, making
a grand sweep round on the right, to the distant
banks of the great lake. All has been cleared
away and planted with indigo, corn and cotton,
but since deserted; there was now scarcely five
acres of ground under fence. It appeared like
a desert to a great extent, and terminated on the
land side, by frightful thickets, and open pine
forests. It appears, however, that the late proprietor
had some taste, as he has preserved the L4r 127
mount, and the little adjoining grove inviolate.
The prospect from this station comprises at one
view the whole of the sublime and pleasing.”

Caroline. How much taste and power these
people must have possessed, and the little attention
which has been given to the preservation
of these ancient structures, reminds one of the
destruction of the noble edifices of Rome by the
Goths and Vandals.

Mother. These northern invaders were influenced
by their contempt of the Roman people,
who at the period of their final conquest were in
the lowest state of national degeneracy. We
learn from the history of modern Europe, that

“Many of the northern leaders were men of
great abilities, and several of them were acquainted
both with the policy and literature of
the Romans; but they were justly afraid of the
contagious influence of Roman example; and
therefore avoided every thing allied to that name,
whether hurtful or otherwise. They erected a
cottage in the neighbourhood of a palace, breaking
down the stately building, and burying in its
ruins the finest works of human invention; they
ate out of vessels of wood, and made the vanquished
to be served in vessels of silver; they
hunted the boar on the voluptuous parterre, the L4v 128
trim garden, and expensive pleasure-ground,
where effeminacy was wont to saunter, or indolence
to loll; and they pastured their herds
where they might have raised a luxurious harvest.”

Now I cannot admit that the vices of our Indians
was the cause of their being treated with
injustice or contempt, as history has faithfully
recorded their noble qualities; avarice has been
the fatal source of our criminal disregard of their
rights, and has also induced us to destroy those
monuments which attest the power and ingenuity
of the people who erected them. Our Aborigines
resembled in many respects the barbarians,
as they were called, who subverted the
empire of the Romans, they were, like them,
“simple in their manners, and unacquainted
with the word luxury—though free and independent,
they were firmly attached to their leaders,
because they followed them from choice, not
from constraint, the most gallant being always
dignified with the command—Nor were these
their only virtues—They were remarkable for
their generous hospitality; for their detestation
of treachery, and falsehood: they possessed
many maxims of civil wisdom, and wanted only L5r 129
the culture of reason to conduct them to the true
principles of social life.”

These primitive virtues are found to prevail
among every nation, who have not departed much
from the original state in which they were placed
by nature; yet we have stigmatised our Indians,
as ignorant and barbarous, and incapable of civilizaton,
because they refused to substitute for
their own pure and rational religion, the discordant
and profane dogmas of their conquerors,
or be willing to submit to their tyranny and

Elizabeth. But must not those who raised
these interesting monuments, have possessed
more skill and better implements, than the present

Mother. Bartram gives it as his opinion, that
none of them he has seen, discover the least
sign of the arts, sciences, or architecture of the
Europeans, or other inhabitants of the old world,
yet evidently betray every sign or mark of the
most distant antiquity. Nevertheless, we are
told that—

“When the Spaniards entered the city of
Mexico, the natives were refined in their manners,
intelligent, and in some degree learned.
Like the ancient Egyptians, they knew with precision L5v 130
the annual revolution of the sun; they
fixed the year at three hundred and sixty-five
days, nearly, and divided it into eighteen parts.
Their constitution was founded on the broad
basis of religion and law. Their cities displayed
magnificence in architecture, and opulence
in their decorations. The palace of Montezuma
had thirty gates, which communicated with
as many streets. The front was composed of
red, black and white stone, beautifully polished;
and in a large shield over the gate were represented
the arms of Montezuma—a Griffin with
expanded wings, holding a Tyger in its talons.”

Caroline. These mounts appear to resemble
the pyramids of Egypt in their exterior form,
perhaps they were erected with the same design.

Mother. All nations have testified a desire
to honour the Supreme Ruler of the Universe,
by raising stately edifices consecrated to His
service. The Egyptian pyramids were doubtless
intended for places of worship, where men
would be perpetually reminded of the power,
wisdom, and goodness of the most High, by a
nearer view of the starry heavens, which were
seen in all their grandeur and beauty through a
serene and pure atmosphere; hence the Egyptians
obtained a knowledge of the periods and L6r 131
revolutions of the heavenly bodies, which made
them to be renowned for their wisdom. Here
too they doubtless deposited the remains of their
illustrious dead, and they were thus associated
with all that was most dear and sacred. The
Indians who constructed works of such magnitude
and regularity, must unquestionably have
possessed no inconsiderable knowledge of mathematical
science; mounts, such as have been described,
afforded them facilities for observing the
rising and setting of the planets, by which they
measured time; and the beauty and sublimity of
these objects, would naturally raise and elevate
their ideas of that Being, whom they venerated
and adored. These impressions would lead
them to deposit the ashes of their departed
friends, in places rendered so sacred and venerable.
That these mounts were designed in part
for mausoleums cannot be doubted, as we learn
that human bones, and skeletons entire, have
been discovered in some of them, accompanied
with emblems of respect and affection.

Eliza. As the Mexicans were so ingenious,
and so polished and improved, why may not the
people who constructed these works have come
from the vicinity of Mexico, and brought with
them some knowledge of their arts?

L6v 132

Mother. This is I think the most natural
supposition, especially as we learn they are found
in certain districts, and do not appear to have
been common with all the inhabitants. Our author

“About seventy or eighty miles above the
confluence of the Oakmulge and Ocone rivers,
the trading path, from Augusta to the Creek nation,
crosses these fine rivers which are there
forty miles apart. On the east banks of the
Oakmulge this trading road runs nearly two
miles through ancient Indian fields, which are
called the Oakmulge fields: they are the rich
low lands of the river. On the heights of these
low grounds are yet visible monuments, or traces
of an ancient town, such as artificial mounts or
terraces, squares and banks, encircling considerable
areas. Their old fields and planting land
extend up and down the river, fifteen or twenty
miles from this site.”
—In concluding this subject,
Bartram says,

“The pyramidal or artificial mounts, and
highways, or avenues, leading from them to artificial
lakes, or ponds, vast tetragon terraces,
church yards, (a term given by the white traders,
to the oblong square yards, adjoining the
high mounts, and rotundas of the modern Indians M1r 133
and obelisks or pillars of wood, are the
only monuments of labour, ingenuity and magnificence,
that I have seen worthy of notice.
The region lying between Savanna river,
and Oakmulge, East and West, and from the
sea coast to the Cherokee or Apalachean mountain,
North and South, is the most remarkable
for these high conical hills, tetragon terraces,
and church yards. This region was possessed
by the Cherokees since the arrival of Europeans,
but they were afterwards dispossessed by the
Muscogulges, and all that country was, probably
many ages preceding the Cherokee invasion, inhabited
by one nation or confederacy, who were
ruled by one system of laws, but so ancient that
the Cherokees, Creeks, or the nations they conquered,
could render no account for what purpose
these monuments were raised. The mounts
or cubical yards adjoining them, seem to have
been raised in part for ornament and recreation,
and likewise to serve some other public purpose
since they were always so situated as to command
the most extensive prospects over the
town and country adjacent. The tetragon terraces
seem to be the foundation of a fortress;
and perhaps the great pyramidal mounts, served
for the purpose of lookout towers, and high places M M1v 134
for sacrifices. The sunken areas adjoining the
mounts are surrounded by a bank, and sometimes
two of them, one behind and above another
and served as seats.
From the river St. Juan’s, southerly, to the
point of the peninsula of Florida, are to be seen
high pyramidal mounts, with spacious and extensive
avenues, leading from them out of the town,
to an artificial lake or pond of water; these were
evidently designed in part for ornament or monuments
of magnificence, to perpetuate the power
and grandeur of the nation, and not inconsiderable
neither, for they exhibit scenes of power and
grandeur, and must have been public edifices.”

Many other mounts, highways, and artificial
lakes up St. Juan’s on the east shore, are mentioned
by our author; but as they all have a
strong resemblance to those already noticed, a
farther description is unnecessary; but there is
every indication that they were all designed for
the purposes I have before suggested. It was
common with the people of old to choose the
high places of the earth, to offer up their praise
and adoration to that exalted Being, to whom
they owed their life, and health, and every other
blessing; and by being thus elevated above
earthly objects, they doubtless facied themselves M2r 135
more immediately in His presence. When
Moses ascended mount Sinai, to hold communion
with God, he gave strict command to the people
to remain below, and set bounds about the
mount lest they should break through; in this,
Moses unquestionably followed the example of
the priests of Egypt, whose mystical rites were
veiled from all but the initiated. We learn that
Moses was skilled in all the wisdom of the Egyptians,
and he was of course aware, that the natural
phenomena exhibited in these elevated regions,
were calculated to inspire the multitude
with awe and veneration. The Rev. Mr. Heckewelder
says, “An old Indian told me, about fifty
years ago, that when he was young he still followed
the custom of his fathers and ancestors, of
climbing upon a high mountain to thank the
Great Spirit, for His benefits bestowed, and to
entreat a continuance of His favour; and that
they were sure that their prayers were heard,
and acceptable to the Great Spirit, though he
did not himself appear to them.”
In plains
where no high hills were found, artificial mounts,
such as have been described, were designed
principally, as were the pyramids of Egypt, for
places of worship, and the sunken areas contiguous
to the mounts, were unquestionably intended M2v 136
for the worshippers below. Judging from the
natural propensities of the human race, this is
in my opinion the most rational conclusion, and
as these mounts are always continguous to rivers
and lakes, it is a strong confirmation of their
having been consecrated to the worship of the
most High; the peculiar efficacy of water, has
ever engaged the veneration and gratitude of

Caroline. I do not wonder that mountains
should have been chosen and consecrated to the
worship of God, as the delightful serenity and
purity of the air would inspire devotional feelings,
but I did not imagine that this practise was common
to our Aborigines?

Mother. It cannot I think be doubted, that
the religion of our Aborigines was less contaminated
by superstition, and they had deviated less
from those innate impressions, which are written
in divine characters on the heart, than any other
people. Their disposition to war, and cruel
treatment of those captives who are doomed to
die, appears to be the only criminal deviations
from the great law of kindness, which constitutes
the basis of true religion; yet it is no small extenuation
of their guilt, that no inspired teacher
has been sent to them with messages of grace, to M3r 137
renew and improve those innate convictions, so
graciously bestowed by the beneficent Parent of
the Universe, to guide us in the way of truth,
that by this divine light we might be able to perceive
and embrace all that is right, and good,
and congenial to these impressions.

Caroline. Have the Indians never been instructed
in the divine precepts of Christianity?

Mother. The orthodox have sent many Missionaries
among the Indians of our country, and
much praise is due to the Rev. Cyrus Kingsbury,
who has devoted himself with the most disinterested
zeal to convert and improve our western
Aborigines, and his labours have been crowned
with more than common success, notwithstanding
the disgust and aversion manifested by our
Indians in general, for the discordant and irreverent
dogmas of Calvinism, which are made
still more offensive by the bigotry and intolerance
of common missionaries. The main inducement
of most of those who are employed in
this service, is to receive a competent support,
unincumbered by labour or anxiety, and of course
they have little interest in the welfare of the peopple
to whom they are sent. Missionaries of this
class are incapable of liberal and comprehensive
views on subjects of religion and morals, as they M2 M3v 138
have enjoyed few advantages in early life, being
in most instances taken from laborious occupations,
for the express purpose of propagating
among the Heathen, incomprehensible doctrines
and formulas, which though they do not understand,
they are pledged to support and defend.
These have confirmed the bad impressions which
the Indians have received of Christianity, by the
unjust and cruel treatment they have experienced,
from a people who bear this sacred name.

Eliza. But why do not Unitarians send Missionaries
to our Indians, mother?

Mother. I have before remarked to you
the coldness and indifference which prevails in
regard to this people; yet it appears to me to be
an imperative and indispensible duty, that the
ministers of Christ should exert the most strenuous
endeavours to create an interest in the peopple,
to rescue, and save from utter ruin, the remnant
of this persecuted race. But how can pure
Christianity be inculcated, and its benign influence
pervade the heart, where no interest is felt
in freeing the oppressed people, from whom we
have wrested this goodly land. Nevertheless, I
rejoice to find that all are not thus indifferent;
but that many intelligent men have just and
comprehensive views on this subject, in all its M4r 139
bearings. Uninfluenced by the contracted and
selfish policy of narrow minded, unprincipled
men, they earnestly insist that the Indians should
be secured and protected, and allowed to possess
in peace their lands, and that those who have
been deprived of their possessions should have
lands assigned them, where they will be freed
from injury and intrusion, and that this should
be done, not only as an act of justice due to the
Indians, but as essential to the honour and dignity
of the United States. I fear, however, that
the Indians will not be relieved from persecution
unless they be received into the Union, and become
citizens of our country; and they have been
encouraged to expect this, (after being duly prepared,)
and some of them have declared that
nothing shall be wanting on their part.

No great or good man would, I presume, object
to meet an Indian representative on the floor
of Congress, but would rather esteem his country
honoured by this act of justice and liberality;
though to soothe the pride of little men, a proposal
has been made to substitute a white representative
of their election, who shall reside
among them.

Elizabeth. I should imagine the Indians,
whom Bartram visited, were as far advanced in M4v 140
civilization as are our farmers; they cultivate
almost every species of vegetables, raise cattle,
and poultry, have peach and apple orchards, and
many other fruits in abundance?

Mother. True, Elizabeth, Bartram says, a
canoe ladened with melons and oranges came to
the trading house to be disposed of to the traders,
the day preceding his arrival in Florida, which
proves they grew more than was wanted for their
own use, and the courtesy and urbanity of their
manners, are superior to what is commonly found
in civilized society. I will give you an extract
of a letter from Mr. David Brown, an interesting
young Cherokee Indian, who some years since
gave us much pleasure by delivering a very appropriate
address in this town. This letter is
dated Willstown, Cherokee Nation, 1825-09Sept., 1825.

“I have made a hasty translation of the four
Gospels, which will require a close criticism.
On my arrival at Dwight, I shall pursue the delightful
work, and hope that the day is not very
distant when the Cherokees, my brethren and
kindred, according to the flesh, shall read the
words of eternal life in their own tongue. I will
here give you a faint picture of the Cherokee
, and its inhabitants. In the mean time,
however, it must be borne in mind, that it is the M5r 141
mass and common people that form the character
of a Nation, and not officers of government, nor
the lowest grade of peasantry.
The Cherokee nation, you know, is in about
35 degrees north latitude. The precise quantity
of land over which the Cherokees claim sovreignty
is not yet ascertained, and consequently I
cannot say; but this I can readily say, they
have no more to spare. This country is well
watered; abundant springs of pure water are
found in every part. A range of majestic and
lofty mountains stretch themselves across the
nation. The northern part is hilly and mountainous.
In the southern and western parts
there are extensive fertile plains, covered partly
with tall trees, through which beautiful streams
of water glide. These plains furnish immense
pasturage, and numberless herds of cattle are
dispersed over them. Horses are plenty, and are
used for servile purposes. Numerous flocks of
sheep, goats and swine, cover the valleys and
hills. On Tennessee, Ustanala, and Ganasagi
, Cherokee commerce floats. The climate
is delicious and healthy; the winters are mild.
The spring clothes the ground with its richest
scenery. Cherokee flowers, of exquisite beauty
and variegated hues, meet and fascinate the eye M5v 142
in every direction. In the plains and valleys,
the soil is generally rich, producing Indian corn,
sweet and Irish potatoes, cotton, tobacco, wheat,
oats, indigo. The natives carry on considerable
trade with the adjoining states; and some of
them export cotton in boats down the Tennessee
to the Mississippi, and down that river to New-
. Apple and peach orchards are quite
common; and gardens are cultivated with much
attention. Butter and cheese are seen on Cherokee
tables. There are many public roads in the
Nation, and houses of entertainment kept by natives.
Numerous and flourishing villages are
seen in every section of the country. Cotton
and woolen cloths are manufactured here.
Blankets of various dimensions, manufactured by
Cherokee hands, are very common. Almost
every family in the nation grows cotton for its
own consumption. Industry and commercial
enterprise are extendng themselves in every part.
Nearly all the merchants in the nation are native
Cherokees. Agricultural pursuits, the most solid
foundation of our national prosperity, engage
the chief attention of the people. Different
branches of mechanics are pursued. The population
is rapidly increasing. How vain then to
talk of Cherokee deterioration.
M6r 143 White men in the nation enjoy all the immunities
and privileges of the Cherokee people;
except that they are not eligible to public offices.
National pride, patriotism, and a spirit of independence,
mark the Cherokee character.
The Christian religion is the religion of the
nation. Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, and
Moravians, are the most numerous sects. Some
of the most influential are members of the
church, and live consistently with their profession.
The whole nation is penetrated with gratitude
for the aid it has received from the United
government, and from different religious
societies. Schools are increasing every year;
learning is encouraged and rewarded. The
younger class acquire the English, and those of
mature age the Cherokee system of learning.
The female character is elevated and duly respected.
Indolence is discountenanced. Our
native language, in its philosohpy, genius and
symphony, is inferior to few, if any in the world.
Our relations with all nations, savage or civilized,
are of the most friendly character. We are
out of debt, and our public revenue is in a flourishing
condition. Beside the amount arising
from imports, a perpetual annuity is due from the
United States, in consideration of lands ceded M6v 144
in former periods. Our system of government,
founded on republican principles, by which justice
is equally distributed, secures the respect
of the people. Newtown, pleasantly situated in
the centre of the nation, and at the junction of
Ganasagi and Gusuwati, two beautiful streams,
is the seat of government. The legislative power
is vested in what is denominated, in the native
dialect, Tsalagi and Tinilawiga, consisting of a
national committee and council. Members of
both branches are chosen by and from the people
for a limited period. In Newtown, a printing
press is soon to be established; also a national
library, and a museum. Immense concourse
of people frequent the seat of government,
when Tsalagi and Timilawiga is in session,
which takes place once a year. Nothing has
excited so much interest for many years past, as
the unhappy fate of our friends and allies the
Creeks; and the whole nation deeply sympathizes
with them. The news of McIntosh’s death
gave universal satisfaction to the nation. I say
satisfaction, the same that is felt when a dangerous
rattlesnake is killed. McIntosh was a notorious
traitor, and made great efforts to overthrow
our happy domains. His character was well
known here; treacherous deeds marked his N1r 145
steps. His intrigues and efforts, to blast our
dearest hopes and interests, in a disgraceful
manner, will not soon be forgotten. His name
will long live in the annals of Cherokee history,
not as an honourable and patriotic statesman, but
as a traitor to his country, the most despicable
Creek that ever lived. This is the language of
every Cherokee, and I am persuaded of every
honourable man in the United States. Indeed
none can forbear to eye his character with contempt,
and who is there in the whole Cherokee
to mourn his tragical end! Not one. But I
have done, and have only room to promise you a
letter from the banks of the Arkansas, and respectfully
bid you farewell.”

Caroline. How extremely wicked and barbarous
it would be, to force a people, like the
Cherokees, to quit a beloved and delightful country,
endeared to them by every fond recollection,
and consign them to a dreary wilderness, where
every valuable improvement will be lost.

Eliza. It will not assuredly be contended
that the Cherokees are not sufficiently improved
in the arts of civilization, to entitle them to be
admitted into the Union; yet it was asserted,
that the Georgians, not satisfied with receiving
the valuable territories of the Creeks, had now N N1v 146
brought forward a claim to the lands of the Cherokees.

Mother. This might have been forseen; when
a government for a temporary expedient, or to
gratify the clamorous rapacity of any portion of
the community, violates what justice and honour
demands, and good faith requires, its integrity
and dignity is prostrated, and new concessions will
perpetually be required, and yielded to, as the
ability to resist is enfeebled by every concession.
Like the debased and degenerate Romans, who
by their want of unity and patriotism, became
unable to defend their country’s rights, and were
compelled to substitute bribes as an expedient to
relieve themselves from the invasion of the Goths
and Vandals, whom they dared not resist, and
who thus emboldened perpetually returned with
new demands, till Rome was drained of her treasure,
and was completely subjugated, and eventually

Caroline. But the Goths and Vandals, mother,
were not subjects of the Empire?

Mother. True they were not, but when a
government meanly stoops to concessions which
are incompatible with justice and honour, and
through imbecility or wickedness, sacrifices the
rights of its country, or suffers the weak to become N2r 147
the prey of unprincipled usurpers, whoever
they be, nothing but the most disastrous results
can be anticipated. The system of bribery and
corruption had long existed among the degenerate
Romans, hence good and patriotic men, who
disdained to connive at aught that was servile
and base to promote the designs of a party, were
excluded from all places of honour or profit, and
those only admitted to participate in the government
who were ready to sacrifice the public
good by promoting to the highest offices the unworthy
and the profligate.

Elizabeth. It would, I think, be vain to expect
justice from a government so sordid, unless
indeed fear should induce them to do right. It
is however evident, let what will be said, that the
Cherokees have made great improvement of late,
and I should like to know if they still adhere
to the law of not allowing any spirituous liquors
to be carried into the nation.

Mother. I doubt not that this law is still in
force, as it was asserted in proof of the Georgians
having designed to gain by bribery the title
to the land of the Creeks, that a quantity of spirit
and specie had been secretly conveyed into their
territory, by the emissaries of the Georgians.
Happy would it be if all our Aborigines, as well N2v 148
as the people of the United States, had the virtue
and firmness to prohibit the use of ardent spirits,
so truly pernicious and destructive to human happiness.
Here however we can claim no superiority
over those miserable degraded Indians, who
are located in the vicinity of our settlements and
fortresses, and have thus become the victims of
intemperance and misery; nor can we boast of
any legislative interference to save from ruin and
degradation those wretched families, whose parents
daily exhibit the most disgusting and riotous
conduct in the presence of their young offspring,
and deliberately consign them to ruin and infamy.
There can be no suffering more extreme
than that which a wife and mother is doomed to
bear, who is daily compelled to endure the insults
of a husband abandoned to intemperance,
in which every vice is included, and sees the
property which should support her children consumed,
without any means of redress, or hope of
relief, till death closes the scene, and her family
are reduced to want and infamy. In this instance
we might profit by the wisdom of our red
brethren on our southern borders, and confess,
notwithstanding our boasted advantages, their
laws greatly superior to our own.

Caroline. We should, I think, refrain from N3r 149
censuring so severely those who have copied
from us this odious vice, if we cannot be induced
to institute laws similar to those of the southern
Indians, to restrain its baleful influence.

Mother. I will close what I have to say of
the Creek Indians, by giving you an extract from
Mr. Le Vasseur’s Journal of Lafayette’s Tour
among the Creek Indians
, copied from a new
periodical work, recently established in Paris,
devoted to intelligence relating to this country.

“Macon, a pretty little town, which is now
tolerably well peopled, was not in existence
eighteen months ago; it seems to have arisen
from the forests as by enchantment. It is a
civilized spot, lost amid the still immense domains
of the first children of America. About
a league thence we are in the bosom of virgin
forests, and the tops of trees, which seem as old
as the world, hang over our heads. The winds
sounded through them by turns, grave and shrill,
which M. de Chauteaubriand calls the voice of the
desert. Our road was a sort of trench, at the
bottom of which the carriage of the general rolled
with difficulty, and was often in danger of breaking.
We followed on horseback, and thus arrived
at the Indian Agency. This is situated in
the midst of the forests, constructed for the convenienceN2 N3v 150
of the Indian Chiefs, and Agents of the
United States, who hold their conferences here.
It was here that the treaty was formed, after
which the Indian tribes, still inhabitants of the
left branch of the Missouri, I apprehend the writer has mistaken the name of the
consented for a considerable
sum, to retire to the right. The year
18271827 was assigned for their evacuation, and it is
not without pain the Indians see this conclusion
of their ancient possessions approach. They
quit with regret the neighbourhood of civilized
men, notwithstanding they dislike them. They
accuse their Chiefs of having betrayed them in
making this cession, and we are assured that it
has already cost the life of M‘Intosh, one of the
signers of the treaty.
We passed the night at the Indian agency;
for fifty years the name of Gen. Lafayette had
lived among them by tradition, and an hundred
Indians had waited to receive us, but the delays
we experienced during our journey, having tired
their patience, they had gone elsewhere to prepare
a reception. We had to travel thirty-two
miles the next day, by a route still less practable.
Such a storm as we have never seen in
England, assailed and dispersed us during some N4r 151
hours. The end of the storm permitted us to
meet again, and to begin our route. We arrived
at a habitation little bigger than that of the
watch. It was a group of cabins, constructed
with the bodies of trees placed over each other
and stripped of their bark. At our arrival we
found two Indians seated before the door, one
young, the other a grown up man, and both of
them of remarkable form and beauty. They
were clothed with a short tunic of light and
finged stuff, fastened round their body with a
girdle, embroidered with small beads of a thousand
colours. A shawl of lively colour was rolled
round their heads with much elegance. Their
trowsers of sheep skin reached down to their
knees. They arose at the approach of the General,
saluted him, and the youngest, to our great
astonishment, complimented him in very good
English. We soon learned that he had passed
his youth in college in the United States, but
that he had stolen away many years ago from a
benefactor, to return to his brother’s, whose life
he preferred to that of civilized men. The General
put many questions to him upon the existence
of the Indian colony. He replied to them
with much sense and precision.
When he was questioned as to the last treaty N4v 152
concluded with the United States, his countenance
darkened, he struck his foot on the ground,
and laying hold of the handle of his knife, he
mentioned the name of M‘Intosh, in a manner
that made us shudder at the danger of this chief.
As we appeared astonished, ‘M‘Intosh,’ cried
he, ‘has sold the land of his fathers—he has
sacrificed us all to his avarice—it is impossible to
break the treaty which he has formed; but the
He stopped after this violent exclamation,
and a little while after took up quietly
some other subject of conversation.
Hamly, (that was the name of the young Indian,)
when he saw us a little rested, engaged us
to visit his habitation, which we perceived on the
brow of a hill at a little distance. Two of the
General’s aid de camps, and myself, accepted the
invitation, and we followed the Indians. Going
along he showed us an enclosure surrounded by
palisades, filled with stags, mastiffs, and greyhounds,
which they called their reserve, and
which supplied them when the chase proved unfavourable.
Hamly’s cabin bordered upon this
enclosure. We entered it. There was a great
fire in the fire place, the day was declining, and
the spacious habitation was lighted by the flame
of a fir tree. The furniture was composed of a N5r 153
table, two beds, some large chairs, ozier baskets,
fire-arms, bows and arrows, were hung upon the
wall, and also a violin. The arrangement of all
indicated the presence of a half civilized man.
Two Indian women approached the habitation,
whilst it resounded with the sports of Hamly
and his applauses, but they did not enter; I
alone perceived them. They had the beauty peculiar
to their race; their vestment was composed
of a long white tunic; of a scarlet drapery
thrown over their shoulders; their long hair
floated at liberty; they wore upon their necks a
collar of five rings of pearls, and in their ears
large pendants of silver, which are the principal
ornaments of Indian women.
I would willingly have made myself the
b2 lettersflawed-reproductionning companion and messmate of Hamly for
some days; but it was necessary to continue our
journey. We retired, and the next day recommenced
our route. In proportion as we advanced
into the woody country, the appearance of Indian
land, desrtroyed in our minds that prejudice
which induces civilized nations to desire to introduce
their state of society among people who
have not changed their primitive mode of life;
and to consider as a lawful conquest, the usurpation
of places in which this pretended barbarity N5v 154
reigns; but no one can help taking interest in
the fate of the Indians, meeting at every step the
bark hut of a wandering hunter, who inhabits it
in security, and in the simple virtues of ignorance,
we cannot think without sorrow that they
will soon be overturned and replaced by an American
cultivated farm.
It was near a rapid creek, the borders of
which were steep, that we saw for the first time
the Indians united in a body to receive the General.
A great number of women and young
boys, broke through the trees on the opposite
border of the river, and upon seeing us, they
raised cries of joy. Some warriors descended
the brow of a hill at a little distance, and ran to
a spot on the river where the boat was, in
which we were to land. The variety and singular
richness of their costumes offered a most
picturesque view. M. George Lafayette sprang
first upon land, and in a moment was surrounded
by men, women and children, who moved round
him, danced about him, touched his hands and
his garments with an air of surprise and delight,
which caused him almost as much embarrassment
as emotion. Suddenly, as if they wished to give a
more dignified and solemn expression to their joy,
they retired behind the men ranged in front. He, N6r 155
who appeared to be the chief of the tribe, by a shrill
and prolonged cry, gave the signal for a sort of
salute, which was repeated by the whole troop;
then they again rushed toward the boat. Immediately
upon the General’s descending, some of
the strongest brought a low chair, which we had
with us, and obliged him to mount it, ‘not wishing,’
they said, ‘that their father should put his
foot on the damp earth.’
The General was thus
carried as in a palanquin to a certain distance
from the river side, then he, whom I have already
distinguished as the chief of the tribe, approached
and told him in English, that all his
brothers were happy at being visited by him,
who in his affection for the inhabitants of America,
had never distinguished blood or colour; who
was the cherished father of men who inhabited
the continent. After the Chief had spoken, the
other Indians came to press the hand of the
General, and to place it on their head. They
would not abandon the carriage but dragging it
themselves, mounted by short steps to the hill
from which we had seen them descend, and on
which was situated one of their largest hamlets.
Whilst we walked we approached the Indian
chief; and thought that since he spoke
English, he had been brought up like Hamly in N6v 156
the United States, and so I was informed. He
was about 28 years of age, of middle size, his
limbs were perfectly formed, his physiognomy
noble, and his air sorrowful. When he did not
speak, he cast down his large black eyes, which
were covered with thick eye lashes; when he told
me he was the eldest son of M‘Intosh, I could
not recal, without pain, the imprecations that I
had heard from the watch, against the chief of
the Muscogulges. It was this undoubtedly,
which gave the young man the air of dejection
and meditation.
In the mean time, we arrived at the top of
the hill—there we saw helmets, swords and
horsemen, ranged along the road: they were not
Indians, but civilized men sent from the state of
Alabama, to meet the General. The singular
triumphant march to which he had been obliged
to submit, then ceased. The Indians could not
see without jealousy the American escort place
themselves around him; but we approached their
village, and they hastened to reach it before us.
There, at our arrival, we found them met together,
having thrown aside their garments, and prepared
to exhibit before us their warlike games. We
reached a vast plain, about which was scattered
a hundred Indian habitations, improved by the O1r 157
verdure of the thick groves. We noticed a house
larger than the others, it was that of the American
resident; he at the same time kept an inn,
and his wife had the direction of a school, in
which they attempted to instruct the children of
the Indians. All the men were assembled in
this place, having thrown aside part of their vestments;
their faces painted with colours fantastically
mixed, and some wearing, by way of distinction,
plumes in their hair. They told us
they were going to play in honour of their white
father. And we really saw them separate into
two armies, form two camps, in the two extremities
of the place, name two chiefs, and provoke
each other to combat. The cry which was raised
by each of the two divisions, and which they
told us was the war cry of the Indian tribes, is
perhaps the strangest modulation of the human
voice that it is possible to hear, and the effect it
produced upon the warriors, young and old, is
more extraordinary still. They commenced—
they explained to us that the game was for two
parties to throw a ball, something like that of
our scholars, to a certain mark, and that he who
struck this mark seven times, should be victorious.
We in reality saw the combatants, each
armed with two long and heavy ; rackets precipitateO O1v 158
themselves with a light movement, leap one
over the other in order to seize it in the air, with
unprecedented skill, and send it to the mark.
When the ball was missed by a player it rolled
on the ground. Then they all lowered their
heads, struck each other, and it was often only
after a long struggle that any of them raised it.
In the midst of one of these long contests, whilst
the players with their backs bent pressed in a
circle round the ball, an Indian separated from
the group, went a little distance, came again
running, rushed forward, after having turned
himself round several times, fell upon the robust
shoulders of the others without bending them;
leaped into the middle of the circle, seized the
ball, and for seven times threw it at the mark.
This was M‘Intosh. The camp of which he was
chief was victorious—he came to receive our
congratulations, in the midst of the acclamations
of a party of Indian women, whilst the wives of
the vanquished seemed to address them in words
of consolation. The General, after this feat,
which amused us very much, went to visit the
interior of some of their habitations, and some of
the Indian schools. When we were ready to
begin our route, young M‘Intosh reappeared in a
European habit. He asked the General’s permission O2r 159
to accompany him to Montgomery, where
he was going to conduct his brother, a boy of ten
years old, willing to trust his education to an
American. The General consented to it, and
we all departed together for the Uchee Creek, an
American Inn situated on the borders of a torrent
which bears that name. We arrived early
at this station, and were able to visit the environs,
which are delightful. Accompanied by
M‘Intosh, I soon made acquaintance with the
Indians of this country: we found some of them
drawing the bow. I wished to try my strength
like the rest. M‘Intosh also armed himself with
a bow; he has the arm, and the eye sight of
William Tell. Some of the trials of skill which
he exhibited, if told, would scarcely be believed.
I particularly admired the dexterity with which,
while lying on the green plat, he threw an arrow,
which striking the earth a little distance,
rose with a light bound, and flew to a prodigious
distance. It is a way which the Indians employ
to throw far, without being seen by the enemy.
I tried in vain this singular feat; each time my
arrow instead of rebounding sank in the earth.
We returned to Uchee Creek, where we had
a meeting with an Indian chief who kept an Inn.
Some steps from the house the chief alighted, O2v 160
went to salute the General, and made a few purchases.
The women in the mean time took
care of the horse, and led him back, and when
he set out again put on the bridle and saddle,
and sprang up behind him. I asked my travelling
companions, if this was the condition of the
women of this nation. They answered that in
general they lived with their husbands in this
kind of servitude, that in the agricultural countries,
they cultivated the field, laboured, sowed
and reaped. In the walks, which I afterwards
took in the environs of Uchee Creek, their fate
never appeared so bad, as these statements made
them. I saw women ranged in a circle before
almost all the habitations, occupied in weaving
mats and panniers, and amusing themselves with
games and exercises of the body, in which the
young men joined before them; and I did not
mark any trait of severity on the part of the men,
or servile dependence on that of the women. I
had been so well received in all these Indian
habitations, near Uchee Creek, and all the countries
watered by the streams were so beautiful,
that it still seems one of the most delightful
places I have met with.
From the Uchee Creek to the hamlet of the
Big Warrior
, the nearest halt is about a day’s O3r 161
journey. It led us through a country peopled
by Indians. We often met them assembled on
our route, and were assisted by them to cross the
dangerous passages: for the storms had filled
the roads, and swelled the torrents. In one of
these situations the General received a very
touching proof of the veneration which these simple
men have for him. One of the torrents
which he had to cross ran over a wooden bridge
without a railing, and over which the General
must pass. What was our astonishment, on arriving
at the river side, to find a hundred Indians,
who taking each other by the hand, and
up to their breasts in water, formed a double
guard, in the direction of the bridge! We were
very glad to have this assistance, and the Indians
for their recompense, only wished the favour of
kissing the hand of the General whom they called
their white father, the ambassador of the Great
Spirit, the French warrior who formerly came to
deliver them from the tyranny of the English.
M‘Intosh, who translated their discourse to us,
explained to them the wishes of the General, and
the rest of us. The Hamlet of the Big Warrior,
was so called on account of the extraordinary
courage and high stature of its Chief. We arrived
there too late; the chief had been dead O2 O3v 162
for some time: the council of the old men had
been assembled to give a successor, and had
chosen one of his sons, as remarkable for strength
of body as his father.
We passed a night with the family of the
Big Warrior. The next day we arrived at Line
, on the frontiers of the Indian country.
We were received there by an American, who
had married the daughter of a Creek chief, and
who lived the life of an Indian. He was a Captain
, an old officer in the army of the
United States. His house was commodious and
elegant for an Indian hut. He was a man distinguished
for his knowledge and character, and
appeared to us to exercise great influence over
the Indians. He had brought together a number
of them on horseback and armed for war to
form an escort for the General. His discourse,
which appeared studied, was translated to us by
the interpreter. He began by praising the skill
and courage that the General had shown against
the English. The most brilliant circumstances
of this war were recalled and related in a language
not unpoetical. The Indian chief concluded
by nearly these words. ‘Father, they
will tell for a long time among us, that you returned
to visit our forests and huts; you whom O4r 163
the Great Spirit formerly sent from the other
side of the great lake to drive away those enemies
of men, the English, as usual stained with
blood. The youngest among us will tell their
grand children that they have touched your hand
and seen your person.—They will see you again
perhaps, for you are the favourite of the Great
Spirit, and you cannot grow old; you will be able
still to defend us, when we are threatened.’
General answered by the help of the interpreter
the farewell of the Indians. He gave them
counsels of wisdom and temperance, recommended
to them to live always on good terms with the
Americans, and to regard them always as friends
and brothers. He told them he would think of
them, and pray for the prosperity of their huts,
and the glory of their warriors.”

Elizabeth. How well these observations agree
with the accounts given by Mr. Bartram, and
others, of the character and manners of the Indians.
What was told him of their treatment of
their women, is the same as we have often heard
repeated whenever we speak favourably of the

Mother. It is pleasant to find a writer, who
cannot be suspected of prejudice, confirming
statements which have so repeatedly been given. O4v 164
Such information as was given by the companions
of Le Vasseur, is generally received as true
by superficial observers, who give themselves little
trouble to compare the manners of strangers
with those to which they have been accustomed.
Were an Indian to witness the accumulated
labours of women in the common classes of
civilized society, especially could he be made
acquainted with the condition of the wives and
daughters of our common farmers, whose toil is
incessant, and find that notwithstanding all they
do and suffer, they are treated as mere dependents
to whom no civility or courtesy is due, he
would doubtless be shocked at their servile condition,
and exult in the comparative leisure and
importance of the women of his own nation.
Were I inclined to extend my remarks on this
subject, it would be easy to adduce other instances
of the servile dependence of women in the
higher classes of society, and the arrogant assumption
of all right to the disposal of property
by the other sex, even of that which was exclusively
possessed by women previous to marriage.

To illustrate some of my observations, I will
give you some remarks of Mirza Abu Taleb Khan,
in his book of travels through Asia, Africa and O5r 165
Europe, which we are told “possesses the strongest
claim to attention, as the work was ushered into
notice under circumstances which leave no doubt
of its authenticity.”
The work is concluded by
an appendix, containing a curious tract on the
treatment of women in Asia; a subject which
was suggested to Abu Taleb, by the notion prevalent
in Europe, that the fair sex in the East
live in a state of thraldom. The observations
are curious, chiefly as communicating the reasons
which strike the imagination of an Orientalist as
productive of differences in national habits.

“The Asiatic women appear to have the
greater liberty of the two; possessing, he says,
more authority over the property of their husbands,
and over their servants, as well as over
the education, the religion, and the marriages of
their children. At the same time the Asiatic
ladies have no trouble in entertaining the guests,
or attending to the business of the husband. If
a divorce happens to take place in India, a
mother does not, as in Europe, relinquish all her
children to her husband, but carries away her
daughters, and her property; a step, indeed,
which she will have little hesitation in taking on
the occurrence of a quarrel of less consequence
than those which lead to a permanent separation. O5v 166
Polygamy does not exist in India, in the manner
commonly imagined; the first wife being the
only one who is considered as on a footing of
equality with the husband. Women, submitting
to become the wives of married men, are not admitted
into the society of ladies, but have either
a separate dwelling, or occupy a subordinate station
in the house of the equal wife.”
The truth
indeed is, that polygamy is very rare, and generally
carries its cure along with it; “for from
what I know”
, says Abu Taleb, “it is easier to
live with two tigresses than with two wives.”

This emphatic assertion he confirms by adducing
various points in which a lady makes no scruple
of teasing her husband; such as “keeping
dinner waiting for her coming to the table; visiting
her own friends frequently, and remaining day
after day under their roof, though repeatedly intreated
by her husband to return;”
all of which,
it seems, are put in practice for the sake of keeping
a hold on the husband’s affection. Another
assertion of Abu Taleb, and one which we confess,
rather startled us, is, that the Asiatics appear
by their manners to place a greater reliance
on a wife’s discretion than the Europeans.
“Here,” he says, “custom prevents a married
lady from going abroad without the company of O6r 167
a friend, and to sleep from home would be at
variance with all rule; whereas in the East a
wife will go unattended to the house of a lady
of her acquaintance, though their husbands are
strangers, and will remain there a week without
its being thought unusual.”
Next as to the custom
in Asia, of ladies not entering into the society
of gentlemen, and not even seeing them, “the
says Abu Taleb, “is choice, not compulsion;
because in the East, the house-doors
being kept open all the day, the females could
not without such a precaution, be free from incessant
interruption, or find leisure for domestic

This account, which I have taken from the
Analectic Magazine, for 1814-01January, 1814, The travels of Abu Taleb were written by himself in
the Persian language, and translated by Charles Stewart,
Esq. M. A. S. Professor of Oriental languages, in the
Honorable East India Company’s College, Herts.
directly in point, and proves the truth of the position
I have advanced, respecting the erroneous
opinions, and false views taken by superficial observers,
more especially such as are accustomed
to think that nothing good can be found, but in
the country or society to which they belong.
Great advantage is taken of the ignorance and
vanity, so prevalent among the common classes O6v 168
of society, by designing men, and the success in
gaining subscriptions for missionary purposes,
may be traced to the false impressions given of
the slavery and superstition to which females are
subjected in heathen countries, without the
slightest allusion to the privileges they enjoy.
Nothing is better calculated to suppress the
puerile conceit of our own superiority, than the
knowledge of the contempt and derision excited
in the minds of the Hindoos, by the arrogant assumption
of our missionaries, of being the only
truly enlightened and favoured people in the
world, notwithstanding their profane and discordant
dogmas, prove how small is their title to
respect or attention.

Caroline. You told us, mother, that the burthens
which fell to the lot of the Indian women,
were not so laborious or injurious as were the
hardships endured by the men in hunting, to
supply their families with food and clothing.

Mother. We learn from Mr. Heckewelder,
that women receive much attention from their
husbands, who invariably give up to their disposal,
when they return from their hunts, all the
skins they have taken, that they may barter them
with the traders for such articles as they choose,
and that the women are sure to purchase something P1r 169
which they know will please the husband
first. On the other hand, if the wife raise more
corn and vegetables than will supply her family,
the husband is at liberty to make presents of the
surplus to his friends. This mutual confidence,
and reciprocation of good offices, greatly tends
to cement affection and respect.

Elizabeth. I rejoice that our excellent Lafayette
gratified and cheered the Creeks by visiting
them in their adversity; but it is what might
have been expected from one so noble and disinterested.

Mother. This is indeed true;—Lafayette is
superior to all that is sordid or unworthy; his
benevolence and patriotism would naturally inspire
him with feelings of deep sorrow and compassion
for a people who had suffered so greatly,
and were bereft of those natural rights which he
had devoted himself to maintain, undismayed by
danger and suffering. Lafayette is the friend of
the whole human race; in him we discover no
inconsistency—he would not, whilst defending
the rights of one set of men, doom to exile and
misery any portion of his fellow beings, that he
might riot on their spoils. To sum up all I have
to say of this extraordrinary man, he approximates
more, than any one of whom we have knowledge,P P1v 170
to the character of our beloved and venerated

I have thus, my dear girls, endeavoured to
correct the erroneous opinions entertained of our
superiority, and to vindicate the characters of
our Aborigines, from the gross calumnies and
vulgar prejudices of their enemies. I trust you
will accustom yourselves to investigate and compare,
without partiality, the laws and customs
which influence the character of men, before
you decide on their merits, and above all, you
will defend and plead the cause of our much injured
Aborigines, whose impending fate I ardently
desire to avert.

The courteous manner in which the natives of
this country received and entertained the first
English adventurers, who visited them, is well
known; but I have lately met in Smith’s Virginia,
a more particular account of their reception
in that part of the country, than is found
elsewhere:—which I will now relate, though I
intended not to have taxed your patience farther
at present.

Having arrived on the coast, which is described
as very beautiful, abounding in a great variety
of the goodliest trees and shrubs, with abundance
of game—“Grapes” (we are told) “were found P2r 171
very plentiful in all places, both on the sand, the
green soil and hills, and in the plains as well as
on every little shrub, as also climbing towards
the top of high cedars, that they did think in the
world were not the like abundance.”
“Till the
third day,”
says the writer, “we saw not any of
the people; then in a little boat three of them
appeared; one of them went on shore, to whom
we rowed, and he attended us without any sign
of fear, after he had spoken much, though we
understood not a word, of his own accord he
came boldly aboard us, we gave him a shirt, a
hat, wine and meat, which he liked very well
and after he had well viewed us he went away
in his own boat, and within a quarter of a mile
of us in half an hour he had loaden his boat with
fish, with which he came again to the point of
land, and there divided it in two parts, pointing
one part to the ship, the other to the pinnace,
and so departed. The next day campe divers
boats, and in one of them the king’s brother,
with forty or fifty men, proper people, and in
their behaviour very civil; his name was Granganameo,
the king is called Winginia, the country
Wingandocoa; leaving his boats a little from
our ships, he came with his train to the point;
where spreading a mat he sat down; though we P2v 172
came to him well armed, he made signs to us to
sit down without any show of fear, stroking his
head and breast, and also ours, to express his
love. After he had made a long speech to us,
we presented him with divers toys, which he
kindly accepted.”

“Not long after Granganameo brought his
wife and children, they were but of mean stature
but well favoured, and very bashful; she had a
long coat of leather, and about her forehead a
band of white coral, and so had her husband; in
her ears were bracelets of pearl of the bigness of
peas; (the rest of the women had pendants of
copper, and the noblemen five or six in an ear:)
his apparel was like his wives, only the women
wear their hair long on both sides, and the men
but one.
After these women had been with us, there
came down from all parts great store of people,
with leather, coral and divers kinds of dyes, but
when Granganameo was present none durst trade
but himself, and those who wore red copper on
their heads, as he did. Whenever he came he
would signify by so many fires, he came with so
many boats, that we might know his strength.
For an armour he would have engaged us a bag
of pearl, but we refused, as not regarding it, P3r 173
that we might the better learn where it grew.
He was very just in his promise, for oft we
trusted him, and he would come within his day
to keep his word. He sent us commonly every
day a brace of bucks, conies, hares, and fish,
sometimes melons, walnuts, cucumbers, peas,
and divers roots.
After this acquaintance, myself with seven
more went twenty miles into the river Oecum,
that runneth toward the city Shiconck, and the
evening following we came to an Isle called
Roanoak, from the harbour where we entered
seven leagues; at the North end were nine
houses, builded with cedar, fortified round with
sharp trees, and the entrance like a turnpike.
When we came towards it, the wife of Granganameo
came running out to meet us, (her husband
was absent) commanding her people to
draw our boat ashore from beating on the billows;
others she appointed to carry us on their
backs to land; others to bring our oars into the
house, &c. When we came into the other room,
(for there were five in the house,) she caused us
to sit down by a great fire, and after took off our
clothes and washed them, and some of our stockings,
and some of our feet in warm water, and P2 P3v 174
she herself took much pains to see all things
well ordered, and to provide us victuals.
After we had dryed ourselves, she brought
us into an inner room, where she set on the board
standing along the house, somewhat like frumentie,
sodden, venison and roasted fish; in like
manner, mellons, boiled roots, and fruits of divers
kinds. Their drink is commonly water boiled
with ginger, or sassafras, and wholesome herbs,
but whilst the grape lasteth they drink wine.
More love she could not express to entertain us.
When we were at meat, two or three of her men
came amongst us with their bows and arrows,
which caused us to take our arms in hand. She
perceiving this our distrust, caused their bows
and arrows to be broken, and they driven out of
the gate: but evening approaching we returned
to our boat, whereat she was much grieved, and
brought us our supper half boiled, pots and all;
but when she saw us put our boat a little off from
the shore and lie at anchor, she sent divers men
and women, to sit all night on the shore side
against us, and sent us fine mats to cover us from
the rain, doing all she could to persuade us to
her house. Though there was no cause of doubt,
we would not adventure; for on our safety depended P4r 175
the voiage; but a more loving kind people
cannot be.”

Elizabeth. How antiquated is the style,
mother, in which this is written, but do you suppose
that the wife of Granganameo herself washed
their clothes and feet?

Mother. From the manner in which this is
related, and the circumstance of her having so
many attendants, we must conclude that these
things were done in obedience to her commands,
as it is added that she herself took much pains
to see all things well ordered. I have elsewhere
stated to you that the wives of chiefs were, like
ladies of high rank among us, exempted from
servile occupations.

Caroline. How delightful it is to find so
much kindness shown to strangers; this account
affords ample proof that the Indians improved
the soil to great advantage, as they enjoyed such
abundance and variety; notwithstanding so many
have insisted that they cultivate nothing but
corn, and even that so negligently as scarcely to
supply their immediate necessities.

Mother. Those who represent the Indians as
barbarians, roving through interminable forests,
and having no permanent place of abode, must of
course fill up the outline, with such unfounded P4v 176
assertions, which are in full keeping with what
is said of their miserable habitations, and scanty
clothing. Nevertheless, the spacious dwelling
to which our adventurers were invited and the
entertainments given them, proves how well they
understood, all that can make life agreeable and

Elizabeth. Do you really think, mother, that
the Indians were acquainted with the method of
making wine?

Mother. They unquestionably knew how to
express the juice of the grape, which according
to the opinion of some celebrated medical men,
is not only extremely grateful to the taste, but
highly nutritious, previous to its undergoing the
vinous fermentation, when it becomes extremely
deliterious in its effects. It has been constantly
asserted, by the first Europeans who came to
this country, that the Indians knew not the use
of any liquor which possessed the quality of intoxication.
Yet, since we have introduced the
use of ardent spirits among these unfortunate
people, it has proved most destructive in its effects:
as those who have commerce with white
people, appear but little able to resist its allurements;
except indeed some of the southern nations P5r 177
who, as I have informed you, have shown
a superior degree of firmness.

The first adventurers to this country were uniformly
treated with kindness by the natives,
who willingly administered to their wants, till
they were fatally convinced that their own existence
depended on expelling the intruders.
Those who landed on the coast of Virginia, at
first directed all their efforts to procure gold,
and thus neglected to provide for their own subsistence,
by cultivating the soil. They insisted
that the natives should supply them with corn on
their own terms, and when the Indians protested
that they had parted with all they could spare,
and were even in want themselves, the settlers
sent armed parties to compel them to comply
with their demands; and when any resistance
was made they deemed themselves at liberty to
burn the villages and towns of the natives, and
to kill and make captives all who could not escape.
Nay, in many instances, the principal
chiefs and sovereigns were enticed into the fortified
places of the whites, and there detained
till such a ransom was given as they chose to
demand, and the most exorbitant conditions
complied with. In one instance they burned
the wife and children of a prince, because he P5v 178
would not yield up all his property and rights to
the invaders of his country.

One of the adventurers, writing to a friend,
says—“Though we have not yet discovered
mines of gold, as the more fortunate Spaniards
have done in the New World, or destroyed so
many of the natives, yet we have found a country
abounding in all the necessaries and luxuries of
life, and it has been our policy in many instances
to preserve the lives of the natives, that we
may thus enjoy the fruits of their industry, as
we find it almost impossible to make our own
people attend to the arts of husbandry.”

I have found the account of these base transactions
in Smith’s Virginia, which I have
abridged as much as possible, consistently with
the sense of what is related. The same insidious
policy, though not so openly avowed, appears
to have been adopted by all the settlers of this
country. Nevertheless, we are assured by some
grave divines, that the prophecy shall be fulfilled,
and all nations pay homage to the prince of
peace; “and although,” they say, “the red men
have refused to become converts to our faith,
we know they are fast disappearing from the
face of the earth, while civilized christian men
are occupying the goodly heritage they once P6r 179
possessed, in peace and security.”
Is this a
cause of exultation to the followers of the pure
and holy Jesus? Surely it savours more of Mahometanism
than Christianity.


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